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Sample records for ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform

  1. Treatment of a ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm using pipeline embolization device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Moftakhar, Roham; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2013-03-01

    Treatment options of ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms (VFA) are limited and often carry significant mortality and morbidity. We report the use of Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) to successfully treat a patient with a ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm (VFA) who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 73 year-old man with a history of cardiac stent placement seven days earlier presented with Hunt-Hess II SAH. He was taking aspirin and clopidogrel. Computed tomography angiogram revealed a large vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm. Microsurgical treatment options are technically challenging and carry high risk. He underwent endovascular treatment of the ruptured VFA using overlapping PEDs. Five PEDs were placed in a telescoping fashion to reconstruct the affected portions of the left vertebral and basilar arteries. An additional 2-mm blister aneurysm in the right vertebral artery was also discovered during the conventional cerebral angiography and was treated with one additional PED. The patient remained neurologically intact after the procedure. He was continued on aspirin and clopidogrel. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at three months demonstrated patency of the stents without any evidence of ischemic change. Follow-up conventional cerebral angiogram at six months demonstrated thrombosis of the VFA and reconstruction of the vertebrobasilar system. The patient remained clinically well. An endovascular approach using PEDs can be a safe and effective treatment option for ruptured VFA in selected cases. PMID:23593603

  2. Tailored PICA Revascularization for Unusual Ruptured Fusiform Vertebro-PICA Origin Aneurysms: Rationale and Case Illustrations

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA–PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms.

  3. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  4. Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

  5. Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kamper, Lars Meyn, Hannes; Nordmeyer, Simone; Kempkes, Udo; Piroth, Werner

    2012-06-15

    Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients' outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

  6. Trigeminal hypoplasia due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: A new entity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhishek; Gupta, Prakhar; Haroon, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurav; Gupta, Gagan; Khalid, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The term "vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia" refers to anomalous dilatation of the intracranial arteries associated with elongation or tortuosity of the affected vessels. The etiology of the disease is unknown and is usually detected incidentally. The predominant clinical manifestations arise due to the mass effect of the dilated vessels and may include cranial nerve compression, extrinsic aqueductal compression, motor and sensory disturbances. Trigeminal hypoplasia is a very uncommon condition, usually described in association with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome and has not yet been attributed to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. The current case report highlights this rare association of trigeminal nerve hypoplasia and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, leading to hemifacial and corneal anesthesia. PMID:26167222

  7. Trigeminal hypoplasia due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: A new entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Gupta, Prakhar; Haroon, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurav; Gupta, Gagan; Khalid, Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The term “vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia” refers to anomalous dilatation of the intracranial arteries associated with elongation or tortuosity of the affected vessels. The etiology of the disease is unknown and is usually detected incidentally. The predominant clinical manifestations arise due to the mass effect of the dilated vessels and may include cranial nerve compression, extrinsic aqueductal compression, motor and sensory disturbances. Trigeminal hypoplasia is a very uncommon condition, usually described in association with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome and has not yet been attributed to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. The current case report highlights this rare association of trigeminal nerve hypoplasia and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, leading to hemifacial and corneal anesthesia. PMID:26167222

  8. Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia Induced Hydrocephalus: the Water-Hammer Effect

    PubMed Central

    Zisimopoulou, Vaso; Ntouniadaki, Aikaterini; Aggelidakis, Panagiotis; Siatouni, Anna; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Tavernarakis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications. PMID:26236456

  9. Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre; He, Yaohua; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Silver, Frank L.; Bondy, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Population-based, case-control and case-crossover study. Objective To investigate associations between chiropractic visits and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke and to contrast this with primary care physician (PCP) visits and VBA stroke. Summary of Background Data Chiropractic care is popular for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk for VBA dissection and stroke. Neck pain and headache are common symptoms of VBA dissection, which commonly precedes VBA stroke. Methods Cases included eligible incident VBA strokes admitted to Ontario hospitals from April 1, 1993 to March 31, 2002. Four controls were age and gender matched to each case. Case and control exposures to chiropractors and PCPs were determined from health billing records in the year before the stroke date. In the case-crossover analysis, cases acted as their own controls. Results There were 818 VBA strokes hospitalized in a population of more than 100 million person-years. In those aged <45 years, cases were about three times more likely to see a chiropractor or a PCP before their stroke than controls. Results were similar in the case control and case crossover analyses. There was no increased association between chiropractic visits and VBA stroke in those older than 45 years. Positive associations were found between PCP visits and VBA stroke in all age groups. Practitioner visits billed for headache and neck complaints were highly associated with subsequent VBA stroke. Conclusion VBA stroke is a very rare event in the population. The increased risks of VBA stroke associated with chiropractic and PCP visits is likely due to patients with headache and neck pain from VBA dissection seeking care before their stroke. We found no evidence of excess risk of VBA stroke associated chiropractic care compared to primary care.

  10. Hemifacial spasm due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AbdelHamid, Mustafa; John, Kuruvilla; Rizvi, Tanvir; Huff, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) happens because of vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a very rare cause of HFS. VBD is diagnosed by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report a case of 65-year-old female patient with HFS due to VBD. We discuss the complications and the treatment options for the case. PMID:26649123

  11. Mechanical Removal of Migrated Onyx Due to Microcatheter Rupture During AVM Embolization: A Technical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Cagin

    2015-12-01

    We report a case where migrated Onyx could be removed safely with a mechanical thrombectomy device after withdrawal of the damaged microcatheter. A microcatheter was retained in the superior cerebellar artery with attached Onyx fragments on its tip during embolization of a bled cerebellar AVM. During retrieval maneuvers microcatheter shaft was ruptured and Onyx fragments were released into the vertebrobasilar system causing occlusion. Finally, Onyx fragment on tip of the microcatheter could be detached with dimethyl sulfoxide injection and the microcatheter could be withdrawn. A Merci retriever device (Concentric Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA) was successfully used to retrieve most of the dislodged Onyx material and recanalize the vertebrobasilar circulation. PMID:25910968

  12. Computed Tomography Angiography of Carotid Arteries and Vertebrobasilar System

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Manuel; Ellmann, Stephan; Allmendinger, Thomas; Eller, Achim; Kammerer, Ferdinand; May, Matthias S.; Baigger, João F.; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar system is a standardized procedure with excellent image quality, but radiation exposure remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent radiation dose can be lowered in relation to a standard protocol by simulating examinations with lower tube currents applying a dedicated software. Lower tube current was simulated by a dedicated noise insertion and reconstruction software (ReconCT). In a phantom study, true scans were performed with different dose protocols and compared to the results of simulated dose reductions of the same degree, respectively. In a patient study, 30 CTAs of supra-aortic vessels were reconstructed at a level of 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of the initial dose. Objective and subjective image analyses were performed. No significant noise differences between true scans and simulated scans of mimicked contrasted vessels were found. In the patient study, the quality scores of the 4 dose groups differed statistically significant; this difference vanished for the comparison of the 100% and 75% datasets after dichotomization into the categories of diagnostic and nondiagnostic image quality (P?=?.50). This study suggests an easy-to-implement method of simulating CTAs of carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar system with lower tube current for dose reduction by artificially adding noise to the original raw data. Lowering the radiation dose in a moderate extent to 75% of the original dose levels does not significantly alter the diagnostic image quality. PMID:26131822

  13. Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, A.Y. Stoyda, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.E.; Scherbyuk, A.N.; Kondrashin, S.A; Artukchina, E.G.; Kikevitch, V.A.

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of subclavian (SA), innominate (IA) and vertebral (VA) arteries. Procedures were done by radiologists experienced in systematic stenting of the lesions. VBI was manifested by persistent signs in 15 patients, and by transitory ischemic attacks in the posterior circulatory territory in 4 (19%). Two patients (10%) experienced ischemic strokes (in the vertebrobasilar circulation in both cases). In 3 patients (14%) VBI was accompanied by upper limb vascular insufficiency symptoms. All cases were resistant to medical treatment. A neurologist assessed complaints, initial VBI signs and their alteration after intervention in all patients. Outcomes were measured with the 5-point scale suggested by Malek et al.: (1) excellent result (asymptomatic, no neurologic deficits and no symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (2) good (no neurologic deficits, at most one transient episode of vertebrobasilar ischemia over a period of 3 months after treatment); (3) fair (minimal neurologic deficit and at most one transient episode per month of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (4) poor (no improvement compared with neurologic status before treatment and/or persistent symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (5) death (regardless of cause). Endovascular treatment was performed for SA stenosis in 15 patients, for SA occlusion in 2, for IA stenosis in 2, and for VA stenosis in 2. There were 15 cases of atherosclerosis, 2 of aortoarteritis, 4 of proximal SA kinking. SA and IA stenoses ranged from 60% to 100% (mean 74.5%), VA stenoses were 90% in both cases. Results. Initial technical success was achieved in 96% of cases. There were no postprocedural complications or deaths. During 6-36 months (mean 21.3 months) of follow-up all patients showed improvement in VBI symptoms or upper limb ischemia. Within 36 months after the procedure outcomes were estimated as excellent and good in 13 patients (76%) and poor in 2 (12%), the last being attributed to atherosclerosis progression in other vascular areas. Restenosis in the stented area has developed in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of extracranial vertebrobasilar arterial stenoses appeared to be effective in endovascular treatment of medically resistant VBI. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of subclavian artery kinking in VBI development and indications for various methods of its correction.

  15. Giant serpentine vertebrobasilar aneurysm with vertebral artery hypoplasia and fenestration- a case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Pradeep; Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in paediatric age group is rare and association of the aneurysm with congenital vertebral artery anomaly is further rarer. We describe such a case in an 11-year-old male patient who consulted a paediatrician about headache and vertigo, and a noncontrast CT (NCCT) head revealed peripherally calcified hyperdense mass in prepontine and basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed partially thrombosed giant serpentine aneurysm of right vertebrobasilar artery and contralateral hypoplastic vertebral artery with fenestration. The nondominant left vertebral artery gave off the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, then became hypoplastic and joined with its counterpart to form the basilar artery. This pattern is called as type 9. The patient was kept on conservative management. The role of MRI in this congenital anomaly and its association with vertigo and aneurysm of vertebro-basilar artery is discussed. PMID:25954679

  16. Unexplained Perioperative Vertebrobasilar Stroke in a Patient Undergoing Anterior Cervical Decompression and Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Cyrus Dokhanian; Jeavons, Richard Paul; Reddy, Guru Raj; Freisem, Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Vertebrobasilar stroke associated with the anterior approach to the cervical spine is rare and has not been reported in cervical disc arthroplasty surgery. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. Postoperatively, due to symptoms and signs of a cerebellar stroke, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was obtained confirming this diagnosis. Despite thorough investigation no specific identifiable cause for the stroke has been identified. We hypothesis an unrecognised period of intraoperative hypotension may have caused a temporary reduction in vertebrobasilar blood flow. Methods A retrospective review of the patient's case notes and a focused review of literature has been performed. Results Now two years postoperatively the patient has regained full power but has residual problems with balance. She has neuralgic pain down the right side of her body which following investigation is believed to result from the stroke. Conclusions / Level of Evidence Surgeons should be aware vertebrobasilar stroke is a possible rare perioperative complication associated with anterior cervical decompression and disc arthroplasty. Level V. PMID:25713773

  17. Bilobed Wide Neck Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Associated with Fusiform Basilar Aneurysm, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Siauw Koan, Tan

    2003-01-01

    Summary A 56 year-old woman presented with a ruptured bilobed wide neck aneurysm of the P2 segment of the PCA, atherosclerotic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm, subarachnoid bleeding with negative CT scan and chronic renal failure. She was managed by a cooperative approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologist, neurointensivist, emergency room physicians, nurses and technicians. She underwent operation by proximal clipping for the aneurysm of the PCA. Postoperative neurological deficits include homonymous hemianopsia and ipsilateral third nerve palsy. The operation was performed through asubtemporal approach. At surgery, the aneurysm was located in the distal of the P2 segment of PCA, bilobed up and down, no definitive neck with small distal branches, and was treated by proximal clipping of the PCA aneurysm. The fusiform basilar artery aneurysm was severely atherosclerotic and left untouched. This is a rare case which required a high index of suspicion to detect subarachnoid bleeding from ruptured posterior fossa aneurysm, accurate prediction of the site of bleeding and the location of aneurysm location by conventional angiogram, MRI and MRA, and careful planned surgical strategy with the right approach for the P2 segment of the PCA aneurysm, complicated post operative care with airway management, triple H therapy, nutrition, additional measures and multiple hemodialysis. PMID:20591269

  18. MRI diffusion tensor tracking of a new amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathway system in humans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles D.; Lori, Nicolas F.; Akbudak, Erbil; Sorar, Ertugrul; Gultepe, Eren; Shimony, Joshua S.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To use MRI diffusion-tensor tracking (DTT) to test for the presence of unknown neuronal fiber pathways interconnecting mid-fusiform cortex and anteromedial temporal lobe in humans. Such pathways are hypothesized to exist because these regions co-activate in functional MRI (fMRI) studies of emotion-valued faces and words, suggesting a functional link that could be mediated by neuronal connections. Materials and Methods 15 normal human subjects were studied using unbiased DTT approaches designed for probing unknown pathways, including whole-brain seeding and large pathway-selection volumes. Several quality-control steps verified the results. Results Parallel amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathways were found in all subjects. The pathways begin/end at mid-fusiform gyrus above the lateral occipitotemporal sulcus bilaterally. The superior pathway ends/begins at the superolateral amygdala. The inferior pathway crosses medially and ends/begins at the hippocampal head. The pathways are left-lateralized, with consistently larger cross-sectional area, higher anisotropy, and lower minimum eigenvalue (D-min) on the left, where D-min assesses intrinsic cross-fiber diffusivity independent of curvature. Conclusion A previously-undescribed pathway system interconnecting mid-fusiform region with amygdala/hippocampus has been revealed. This pathway system may be important for recognition, memory consolidation, and emotional modulation of face, object, and lexical information, which may be disrupted in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19418556

  19. Normal Body Perception despite the Loss of Right Fusiform Gyrus

    E-print Network

    Duchaine, Bradley C.

    cortex contains functional regions that are selective for particular categories such as faces, bodies of their preferred stimuli. One of these regions is the right fusiform body area (FBA), which is selectively involved, 2005), which is a category-selective region that responds more strongly to bodies and body parts than

  20. Normal Body Perception despite the Loss of Right Fusiform Gyrus

    E-print Network

    Duchaine, Bradley C.

    regions that are selective for particular categories such as faces, bodies, and places, but it is unclear. One of these regions is the right fusiform body area (FBA), which is selectively involved in body- tional regions that are body selective. FBA is thought to be important for many aspects of body

  1. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief. PMID:25864752

  2. The mid-fusiform sulcus: A landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of human ventral temporal cortex

    E-print Network

    Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    The mid-fusiform sulcus: A landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions online 8 September 2013 Keywords: Cytoarchitectonics Fusiform gyrus Mid-fusiform sulcus Eccentricity bias-studied macroanatomical feature of VTC is the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), a shallow longitudinal sulcus separating

  3. Covert face recognition without the fusiform-temporal pathways.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell; Bobes, Maria A; Quiñones, Ileana; Garcia, Lorna; Valdes-Hernandez, Pedro A; Iturria, Yasser; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Lopera, Francisco; Asencio, José

    2011-08-01

    Patients with prosopagnosia are unable to recognize faces consciously, but when tested indirectly they can reveal residual identification abilities. The neural circuitry underlying this covert recognition is still unknown. One candidate for this function is the partial survival of a pathway linking the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior-inferior temporal (AIT) cortex, which has been shown to be essential for conscious face identification. Here we performed functional magnetic, and diffusion tensor imaging in FE, a patient with severe prosopagnosia, with the goal of identifying the neural substrates of his robust covert face recognition. FE presented massive bilateral lesions in the fusiform gyri that eliminated both FFAs, and also disrupted the fibers within the inferior longitudinal fasciculi that link the visual areas with the AITs and medial temporal lobes. Therefore participation of the fusiform-temporal pathway in his covert recognition was precluded. However, face-selective activations were found bilaterally in his occipital gyri and in his extended face system (posterior cingulate and orbitofrontal areas), the latter with larger responses for previously-known faces than for faces of strangers. In the right hemisphere, these surviving face selective-areas were connected via a partially persevered inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. This suggests an alternative occipito-frontal pathway, absent from current models of face processing, that could explain the patient's covert recognition while also playing a role in unconscious processing during normal cognition. PMID:21570471

  4. Combined external counterpulsation and endovascular stenting treatment for symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li; Chen, Xiang Yan; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis has a poor prognosis. Intravascular stents provide a new therapeutic approach, but the long-term outcome of stenting compared with medical outcome is controversial. External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method to improve perfusion of vital organs. We report two cases of this combination with ECP treatment in addition to receiving endovascular stenting. Two patients experienced posterior ischemic stroke. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a severe basilar or vertebral artery stenosis. Computed tomographic perfusion revealed significantly decreased perfusion of posterior artery territories. Both of them underwent combined ECP treatment and endovascular stenting of the stenosed basilar or vertebral artery, without recurrent stroke within 30 days after stenting. The two patients were independent (modified Rankin scale ?2) at the 12-month follow-up time. Combined ECP treatment and endovascular stent placement may be effective and safe for patients with symptomatic VBA stenosis who failed aggressive medical treatment. PMID:26568838

  5. "Fou rire prodromique" as the presentation of pontine ischaemia secondary to vertebrobasilar stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, F; Parks, B; Cruz-Flores, S

    2001-01-01

    "Fou rire prodromique" (prodrome of crazy laughter) is a rare form of pathological laughter of uncertain pathophysiology. A patient is presented with pathological laughter as the first manifestation of pontine ischaemia due to vertebrobasilar stenosis. A 65 year old man developed uncontrollable and unemotional laughter for almost an hour followed by transient right facial-brachial paresis. He had fluctuation of laughter, right facial brachial paresis, and occasional crying. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), and an angiogram showed small left pontine and cerebellar infarcts, left vertebral artery occlusion, and right vertebral and basilar artery stenosis. His condition deteriorated to bilateral brain stem infarction and he died. Necropsy confirmed the extensive brain stem infarction. Pathological laughter can be the very first presenting manifestation of ischaemia of the ventrotegmental junction of the upper pons. It is hypothesised that the pathological laughter in this patient was secondary to ischaemic ephaptic stimulation of the descending corticopontine/ bulbar pathways.?? PMID:11723208

  6. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with thalamic involvement during vasopressor treatment of vertebrobasilar vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Madaelil, Thomas Philip; Dhar, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic augmentation is the primary medical intervention employed to reverse neurological deficits associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Failure to improve despite induced hypertension (IH) may raise concern for persistent hypoperfusion and prompt even more aggressive blood pressure augmentation. However, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a hyperperfusion syndrome reported as a rare complication of IH that may confound this picture. We report a case of PRES with prominent thalamic involvement and impaired level of consciousness secondary to blood pressure augmentation for the treatment of symptomatic vertebrobasilar vasospasm. Recognition of this syndrome in distinction to worsening ischemia is particularly critical, as normalization of blood pressure should lead to rapid clinical improvement. PMID:26655666

  7. Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter.

    PubMed

    Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. PMID:26040828

  8. Differential Development of Selectivity for Faces and Bodies in the Fusiform Gyrus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelen, Marius V.; Glaser, Bronwyn; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Viewing faces or bodies activates category-selective areas of visual cortex, including the fusiform face area (FFA), fusiform body area (FBA), and extrastriate body area (EBA). Here, using fMRI, we investigate the development of these areas, focusing on the right FFA and FBA. Despite the overlap of functionally defined FFA and FBA (54%-75%…

  9. Selectivity for the Human Body in the Fusiform Gyrus Marius V. Peelen and Paul E. Downing

    E-print Network

    Downing, Paul

    Report Selectivity for the Human Body in the Fusiform Gyrus Marius V. Peelen and Paul E. Downing in final form 3 August 2004 Peelen, Marius V. and Paul E. Downing. Selectivity for the human body.2004. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed human brain regions, notably in the fusiform gyrus

  10. Dynamic Encoding of Face Information in the Human Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Ghuman, Avniel Singh; Brunet, Nicolas M.; Li, Yuanning; Konecky, Roma O.; Pyles, John A.; Walls, Shawn A.; Destefino, Vincent; Wang, Wei; Richardson, R. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Humans’ ability to rapidly and accurately detect, identify, and classify faces under variable conditions derives from a network of brain regions highly tuned to face information. The fusiform face area (FFA) is thought to be a computational hub for face processing, however temporal dynamics of face information processing in FFA remains unclear. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode the temporal dynamics of expression-invariant face information processing using electrodes placed directly upon FFA in humans. Early FFA activity (50-75 ms) contained information regarding whether participants were viewing a face. Activity between 200-500 ms contained expression-invariant information about which of 70 faces participants were viewing along with the individual differences in facial features and their configurations. Long-lasting (500+ ms) broadband gamma frequency activity predicted task performance. These results elucidate the dynamic computational role FFA plays in multiple face processing stages and indicate what information is used in performing these visual analyses. PMID:25482825

  11. Endovascular management of fusiform aneurysm of anterior temporal artery: Technical report

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel Hussain; Mazaris, Paul A.; Kole, Max K.; Reinard, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of a rare, nontraumatic, fusiform aneurysm of the anterior temporal artery (ATA) via endovascular techniques is presented, and procedural nuances are highlighted. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review and collected demographic and clinical data on the patient presented here; procedural details were extracted from operative notes. Results: Following successful balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the ATA, complete coil embolization of the ATA, and its associated fusiform aneurysm was performed. Postprocedurally, the patient did not suffer any adverse neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Selective BTO of intracranial branch vessels is safe, technically feasible, and could serve as a useful technical tool in the treatment of complex, fusiform intracranial aneurysms. PMID:26290771

  12. Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian Zhao Zhenwei Gao Guodong Deng Jianping; Yu Jia; Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

  13. Cerebral asymmetry in the fusiform areas predicted the efficiency of learning a new writing system.

    E-print Network

    Xue, G; Chen, C; Jin, Z; Dong, Q

    2006-01-01

    By combining functional im- age and training paradigms,Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a trainingtraining effect in the fusiform cortex, we decided to use a method that is able to define the functional

  14. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  15. Immune-modulating activities of polysaccharides extracted from brown algae Hizikia fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Lee, Sang Myung; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    The immuno-modulating activities of seaweed (Hizikia fusiforme) extracts on murine macrophage and splenocyte were studied in vitro. Polysaccharide (HFP) exhibited the potential macrophage stimulating effects than water extract (HFW) such as NO production and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokines on the Raw 264.7 cells and splenocytes. From the mono-sugar composition, HFP-associated fucose based on HFP of H. fusiforme acts as immune modulator. PMID:25744337

  16. Altered fusiform connectivity during processing of fearful faces in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frick, A; Howner, K; Fischer, H; Kristiansson, M; Furmark, T

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with hyper-reactivity in limbic brain regions like the amygdala, both during symptom provocation and emotional face processing tasks. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we sought to examine brain regions implicated in emotional face processing, and the connectivity between them, in patients with SAD (n=14) compared with healthy controls (n=12). We furthermore aimed to relate brain reactivity and connectivity to self-reported social anxiety symptom severity. SAD patients exhibited hyper-reactivity in the bilateral fusiform gyrus in response to fearful faces, as well as greater connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and decreased connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Within the SAD group, social anxiety severity correlated positively with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, amygdala-fusiform connectivity and connectivity between the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus (STS). These findings point to a pivotal role for the fusiform gyrus in SAD neuropathology, and further suggest that altered amygdala-fusiform and amygdala-STS connectivity could underlie previous findings of aberrant socio-emotional information processing in this anxiety disorder. PMID:24105443

  17. Long-term experience with Chinese language shapes the fusiform asymmetry of English reading.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-04-15

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao; Zou, Huixi; Pang, Qiuying

    2015-06-01

    Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival. PMID:25827747

  19. The evaluation of vertebrobasilar artery system in neuro-Behçet and Behçet disease using magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Kose, Evren; Kamisli, Suat; Dogan, Metin; Tasolar, Sevgi; Kahraman, Ay?egül; Oztanir, Mustafa Namik; Sener, Serpil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertebrobasilar artery system in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. For this aim; 20 adults with clinically diagnosed Behcet's disease, 20 adults with Neuro-Behçet's disease, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). During MRA, diameters of left vertebral artery (LVA), right vertebral artery (RVA), basilar artery (BA), and proximal segment (P1) of posterior cerebral artery between origin and junction with the posterior communicating artery were measured. In all groups, LVA was dominant than RVA (P?vertebrobasilar artery system should be examined in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. PMID:24737739

  20. Supersonic Rupture of Rubber

    E-print Network

    M Marder

    2005-04-24

    The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

  1. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described. PMID:22275778

  2. The fusiform response to faces: explicit versus implicit processing of emotion.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Justin F; Griffin, Mark; Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Roberts, Timothy P L; Christopher Edgar, J

    2013-01-01

    Regions of the fusiform gyrus (FG) respond preferentially to faces over other classes of visual stimuli. It remains unclear whether emotional face information modulates FG activity. In the present study, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was obtained from fifteen healthy adults who viewed emotionally expressive faces and made button responses based upon emotion (explicit condition) or age (implicit condition). Dipole source modeling produced source waveforms for left and right primary visual and left and right fusiform areas. Stronger left FG activity (M170) to fearful than happy or neutral faces was observed only in the explicit task, suggesting that directed attention to the emotional content of faces facilitates observation of M170 valence modulation. A strong association between M170 FG activity and reaction times in the explicit task provided additional evidence for a role of the fusiform gyrus in processing emotional information. PMID:21932258

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): genome architecture and taxonomic consideration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Luo, Minbo

    2016-03-01

    Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell (=Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura) is one of the most important economic seaweeds for mariculture in China. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. fusiforme. The genome is 34,696?bp in length with circular organization, encoding the standard set of three ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 35 protein-coding genes, and two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Its total AT content is 62.47%, lower than other brown algae except Pylaiella littoralis. The mitogenome carries 1571?bp of intergenic region constituting 4.53% of the genome, and 13 pairs of overlapping genes with the overlap size from 1 to 90?bp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. fusiforme has a closer evolutionary relationship with Sargassum muticum than Sargassum horneri, indicating Hizikia are not distinct evolutionary entity and should be reduced to synonymy with Sargassum. PMID:24989050

  4. Triple cardiac rupture.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alejandro; Osa, Ana; Vicente, Rosario; Montero, Jose A

    2014-09-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture and acute ischaemic mitral regurgitation are nowadays rare, but still potentially lethal mechanical complications after acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a sequential left ventricular free wall rupture, anterolateral papillary muscle disruption, secondary severe mitral regurgitation and subsequent posteromedial papillary muscle head rupture in a single patient during the same ischaemic episode after myocardial infarction, and their related successful surgical procedures and management until discharge. Prompt bedside diagnosis and emergent consecutive surgical procedures, as well as temporary left ventricular assistance, were crucial in the survival of this patient. PMID:24876216

  5. Ruptured visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. PMID:26054246

  6. The visual word form area: expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    The visual word form area: expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus Bruce D. McCandliss1 localize a region of visual cortex that is especially responsive to visual words. This brain specialization is essential to rapid reading ability because it enhances perception of words by becoming specifically tuned

  7. Forest Health: Fusiform Rust http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    depressed on one side. Black turpentine beetles (Dendroctonus terebrans), coneworms (Dioryctria spp to in- fect newly formed oak leaves, especially water oak. In turn, oaks produce basidiospores in tiny Health: Fusiform Rust http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 2 of 2 water oak) in and immediately adjacent to pine

  8. Neurons in the Fusiform Gyrus are Fewer and Smaller in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kooten, Imke A. J.; Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; von Cappeln, Patricia; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Korr, Hubert; Heinsen, Helmut; Hof, Patrick R.; van Engeland, Herman; Schmitz, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in face perception are a core feature of social disabilities in autism. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that patients with autism could perform face perception tasks. However, the fusiform gyrus (FG) and other cortical regions supporting face processing in controls are hypoactive in patients with autism.…

  9. Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Rony H.; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F.; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J.; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more numerous. PMID:25294990

  10. Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Rony H; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A

    2014-01-01

    Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more numerous. PMID:25294990

  11. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

  12. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  13. Structural characterization and effect on anti-angiogenic activity of a fucoidan from Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qifei; Chen, Huanjun; Liao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Peipei; Qin, Yi; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

    2016-01-20

    A fucoidan FP08S2 was isolated from the boiling-water extract of Sargassum fusiforme, purified by CaCl2 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300. FP08S2 contained fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and 20.8% sulfate. The sulfate groups were attached to diverse positions of fucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose residues. The backbone of FP08S2 consisted of alternate 1,2-linked ?-d-Manp and 1,4-linked ?-d-GlcpA. Sugar composition analysis and ESI-MS revealed that the oligosaccharides from branches contained fucose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and sulfate. FP08S2 could significantly inhibit tube formation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) dose-dependently. These results suggested that the fucoidan FP08S2 from brown seaweeds S. fusiforme could be a potent anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:26572427

  14. Neuronal fiber pathway abnormalities in autism: An initial MRI diffusion tensor tracking study of hippocampo-fusiform and amygdalo-fusiform pathways

    PubMed Central

    CONTURO, THOMAS E.; WILLIAMS, DIANE L.; SMITH, CHARLES D.; GULTEPE, EREN; AKBUDAK, ERBIL; MINSHEW, NANCY J.

    2012-01-01

    MRI diffusion-tensor tracking (DTT) was performed in 17 high-functioning adolescents/adults with autism and 17 pairwise-matched controls. White matter pathways involved in face processing were examined due to the relevance of face perception to the social symptoms of autism, and due to known behavioral and functional imaging findings in autism. The hippocampo-fusiform (HF) and amygdalo-fusiform (AF) pathways had normal size and shape but abnormal microstructure in the autism group. The right HF had reduced across-fiber diffusivity (D-min) compared with controls, opposite to the whole-brain effect of increased D-min. In contrast, left HF, right AF, and left AF had increased D-min and increased along-fiber diffusivity (D-max), more consistent with the whole-brain effect. There was a general loss of lateralization compared with controls. The right HF D-min was markedly low in the autism subgroup with lower Benton face recognition scores, compared with the lower-Benton control subgroup, and compared with the higher-Benton autism subgroup. Similar behavioral relationships were found for performance IQ. Such results suggest an early functionally-significant pathological process in right HF consistent with small-diameter axons (with correspondingly slower neural transmission) and/or higher packing density. In left AF and HF, changes were interpreted as secondary, possibly reflecting axonal loss and/or decreased myelination. PMID:18954474

  15. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  16. Crossmodal plasticity in the fusiform gyrus of late blind individuals during voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Cordula; Föcker, Julia; Best, Anna; Röder, Brigitte; Büchel, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Blind individuals are trained in identifying other people through voices. In congenitally blind adults the anterior fusiform gyrus has been shown to be active during voice recognition. Such crossmodal changes have been associated with a superiority of blind adults in voice perception. The key question of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was whether visual deprivation that occurs in adulthood is followed by similar adaptive changes of the voice identification system. Late blind individuals and matched sighted participants were tested in a priming paradigm, in which two voice stimuli were subsequently presented. The prime (S1) and the target (S2) were either from the same speaker (person-congruent voices) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent voices). Participants had to classify the S2 as either coming from an old or a young person. Only in late blind but not in matched sighted controls, the activation in the anterior fusiform gyrus was modulated by voice identity: late blind volunteers showed an increase of the BOLD signal in response to person-incongruent compared with person-congruent trials. These results suggest that the fusiform gyrus adapts to input of a new modality even in the mature brain and thus demonstrate an adult type of crossmodal plasticity. PMID:25280451

  17. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    PubMed

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  18. Incidence of fusiform rust infection on loblolly pine related to tip moth damage

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, H.R. Jr.; Stone, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) is a limiting factor in the production of southern pines throughout a broad area of the southeastern United States, extending from South Carolina to Texas. The target areas on the hosts for both pests are young, succulent shoot tissues. Carbofuran, a systematic insecticide, was used to determine the effect of controlling tip moth on seedlings infected by the fusiform rust organism. Beginning with the 2nd year carbofuran was applied over 4 successive years. The insecticide sharply reduced the incidence of tip moth and increased the height of 5-year-old saplings compared with untreated controls. Usually any treatment that stimulates the growth of pines also results in increased rust infection. However, this was not the case here because untreated saplings had significantly more infection. It is not known whether the increased disease incidence on untreated trees was due to the susceptibility and/or total number of secondary shoots initiated in response to tip dieback caused by the tip moth, or if carbofuran itself has some fungicidal effect resulting in lower infection on treated seedlings. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. The Effectiveness of Additional Treatment Modalities after the Failure of Recanalization by Thrombectomy Alone in Acute Vertebrobasilar Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Mook; Sohn, Sung-Il; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Chang, Hyuk-Won; Lee, Chang-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (AVBAO) is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate. One of the most important factors affecting favorable clinical outcome is early recanalization. Mechanical thrombectomy is an emerging treatment strategy for achieving a high recanalization rates. However, thrombectomy alone can be insufficient to complete recanalization, especially for acute stroke involving large artery atheromatous disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in AVBAO. Methods Fourteen consecutive patients with AVBAO were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Additional multimodal treatments were intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, or permanent stent placement. Recanalization by thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were assessed by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score. Clinical outcome was determined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Results Thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were performed in 10 patients (71.4%) and 4 patients (28.6%), respectively. Successful recanalization (TICI 2b-3) was achieved in 11 (78.6%). Among these 11 patients, 3 (27.3%) underwent multimodal treatment due to underlying atherosclerotic stenosis. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 showed NIHSS score improvement of >10. Overall mortality was 3 (21.4%) of 14. Conclusion We suggest that mechanical thrombectomy is safe and effective for improving recanalization rates in AVBAO, with low complication rates. Also, in carefully selected patients after the failure of recanalization by thrombectomy alone, additional multimodal treatment such as IA thrombolysis, balloons, or stents can be needed to achieve successful recanalization. PMID:26713141

  20. Intramuscular triceps rupture.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, S W

    1992-04-01

    A 25-year-old man who had a complete intramuscular rupture of the long head of the triceps was treated nonoperatively and followed up prospectively for 10 years. The injury occurred after 4 days of white-water kayaking without any direct blow. Strengthening was performed by doing push-ups. Nine years of isokinetic testing revealed that isometric strength was normal, but endurance testing was reduced by 5% to 10%. Ruptures of the muscle belly can occur due to direct trauma or by forced elbow flexion during triceps contraction. From this and the few case reports available it appears that nonoperative treatment is effective and recommended for patients who do not require significant endurance strength in elbow extension. Whether or not the results can be improved by surgical repair is uncertain. PMID:1562935

  1. Blunt traumatic pericardial rupture.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, A J; Collins, F J

    1995-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with left chest, head and limb injuries following a road traffic accident (RTA). Increasing haemodynamic instability necessitated an emergency left thoracotomy at which a complete rupture of the pericardium and herniation of the heart was found. After repair, the patient made an uneventful post-operative recovery. The aetiology, investigation and management of this rare injury is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7640832

  2. Co-localization of the vanilloid capsaicin receptor and substance P in sensory nerve fibers innervating cochlear and vertebro-basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Vass, Z; Dai, C F; Steyger, P S; Jancsó, G; Trune, D R; Nuttall, A L

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that capsaicin-sensitive substance P (SP)-containing trigeminal ganglion neurons innervate the spiral modiolar artery (SMA), radiating arterioles, and the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Antidromic electrical or chemical stimulation of trigeminal sensory nerves results in neurogenic plasma extravasation in inner ear tissues. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the possible morphological basis of cochlear vascular changes mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Therefore, the distribution of SP and capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-TRPV1) was investigated by double immunolabeling to demonstrate the anatomical relationships between the cochlear and vertebro-basilar blood vessels and the trigeminal sensory fiber system. Extensive TRPV1 and SP expression and co-localization were observed in axons within the adventitial layer of the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, the SMA, and the radiating arterioles of the cochlea. There appears to be a functional relationship between the trigeminal ganglion and the cochlear blood vessels since electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induced significant plasma extravasation from the SMA and the radiating arterioles. The findings suggest that stimulation of paravascular afferent nerves may result in permeability changes in the basilar and cochlear vascular bed and may contribute to the mechanisms of vertebro-basilar type of headache through the release of SP and stimulation of TPVR1, respectively. We propose that vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing deficits associated with migraine may arise from perturbations of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons projecting to the cochlea. PMID:15026132

  3. CO-LOCALIZATION OF THE VANILLOID CAPSAICIN RECEPTOR AND SUBSTANCE P IN SENSORY NERVE FIBERS INNERVATING COCHLEAR AND VERTEBRO-BASILAR ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    VASS, Z.; DAI, C. F.; STEYGER, P. S.; JANCSÓ, G.; TRUNE, D. R.; NUTTALL, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that capsaicin-sensitive substance P (SP)-containing trigeminal ganglion neurons innervate the spiral modiolar artery (SMA), radiating arterioles, and the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Antidromic electrical or chemical stimulation of trigeminal sensory nerves results in neurogenic plasma extravasation in inner ear tissues. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the possible morphological basis of cochlear vascular changes mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Therefore, the distribution of SP and capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1—TRPV1) was investigated by double immunolabeling to demonstrate the anatomical relationships between the cochlear and vertebro-basilar blood vessels and the trigeminal sensory fiber system. Extensive TRPV1 and SP expression and co-localization were observed in axons within the adventitial layer of the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, the SMA, and the radiating arterioles of the cochlea. There appears to be a functional relationship between the trigeminal ganglion and the cochlear blood vessels since electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induced significant plasma extravasation from the SMA and the radiating arterioles. The findings suggest that stimulation of paravascular afferent nerves may result in permeability changes in the basilar and cochlear vascular bed and may contribute to the mechanisms of vertebro-basilar type of headache through the release of SP and stimulation of TPVR1, respectively. We propose that vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing deficits associated with migraine may arise from perturbations of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons projecting to the cochlea. PMID:15026132

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of fusiform hexagonal prism SrCO{sub 3} microrods via ethylene glycol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Liange; Du Fanglin . E-mail: dufanglin@qust.edu.cn

    2007-08-07

    Fusiform hexagonal prism SrCO{sub 3} microrods were prepared by a simple solvothermal route at 120 deg. C, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. By controlling the content of ethylene glycol (EG), it was found that ethylene glycol (EG) played an important role in the formation of such SrCO{sub 3} microrods. Finally, effects of other solvents on the products, including 1,2-propanediol and glycerin, were also investigated.

  5. Type I persistent proatlantal artery associated with fusiform subclavian artery aneurysm: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Krunoslav; Hegeduš, Ivana; Gilman Kuric, Tihana; Salha, Tamer; Tomi?, Svetlana; Butkovi? Soldo, Silva; Buljan, Vesna; Šoši?, ?ur?ica

    2015-08-01

    We report a 61 years old male presenting with a right cerebral infarction, along with a type I persistent left proatlantal artery (PA), which is a form of primitive carotid-basilar anastomosis. The patient had an absence of the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) and hypoplasia of the contralateral VA, while the basilar artery was supplied by the PA. Other vascular anomalies present were a fusiform aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, and an A1 segment aplasia of the hypoplastic anterior right cerebral artery, which originated from the anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge these anomalies were not described previously. PMID:26436940

  6. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    PubMed

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233

  7. Multiple aneurysms of the radial artery in a woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 presenting as aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Francesco; Negri, Giovanni; Martini, Guido; Mazzoleni, Guido

    2013-11-01

    A 48-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) experienced progressive forearm swelling coupled with impending compartment syndrome. Computed tomography angiography revealed a ruptured aneurysm of the proximal radial artery, multiple fusiform radial artery aneurysms, and a high independent ulnar artery origin. Compartment syndrome required prompt hematoma evacuation. Radial artery reconstruction, technically demanding due to vessel wall fragility, was deemed unnecessary because of satisfactory blood supply to the hand. Histologic findings indicated NF1-related vascular abnormalities also in the apparently normal radial artery as well as in a forearm vein, suggesting diffused vasculopathy. This case report is the first on ruptured radial artery aneurysm in NF1-related polianeurysmatic degeneration. PMID:23561427

  8. Fucosterol, a sterol extracted from Sargassum fusiforme, shows antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xing-Hua; Quan, Ying-Chun; Jiang, Hai-Ying; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Qu, You-Le; Guan, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that extracts of Sargassum fusiforme significantly reduce immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, suggesting that these extracts possess antidepressant-like effects. Here, fucosterol extracted from S. fusiforme was evaluated for antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Fucosterol (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) significantly shortened immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test for30min after treatment but had no effect on locomotor activity in the open field test. Fucosterol significantly increased serotonin, norepinephrine and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mouse brain, suggesting that the effects of fucosterol may be mediated through these neurotransmitters. As assessed using maximal electroshock, fucosterol (20, 40, 100mg/kg) possessed anticonvulsant activity, whereas rotarod toxicity test results indicated that fucosterol did not induce neurotoxicity at the same dose levels in mice. Thus, fucosterol may be a useful antidepressant adjunct candidate for treating depression in patients with epilepsy. A significant increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was found in the fucosterol 20mg/kg group (P<0.05). Our findings suggested that fucosterol may possess an antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by increasing central BDNF levels. PMID:26515446

  9. The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Robert T; Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami; Kleinman, Jamie; Van der Gaag, Christiaan; Marois, René; Skudlarski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A region in the lateral aspect of the fusiform gyrus (FG) is more engaged by human faces than any other category of image. It has come to be known as the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). The origin and extent of this specialization is currently a topic of great interest and debate. This is of special relevance to autism, because recent studies have shown that the FFA is hypoactive to faces in this disorder. In two linked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of healthy young adults, we show here that the FFA is engaged by a social attribution task (SAT) involving perception of human-like interactions among three simple geometric shapes. The amygdala, temporal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, inferolateral frontal cortex and superior temporal sulci were also significantly engaged. Activation of the FFA to a task without faces challenges the received view that the FFA is restricted in its activities to the perception of faces. We speculate that abstract semantic information associated with faces is encoded in the FG region and retrieved for social computations. From this perspective, the literature on hypoactivation of the FFA in autism may be interpreted as a reflection of a core social cognitive mechanism underlying the disorder. PMID:12639338

  10. Spontaneous rupture on irregular faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is now know (e.g. Robinson et al., 2006) that when ruptures propagate around bends, the rupture velocity decrease. In the extreme case, a large bend in the fault can stop the rupture. We develop a 2-D finite difference method to simulate spontaneous dynamic rupture on irregular faults. This method is based on a second order leap-frog finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh of triangles. A relaxation method is used to generate an irregular fault geometry-conforming mesh from the uniform mesh. Through this numerical coordinate mapping, the elastic wave equations are transformed and solved in a curvilinear coordinate system. Extensive numerical experiments using the linear slip-weakening law will be shown to demonstrate the effect of fault geometry on rupture properties. A long term goal is to simulate the strong ground motion near the vicinity of bends, jogs, etc.

  11. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

  12. Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding. PMID:26217647

  13. Biosorption of Hg(II) and Cu(II) by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme in aquatic solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengmou; Lin, Gan

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption of heavy metals Hg(II) and Cu(II) from aquatic solution by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme was studied in the paper. The Sargassum fusiforme was able to absorb appreciable amount of mercury and copper from the aquatic solutions within 60 min of contact time with the metal solution and exhibited high removal of mercury and copper at low equilibrium concentrations. The specific adsorption of both Hg(II) and Cu(II) increased at low concentration of biomass and decreased when biomass concentration exceeded 2.0 g/L. The binding of mercury followed Freundlich model while copper supported Langmuir isotherm for adsorption with their r(2) values of 0.971 and 0.923, respectively. The maximum adsorption per unit masses of Sargassum fusiforme (mg/L) at equilibrium (qmax) for Hg(II) and Cu(II) were calculated to be 30.86 and 7.69 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption by Sargassum fusiforme was best described using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model for copper and mercury ions in solution in the study. The adsorption was pH dependent as the maximum mercury biosorption and copper adsorption was happened at solution pH of 8-10. PMID:25806112

  14. Induced resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by algal elicitor extracted from Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2 (-) production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  15. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2? production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  16. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-print Network

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  17. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A; Bailey, Michael R; Matula, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  18. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  19. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

  20. Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Elghanmi, Adil; Mohamed, Jou; Khabouz, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Splenic rupture during pregnancy is a rare and can frequently be a misdiagnosed pathology. This rupture is associated with a high maternal and fetal mortality rate. A 26 years old Moroccan woman para II gravida II presented at the third stage of pregnancy with acute onset of severe abdominal pain. She developed immediately a hypovolemic shock. After both a physical and sonographical exam, it was revealed that it was due to a massive hemoperitoneum. Therefore, an emergent laparotomy and cesarean delivery with abdominal exploration were performed; also, an active bleeding was identified at the splenic hilum consistent with splenic rupture. Through this case report, we want to raise awareness of this surgical emergency that requires immediate recognition because any delay can lead to catastrophic consequences

  1. Comparative analysis of spherical and fusiform choledochal cyst based on three-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, biliary amylase, and histopathological examination

    PubMed Central

    Aggerwal, Neel; Menon, Prema; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha; Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Kakkar, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to compare biliary amylase, common channel, and gall bladder/liver histopathology between spherical and fusiform choledochal cysts. Materials and Methods: Children undergoing cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy over a 17 months period were prospectively studied. The common channel was assessed by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Results: Among 22 patients (spherical = 10, fusiform = 12), there was a higher incidence of spherical cysts in infants (5/7-71.4%) and fusiform cysts in older children (10/15-66.7%) (P = 0.09). Common channel identified in 14 (64%) cases was long (>10 mm) in 5 (38.2%) (one spherical, four fusiform [P = 0.5]) with associated high biliary amylase levels (>500 IU/L) in four (one spherical, three fusiform) (P = 0.05). Exact point of junction of common bile duct with pancreatic duct was visible with coronal half-Fourier-acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo and 3D sampling perfection with application with optimize contrast using different flip angle evolution sequence using a reformatted plane of axis, particularly coronal, and coronal oblique orientation. Biliary amylase was raised (>100 IU/L) in 4 (40%) in the spherical group, compared to 8 (67%) in the fusiform group. Mean biliary amylase was similar in gallbladder and cyst in spherical but higher in gallbladder in fusiform cysts. Mean biliary amylase was <500 IU/L in 85.7% infants. Five out of 7 infants had liver fibrosis or cirrhosis on histopathology (P = 0.05). There were no dysplastic changes in the gallbladder epithelium. Conclusion: Three-dimensional MRCP delineated the common channel in two-third cases especially in coronal and coronal oblique orientation. The long common channel may have an etiological role in fusiform cysts. Spherical cysts, especially in infants, have a higher incidence of obstructive cholangiopathy. PMID:26166983

  2. Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate-fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H D; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Siok, Wai Ting

    2011-02-01

    How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the activity level of the fusiform-caudate circuit in the left hemisphere, which nonetheless is not predictive of the ability to read in the native language. We scanned 10-y-old children while they performed a lexical decision task on L2 (and L1) stimuli. The subjects' written language (reading) skills were behaviorally assessed twice, the first time just before we performed the fMRI scan (time 1 reading) and the second time 1 y later (time 2 reading). A whole-brain based analysis revealed that activity levels in left caudate and left fusiform gyrus correlated with L2 literacy skills at time 1. After controlling for the effects of time 1 reading and nonverbal IQ, or the effect of in-scanner lexical performance, the development in L2 literacy skills (time 2 reading) was also predicted by activity in left caudate and fusiform regions that are thought to mediate language control functions and resolve competition arising from L1 during L2 learning. Our findings suggest that the activity level of left caudate and fusiform regions serves as an important neurobiological marker for predicting accomplishment in reading skills in a new language. PMID:21262807

  3. Spontaneous rupture of a neobladder.

    PubMed

    Martínez Jabaloyas, J M; Vera Donoso, C D; Morera Martínez, J F; Ruiz Cerdá, J L; Beamud Gómez, A; Jiménez Cruz, J F

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous rupture of neobladder is an extremely rare entity of which there only exists one formerly reported case in the world literature. It is far more common after enterocystoplasty for augmentation (19 reported cases). We describe here the spontaneous rupture of a neobladder 8 months after performing cystectomy and bladder replacement by an enterocystoplasty in order to treat a bladder carcinoma. In this case the patient showed symptoms and signs of acute peritonitis. The diagnosis was carried out using a cystogram and the treatment consisted of a laparotomy with closure of the perforation and drainage of the peritoneal cavity. PMID:8200411

  4. The contribution of the fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in processing facial attractiveness: neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence

    PubMed Central

    Iaria, Giuseppe; Fox, Christopher J; Waite, Christopher T; Aharon, Itzhak; Barton, Jason J S

    2008-01-01

    Current cognitive models suggest that the processing of dynamic facial attributes, including social signals such as gaze direction and facial expression, involves the superior temporal sulcus, whereas the processing of invariant facial structure such as the individuals’ identity involves the fusiform face area. Where facial attractiveness, a social signal that may emerge from invariant facial structure, is processed within this dual–route model of face perception is uncertain. Here, we present two studies. First, we investigated the explicit judgments of facial attractiveness and attractiveness-motivated behaviour in patients with acquired prosopagnosia, a deficit in familiar face recognition usually associated with damage to medial occipitotemporal cortex. We found that both abilities were impaired in these patients, with some weak residual ability for attractiveness judgments found only in those patients with unilateral right occipitotemporal or bilateral anterior temporal lesions. Importantly, deficits in attractiveness perception correlated with the severity of the face recognition deficit. Second, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy subjects that included an implicit and explicit processing of facial attractiveness. We found increased neural activity when explicitly judging facial attractiveness within a number of cortical regions including the fusiform face area, but not the superior temporal sulcus, indicating a potential contribution of the fusiform face area to this judgment. Thus, converging neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence points to a critical role of the inferior occipitotemporal cortex in the processing of facial attractiveness. PMID:18590800

  5. Perceived Animacy Influences the Processing of Human-Like Surface Features in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah; McCarthya, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    While decades of research have demonstrated that a region of the right fusiform gyrus (FG) responds selectively to faces, a second line of research suggests that the FG responds to a range of animacy cues, including biological motion and goal-directed actions, even in the absence of faces or other human-like surface features. These findings raise the question of whether the FG is indeed sensitive to faces or to the more abstract category of animate agents. The current study uses fMRI to examine whether the FG responds to all faces in a category-specific way or whether the FG is especially sensitive to the faces of animate agents. Animate agents are defined here as intentional agents with the capacity for rational goal-directed actions. Specifically, we examine how the FG responds to an entity that looks like an animate agent but that lacks the capacity for goal-directed, rational action. Region-of-interest analyses reveal that the FG activates more strongly to the animate compared with the inanimate entity, even though the surface features of both animate and inanimate entities were identical. These results suggest that the FG does not respond to all faces in a category-specific way, and is instead especially sensitive to whether an entity is animate. PMID:24905285

  6. Cortical Thickness in Fusiform Face Area Predicts Face and Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana E; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-02-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is defined by its selectivity for faces. Several studies have shown that the response of FFA to nonface objects can predict behavioral performance for these objects. However, one possible account is that experts pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise, driving signals up. Here, we show an effect of expertise with nonface objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention to objects of expertise. We explore the relationship between cortical thickness of FFA and face and object recognition using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test, respectively. We measured cortical thickness in functionally defined regions in a group of men who evidenced functional expertise effects for cars in FFA. Performance with faces and objects together accounted for approximately 40% of the variance in cortical thickness of several FFA patches. Whereas participants with a thicker FFA cortex performed better with vehicles, those with a thinner FFA cortex performed better with faces and living objects. The results point to a domain-general role of FFA in object perception and reveal an interesting double dissociation that does not contrast faces and objects but rather living and nonliving objects. PMID:26439272

  7. Perceived communicative context and emotional content amplify visual word processing in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wegrzyn, Martin; Steppacher, Inga; Kissler, Johanna

    2015-04-15

    The personal significance of a language statement depends on its communicative context. However, this is rarely taken into account in neuroscience studies. Here, we investigate how the implied source of single word statements alters their cortical processing. Participants' brain event-related potentials were recorded in response to identical word streams consisting of positive, negative, and neutral trait adjectives stated to either represent personal trait feedback from a human or to be randomly generated by a computer. Results showed a strong impact of perceived sender. Regardless of content, the notion of receiving feedback from a human enhanced all components, starting with the P2 and encompassing early posterior negativity (EPN), P3, and the late positive potential (LPP). Moreover, negative feedback by the "human sender" elicited a larger EPN, whereas positive feedback generally induced a larger LPP. Source estimations revealed differences between "senders" in visual areas, particularly the bilateral fusiform gyri. Likewise, emotional content enhanced activity in these areas. These results specify how even implied sender identity changes the processing of single words in seemingly realistic communicative settings, amplifying their processing in the visual brain. This suggests that the concept of motivated attention extends from stimulus significance to simultaneous appraisal of contextual relevance. Finally, consistent with distinct stages of emotional processing, at least in contexts perceived as social, humans are initially alerted to negative content, but later process what is perceived as positive feedback more intensely. PMID:25878274

  8. Is This Car Looking at You? How Anthropomorphism Predicts Fusiform Face Area Activation when Seeing Cars

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts. PMID:25517511

  9. Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A.; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex. PMID:24194707

  10. Trial-level information for individual faces in the fusiform face area depends on subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Hasinski, Adam E; Sederberg, Per B

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that face-sensitive brain regions, such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior inferior temporal lobe (aIT), not only respond selectively to face stimuli, but also respond uniquely to individual faces. A common factor in the existing literature is that face stimuli in these experiments are highly familiar to participants, usually by design. We set out to investigate to what extent familiarity correlates with the emergence of face-specific information in face-sensitive regions by testing novel faces with only a single repetition. Our results, consistent with a familiarity hypothesis, demonstrate that the FFA and aIT show face-specific information only when participants demonstrate subsequent memory for those faces. Functionally-defined regions that are not believed to process faces holistically showed no face-specific information, regardless of subsequent memory. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of face-specific information in face-sensitive regions for stimuli that were not highly familiar. These results contribute to our understanding of how individuating information comes to be represented in face-sensitive regions and suggest that this process can take place even after a single repetition of a particular face. PMID:26343317

  11. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

    2014-01-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

  12. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

  13. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

  14. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

  15. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

  16. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

  17. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  18. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission. PMID:4015021

  19. Factors influencing maternal survival in ruptured uterus.

    PubMed

    Megafu, U

    1985-12-01

    Ruptured uterus continues to be a common obstetric hazard in under developed countries. The commonest cause is spontaneous rupture from obstructed labor in the multipara. There was not a single rupture in the primipara. Rupture following previous cesarean section scar is also common. The most effective way of management is to correct fluid and blood loss followed by laparotomy and subtotal hysterectomy. This method gave a lower mortality than either repair and sterilization or total hysterectomy. Adequate pre-operative resuscitation and time interval between rupture and operation also influences mortality rate. The experience of the surgeon is another vital factor in determining mortality rate. PMID:2868942

  20. Processing deficits for familiar and novel faces in patients with left posterior fusiform lesions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Kim, Esther; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Woollams, Anna M

    2015-11-01

    Pure alexia (PA) arises from damage to the left posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG) and the striking reading disorder that defines this condition has meant that such patients are often cited as evidence for the specialisation of this region to processing of written words. There is, however, an alternative view that suggests this region is devoted to processing of high acuity foveal input, which is particularly salient for complex visual stimuli like letter strings. Previous reports have highlighted disrupted processing of non-linguistic visual stimuli after damage to the left pFG, both for familiar and unfamiliar objects and also for novel faces. This study explored the nature of face processing deficits in patients with left pFG damage. Identification of famous faces was found to be compromised in both expressive and receptive tasks. Discrimination of novel faces was also impaired, particularly for those that varied in terms of second-order spacing information, and this deficit was most apparent for the patients with the more severe reading deficits. Interestingly, discrimination of faces that varied in terms of feature identity was considerably better in these patients and it was performance in this condition that was related to the size of the length effects shown in reading. This finding complements functional imaging studies showing left pFG activation for faces varying only in spacing and frontal activation for faces varying only on features. These results suggest that the sequential part-based processing strategy that promotes the length effect in the reading of these patients also allows them to discriminate between faces on the basis of feature identity, but processing of second-order configural information is most compromised due to their left pFG lesion. This study supports a view in which the left pFG is specialised for processing of high acuity foveal visual information that supports processing of both words and faces. PMID:25837867

  1. Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-15

    The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children. PMID:23153968

  2. Processing deficits for familiar and novel faces in patients with left posterior fusiform lesions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kim, Esther; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Woollams, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia (PA) arises from damage to the left posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG) and the striking reading disorder that defines this condition has meant that such patients are often cited as evidence for the specialisation of this region to processing of written words. There is, however, an alternative view that suggests this region is devoted to processing of high acuity foveal input, which is particularly salient for complex visual stimuli like letter strings. Previous reports have highlighted disrupted processing of non-linguistic visual stimuli after damage to the left pFG, both for familiar and unfamiliar objects and also for novel faces. This study explored the nature of face processing deficits in patients with left pFG damage. Identification of famous faces was found to be compromised in both expressive and receptive tasks. Discrimination of novel faces was also impaired, particularly for those that varied in terms of second-order spacing information, and this deficit was most apparent for the patients with the more severe reading deficits. Interestingly, discrimination of faces that varied in terms of feature identity was considerably better in these patients and it was performance in this condition that was related to the size of the length effects shown in reading. This finding complements functional imaging studies showing left pFG activation for faces varying only in spacing and frontal activation for faces varying only on features. These results suggest that the sequential part-based processing strategy that promotes the length effect in the reading of these patients also allows them to discriminate between faces on the basis of feature identity, but processing of second-order configural information is most compromised due to their left pFG lesion. This study supports a view in which the left pFG is specialised for processing of high acuity foveal visual information that supports processing of both words and faces. PMID:25837867

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the ureter

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Alper; Akbas, Tugana; Arpaci, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mecha­nisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition. PMID:25715862

  4. Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.

    PubMed Central

    Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M

    1989-01-01

    The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

  5. The deterministic nature of earthquake rupture.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik L; Allen, Richard M

    2005-11-10

    Understanding the earthquake rupture process is central to our understanding of fault systems and earthquake hazards. Multiple hypotheses concerning the nature of fault rupture have been proposed but no unifying theory has emerged. The conceptual hypothesis most commonly cited is the cascade model for fault rupture. In the cascade model, slip initiates on a small fault patch and continues to rupture further across a fault plane as long as the conditions are favourable. Two fundamental implications of this domino-like theory are that small earthquakes begin in the same manner as large earthquakes and that the rupture process is not deterministic--that is, the size of the earthquake cannot be determined until the cessation of rupture. Here we show that the frequency content of radiated seismic energy within the first few seconds of rupture scales with the final magnitude of the event. We infer that the magnitude of an earthquake can therefore be estimated before the rupture is complete. This finding implies that the rupture process is to some degree deterministic and has implications for the physics of the rupture process. PMID:16281033

  6. Cortical Thickness in Fusiform Face Area Predicts Face and Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin; Van Gulick, Ana; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The response to non-face objects in the face selective fusiform face area (FFA) can predict behavioral performance for these objects, but such results are often disregarded because experts may pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise. We report an effect of expertise with objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention. We relate regional cortical thickness (rCT) of FFA to face and object recognition using the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Vanderbilt Expertise Test (VET). Object performance in the VET was summarized using two PCA factors, one for living objects (VET-LV) and one for non-living objects (VET-NL). Using high-resolution structural data, we measured rCT in individually defined FFA1 and FFA2, OFA and PHG, in twenty-seven men recruited to vary in expertise for cars. The only significant correlations with behavioral performance were found in the FFAs. In right FFA2, rCT was positively correlated with performance on VET-NL (r=.42). This was supported by a correlation with an independent matching task with cars and planes (.43). In contrast, rCT was negatively correlated with performance on the VET-LV in left FFA1 (-.50) and FFA2 (-.68), and with performance on the CFMT in right FFA1 (-.46). Multiple regression revealed that performance with faces and objects together accounted for ~40% of the variance in rCT in several FFA patches. While men with a thicker FFA cortex performed better with non-living objects, those with a thinner FFA cortex performed better with faces and living objects. Performance with these different categories may reflect experience that is acquired during different phases of brain development (arguably faces earlier than vehicles), with different mechanisms of plasticity operating at these different times. The results point to a domain-general role of FFA in object perception, one that cannot be explained by attention to objects of expertise. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326116

  7. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture

    PubMed Central

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; G, Shyamala

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19?weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

  8. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  9. Behavior of the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to copper pollution: short-term acclimation and long-term adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hui-Xi; Pang, Qiu-Ying; Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

  10. Behavior of the Edible Seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to Copper Pollution: Short-Term Acclimation and Long-Term Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

  11. Rupture to the Trench: Dynamic Rupture Simulations of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Eric M.

    Rupture to the Trench: Dynamic Rupture Simulations of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake on seismic surveys of the Japan Trench. The fault obeys rate-and-state friction with standard logarithmic of the fault driving the rupture through the velocity- strengthening region to the trench. We validate

  12. Delayed spontaneous rupture of an ileocolonic neobladder.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S T; Kursh, E D

    1992-12-01

    A case of delayed spontaneous rupture of an ileocolonic neobladder and subsequent peritonitis 4 years after the initial operation is reported. Many of the features of this case are similar to those noted in recent reports of spontaneous rupture of an augmented bladder and it is postulated that the etiology is the same. PMID:1433631

  13. Myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular septal rupture.

    PubMed

    Sahjian, Michael; Ventriglia, Rich; Bolton, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Transporting patients with an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a fairly common practice for most critical care transport teams. When a STEMI is complicated by ventricular septal rupture, the care can become more challenging, especially if the rupture is not yet diagnosed. This article describes such a transport and reviews the pathophysiology of the process along with treatment options. PMID:22225564

  14. FRP rupture strains in FRP wrapped columns 

    E-print Network

    Li, Shiqing

    2012-06-25

    and bending of the FRP ring at the gap due to change of curvature caused by the relative moment of the two half disks, as the FRP (as a brittle material) ruptures once the maximum strain at one of these locations reaches the FRP rupture strain. A list...

  15. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in fermented seaweed by-product groups were much higher than in non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, IgG concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than in control group (p<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that by-product dietary supplementation of BS, SF, FBS, and FSF in poultry may provide positive effects of growth performance and immune response. PMID:25050025

  16. Beyond the core face-processing network: Intracerebral stimulation of a face-selective area in the right anterior fusiform gyrus elicits transient prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Brissart, Hélène; Frismand, Solène; Jacques, Corentin; Hossu, Gabriela; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2015-11-01

    According to neuropsychological evidence, a distributed network of regions of the ventral visual pathway - from the lateral occipital cortex to the temporal pole - supports face recognition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have generally confined ventral face-selective areas to the posterior section of the occipito-temporal cortex, i.e., the inferior occipital gyrus occipital face area (OFA) and the posterior and middle fusiform gyrus fusiform face area (FFA). There is recent evidence that intracranial electrical stimulation of these areas in the right hemisphere elicits face matching and recognition impairments (i.e., prosopagnosia) as well as perceptual face distortions. Here we report a case of transient inability to recognize faces following electrical stimulation of the right anterior fusiform gyrus, in a region located anteriorly to the FFA. There was no perceptual face distortion reported during stimulation. Although no fMRI face-selective responses were found in this region due to a severe signal drop-out as in previous studies, intracerebral face-selective event-related potentials and gamma range electrophysiological responses were found at the critical site of stimulation. These results point to a causal role in face recognition of the right anterior fusiform gyrus and more generally of face-selective areas located beyond the "core" face-processing network in the right ventral temporal cortex. It also illustrates the diagnostic value of intracerebral electrophysiological recordings and stimulation in understanding the neural basis of face recognition and visual recognition in general. PMID:26143305

  17. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen operated in gynecological unit mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: total splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eko, Filbert Eko; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; de Paul, Elanga Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is always neglected when consulting acute abdominal pains in gynecological emergencies. It constitutes about 1% of all splenic ruptures and can be managed by abstention, surgery or embolization. We present the case of a young lady who was diagnosed of spontaneous rupture during surgery that was mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst and finally treated by total splenectomy. The pre-operative work up was absolute for a rupturred hemorrhagic cyst and secondariy for a ruptured ectopic gestation. PMID:25918564

  18. Type I collagen gel induces Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to become fusiform in shape and lose apical-basal polarity

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In the embryo, epithelia give rise to mesenchyme at specific times and places. Recently, it has been reported (Greenburg, G., and E. D. Hay. 1986. Dev. Biol. 115:363-379; Greenberg, G., and E. D. Hay. 1988. Development (Camb.). 102:605-622) that definitive epithelia can give rise to fibroblast-like cells when suspended within type I collagen gels. We wanted to know whether Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an epithelial line, can form mesenchyme under similar conditions. Small explants of MDCK cells on basement membrane were suspended within or placed on top of extracellular matrix gels. MDCK cells on basement membrane gel are tall, columnar in shape, and ultrastructurally resemble epithelia transporting fluid and ions. MDCK explants cultured on type I collagen gel give rise to isolated fusiform-shaped cells that migrate over the gel surface. The fusiform cells extend pseudopodia and filopodia, lose cell membrane specializations, and develop an actin cortex around the entire cell. Unlike true mesenchymal cells, which express vimentin and type I collagen, fusiform cells produce both keratin and vimentin, continue to express laminin, and do not turn on type I collagen. Fusiform cells are not apically-basally polarized, but show mesenchymal cell polarity. Influenza hemagglutinin and virus budding localize to the front end or entire cell surface. Na,K-ATPase occurs intracellularly and also symmetrically distributes on the cell surface. Fodrin becomes diffusely distributed along the plasma membrane, ZO-1 cannot be detected, and desmoplakins distribute randomly in the cytoplasm. The loss of epithelial polarity and acquisition of mesenchymal cell polarity and shape by fusiform MDCK cells on type I collagen gel was previously unsuspected. The phenomenon may offer new opportunities for studying cytoplasmic and nuclear mechanisms regulating cell shape and polarity. PMID:2537838

  19. Dynamic Interface Rupture in Extremely Heterogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.

    2007-12-01

    Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth rupture at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum rupture speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central Kunlunshan and 2002 Denali earthquakes) even suggest the existence of supershear rupture speeds (i.e., rupture propagating faster than the relevant shear wave). Recently, Uenishi et al. ( SSJ Fall Meeting, 2004, 2005; AGU Fall Meeting, 2006) experimentally investigated dynamic fracture in monolithic hyperelastic materials under static mode-§ loading conditions with relatively high crack-parallel stresses. Using a high-speed digital video camera system, they showed that cracks may propagate supersonically even in homogeneous materials. However, the exact mechanism for rupture nucleation and the transition of a nucleated rupture from sub-Rayleigh to super-shear rupture speed has not been identified yet. In this contribution, we further develop our experimental system and investigate dynamic fracture in extremely heterogeneous media, consisting of thin fluid and solid films: Inside a wire frame (50mm high, 50mm wide), a flat soap film contacts a flat thin solid plastic film (20mm high, 20mm wide), under static tensile loading conditions. The rupture (crack), initiated at a point, propagates subsonically in the linear elastic fluid film (see e.g., Uenishi et al., SSJ Fall Meeting, 2006, for the dynamic rupture in monolithic fluid films). When the circular rupture front reaches the interface, the rupture advances along the interface and then it is "diffracted" at the two corners of the interface. We record the rupture propagation process utilizing our high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 20 ?s (20×10-6s). The observed results show that interface rupture propagation may accelerate (or even decelerate) and the dynamic rupture behavior is very sensitive to the geometry of the interface between the two films: (1) When the subsonic rupture front reaches the first rectangular corner, it accelerates around the corner and then advances supersonically along the interface; and (2) when the supersonic interface rupture front approaches the second corner (obtuse with respect to the rupture front in fluid), it bifurcates for a short period (400 ?s): the first branch unexpectedly expands rather straight into the bulk and the second one propagates along the interface at a lower speed; At a later stage, again unexpectedly, the first branched crack decelerates significantly in the bulk and the two cracks eventually merge into a single crack. The overall behavior is - in some sense - similar to that of the oblique shock and Prandtl- Meyer expansion waves in fluid mechanics, and it might give new insights not only into the question of high rupture speeds of natural earthquakes but also into the generation mechanism of tsunamis. u.ac.jp/~uenishi/

  20. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  1. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  2. [Left Ventricular Rupture following Mitral Valve Replacement].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    Left ventricular rupture is a rare but lethal complication after mitral valve replacement (MVR). Between 1989 and 2014, of 850 patients who underwent MVR, 6 developed left ventricular rupture in Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University. Treasure type I rupture occurred in 5 patients and Miller type III in 1. Four cases developed ventricular rupture right after declamping of the ascending aorta, and the remaining 2 after the transfer to the intensive care unit( ICU). Prompt surgical therapy was achieved for the instant closure of the muscular wall defect under the cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest, however, leading to the disappointing result of 66.7% of hospital death. It is the most important to relieving the stress of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during mitral surgery by using the modification techniques with the preservation of posterior mitral leaflet and avoiding pre and afterload of the left ventricle right after the MVR. PMID:26197900

  3. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  4. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  5. Surgical Strategies for Acutely Ruptured Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime L; Macdonald, R Loch

    2015-11-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are focal neurovascular lesions consisting of abnormal fistulous connections between the arterial and venous systems with no interposed capillaries. This arrangement creates a high-flow circulatory shunt with hemorrhagic risk and hemodynamic abnormalities. While most AVMs are asymptomatic, they may cause severe neurological complications and death. Each AVM carries an annual rupture risk of 2-4%. Intracranial hemorrhage due to AVM rupture is the most common initial manifestation (up to 70% of presentations), and it carries significant morbidity and mortality. This complication is particularly important in the young and otherwise healthy population, in whom AVMs cause up to one-third of all hemorrhagic strokes. A previous rupture is the single most important independent predictor of future hemorrhage. Current treatment modalities for AVM are microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and radiosurgery. In acutely ruptured AVMs, early microsurgical excision is usually avoided. The standard is to wait at least 4 weeks to allow for patient recovery, hematoma liquefaction, and inflammatory reactions to subside. Exceptions to this rule are small, superficial, low-grade AVMs with elucidated angioarchitecture, for which early simultaneous hematoma evacuation and AVM excision is feasible. Emergent hematoma evacuation with delayed AVM excision (unless, as mentioned, the AVM is low grade) is recommended in patients with a decreased level of consciousness due to intracranial hemorrhage, posterior fossa or temporal lobe hematoma of >30 ml, or hemispheric hematoma of >60 ml. The applicability of endovascular techniques for acutely ruptured AVMs is not clear, but feasible options, until a definitive treatment is determined, include occluding intranidal and distal flow-related aneurysms and 'sealing' any rupture site or focal angioarchitectural weakness when one can be clearly identified and safely accessed. Radiosurgery is not performed in acutely ruptured AVMs because its therapeutic effects occur in a delayed fashion. PMID:26587641

  6. Preparation and certification of hijiki reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, from the edible marine algae hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme).

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narushima, Izumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2012-02-01

    A certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, for the determination of trace elements and As(V) in algae was developed from the edible marine hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme) and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Hijiki was collected from the Pacific coast in the Kanto area of Japan, and was washed, dried, powdered, and homogenized. The hijiki powder was placed in 400 bottles (ca. 20 g each). The concentrations of 18 trace elements and As(V) were determined by two to four independent analytical techniques, including (ID)ICP-(HR)MS, ICP-OES, GFAAS, and HPLC-ICP-MS using calibration solutions prepared from the elemental standard solution of Japan calibration service system (JCSS) and the NMIJ CRM As(V) solution, and whose concentrations are certified and SI traceable. The uncertainties of all the measurements and preparation procedures were evaluated. The values of 18 trace elements and As(V) in the CRM were certified with uncertainty (k = 2). PMID:22159512

  7. A Model of Emergent Category-specific Activation in the Posterior Fusiform Gyrus of Sighted and Congenitally Blind Populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lang; Rogers, Timothy T

    2015-10-01

    Theories about the neural bases of semantic knowledge tend between two poles, one proposing that distinct brain regions are innately dedicated to different conceptual domains and the other suggesting that all concepts are encoded within a single network. Category-sensitive functional activations in the fusiform cortex of the congenitally blind have been taken to support the former view but also raise several puzzles. We use neural network models to assess a hypothesis that spans the two poles: The interesting functional activation patterns reflect the base connectivity of a domain-general semantic network. Both similarities and differences between sighted and congenitally blind groups can emerge through learning in a neural network, but only in architectures adopting real anatomical constraints. Surprisingly, the same constraints suggest a novel account of a quite different phenomenon: the dyspraxia observed in patients with semantic impairments from anterior temporal pathology. From this work, we suggest that the cortical semantic network is wired not to encode knowledge of distinct conceptual domains but to promote learning about both conceptual and affordance structure in the environment. PMID:26042499

  8. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. PMID:25577259

  9. Scaling in rupture of polymer chains

    E-print Network

    S. Fugmann; I. M. Sokolov

    2008-07-18

    We consider the rupture dynamics of a homopolymer chain pulled at one end at a constant loading rate r. Compared to single bond breaking, the existence of the chain introduces two new aspects into rupture dynamics: the non-Markovian aspect in the barrier crossing and the slow-down of the force propagation to the breakable bond. The relative impact of both these processes is investigated, and the second one was found to be the most important at moderate loading rates. The most probable rupture force is found to decrease with the number of bonds as f_{max} const-(ln(N/r))^(2/3) and finally to approach a saturation value independent on N. All our analytical findings are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations.

  10. On the rupture of DNA molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Modi, T.; Giri, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Using Langevin dynamics simulations, we study effects of the shear force on the rupture of a double stranded DNA molecule. The model studied here contains two single diblock copolymers interacting with each other. The elastic constants of individual segments of diblock copolymer are considered to be different. We showed that the magnitude of the rupture force depends on whether the force is applied at 3' - 3' - ends or 5' - 5' - ends. Distributions of extension in hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds along the chain show the striking differences. Motivated by recent experiments, we have also calculated the variation of rupture force for different chain lengths. Results obtained from simulations have been validated with the analytical calculation based on the ladder model of DNA.

  11. On the rupture of DNA molecule

    E-print Network

    R. K. Mishra; T. Modi; D. Giri; S. Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Using Langevin Dynamic simulations, we study effects of the shear force on the rupture of a double stranded DNA molecule. The model studied here contains two single diblock copolymers interacting with each other. The elastic constants of individual segments of the diblock copolymer are considered to be different. We showed that the magnitude of the rupture force depends on whether the force is applied at $3'-3'-$ends or $5'-5'-$ends. Distributions of extension in hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds along the chain show the striking differences. Motivated by recent experiments, we have also calculated the variation of rupture force for different chain lengths. Results obtained from simulations have been validated with the analytical calculation based on the ladder model of DNA.

  12. Prognostic factors of spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Ying; Shao, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors in patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Seventy-nine patients experiencing spontaneous rupture of HCC between April 2004 and August 2014 were enrolled in this study. The clinical features, treatment modalities and outcomes were reviewed. The statistical methods used in this work included univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests, and multivariate analysis using a Cox regression hazard model. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients with HCC rupture, 17 (21.5%) underwent surgery, 32 (40.5%) underwent transarterial embolization (TAE), and 30 (38%) received conservative treatment. The median survival time was 125 d, and the mortality rate at 30 d was 27.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion length (HR = 1.46, P < 0.001), lesion number (HR = 1.37, P = 0.042), treatment before tumor rupture (HR = 4.36, P = 0.019), alanine transaminase levels (HR = 1.0, P = 0.011), bicarbonate levels (HR = 1.18, P < 0.001), age (HR = 0.96, P = 0.026), anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period (HR = 0.21, P = 0.008), and albumin levels (HR = 0.89, P = 0.010) were independent prognostic factors of survival after HCC rupture. The Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage was also an important prognostic factor; the median survival times for BCLC stages A, B and C were 251, 175 and 40 d, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period, without a history of anti-tumor therapy prior to HCC rupture, small tumor length and number, and early BCLC stage are the most crucial predictors associated with satisfactory overall survival. Other factors play only a small role in overall survival. PMID:26139994

  13. Shock wave theory for rupture of rubber

    E-print Network

    M. Marder

    2004-07-09

    This article presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound, and consist in two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

  14. COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP RUPTURE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Macheret

    2000-06-12

    The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  16. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Alajoulin, Omar A; Alsbou, Mohammed S; Ja'afreh, Somayya O; Kalbouneh, Heba M

    2015-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992

  17. Gastric rupture after bag-mask-ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Stephan; Filipovic, Miodrag; Schoch, Otto; Mauermann, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    A 42 year old woman underwent bronchoscopy with procedural propofol sedation. During the procedure, the patient suffered respiratory arrest, and bag-mask ventilation was initiated. During forced mask ventilation, abdominal distention occurred. Even after correct placement of an endotracheal and a nasogastric tube, high inspiratory pressures persisted. The abdominal CT scan revealed a high amount of intraperitoneal free air. An emergent laparotomy confirmed a stomach rupture. Immediately after opening of the peritoneal cavity, peak ventilatory pressures decreased. In this case forceful bag-mask ventilation led to air insufflation into the stomach, increasing gastric pressure, and consecutive stomach rupture.

  18. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  19. Rupture energy of a pendular liquid bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitois, O.; Moucheront, P.; Chateau, X.

    2001-09-01

    We propose a simple expression for the rupture energy of a pendular liquid bridge between two spheres, taking into account capillary and viscous (lubrication) forces. In the case of capillary forces only, the results are in accordance with curve fitting expressions proposed by Simons et al. [2] and Willett et al. [5]. We performed accurate measurements of the force exerted by liquid bridges between two spheres. Experimental results are found to be close to theoretical values. A reasonable agreement is also found in the presence of viscous forces. Finally, for small bridge volumes, the rupture criterion given by Lian et al. [10] is modified, taking into account additional viscous effects.

  20. [Papillary Muscle Rupture after Repair of Ischemic Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture; Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Kaminishi, Yuichirou; Akutsu, Hirohiko; Takazawa, Ippei; Aizawa, Kei; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    A 67-year-old man experienced acute inferior myocardial infarction. Echocardiography and computed tomography showed massive pericardial effusion. He underwent emergency operation for ischemic ventricular free wall rupture. During the operation, an oozing type rupture was found on the inferior wall and the bleeding was completely controlled by applying fibrin glue sheets. On the 5th day after the operation, ventricular tachycardia appeared with hemodynamic deterioration. Echocardiography showed a ruptured posteromedial papillary muscle with massive mitral regurgitation. Intra-aortic balloon pumping was introduced and emergency repair operation was performed. The mitral valve was replaced with a bioprosthetic valve. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26555919

  1. Primary gastric rupture in 47 horses (1995-2011).

    PubMed

    Winfield, Laramie S; Dechant, Julie E

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify factors associated with primary gastric rupture and to investigate if there were differences between etiologies of primary gastric rupture. Compared to the general colic population, Quarter horses were under-represented and Friesians and draft breeds were over-represented in 47 cases of primary gastric ruptures. Horses with primary gastric rupture typically presented with severe clinical and clinicopathological derangements. There were 24 idiopathic gastric ruptures, 20 gastric impaction associated ruptures, and 3 perforating gastric ulcers. Thoroughbred horses were over-represented in the idiopathic gastric rupture group compared to other breeds and etiologies. This study suggests the presence of important breed predispositions for development of gastric rupture. Further study is necessary to identify if these predispositions are associated with management factors or breed-specific disorders. PMID:26345205

  2. Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (?CFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ?CFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

  3. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

  4. Seeing faces with your ears activates the left fusiform face area, especially when you're blind.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Paula; Renier, Laurent; De Volder, Anne; Rauschecker, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Restoring vision in blind people is an important goal and can be achieved in certain cases, for instance by performing cataract surgeries in children. However, reconnecting the visual system alone is not sufficient; the visual cortex needs to be rewired. In order to fully appreciate visual information, a mental representation of the world needs to be created. Here we are presenting fMRI data from the visual cortex of blind people when they were perceiving faces, houses, and geometric shapes encoded into sounds by means of a sensory substitution device (SSD). Specifically, we focused on selective visual brain areas related to this perception: the fusiform face area (FFA), the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the parahippocampal place area (PPA). Each area was identified in sighted subjects under visual conditions using a functional localizer consisting of pictures of famous persons, visual 2-D geometric shapes and real houses. Then, region-of-interest analyses were performed on the data acquired in both Congenitally Blind (CB) and Sighted Control (SC) subjects when the SSD was used to discriminate schematic drawings of faces, geometric shapes and houses. Our results indicate that the left LOC was activated under all three conditions in both groups, while the left FFA was activated in CB subjects selectively during the SSD-face discrimination condition. No significant brain activity was found in the PPA in CB or SC subjects at the group level. The specific recruitment of the FFA during the perception of sound-encoded faces in CB subjects shows that they can extract visual information from sound-encoded objects and such perception activates the appropriate module in the visual cortex. Our study also represents new evidence about the developmental constraints on functional specialization in the absence of visual inputs. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325885

  5. Traumatic bladder rupture in a paratrooper.

    PubMed

    Ford, David; Palma, James; Robinson, John

    2009-06-01

    A paratrooper presents after a parachuting accident with the inability to urinate. Initial emergency bedside ultrasound, followed by confirmatory abdominal CT, is carried out and demonstrates an intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The patient is taken to the operating room and a 3-layer closure with omental buttressing is carried out. PMID:19585785

  6. Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

  7. D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-03

    The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

  8. Spontaneous rupture of liver during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mäntymaa, M L; Ekblad, U

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the hepatic capsule and subsequent massive intra-abdominal bleeding is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy, which is often associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. High maternal and fetal mortality rates have been reported. We describe a case with massive intra-abdominal bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of this condition are discussed. PMID:8092784

  9. The physics of strain localization in dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    E-print Network

    Daub,Eric G.

    The physics of strain localization in dynamic earthquake rupture simulations Eric G. Daub) and Jean M. Carlson (UCSB) #12;Goal: improve our understanding of the basic physics of earthquake rupture of Earthquakes Seismologists do not have a complete description of the physics governing earthquake rupture. Why

  10. Capsaicin stimulation of the cochlea and electric stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion mediate vascular permeability in cochlear and vertebro-basilar arteries: a potential cause of inner ear dysfunction in headache.

    PubMed

    Vass, Z; Steyger, P S; Hordichok, A J; Trune, D R; Jancsó, G; Nuttall, A L

    2001-01-01

    Trigeminal neurogenic inflammation is one explanation for the development of vascular migraine. The triggers for this inflammation and pain are not well understood, but are probably vasoactive components acting on the blood vessel wall. Migraine-related inner ear symptoms like phonophobia, tinnitus, fluctuation in hearing perception and increased noise sensitivity provide indirect evidence that cochlear blood vessels are also affected by basilar artery migraine. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a functional connection exists between the cochlea and the basilar artery. Neuronally mediated permeability changes in the cochlea and basilar artery were measured by colloidal silver and Evans Blue extravasation, following orthodromic and antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion innervating the cochlea. Capsaicin and electrical stimulation induced both dose- and time-dependent plasma extravasation of colloidal silver and Evans Blue from the basilar artery and anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Both orthodromic and antidromic activation of trigeminal sensory fibers also induced cochlear vascular permeability changes and significant quantitative differences between the treated and control groups in spectrophotometric assays. These results characterize a vasoactive connection between the cochlea and vertebro-basilar system through the trigeminal sensory neurons. We propose that vertigo, tinnitus and hearing deficits associated with basilar migraine could arise by excitation of the trigeminal nerve fibers in the cochlea, resulting in local plasma extravasation. In addition, cochlear "dysfunction" may also trigger basilar and cluster headache by afferent input to the trigeminal system. PMID:11311800

  11. Megathrust Properties and Large Earthquake Rupture Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, T.; Ye, L.; Kanamori, H.

    2014-12-01

    Constraining physical controls on seismic rupture of plate boundary megathrust faults is challenging due to observational limitations, but seismic, geodetic, tsunami, electromagnetic, geologic and hydrologic studies are steadily accumulating data that hold potential of advancing our understanding of subduction fault zones. Very shallow (< 15 km deep) megathrust earthquakes are rare, but intermittently occur as large tsunami earthquakes such as the 2010 Mentawai Mw 7.8 event. This rupture occurred up-dip of prior large interplate ruptures in the Sumatra subduction zone in 2007, and rupture extended all the way to the trench, but with patchy large-slip regions that can only be confidently resolved using tsunami observations. The seismic wave radiation from tsunami earthquakes is now established to be distinct from that of ruptures deeper on the megathrust, but the controlling factors are not well-resolved. Smaller events at shallow depths tend to have diverse rupture processes, but some are also anomalously depleted in short-period radiation, suggesting that the shallow environment has variable scale-lengths of frictional heterogeneity. At the other end of the megathrust, large events deeper than about 35 km tend to have modest enhancement of short-period seismic wave radiation, with somewhat lower slope to their short-period source spectra than typical of shallower events. The controlling process are also not well-resolved for this behavior. These depth-variations of megathrust earthquake source spectra are one class of observations that may relate to pressure- and temperature-dependent evolution of the megathrust from the trench to decoupling depths near 45-50 km. Other attributes of seismic sources, such as static stress drop and moment-scaled radiated energy have large variability, but do not show systematic variations with depth on the megathrust, so some attributes of earthquake processes are not strongly influenced by evolving conditions of the plate boundary. We explore these issues based on a recent seismological study of all large interplate earthquakes from 1990-2014 combined with detailed investigations of several recent large and great earthquakes for which we have unprecedented geophysical data sets.

  12. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2–60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of ?3 to ?4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5?mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for an early surgical intervention. PMID:26426604

  13. Rupture directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John

    2010-01-01

    We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate rupture direction and rupture velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5?M?5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The rupture direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The rupture velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the rupture direction. Rupture velocities are generally subsonic (0.5?–0.9?); for stability, we limit the rupture velocity at v=0.92?, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the rupture direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have rupture directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 rupture partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes rupture updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes rupture predominantly updip. We compare the rupture directions for 10 M?4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the rupture directivity calculated for the mainshock.

  14. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  15. Megakaryocyte rupture for acute platelet needs

    PubMed Central

    Stritt, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Circulating platelets were thought to arise solely from the protrusion and fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Now, Nishimura et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410052) show that platelet release from megakaryocytes can be induced by interleukin-1? (IL-1?) via a new rupture mechanism, which yields higher platelet numbers, occurs independently of the key regulator of megakaryopoiesis thrombopoietin, and may occur during situations of acute platelet need. PMID:25963815

  16. Megakaryocyte rupture for acute platelet needs.

    PubMed

    Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stritt, Simon

    2015-05-11

    Circulating platelets were thought to arise solely from the protrusion and fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Now, Nishimura et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410052) show that platelet release from megakaryocytes can be induced by interleukin-1? (IL-1?) via a new rupture mechanism, which yields higher platelet numbers, occurs independently of the key regulator of megakaryopoiesis thrombopoietin, and may occur during situations of acute platelet need. PMID:25963815

  17. [Esthetic surgery and psychological rupture states].

    PubMed

    Julliard, F A

    1991-01-01

    Although the psychological profile of patients requesting cosmetic surgery is often similar, the consequences of surgery can be dramatic in certain cases and result in a true state of rupture. The various forms, depression or aggression, and the conditions of onset are analysed. The four essential predisposing factors are: lack of information, result-satisfaction dichotomy, patient-surgeon divorce, and the responsibility of colleagues who, as a result of their inconsiderable comments, destabilize an already fragile psychological state. PMID:1721785

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Pericallosal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Kim, Hwan Soo; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Lee, Tae Hong; Yun, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms arising from the pericallosal artery (PA) are uncommon and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experiences of the endovascular treatment of ruptured PA aneurysms. Methods From September 2003 to December 2013, 30 ruptured PA aneurysms in 30 patients were treated at our institution via an endovascular approach. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively reviewed. Results Regarding immediate angiographic control, complete occlusion was achieved in 21 (70.0%) patients and near-complete occlusion in 9 (30.0%). Eight procedure-related complications occurred, including intraprocedural rupture and early rebleeding in three each, and thromboembolic event in two. At last follow-up, 18 patients were independent with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2, and the other 12 were either dependent or had expired (mRS score, 3-6). Adjacent hematoma was found to be associated with an increased risk of poor clinical outcome. Seventeen of 23 surviving patients underwent follow-up conventional angiography (mean, 16.5 months). Results showed stable occlusion in 14 (82.4%), minor recanalization in two (11.8%), and major recanalization, which required recoiling, in one (5.9%). Conclusion Our experiences demonstrate that endovascular treatment for a ruptured PA aneurysms is both feasible and effective. However, periprocedural rebleedings were found to occur far more often (20.0%) than is generally suspected and to be associated with preoperative contrast retention. Analysis showed existing adjacent hematoma is predictive of a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26539261

  19. Mechanism of rupture of single adsorbed vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-11-01

    Rupture of single adsorbed lipid vesicles is believed to occur via pore formation in the membrane. The latter process is related to the support-induced membrane strain. It includes membrane bending primarily near the rim of the vesicle-substrate contact area and tension distributed over the whole membrane. Herein, the relative role of these two factors is scrutinized from the perspectives of general theory and available experiments. The former factor is concluded to dominate.

  20. Isolated rupture of the teres major tendon.

    PubMed

    Lester, Jonathan D; Boselli, Karen J; Kim, Paul D; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-11-01

    Acute isolated rupture of the teres major is an uncommon injury. This article presents the first report of midterm subjective and objective functional results following nonoperative management of an isolated teres major rupture. A 30-year-old right hand dominant man presented after a waterskiing traction injury to his left upper extremity. On physical examination, the patient had swelling and retraction of the teres major at the lower scapular border, which was accentuated with resisted adduction of the extremity. His teres major attachment at the humerus was not palpable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated teres major tendon rupture. The patient was treated non-operatively with a rehabilitation protocol emphasizing rotator cuff, periscapular, and latissimus muscle strengthening. By 3 months postinjury, the patient had returned to all of his usual sporting activities, despite a persistent muscle retraction deformity over the teres major. At 3-year follow-up, the patient had no subjective complaints in the injured extremity and excellent functional outcome scores. A mean 37 kg loss of internal rotation strength (as measured by dynamometer) in the affected extremity with the arm abducted to 90° existed, although this difference was not subjectively appreciable. Although previously published reports have presented various options for the management of teres major injuries, the present case demonstrates that nonoperative treatment can produce excellent midterm subjective results in spite of objective internal rotation weakness. PMID:21053871

  1. Transient gravity perturbations induced by earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Barsuglia, M.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Montagner, J.-P.; Somala, S. N.; Whiting, B. F.

    2015-06-01

    The static and transient deformations produced by earthquakes cause density perturbations which, in turn, generate immediate, long-range perturbations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, an analytical solution is derived for gravity perturbations produced by a point double-couple source in homogeneous, infinite, non-self-gravitating elastic media. The solution features transient gravity perturbations that occur at any distance from the source between the rupture onset time and the arrival time of seismic P waves, which are of potential interest for real-time earthquake source studies and early warning. An analytical solution for such prompt gravity perturbations is presented in compact form. We show that it approximates adequately the prompt gravity perturbations generated by strike-slip and dip-slip finite fault ruptures in a half-space obtained by numerical simulations based on the spectral element method. Based on the analytical solution, we estimate that the observability of prompt gravity perturbations within 10 s after rupture onset by current instruments is severely challenged by the background microseism noise but may be achieved by high-precision gravity strainmeters currently under development. Our analytical results facilitate parametric studies of the expected prompt gravity signals that could be recorded by gravity strainmeters.

  2. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    SciTech Connect

    Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri Dingil, Guerbuez; Koeroglu, Mert; Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  3. Rupture Velocities of Intermediate- and Deep-Focus Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The rupture velocities of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes --- how they vary between subduction zones, how they vary with depth, and what their maximum values are --- may help constrain the mechanism(s) of the earthquakes. As part of a global study of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes, I have used rupture directivity to estimate the rupture vector (speed and orientation) for 422 earthquakes >70 km depth with MW ?5.7 since 1990. I estimate the rupture velocity relative to the local P-wave velocity (vr/?). Since the same method is used for all earthquakes, the results can be readily compared across study areas. The study areas --- Middle America, South America, Tonga-Kermadec, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, and Japan-Kurils-Kamchatka --- include some of the warmest and coldest subduction zones: subducting plate ages range from 9-150 Myr and descent rates range from 1-13 cm/yr. Across all subduction zones and depth ranges, for the 193 earthquakes with observable directivity and well-constrained rupture vectors, most earthquakes rupture on the more horizontal of the two possible nodal planes. However, the rupture vectors appear to be randomly-oriented relative to the slip vector, so the earthquakes span the continuum from Mode II (i.e., parallel slip and rupture vectors) to Mode III rupture (i.e., perpendicular slip and rupture vectors). For this earthquake population, the mean rupture velocity is 0.43 vr/? ± 0.14 vr/?. The mean earthquake rupture velocities are similar between all subduction zones. Since the local seismic wavespeed is faster in colder subduction zones, absolute rupture velocities are faster in colder subduction zones. Overall, the fastest rupture velocities exceed the local S-wave speed. The supershear ruptures are associated with earthquakes closer to Mode II than Mode III faulting. This is consistent with theoretical calculations, which limit the rupture velocity to the S-wave speed for Mode III rupture but the P-wave speed for Mode II rupture.

  4. Association between patella spurs and quadriceps tendon ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Ellanti, Prasad; Moriarity, Andrew; Wainberg, Nikita; Fhoghlu, Cliodhna Ni; McCarthy, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background quadriceps tendon (QT) ruptures are significant injuries that are relatively uncommon. The diagnosis of QT ruptures is frequently missed or delayed. An association between the presence of a patella spur and QT ruptures has been suggested in the literature. Patients and methods the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system was used to gather data on all patients who sustained a QT rupture over a six year period from 2008 to 2014. A retrospective review of the medical notes as well as radiographs was undertaken. We reviewed 200 knee radiographs of patients without QT ruptures to establish the incidence of patella spurs in our normal population. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows®. Results the records of 20 consecutive patients with 21 QT ruptures were reviewed. The mean age was 60.9 yrs (range 44.9–82.1 yrs) and the majority were male (n=17; 85%). There was one bilateral QT ruptures. Patella spurs were noted in 13 cases (62%) which were significantly higher than in patients without QT rupture 19% (P?0.05). Conclusion we noted a significantly higher incidence of patella spurs in patients with QT ruptures compared to those without. The presence of a QT rupture should be ruled out in patients with a knee injury and a patella spur on the knee radiographs. PMID:26261786

  5. fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism.

    PubMed

    Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami J; Gauthier, Isabel; Skudlarski, Pawel; Cohen, Donald J; Gore, John C; Volkmar, Fred R; Schultz, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal hypoactivation in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus, brain areas that participate in face processing and social cognition, has consistently been demonstrated in persons with autism. We investigated activity in these areas in a boy with autism, DD, who had a special interest in "Digimon" cartoon characters. DD individuates Digimon faster than familiar faces and objects, but he individuates familiar faces no faster than objects. In contrast, a typically developing boy with an interest in "Pokemon" cartoon characters is equally fast at individuating faces and Pokemon and faster at individuating faces and Pokemon than objects and Digimon. In addition, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that DD activates his amygdala and fusiform gyrus for perceptual discriminations involving Digimon but not for those involving familiar or unfamiliar faces. This pattern of activation is not seen in the typically developing control with an interest in Pokemon or in a second comparison case who has autism but no interest in Digimon. These results have important implications for our understanding of autism, cortical face specialization, and the possible role of the amygdala in the development of perceptual expertise. PMID:15707614

  6. Emotional valence of words modulates the subliminal repetition priming effect in the left fusiform gyrus: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Peng, Danling; Jin, Zhen; Xu, Duo; Xiao, Lihui; Ding, Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated if the emotional valence of words modulates the subliminal repetition priming effect in the brain, in particular, the occipitotemporal visual cortex, by adopting a rapid presentation event-related fMRI design. A masked repetition priming paradigm was adopted, in which, before the presentation of the target (either positive or negative or neutral in meaning), a masked prime word that was either a repetition or an unrelated word of the target was presented. The subject made a perceptual judgment on the target. The results revealed that the left mid-fusiform gyrus was sensitive to the emotional manipulation of the repetition priming effect and that the priming effect in the region was greater in the positive than in the negative word condition. The priming effect in the fusiform gyrus in neutral words was not significant, which might be a result of suppression caused by the emotional context. No effect of valence or repetition was found in the amygdala. PMID:14741678

  7. The Energy Budget of Earthquake Rupture: a View From Spontaneous Rupture Modeling and Finite-Source Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, P.; Guatteri, M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a common and frustrating experience of many dynamic modelers to initiate spontaneous rupture calculations that subsequently abort before rupturing to the desired earthquake size [Nielsen and Olsen, 2000; Oglesby and Day, 2002]. Source parameters in such dynamic source models are strongly correlated, but stress drop is the main factor affecting the distribution of the other dynamic rupture parameters. Additionally, the position of the hypocenter exerts a strong influence on the dynamic properties of the earthquake, and certain hypocenter positions are not plausible as those would not lead to spontaneous rupture propagation. To further investigate this last statement, we analyze the energy budget during earthquake rupture using spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations and finite-source rupture models. In describing the energy budget during earthquake rupture, we follow Favreau and Archuleta [2003]. Each point on the fault contributes to the radiated seismic energy Ers = Eel - Efr - Erx, where Eel denotes the elasto-static energy and Efr the fracture energy. In this study we neglect for simplicity the relaxation work Erx spent during the stopping of the earthquake. A rupture can be characterized by locally negative seismic energy density values, but its integral over the fault plane must be positive. The fundamental condition for rupture growth is therefore that the integral of Ers on the rupture area remains always positive during rupture propagation. Based on a simple energy budget calculation, we focus on identifying those target slip/stress distribution in dynamic rupture modeling that for a given hypocenter location fail to rupture spontaneously. Additionally, we study the energy budget of finite-source rupture models by analyzing the integrated seismic energy for the inferred slip maps using also hypocenter positions other than the network location. These results indicate how rupture was promoted for the true hypocenter while randomized hypocenters may not have been able to sustain a large earthquake. Our approach helped us both to speed up the computation of successful spontaneous rupture models, as well as to construct dynamically consistent rupture models for strong motion prediction.

  8. Rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) from surface ruptures and fault striations characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiawei; Li, Haibing; Si, Jialiang; Pei, Junling; Fu, Xiaofang; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    On 12 May 2008, the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) produced complicated thrust-type co-seismic surface rupture zones, which encompass the dextral-slip thrust of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, the approximately pure thrust of the Guanxian-Anxian fault, and the sinistral-slip thrust of the Xiaoyudong rupture zone located between the former two. In order to understand the faulting mechanism, we discuss the rupture process by examining the segmentation and kinematics of the surface rupture zones, together with the co-seismic fault striations at various sites. Based on the two along-strike main displacement peaks (6-6.5 m and 11-12 m) and on the different geometric and kinematic patterns for the southern and northern segments of the surface rupture zones, we find that the Wenchuan earthquake might have consisted of two rupture stages, which is in agreement with seismic wave inversion results. By comparing the kinematics of fault striations occurring in the Bajiaomiao and Beichuan areas, it suggests that during the first stage, thrusting along both the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Guanxian-Anxian fault produced the ~ 80-100 km-long Yingxiu-Qingping surface rupture segment and the ~ 80 km-long Guanxian-Anxian surface rupture zone, respectively. Then, faulting was triggered along the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault by the first rupture process, yielding the second rupture stage, which was characterized by dextral strike-slip (or dextral oblique thrusting). Due to the overlap between the two rupture stages, the southern segment (Yingxiu-Qingping) of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone comprises two different processes while the northern segment (Gaochuan-Beichuan-Shikan) only suggests one rupture phase.

  9. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-01-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management. PMID:26557563

  10. Posterior polar cataracts: a predisposition to intraoperative posterior capsular rupture.

    PubMed

    Osher, R H; Yu, B C; Koch, D D

    1990-03-01

    We performed phacoemulsification or planned extracapsular cataract extraction on posterior polar cataracts in 31 eyes of 22 patients and experienced eight cases of posterior capsular rupture (26%). Capsular rupture occurred during removal of the posterior polar opacity or during cleaning of the posterior capsule after the opacity had been removed. We believe that excessive adherence of the opacity to the posterior capsule and unusual thinness of the capsule predisposed these eyes to posterior capsular rupture. PMID:2329471

  11. Rupture of multiple parallel molecular bonds under dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Seifert, U

    2000-03-20

    Biological adhesion often involves several pairs of specific receptor-ligand molecules. Using rate equations, we study theoretically the rupture of such multiple parallel bonds under dynamic loading assisted by thermal activation. For a simple generic type of cooperativity, both the rupture time and force exhibit several different scaling regimes. The dependence of the rupture force on the number of bonds is predicted to be either linear, like a square root, or logarithmic. PMID:11017316

  12. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  13. [Otogenic brain abscess with rupture into the lateral ventricle].

    PubMed

    Bliouras, K; Skevas, A; Vrettos, X

    1989-07-01

    We present a case of otogenic abscess of the brain that ruptured into the ipsilateral cerebral ventricle. All the diagnostic, surgical and postoperative procedures which led not only to saving this patient but also his complete recovery are described. Because there is a great difference between rupture of a cerebral abscess into a ventricle and rupture of the ventricle into an abscess, particularly with reference to the prognosis, the pathology of the two different complications is reviewed, based on the literature. PMID:2668239

  14. Dynamic stress changes during earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the rupture front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the rupture front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.

  15. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  16. Isolated ruptures of the supraspinatus muscle.

    PubMed

    Holibka, Radomír; Ditmar, Rudolf; Holibková, Alzbeta; Laichman, Stanislav; R?zicková, Katherine

    2003-12-01

    We rarely encounter isolated ruptures of the supraspinatus muscle. At the Clinic of Orthopedics at the Faculty Hospital in Olomouc, we encountered only 21 cases out of 385 arthroscopic operation cases from October 1998 to October 2003. The patients were examined by USG, 5 patients were examined arthrographically and 3 patients underwent MRI examination. Of these 21 patients, only 3 were operated for acute post-injury haemarthrosis of the shoulder joint. During arthroscopic operation, an isolated rupture of the supraspinatus muscle was discovered in all these patients. The remaining 40 patients were only treated at our clinic for problems associated with impingement syndrome after an interval of 3-11 months and were indicated for operational therapy for the rupture of the supraspinatus muscle, verified sonographically and by MRI. Surgically we performed end to end sutures in 12 patients, in 9 cases we performed refixation using 1-2 titanium MITEK anchors. We supplemented the work by a detailed anatomical study of the supraspinatus muscle on 27 cadaverous anatomical preparations. It was noted that the supraspinatus muscle may be divided into three parts, with a superficial and deep layer of muscle fascicles. An aponeurotic insertion tendon runs through the center, to which part of the superficial muscle fascicles are attached. The muscle fascicles, including the central attachment tendon, run across the superior margin of the shoulder joint and by broad tendon are attached to the superior surface of the greater tubercle of the humerus. Together with the long head of the biceps muscle, they act as a significant shoulder stabiliser. The authors believe that due to the course of the muscle fascicles, this muscle acts as a significant shoulder stabiliser and a powerful abductor and elevator in the shoulder joint. The inferior portion of the muscle fascicles acts as an external rotator of the shoulder. PMID:15037909

  17. Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

    2014-06-01

    Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

  18. Intracranial Aneurysms: Wall Motion Analysis for Prediction of Rupture.

    PubMed

    Vanrossomme, A E; Eker, O F; Thiran, J-P; Courbebaisse, G P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are a common pathologic condition with a potential severe complication: rupture. Effective treatment options exist, neurosurgical clipping and endovascular techniques, but guidelines for treatment are unclear and focus mainly on patient age, aneurysm size, and localization. New criteria to define the risk of rupture are needed to refine these guidelines. One potential candidate is aneurysm wall motion, known to be associated with rupture but difficult to detect and quantify. We review what is known about the association between aneurysm wall motion and rupture, which structural changes may explain wall motion patterns, and available imaging techniques able to analyze wall motion. PMID:25929878

  19. Rupture velocity inferred from near-field shear strain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causse, M.; Cornou, C.; Bécasse, J.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new technique to determine the rupture velocity of large strike slip earthquakes. By means of simple numerical ground motion simulations, we show that when the rupture penetrates a shallow layer of sediment or fractured rock, shock waves propagate along the surface fault trace in the forward rupture direction. Such shock waves, which are insensitive to the complexity of slip over the fault plane, propagate at a phase velocity equal to the rupture speed. We show that those shock waves can be easily isolated in the frequency domain, and that phase velocity can then be simply obtained from shear strain.

  20. Stress rupture resistance. [of Co and Ni superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Principles underlying the design of metallic systems for stress rupture resistance are outlined by considering the specific case studies of cobalt- and nickel-base superalloys. Ways in which superalloys can be designed for high stress rupture resistance are discussed. In describing the alloying procedures, the strengthening mechanisms involved and methods of avoiding phases detrimental to stress rupture resistance are identified. New processing techniques such as controlled solidification, prealloyed powder processing, and autoclave heat treatments are described as further means of achieving increased stress rupture resistance in superalloy and other systems.

  1. Surgical Treatment of Distal Biceps Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Laura E; Huang, Jerry I

    2016-01-01

    Distal biceps ruptures occur from eccentric loading of a flexed elbow. Patients treated nonoperatively have substantial loss of strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination. Surgical approaches include 1-incision and 2-incision techniques. Advances in surgical technology have facilitated the popularity of single-incision techniques through a small anterior incision. Recently, there is increased focus on the detailed anatomy of the distal biceps insertion and the importance of anatomic repair in restoring forearm supination strength. Excellent outcomes are expected with early repair of the distal biceps, with restoration of strength and endurance to near-normal levels with minimal to no loss of motion. PMID:26614933

  2. Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake rupture processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.

  3. Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face-and body-evoked activity patterns

    E-print Network

    Kastner, Sabine

    - and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns Daniel Kaiser,1 * Lukas Strnad,1 by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns. J Neurophysiol 111: 82­90, 2014. First

  4. The repetition of large-earthquake ruptures.

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, K

    1996-01-01

    This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a "characteristic" behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:11607662

  5. Ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Mayer, E D; Ruffmann, K; Saggau, W; Butzmann, B; Bernhardt-Mayer, K; Schatton, N; Schmitz, W

    1986-07-01

    From 1964 to 1984, 10 male and 5 female patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva (ASVs) underwent surgical correction. These procedures constituted 0.23% of the 6,350 surgical procedures that used cardiopulmonary bypass during this period. Five patients had an inflammatory condition (bacterial endocarditis, 4; syphilis, 1), and 1 had an ASV relapse 5 years after her first operation. Coexistent lesions included aortic valve regurgitation in 5 patients, ventricular septal defect in 3 (1 of whom had mitral insufficiency), patent foramen ovale in 2, and atrial septal defect in 1. Ninety-three percent were symptomatic (sudden onset of symptoms, 5 patients; gradual onset, 9 patients), commonly with shortness of breath, fatigability, chest pain, and tachycardia. The following connections occurred: noncoronary sinus to right atrium (RA) (5 patients); right coronary sinus (RCS) to RA (5 patients); and RCS to right ventricle (5 patients). There were no early or late postoperative deaths. One patient underwent reoperation after an ASV relapse. The mean follow-up period (+/- standard deviation) was 7.9 years (range, 10 months to 20.1 years). Eighty percent of the patients were found to be in New York Heart Association class I, and 20% were in class II. Apart from ASV relapse, late complications are determined by prosthetic valve dysfunction or evidence of valve disease. Early surgical intervention is justified in patients with ruptured ASV. PMID:3729620

  6. TMI-2 lower head creep rupture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thinnes, G.L.

    1988-08-01

    The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against rupture of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep rupture analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  7. False vs True rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Cohain, J S

    2015-05-01

    New medical nomenclature: False rupture of membranes or False ROM and Double rupture of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443

  8. Dynamic path selection along branched faults: Experiments involving sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures

    E-print Network

    Rosakis, Ares J.

    ruptures Carl-Ernst Rousseau1 and Ares J. Rosakis2 Received 27 October 2008; revised 12 March 2009 of rupture propagation along a branch by the Mach cone, when the initial rupture is supershear driven

  9. The Utility of Bedside Ultrasound in the Detection of a Ruptured Globe in a Porcine Model

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Amit; Mastrovitch, Todd; Ladner, Heidi; Ting, Vincent; Radeos, Michael S; Samudre, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    identify abnormal eyes with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI 73%eye,” rupture Identification of a or vitrectomy (CI) ruptured globe (CI) 1st Year Resident Sensitivityeye as a vitrectomy or a CVL as a rupture. The sensitivity

  10. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4089-4103, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26178527

  11. Human Fetal Membranes: Their Preterm Premature Rupture1 [Create Reference

    E-print Network

    Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    Human Fetal Membranes: Their Preterm Premature Rupture1 [Create­1579. Human Fetal Membranes: Their Preterm Premature Rupture1 Gillian D. Bryant-Greenwood, a, 2 and Lynnae K. Millar a aPacific Biomedical Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Manuscript

  12. Isolated rupture of teres major in a goalkeeper.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Rafael Almeida; Zogaib, Rodrigo Kallas; Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    A complete rupture of the teres major is an extremely rare injury and rarely described in the literature. We report the first case of an isolated rupture of the teres major in a professional football goalkeeper. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and complementation by image examinations. Conservative treatment has a high success rate with early return to sport. PMID:26701915

  13. Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mahibul; Deka, Pranjal; Kapur, Raj; Ansari, Md Abu Masud

    2013-07-01

    Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon and most ruptured HCC present with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock. Management of ruptured HCC is different than non-ruptured one. Short- and long-term mortality increases following rupture of HCC with increasing chances of tumor dissemination. We describe a case with non-bleeding spontaneous rupture of HCC. A 62-year-old male patient was admitted to our institute hospital with mild to moderate pain in the right upper part of the abdomen. He lost appetite and weight. Ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed and it suggested HCC and ascites. Triple phase computer tomography revealed HCC in segments 6 and 7 of liver with typical radiological characteristics. Portal vein was thrombosed. No extravasation of dye was seen. Ruptured of tumor through liver capsule was seen with necrosis and hemorrhage in the center of the tumor. Non-bleeding ruptured HCC has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. We herein describe this rare case. PMID:24497757

  14. Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mahibul; Deka, Pranjal; Kapur, Raj; Ansari, Md. Abu Masud

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon and most ruptured HCC present with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock. Management of ruptured HCC is different than non-ruptured one. Short- and long-term mortality increases following rupture of HCC with increasing chances of tumor dissemination. We describe a case with non-bleeding spontaneous rupture of HCC. A 62-year-old male patient was admitted to our institute hospital with mild to moderate pain in the right upper part of the abdomen. He lost appetite and weight. Ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed and it suggested HCC and ascites. Triple phase computer tomography revealed HCC in segments 6 and 7 of liver with typical radiological characteristics. Portal vein was thrombosed. No extravasation of dye was seen. Ruptured of tumor through liver capsule was seen with necrosis and hemorrhage in the center of the tumor. Non-bleeding ruptured HCC has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. We herein describe this rare case. PMID:24497757

  15. Spleen rupture in course of chronic pancreatitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Luck, O D; Juhl-Jensen, V

    1990-01-01

    Non-traumatic spleen rupture is exceedingly rare. We report case, in which an occlusion of the pancreatic duct induced a fistula from the pancreatic tail to the spleen coursing enzymatic digestion resulting in subcapsular bleeding and rupture of the spleen. The pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:2131568

  16. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  17. A Three Year Clinicopathological Study of Cases of Rupture Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Swain, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rupture uterus is a life threatening obstetric complication with serious maternal and fetal side-effects. We report a 3 year (2010-2013) retrospective clinical study of pregnancy with rupture uterus cases attending a tertiary care hospital. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of rupture uterus, incidence as per age, parity, clinical presentations, risk factors, complications and management. Materials and Methods Retrospective data of 74 cases of rupture uterus in SCB Medical college, Cuttack was collected from case records of 26,547 deliveries during a 3 year span (2010-2013). Parameters like cause of rupture, type, site of rupture and outcome were recorded. The collected data was analysed by SPSS software v19. Results Out of 26,547 deliveries during the three year period, there were 74 cases of rupture uterus with an incidence of rupture 1 in 359 (0.28%). The mean age of rupture uterus was 27.4 years. 95.8% were multigravida and majority were referred cases from low socioeconomic status. Only 40.5% had the required minimum of four antenatal visits as recommended by WHO (World Health Organisation). A total of 48.6% of cases with rupture uterus had history of previous Caesarean section. Prolonged labour was present in 75.6% of the cases. Only 12.2% of the cases had history of oxytocin use whereas 9.5% had undergone an operative vaginal delivery. Obstructed labour was the cause in 24.3% of cases, 85.1% had complete rupture. Majority had a rupture in the anterior wall (69%) and 81.1% had rupture in lower segment of uterus. Only 17.6% had broad ligament haematoma, 10.8% colporrhexis and 6.8% had associated bladder injury. Repair was possible in only 39.2% of cases, whereas majority landed up in hysterectomy. Internal iliac ligation was done in 2.7% of cases. Perinatal mortality was 90.5% whereas maternal death was seen in 13.5% cases. One patient developed VVF (vesicovaginal fistula). Duration of hospital stay was upto 14 days in 81.1% cases. Conclusion Education and proper care especially of high risk patients like previous caesarean by competent personnal, proper use of oxytocin and early referral may help to reduce the incidence of “rupture uterus”. PMID:26673858

  18. Relaxing Segmentation: Does It Improve Characterization of Fault Rupture Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Most faults have not ruptured once historically, let alone repeatedly. Estimating future rupture length of an earthquake source has been a challenge since the 1970s when concepts of full and half fault lengths were employed. In the 1980s paleoseismic event timing and observations of slip, coupled with geometric and other physical fault changes, led to concepts of fault segmentation and it's modeling for hazard. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 3 (UCERF 3, Field et al., 2014) relaxed segmentation, guided by rules in which a separation distance of ?5km and orientation to Coulomb stress changes at fault junctions are prime factors for allowing fault-to-fault jumps. A set of ~350 fault sections produced ~250K ruptures ranging in length from 15 km-1200 km. An inversion provided the rates of these, which range from 102-108 years. Many of the long ruptures have exceedingly low individual rates within the UCERF 3 geologic model but are sufficient in number to release cumulative moment that brings the long-term (Myr) and historical (since 1850) MFDs for the California region into close agreement. Does UCERF 3 have too many multi-fault ruptures? Since 1850 there have been ~260 surface ruptures worldwide in shallow continental crust. 77% are 0-49km; 6% exceed 150km, and the longest is 1906 San Francisco (435-470 km). In California since 1857 there have been 31 surface ruptures. 77% are shorter than 49 km. The longest are 1906, 1857 Fort Tejon (297km), and 1872 Owens Valley (108 km). Most long historical strike-slip ruptures are continuous and geomorphically well-defined traces with limited geometric changes. In contrast, UCERF3 modeling of the south Hayward, as an example, allows it to participate in ruptures that extend to the south ends of the San Andreas or San Jacinto faults (900 km). These include branching (Hayward-Calaveras, San Andreas-San Jacinto) and jumps (Calaveras-San Andreas) on creeping sections of these faults. 5km is the connectivity threshold in UCERF 3 but only 40% of historical ruptures have negotiated this distance. There are other controls of rupture propagation: frictional properties, rupture dynamics, creep, and, as shown by the 2002 Denali-Totschunda rupture, the timing of the prior event and level of stress accumulation on adjacent fault sections. Time will be the tester.

  19. Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is rupture behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake rupture propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake rupture propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake rupture propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture related to local invasion by retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Pehar, M; Vukoja, I; Rozi?, D; Miškovi?, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of the female patient who was admitted to the hospital because of syncope experienced while climbing stairs. Diagnostic workup raised the suspicion of a right diaphragmatic rupture that was eventually confirmed by surgery (right-sided thoracotomy). Surgery also revealed tissue protruding through the rupture site from within the retroperitoneum that was proven subsequently to be a dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Second surgery was performed to completely remove the liposarcoma tissue and repair a coincident old right lumbar region hernia. The patient recovered fully. Spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm is rare and this is especially true for the right hemidiaphragm. We report the first case of diaphragmatic rupture caused by local infiltration by a retroperitoneal liposarcoma. This and similar reports emphasise that in cases with high clinical suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture, diagnosis should be pursued even in the absence of a preceding traumatic event. PMID:22524913

  1. Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis without rupture in a pure spinal epidural cavernous angioma: a rare cause of acute lumbal radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Floeth, Frank; Riemenschneider, Markus; Herdmann, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    Pure spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare lesions, and their normal shape is that of a fusiform mass in the dorsal aspects of the spinal canal. We report a case of a lumbo-sacral epidural cavernous vascular malformation presenting with acute onset of right-sided S1 radiculopathy. Clinical aspects, imaging, intraoperative findings, and histology are demonstrated. The patient, a 27-year-old man presented with acute onset of pain, paraesthesia, and numbness within the right leg corresponding to the S1 segment. An acute lumbosacral disc herniation was suspected, but MRI revealed a cystic lesion with the shape of a balloon, a fluid level and a thickened contrast-enhancing wall. Intraoperatively, a purple-blue tumor with fibrous adhesions was located between the right S1 and S2 nerve roots. Macroscopically, no signs of epidural bleedings could be denoted. After coagulation of a reticular venous feeder network and dissection of the adhesions the rubber ball-like lesion was resected in total. Histology revealed a prominent venous vessel with a pathologically thickened, amuscular wall surrounded by smaller, hyalinized, venous vessels arranged in a back-to-back position typical for the diagnosis of a cavernous angioma. Lumina were partially occluded by thrombi. The surrounding fibrotic tissue showed signs of recurrent bleedings. There was no obvious mass hemorrhage into the surrounding tissue. In this unique case, the pathologic mechanism was not the usual rupture of the cavernous angioma with subsequent intraspinal hemorrhage, but acute mass effect by intralesional bleedings and thrombosis with subsequent increase of volume leading to nerve root compression. Thus, even without a sudden intraspinal hemorrhage a spinal cavernous malformation can cause acute symptoms identical to the clinical features of a soft disc herniation. PMID:20213297

  2. Macroscopic Source Properties from Dynamic Rupture Styles in Plastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    High stress concentrations at earthquake rupture fronts may generate an inelastic off-fault response at the rupture tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Furthermore, the induced asymmetric plastic strain field in in-plane rupture modes may produce bimaterial interfaces that can increase radiation efficiency and reduce frictional dissipation. Off-fault inelasticity thus plays an important role for realistic predictions of near-fault ground motion. Guided by our previous studies in the 2D elastic case, we perform rupture dynamics simulations including rate-and-state friction and off-fault plasticity to investigate the effects on the rupture properties. We quantitatively analyze macroscopic source properties for different rupture styles, ranging from cracks to pulses and subshear to supershear ruptures, and their transitional mechanisms. The energy dissipation due to off-fault inelasticity modifies the conditions to obtain each rupture style and alters macroscopic source properties. We examine apparent fracture energy, rupture and healing front speed, peak slip and peak slip velocity, dynamic stress drop and size of the process and plastic zones, slip and plastic seismic moment, and their connection to ground motion. This presentation focuses on the effects of rupture style and off-fault plasticity on the resulting ground motion patterns, especially on characteristic slip velocity function signatures and resulting seismic moments. We aim at developing scaling rules for equivalent elastic models, as function of background stress and frictional parameters, that may lead to improved "pseudo-dynamic" source parameterizations for ground-motion calculation. Moreover, our simulations provide quantitative relations between off-fault energy dissipation and macroscopic source properties. These relations might provide a self-consistent theoretical framework for the study of the earthquake energy balance based on observable earthquake source parameters.

  3. Generation of microcracks by dynamic shear rupture and its effects on rupture growth and elastic wave radiation

    E-print Network

    Yamashita, Teruo

    Generation of microcracks by dynamic shear rupture and its effects on rupture growth and elastic propagating earthquake faults generate a large number of tensile microcracks in their vicinity, which waves will also be affected by the generation of microcracks. We numerically study how such tensile

  4. Multifractal scaling of thermally activated rupture processes.

    PubMed

    Sornette, D; Ouillon, G

    2005-01-28

    We propose a "multifractal stress activation" model combining thermally activated rupture and long memory stress relaxation, which predicts that seismic decay rates after mainshocks follow the Omori law approximately 1/t(p) with exponents p linearly increasing with the magnitude M(L) of the mainshock. We carefully test this prediction on earthquake sequences in the Southern California earthquake catalog: we find power law relaxations of seismic sequences triggered by mainshocks with exponents p increasing with the mainshock magnitude by approximately 0.1-0.15 for each magnitude unit increase, from p(M(L) = 3) approximately 0.6 to p(M(L) = 7) approximately 1.1, in good agreement with the prediction of the multifractal model. PMID:15698332

  5. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  6. Arterial distensibility in patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms: Is it a predisposing factor for rupture risk?

    PubMed Central

    Dusak, Abdurrahim; Kamasak, Kaan; Goya, Cemil; Adin, Mehmet E.; Elbey, Mehmet A.; Bilici, Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Background A risk factor assessment that reliably predicts whether patients are predisposed to intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture has yet to be formulated. As such, the clinical management of unruptured IA remains unclear. Our aim was to determine whether impaired arterial distensibility and hypertrophic remodeling might be indicators of risk for IA rupture. Material/Methods The study population (n=49) was selected from consecutive admissions for either unruptured IA (n=23) or ruptured IA (n=26) from January to December 2010. Hemodynamic measures were taken from every patient, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Unruptured IA and ruptured IA characteristics, including aneurysmal shape, size, angle, aspect ratio, and bottleneck factor, were measured and calculated from transverse brain CT angiography images. With ultrasound, the right common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured, as well as the lumen diameter during systole and diastole. Arterial wall strain, distensibility, stiffness index, and elastic modulus were calculated and compared between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results General demographic data did not differ between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. Greater mean intima-media thickness (p=0.013), mean stiffness index (p=0.044), and mean elastic modulus (p=0.026) were observed for patients with ruptured IAs. Moreover, mean strain (p=0.013) and mean distensibility (p=0.024) were decreased in patients with ruptured IAs. Conclusions Patients with ruptured IAs demonstrated decreased arterial distensibility and increased intima-media thickness at the level of the carotid arteries. By measuring these parameters via ultrasound, it may be possible to predict whether patients with existing IAs might rupture and hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. PMID:23974299

  7. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-01

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P? into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. PMID:25299335

  8. How does damage affect rupture propagation across a fault stepover?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.; Savage, H. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the potential for fault damage to influence earthquake rupture at fault step-overs using a mechanical numerical model that explicitly includes the generation of cracks around faults. We compare the off-fault fracture patterns and slip profiles generated along faults with a variety of frictional slip-weakening distances and step-over geometry. Models with greater damage facilitate the transfer of slip to the second fault. Increasing separation and decreasing the overlap distance reduces the transfer of slip across the step over. This is consistent with observations of rupture stopping at step-over separation greater than 4 km (Wesnousky, 2006). In cases of slip transfer, rupture is often passed to the second fault before the damage zone cracks of the first fault reach the second fault. This implies that stresses from the damage fracture tips are transmitted elastically to the second fault to trigger the onset of slip along the second fault. Consequently, the growth of damage facilitates transfer of rupture from one fault to another across the step-over. In addition, the rupture propagates along the damage-producing fault faster than along the rougher fault that does not produce damage. While this result seems counter to our understanding that damage slows rupture propagation, which is documented in our models with pre-existing damage, these model results are suggesting an additional process. The slip along the newly created damage may unclamp portions of the fault ahead of the rupture and promote faster rupture. We simulate the M7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake and compare the generated fracture patterns to maps of surface damage. Because along with the detailed damage pattern, we also know the stress drop during the earthquake, we may begin to constrain parameters like the slip-weakening distance along portions of the faults that ruptured in the Hector Mine earthquake.

  9. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. A 5-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R

    1990-01-01

    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial rupture (13[40.6%]), left atrial rupture (8 [25%]), right ventricular rupture (10[31.3%]), left ventricular rupture (4[12.5%]), and rupture of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with rupture of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular rupture died. The mortality rate from myocardial rupture is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761

  10. Frictional melting during the rupture of the 1994 bolivian earthquake

    PubMed

    Kanamori; Anderson; Heaton

    1998-02-01

    The source parameters of the 1994 Bolivian earthquake (magnitude Mw = 8.3) suggest that the maximum seismic efficiency eta was 0.036 and the minimum frictional stress was 550 bars. Thus, the source process was dissipative, which is consistent with the observed slow rupture speed, only 20% of the local S-wave velocity. The amount of nonradiated energy produced during the Bolivian rupture was comparable to, or larger than, the thermal energy of the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption and was sufficient to have melted a layer as thick as 31 centimeters. Once rupture was initiated, melting could occur, which reduces friction and promotes fault slip. PMID:9452378

  11. Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {?ij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ?kk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ? k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a dozen fault-spanning volumes. At the magnitude threshold M = 7, the ACDF can be well fit by renewal models with fairly small aperiodicity parameters (? < 0.2) for all fault volumes but one (on the San Jacinto fault). At interseismic (Reid) time scales, we observe pairs of fault segments that are tightly locked, such as the Cholame and Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), where the CCDF and two ACDFs are nearly equal; segments out of phase (Carrizo-SAF/Coachella-SAF and Coachella-SAF/San Jacinto), where the CCDF variation is an odd function of time; and segments where events are in phase with integer ratios of recurrence times (2:1 synchronicity of Coachella-SAF/Mojave-SAF and Carrizo-SAF/Mojave-SAF). At near-seismic (Omori) time scales, we observe various modes of clustering, triggering, and shadowing in RSQSim catalogs; e.g., events on Mojave-SAF trigger Garlock events, and events on Coachella-SAF shut down events on San Jacinto. Therefore, despite its geometrical complexity and multiplicity of time scales, the RSQSim model of the San Andreas fault system exhibits a variety of synchronous behaviors that increase the predictability of large ruptures within the system. A key question for earthquake forecasting is whether the real San Andreas system is equally, or much less, synchronous.

  12. Co-existence of a rare dyspnea with pericardial diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karg?, Ahmet Bülent; Zeybek, Arife

    2015-01-01

    Pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture is a rare condition which occurs after blunt trauma and involves the herniation of abdominal organs into the pericardium. A 77-year-old female patient presenting with complaints of palpitation and difficulty in breathing was admitted to the emergency room. Left lateral thoracotomy revealed the herniation of abdominal organs into the thorax. A pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture and a pericardial rupture were found to co-exist. The diaphragm and the pericardium were repaired primarily. The case is presented here because herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavity through the pericardium is a rare condition. PMID:26336505

  13. Appendix T--Defining the Inversion Rupture Set Using Plausibility Filters

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bruce E.

    the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3), California Reference Fault Parameter Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3) 2 Table T1. Summary of Uniform California Earthquake Rupture.S. Geological Survey. 3 University of Nevada, Reno. 4 Columbia University. #12;Appendix T of Uniform California

  14. Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

    E-print Network

    Sadat, Umar; Noor, Nadim; Tang, Tjun Y; Varty, Kevin

    2007-07-02

    Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented...

  15. Neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cherrad, Taoufik; Louaste, Jamal; Kasmaoui, El Houcine; Bousbaä, Hicham; Rachid, Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon (PT) is extremely rare and is generally associated to some chronic diseases. When the rupture becomes chronic, it is more difficult to repair that as it remained untreated. The diagnosis, which is clinical, is often delayed, guided by standard radiography and confirmed by ultrasound or MRI. The management of a bilateral neglected, chronic patellar tendon rupture must address some serious difficulties: the proximally retracted patella, the reconstruction of the patellar tendon, finally, the temporary protection of this repair. We report a case of neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon in a chronic hemodialysis patient, treated with a plastic surgery of the ipsilateral quadriceps tendon. PMID:26566349

  16. Rate dependent rupture of solid-supported phospholipid bilayers.

    E-print Network

    Ng, Sarah S

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study on solid-supported phospholipid bilayers was performed in order to investigate rate-dependent behavior of force and probability of bilayer rupture. 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ...

  17. Aneurysmal Rupture of a Mesodiverticular Band to a Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Sommerhalder, Christian; Fretwell, Kenneth R.; Salzler, Gregory G.; Creasy, John M.; Robitsek, R. Jonathan; Schubl, Sebastian D.

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal rupture of a mesodiverticular band has not previously been reported in the clinical literature. We are reporting a case of hemoperitoneum in a 51-year-old male after an aneurysmal rupture of a mesodiverticular band. This case demonstrates that in rare instances, a rupture of the mesodiverticular band leading to Meckel's diverticulum can lead to significant hemoperitoneum. This is usually caused by a traumatic injury but in our case was apparently caused by an aneurysm of the mesodiverticular artery. Patients with known Meckel's diverticula should be aware of the possibility of rupture, as should clinicians treating those with a history of this usually benign congenital abnormality. Rapid surgical intervention is necessary to repair the source of bleeding, as massive blood loss was encountered in this case. PMID:25688323

  18. Controls on earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms in subduction zones

    E-print Network

    Llenos, Andrea Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Large earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms that drive seismicity in subduction zones are investigated in this thesis using a combination of earthquake observations, statistical and physical modeling. A comparison ...

  19. Experimental investigation of creep rupture of reactor vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Tze Yao; Pilch, M.M.; Bentz, J.H.

    1997-12-01

    This paper summarizes experiments on creep rupture of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower heads under the thermal and pressure loads of a core meltdown accident. Lower head failure (LHF) is of importance to accident assessment and accident management.

  20. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Robert T.; Feig, Christine; Reintals, Michelle; Hill, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative signs and symptoms of patients with Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) implants could be predictive of device failure. Based on clinical observation and intraoperative findings 4 hypotheses were raised: (1) Preoperative clinical signs including acquired asymmetry, breast enlargement, fullness of the lower pole, decreased mound projection, and change in breast consistency could be indicative of implant rupture. (2) Device failure correlates with a low preoperative Baker grade of capsule. (3) Brown-stained implants are more prone to implant failure. (4) The brown gel could be indicative of iodine ingression through a substandard elastomer shell. Methods: Preoperative clinical signs were compared with intraoperative findings for 27 patients undergoing PIP implant explantation. Results: Acquired asymmetry (P = 0.0003), breast enlargement (P = 0.0002), fuller lower pole (P < 0.0001), and loss of lateral projection (P < 0.0001) were all significantly predictive of device failure. Capsule Baker grade was lower preoperatively for ruptured implants. The lack of palpable and visible preoperative capsular contracture could be secondary to the elastic nature of the capsular tissue found. Brown implants failed significantly more often than white implants. Analysis of brown gel revealed the presence of iodine, suggesting povidone iodine ingression at implantation. Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants. PMID:25506532

  1. Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure of the rupture extent and dimensions, but not necessarily the strike. We found that using standard earthquake catalogs, such as the National Earthquake Information Center catalog, we can constrain the rupture extent, rupture direction, and in many cases the type of faulting, of the mainshock with the aftershocks that occur within the first hour after the mainshock. However, this data may not be currently available in near real-time. Since our results show that these early aftershock locations may be used to estimate first order rupture parameters for large global earthquakes, the near real-time availability of these data would be useful for fast earthquake damage assessment.

  2. Determination of closure disk rupture parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Merten, C.W.; Robinson, M.A. ); Evans, N.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The necessity of decoupling strain rate from burn rate effects for tests designed to characterize closure disks is discussed. A method for simulating the high rates of pressure increase to which closure disks are subjected and which does not employ pyrotechnic material as a means of pressurization is presented. It consists of slowly pressurizing both sides of a closure disk to a high pressure and then rapidly releasing the pressure from one side of the disk. Means of rapidly releasing gas from the downstream side of the closure disk and measuring the pressure differential across the closure disk are discussed in detail. Rates of pressure decrease as high as 335,000,000 psi/sec downstream from the closure disk have been attained. Baseline disks slotted by wire EDM failed at an average pressure differential of 10,150 psi. Disks slotted by chemical etching exhibited a higher burst pressure differential and greater variability. Glass-ceramic closure disks had the lowest average burst pressure and highest variability. An increase in the diameter of a closure disk was found to lower the pressure differential required to rupture the disk. Burst pressure was found to increase linearly with the thickness of the web in the slot. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. [Spontaneous hepatic rupture during an uncomplicated twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fat, B Chung; Terzibachian, J J; Grisey, A; Houzé, J P; Faller, J P; Leung, F; de Lapparent, T; Maillet, R; Riethmuller, D

    2011-01-01

    Liver subcapsular haematoma and its consequence, spontaneous hepatic rupture, are very rare complications of pregnancy. They are mainly associated with pre-eclampsia. The diagnosis is difficult and the maternal and fetal mortality rates are high. We report the case of a spontaneous hepatic rupture on a normal liver during an uncomplicated twin pregnancy with a favorable outcome for both the mother and the newborns. PMID:21183383

  4. Incidence and outcome of rupture of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Cretnik, Andrej; Frank, Aleksander

    2004-01-01

    We determined the incidence of complete rupture of the Achilles tendon in the Maribor region (273,609 inhabitants) between 1991 and 1996. During this period, 116 ruptures were treated at Maribor Teaching Hospital. The average incidence was 7 ruptures per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence of almost 9 per 100,000. Most injuries (65%) occurred during sports activities, with soccer as the major cause of rupture. The average age of patients was 37 years with a male-to-female ratio of 18:1. All patients underwent open surgical repair of the ruptured Achilles tendon, with a minimum follow-up of two years. 19.8% of cases developed complications and in 10.4% of these the complications were major. 1.9% of patients sustained a re-rupture. The mean AOFAS score was 96 points. The patients were subjectively very satisfied with their treatment in 88% of cases. Good functional results with a return to the usual pre-injury activities were achieved in 96% of patients. PMID:15506308

  5. The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

  6. Rupture of a Biomembrane under Dynamic Surface Tension

    E-print Network

    D. J. Bicout; E. I. Kats

    2011-12-19

    How long a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before rupture? Or conversely, how high the surface tension should be to rupture a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we have developed a theoretical framework that allows description and reproduction of Dynamic Tension Spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane rupture under ramps of surface tension is described as a combination of initial pore formation followed by Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we have studied the membrane lifetime (or inverse of rupture rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at rupture as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce main features of the experimental data, particularly, the pore nucleation and pore size diffusion controlled limits of membrane rupture dynamics. This approach can also be applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion).

  7. Volume Fraction Dependence of Droplet Rupturing in Concentrated Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleson, K.

    2005-03-01

    We investigate droplet rupturing by extreme shear in concentrated silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. According to Taylor's prediction for dilute emulsions, the ruptured droplet radius, a, varies inversely with the viscosity of the continuous phase. If one assumes that the emulsion's effective viscosity controls the average radius of the ruptured droplets, then emulsions that have larger droplet volume fractions, ?s would be ruptured by the same shear flow to smaller radii. In stark contrast to this, we find that the average droplet radius actually rises with as ? approaches the quiescent maximally random jammed value of 0.64. This is evidence that both droplet rupturing and coalescence occur when concentrated emulsions are subjected to extreme shear. We have also observed phase inversion to an oil-continuous emulsion for ? > 0.64. This supports the idea that coalescence occurs as the driving shear breaks thin films between the concentrated oil droplets at high ?. In addition, we find that the ruptured droplet size is relatively insensitive to large changes in the oil viscosity inside the droplets.

  8. Altered posterior cingulate cortical cyctoarchitecture, but normal density of neurons and interneurons in the posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus in autism.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Adrian L; Rosene, Douglas L; Kemper, Thomas L; Bauman, Margaret L; Blatt, Gene J

    2011-06-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with prenatal origins, currently estimated to affect 1 in 91 children in the United States. Social-emotional deficits are a hallmark of autism and early neuropathology studies have indicated involvement of the limbic system. Imaging studies demonstrate abnormal activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a component of the limbic system. Abnormal activation has also been noted in the fusiform gyrus (FFG), a region important for facial recognition and a key element in social interaction. A potential imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the cortex may contribute to altered information processing in autism. Furthermore, reduced numbers of GABA receptors have previously been reported in the autistic brain. Thionin-stained sections were used to qualitatively assess cytoarchitectonic patterning and quantitatively determine the density of neurons and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the densities of a subset of GABAergic interneurons utilizing parvalbumin-and calbindin-immunoreactivity. In autism, the PCC displayed altered cytoarchitecture with irregularly distributed neurons, poorly demarcated layers IV and V, and increased presence of white matter neurons. In contrast, no neuropathology was observed in the FFG. There was no significant difference in the density of thionin, parvalbumin, or calbindin interneurons in either region and there was a trend towards a reduced density of calbindin neurons in the PCC. This study highlights the presence of abnormal findings in the PCC, which appear to be developmental in nature and could affect the local processing of social-emotional behaviors as well as functioning of interrelated areas. PMID:21360830

  9. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 ruptured), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/ruptured). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the rupture status, identifying 84.21 % of the ruptured aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as ruptured) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm rupture status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, ruptured IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.

  10. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

    1984-01-01

    The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

  11. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  12. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  13. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake Is Predictive of Rupture in a Novel Rat Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Model

    PubMed Central

    English, Sean J.; Piert, Morand R.; Diaz, Jose A.; Gordon, David; Ghosh, Abhijit; D'Alecy, Louis G.; Whitesall, Steven E.; Sharma, Ashish K.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Watt, Tessa; Su, Gang; Henke, Peter K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) micro–positron emission tomography (micro-PET) can predict abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Background An infrarenal AAA model is needed to study inflammatory mechanisms that drive rupture. 18F-FDG PET can detect vascular inflammation in animal models and patients. Methods After exposing Sprague-Dawley rats to intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) (12 U/mL), AAA rupture was induced by daily, subcutaneous, ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, 300 mg/kg, N = 24) administration. Negative control AAA animals (N = 15) underwent daily saline subcutaneous injection after PPE exposure. BAPN-exposed animals that did not rupture served as positive controls [nonruptured AAA (NRAAA) 14d, N = 9]. Rupture was witnessed using radiotelemetry. Maximum standard uptakes for 18F-FDG micro-PET studies were determined. Aortic wall PAI-1, uPA, and tPA concentrations were determined by western blot analyses. Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and MIP-2 were determined by Bio-Plex bead array. Neutrophil and macrophage populations per high-power field were quantified. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities were determined by zymography. Results When comparing ruptured AAA (RAAA) to NRAAA 14d animals, increased focal 18F-FDG uptakes were detected at subsequent sites of rupture (P = 0.03). PAI-1 expression was significantly less in RAAA tissue (P = 0.01), with comparable uPA and decreased tPA levels (P = 0.02). IL-1? (P = 0.04), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-10 (P = 0.04), and MIP-2 (P = 0.02)expression, neutrophil (P = 0.02) and macrophage presence (P = 0.002), and MMP9 (P < 0.0001) activity were increased in RAAA tissue. Conclusions With this AAA rupture model, increased prerupture 18F-FDG uptake on micro-PET imaging was associated with increased inflammation in the ruptured AAA wall. 18F-FDG PET imaging may be used to monitor inflammatory changes before AAA rupture. PMID:24651130

  14. Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations provide strong evidence for four intriguing aspects of rupture process complexity for the 4 April 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah - Indiviso earthquake. First, the southern “fork” of the rupture exhibits two splays just to the northwest of the event epicenter, both with nearly pure right-lateral faulting. Teleseismic source modeling by others indicates normal slip on deep fault surface preceded the shallow strike-slip faulting, and our field observations from the fork area indicate that the earliest phase of strike-slip faulting did not involve a significant normal faulting component. Second, as rupture propagated to the northwest along the Pescadores fault, slip ended abruptly on this fault and transferred across a complex zone to the Borrego fault (although the Pescadores fault continues farther and would have seemed an easier route to follow). This stepover is called the Puerta Accommodation Zone (PAZ) which extends 11 km along-strike within an elevated portion of the Cucapah massif and accommodates a left step (transpressional) that measures less than 2 km across-strike. Though partly obscured by rockfalls in the steep terrain here, only discontinuous faulting of up to one meter reached the ground surface, yet imagery differencing by others indicates several meters of continuous subsurface slip throughout this section. This 11 km region of reduced and discontinuous slip is one of the longest surface rupture jumps ever observed, with lengthy and continuous surface faulting on either side. The SE end of the stepover coincides spatially with the Canon Rojo embayment where the M7.2 1892 surface rupture propagated onto a second fault forming an abrupt corner in its surface trace. Hence, the surface rupture and slip distribution pattern in 2010 appears to have been influenced by stress changes induced by the 1892 event. Thirdly, from the NW end of the transition section, the Borrego fault continues to the NNW with strong east-down slip obliquity. Along this same reach of fault, the Laguna Salada fault was re-activated with minor west side down slip. Along the Paso Inferior accommodation zone, splays trending NNW to N had strong east-down slip, with right-lateral oblique motion. It was along this portion of the rupture that an eyewitness observed the rupture propagating from N to S, instead of in the expected S to N direction. Back-rupture may have resulted from triggered slip having raced ahead of the slower main rupture front, or may indicate a place where contiguous deep rupture ran out in front of shallow slip, or may result from the involvement here of the detachment fault system. Finally, in the northwestern portion of the rupture, from Paso Superior to the northwest of Cerro Centinela, a pattern of NE - SW oriented “cross faults” and N-S faults broke at the surface, in a manner similar to rupture that occurred in the Elmore Ranch Fault Zone during the Superstition Hills earthquake sequence of 1987. Unlike the Elmore Ranch event, however, there was no known main shock sub-event or any large aftershock that can be readily associated with the extensive cross-faulting that is observed in this case.

  15. Near-Source Shaking and Dynamic Rupture in Plastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, A.; Mai, P. M.; Dalguer, L. A.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well recorded earthquakes show a high degree of complexity at the source level that severely affects the resulting ground motion in near and far-field seismic data. In our study, we focus on investigating source-dominated near-field ground motion features from numerical dynamic rupture simulations in an elasto-visco-plastic bulk. Our aim is to contribute to a more direct connection from theoretical and computational results to field and seismological observations. Previous work showed that a diversity of rupture styles emerges from simulations on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with rapid velocity-weakening at high slip rate. For instance, growing pulses lead to re-activation of slip due to gradual stress build-up near the hypocenter, as inferred in some source studies of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Moreover, off-fault energy dissipation implied physical limits on extreme ground motion by limiting peak slip rate and rupture velocity. We investigate characteristic features in near-field strong ground motion generated by dynamic in-plane rupture simulations. We present effects of plasticity on source process signatures, off-fault damage patterns and ground shaking. Independent of rupture style, asymmetric damage patterns across the fault are produced that contribute to the total seismic moment, and even dominantly at high angles between the fault and the maximum principal background stress. The off-fault plastic strain fields induced by transitions between rupture styles reveal characteristic signatures of the mechanical source processes during the transition. Comparing different rupture styles in elastic and elasto-visco-plastic media to identify signatures of off-fault plasticity, we find varying degrees of alteration of near-field radiation due to plastic energy dissipation. Subshear pulses suffer more peak particle velocity reduction due to plasticity than cracks. Supershear ruptures are affected even more. The occurrence of multiple rupture fronts affect seismic potency release rate, amplitude spectra, peak particle velocity distributions and near-field seismograms. Our simulations enable us to trace features of source processes in synthetic seismograms, for example exhibiting a re-activation of slip. Such physical models may provide starting points for future investigations of field properties of earthquake source mechanisms and natural fault conditions. In the long-term, our findings may be helpful for seismic hazard analysis and the improvement of seismic source models.

  16. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  17. Spontaneous Flexor Tendon Rupture Due to Atraumatic Chronic Carpal Instability

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, B. H.; Cerovac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background?Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is considered to be invariably associated with previous hand/wrist injury or systemic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. Case Description?A 54-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of mild ulnar wrist pain and spontaneous left little finger flexion loss in the absence of distant/recent trauma and systemic arthropathy. Surgical exploration confirmed a zone IV left little finger flexor digitorum profundus (FDP5) attritional rupture (100%), ring finger flexor digitorum profundus (FDP4) attenuation (40%) and a disrupted lunotriquetral ligament and volar-ulnar wrist capsule. Volar subluxation of the narrowed carpal tunnel resulted in flexor tendon attrition against the hamate hook. A side-to-side tendon transfer was performed along with a lunotriquetral ligament repair and temporary Kirschner wire fixation. At 6 months the patient had full active, synchronous flexion of the ring and little fingers and reduced wrist pain. Literature Review?Traumatic flexor tendon ruptures have been reported following distal radius/hamate hook fractures, from carpal bone osteophytes, accessory carpal bones and intraosseous ganglia. Attritional ruptures caused by chronic, degenerative carpal pathology are less common. Clinical Relevance?This case highlights an unusual cause of flexor tendon rupture due to chronic carpal instability. PMID:25032080

  18. Spontaneous Atraumatic Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture in the Nonrheumatoid Population

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Erin M.; Shridharani, Sachin M.; Lifchez, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is a well-described phenomenon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mechanisms of EPL tendon rupture in the nonrheumatoid population have also been described and include traumatic rupture, repetitive motion strain, and steroid injection into the tendon. Methods: The operative records for patients undergoing extensor pollicis longus reconstruction by the senior author were reviewed. Patients with a history of trauma to the wrist or inflammatory arthropathy were excluded. Results: We identified 3 patients who presented with spontaneous EPL tendon rupture. These patients reported no risk factors (as listed earlier) or inciting event. All 3 patients had some exposure to local steroids but this exposure was not at the site of subsequent tendon rupture. All patients were operatively repaired and went on to full recovery of EPL function. Discussion: In patients with sudden loss of extension of the thumb interphalangeal joint, a thorough history of steroid exposure including local steroid exposure remote to the affected EPL tendon may be relevant. PMID:23460929

  19. Rupture of an evaporating liquid bridge between two grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielniczuk, Boleslaw; El Youssoufi, Moulay; Sabatier, Laurent; Hueckel, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    The study examines rupture of evaporating liquid bridges between two glass spheres. Evolution of the bridge profile has been recorded with the use of high-speed camera. Geometrical characteristics of the bridge were then used to calculate evolution of the variables during the process: Laplace pressure, capillary force, and surface tension force. For the purpose of reference, the bridge evolution is followed also during kinematic extension. During both processes the diameter of the neck decreases, with an acceleration of about 1-2 ms before the rupture. Two distinct rupture modes are observed, depending on the bridge aspect ratio. After the rupture, the mass of liquid splits, forming two separate oscillating drops attached to the spheres, and a suspended satellite droplet. Just before the rupture, an increasing repulsive Laplace pressure, and decreasing negative surface tension force develop. Capillary force follows the trend of the surface tension force, with an accelerating decline. Duration of the whole process and liquid mass stabilization is from 10 to 60 ms.

  20. Two cases of spontaneous liver rupture and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, P J; Morris, D L

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous liver rupture is uncommon, difficult to diagnose and carries a universally high mortality. It has been well documented to occur as a complication of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy. Similarly, there are 28 cases of ruptured haemangiomata described in the world literature. It is also well described in severe pregnancy-induced hypertension and is said to carry a mortality of 18% for patients treated by packing and drainage of the haematoma and 75% for patients treated with liver resection. Two female patients aged 60 and 61 presented to our accident and emergency department. One had a history of hypertension only and the other a history of a bleeding diathesis from the lupus anticoagulant. Both presented with hypotension and abdominal pain and both were diagnosed by abdominal CT scan. One was treated with hepatic artery ligation and tamponade and the other with liver resection and correction of the coagulopathy. Neither had any evidence of a ruptured hemangioma or tumor at laparotomy or on histological examination, and both are alive and well. The conclusions to be drawn from this review and our own recent experience is that the treatment of choice for ruptured haemangiomata is liver resection and, for rupture during pregnancy, is tamponade with packs and evacuation of the haematoma. Hepatic arteriography and embolisation, if possible, is a useful adjunct. Correction of any coagulopathy is essential. We can only speculate that the aetiology in our patients was uncontrolled hypertension in one and coagulopathy in the other. PMID:8809590

  1. Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral Rupture in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the disease mechanism underlying the arthropathy. PMID:25254499

  2. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Stress Rupture Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar(TradeMark) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm (40-in.) diameter Kevlar(TradeMark) COPV was tested to failure (burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

  3. Silent Spontaneous Uterine Rupture at 36 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J. Y.; Tate, L.; Roth, S.; Eke, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Silent spontaneous rupture of the uterus before term, with extrusion of an intact amniotic sac and delivery of a healthy neonate, with no maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of silent spontaneous uterine rupture, found during a scheduled repeat cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Patient had history of two prior classical cesarean sections. She underwent cesarean section, with delivery of a healthy male infant. She had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged on postoperative day 3. Conclusion. Silent spontaneous rupture of the uterus before term with extrusion of an intact amniotic sac is rare. A high index of suspicion and good imaging during pregnancy are important in making this diagnosis. PMID:26357580

  4. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic angiomyolipoma: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hideki; Arata, Takashi; Morihiro, Toshiaki; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Sho; Sui, Kenta; Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Katsuda, Koh; Tanakaya, Kohji; Takeuchi, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    A 70-year-old female experienced sudden onset of back pain on the right side and was admitted to our hospital in December 2010. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an S7 hepatic mass measuring 7 cm in diameter accompanied by a subcapsular hematoma. Emergency angiography confirmed the diagnosis of a ruptured hepatic mass, and hemostasis was carried out by embolization of A8 and A7 of the liver. A right hepatic lobectomy was carried out 39 days following transarterial embolization. Although almost all aspects of the tumor were necrotic, residual tumor cells stained positive for HMB-45, and negative for ?-SMA, S-100, CD 34, c-kit, CAM 5.2, and hepatocytes. The MIB-1 index was 2 %. Pathological diagnosis was hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML). The patient has shown no signs of recurrence at 42 months following surgery. Here, we report on this case of spontaneous HAML rupture and discuss therapeutic strategies for HAML and ruptured hepatic tumors. PMID:26184024

  5. Predictors and clinical outcomes for spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Li, Jing; Yan, Jian-Jun; Huang, Liang; Wu, Meng-Chao; Yan, Yi-Qun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture, and report the management and long-term survival results of patients with spontaneous rupture of HCC. METHODS: Among 4209 patients with HCC who were diagnosed at Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from April 2002 to November 2006, 200 (4.8%) patients with ruptured HCC (case group) were studied retrospectively in term of their clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. The one-stage therapeutic approach to manage ruptured HCC consisted of initial management by conservative treatment, transarterial embolization (TACE) or hepatic resection. Results of various treatments in the case group were evaluated and compared with the control group (202 patients) without ruptured HCC during the same study period. Continuous data were expressed as mean ± SD or median (range) where appropriate and compared using the unpaired t test. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test with Yates correction or the Fisher exact test where appropriate. The overall survival rate in each group was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, more patients in the case group had underlying diseases of hypertension (7.5% vs 3.0%, P =0.041) and liver cirrhosis (87.5% vs 56.4%, P < 0.001), tumor size >5 cm (83.0% vs 57.4%, P < 0.001), tumor protrusion from the liver surface (66.0% vs 44.6%, P < 0.001), vascular thrombus (30.5% vs 8.9%, P < 0.001) and extrahepatic invasion (36.5% vs 12.4%, P < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, underlying diseases of hypertension (P = 0.002) and liver cirrhosis (P < 0.001), tumor size > 5 cm (P < 0.001), vascular thrombus (P = 0.002) and extrahepatic invasion (P < 0.001) were predictive for spontaneous rupture of HCC. Among the 200 patients with spontaneous rupture of HCC, 105 patients underwent hepatic resection, 33 received TACE, and 62 were managed with conservative treatment. The median survival time (MST) of all patients with spontaneous rupture of HCC was 6 mo (range, 1-72 mo), and the overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years were 32.5%, 10% and 4%, respectively. The MST was 12 mo (range, 1-72 mo) in the surgical group, 4 mo (range, 1-30 mo) in the TACE group and 1 mo (range, 1-19 mo) in the conservative group. Ninety-eight patients in the control group underwent hepatic resection, and the MST and median disease-free survival time were 46 mo (range, 6-93 mo) and 23 mo (range, 3-39 mo) respectively, which were much longer than that of patients with spontaneous rupture of HCC undergoing hepatic resection (P < 0.001). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates and the 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates in patients with ruptured HCC undergoing hepatectomy were 57.1%, 19.0% and 7.6%, 27.6%, 14.3% and 3.8%, respectively, compared with those of 77.1%, 59.8% and 41.2%, 57.1%, 40.6% and 32.9% in 98 patients without ruptured HCC undergoing hepatectomy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prolonged survival can be achieved in selected patients undergoing one-stage hepatectomy, although the survival results were inferior to those of the patients without ruptured HCC. PMID:23326137

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  7. Acute airway compromise due to ruptured inferior thyroid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Zerrin Ozerg?n; Yava?i, Özcan; Durakoglugil, Tugba; Celebi Erdivanli, Ozlem; Ozgur, Abdulkadir; Terzi, Suat; Dursun, Engin

    2015-08-01

    A cervical hematoma secondary to the spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm is an uncommon but catastrophic life-threatening condition because it can potentially obstruct the airway. Inferior thyroid artery aneurysm and rupture is a very rare clinical entity and only a limited number of cases have been reported in the literature. In this article, we present the case of a female patient who suffered from a rapidly enlarging cervical mass followed by a rapid onset of dyspnea as a result of rupture of an inferior thyroid artery aneurysm. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography, and delayed surgery resulted in an uneventful outcome. We aim to draw the attention of emergency physicians to this rare condition. PMID:25770593

  8. Emergency Stenting of a Ruptured Infected Anastomotic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Tsigris, Chris; Papadopouli, Katerina; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bastounis, Elias

    2007-11-15

    A 74-year-old man presented with a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Due to severe medical comorbidities he was considered unsuitable for conventional surgical management and underwent an emergency endovascular repair with a balloon-expandable covered stent. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded successfully and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery with long-term suppressive antimicrobials. He remained well for 10 months after the procedure with no signs of recurrent local or systemic infection and finally died from an acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, emergency endovascular treatment of a free ruptured bleeding femoral artery pseudoaneurysm has not been documented before in the English literature. This case illustrates that endovascular therapy may be a safe and efficient alternative in the emergent management of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms when traditional open surgery is contraindicated.

  9. Ruptured Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm after Bacille Calmette-Guerin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Floros, Nikolaos; Meletiadis, Konstantinos; Kusenack, Ulrich; Zirngibl, Hubert; Kamper, Lars; Haage, Patrick; Dreger, Nici Markus

    2015-10-01

    To report a case of a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (MAA) after intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy because of bladder carcinoma. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for follow-up computed tomography 14 months after transurethral resection of a papillary carcinoma of the bladder and intravesical BCG therapy. The CT scan revealed a ruptured MAA aneurysm and the patient underwent an endovascular repair with an aorto-bi-iliac stent graft. A ruptured MAA is a rare but lethal complication after BCG instillation therapy. The standard therapy is the open reconstruction but according to the literature an endovascular therapy in combination with long-term antibiotics should be considered as a bridging or a definite solution. PMID:26119640

  10. Premature rupture of the membranes: a cause for neonatal osteomyelitis?

    PubMed

    Liao, Sui-Ling; Lai, Shen Hao; Lin, Tzo-Yen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Jen-Fu

    2005-02-01

    Osteomyelitis is rare in the neonatal period. Many etiologic factors for causing neonatal osteomyelitis have been discussed in the literature; however, premature rupture of the membranes has never been emphasized. We report on a neonate with osteomyelitis of the right humerus infected with an uncommon pathogen, Klebsiella pneumonia. In the absence of any perinatal disease, premature rupture of the membranes was suggested to be the cause of the illness. The infant was initially regarded as having Erb palsy because of the absence of systemic symptoms and lack of perinatal high-risk factors. Antibiotic administration was delayed for 3 weeks. Luckily, nearly complete recovery was noted after 2 months of follow up. We emphasize the importance of considering osteomyelitis in a newborn infant with limb palsy, particularly in the presence of premature rupture of the membranes of the mother. We also discuss the results of the microbial examination and significance of magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal osteomyelitis. PMID:15731982

  11. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fusiform Gyrus in Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Suping; Chong, Tao; Zhang, Yun; Li, Jun; von Deneen, Karen M.; Ren, Junchan; Dong, Minghao; Huang, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Visual cognition such as face recognition requests a high degree of functional integration between distributed brain areas of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain areas changes remains unclear in the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects. Here, we employed a resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine alterations in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and 38 control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative were analyzed. We concentrated on the correlation between low frequency fMRI time courses in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Relative to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC) in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI. PMID:26379534

  12. The Role of Gamma-Band Activity in the Representation of Faces: Reduced Activity in the Fusiform Face Area in Congenital Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus; Gruber, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes an impairment in face processing that is presumably present from birth. The neuronal correlates of this dysfunction are still under debate. In the current paper, we investigate high-frequent oscillatory activity in response to faces in persons with CP. Such neuronal activity is thought to reflect higher-level representations for faces. Methodology Source localization of induced Gamma-Band Responses (iGBR) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to establish the origin of oscillatory activity in response to famous and unknown faces which were presented in upright and inverted orientation. Persons suffering from congenital prosopagnosia (CP) were compared to matched controls. Principal Findings Corroborating earlier research, both groups revealed amplified iGBR in response to upright compared to inverted faces predominately in a time interval between 170 and 330 ms and in a frequency range from 50–100 Hz. Oscillatory activity upon known faces was smaller in comparison to unknown faces, suggesting a “sharpening” effect reflecting more efficient processing for familiar stimuli. These effects were seen in a wide cortical network encompassing temporal and parietal areas involved in the disambiguation of homogenous stimuli such as faces, and in the retrieval of semantic information. Importantly, participants suffering from CP displayed a strongly reduced iGBR in the left fusiform area compared to control participants. Conclusions In sum, these data stress the crucial role of oscillatory activity for face representation and demonstrate the involvement of a distributed occipito-temporo-parietal network in generating iGBR. This study also provides the first evidence that persons suffering from an agnosia actually display reduced gamma band activity. Finally, the results argue strongly against the view that oscillatory activity is a mere epiphenomenon brought fourth by rapid eye-movements (micro saccades). PMID:21573175

  13. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ?41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  14. Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Christopher S.; Tanweer, Omar; Nieves, Cesar Fors; Belmont, H. Michael; Izmirly, Peter M.; Becske, Tibor; Huang, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms. PMID:25657862

  15. PIP breast implants: rupture rate and correlation with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    MOSCHETTA, M.; TELEGRAFO, M.; CORNACCHIA, I.; VINCENTI, L.; RANIERI, V.; CIRILLI, A.; RELLA, L.; IANORA, A.A. STABILE; ANGELELLI, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence of Poly Implant Prosthése (PIP) rupture as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of the detected signs and the potential correlation with breast carcinoma. Patients and methods 67 patients with silicone breast implants and clinical indications for breast MRI were evaluated for a total of 125 implants: 40 (32%) PIP in 21 patients and 85 non-PIP in 46 patients (68%), the latest considered as control group. A 1.5-T MR imaging device was used in order to assess implant integrity with dedicated sequences and in 6 cases a dynamic study was performed for characterizing breast lesions. Two radiologists with more than 5 years’ experience in the field of MRI evaluated in consensus all MR images searching for the presence of clear signs of intra or extra-capsular implant rupture. Results 20/40 (50%) PIP implants presented signs of intra-capsular rupture: linguine sign in 20 cases (100%), tear-drop sign in 6 (30%). In 12/20 cases (60%), MRI signs of extra-capsular rupture were detected. In the control group, an intra-capsular rupture was diagnosed in 12/85 cases (14%) associated with extra-capsular one in 5/12 cases (42%). Among the six cases with suspected breast lesions, in 2/21 patients with PIP implants (10%) a breast carcinoma was diagnosed (mucinous carcinoma, n=1; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=1). In 4/46 patients (9%) with non-PIP implants, an invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. Conclusion The rupture rate of PIP breast implants is significantly higher than non-PIP (50% vs 14%). MRI represents the most accurate imaging tool for evaluating breast prostheses and the linguine sign is the most common MRI sign to be searched. The incidence of breast carcinoma does not significantly differ between the PIP and non-PIP implants and a direct correlation with breast cancer can not been demonstrated. PMID:25644728

  16. Frequency-Dependent Rupture Processes for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, H.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake is characterized by frequency-dependent rupture process [e.g., Ide et al., 2011; Wang and Mori, 2011; Yao et al., 2011]. For understanding rupture dynamics of this earthquake, it is extremely important to investigate wave-based source inversions for various frequency bands. The above frequency-dependent characteristics have been derived from teleseismic analyses. This study challenges to infer frequency-dependent rupture processes from strong motion waveforms of K-NET and KiK-net stations. The observations suggested three or more S-wave phases, and ground velocities at several near-source stations showed different arrivals of their long- and short-period components. We performed complex source spectral inversions with frequency-dependent phase weighting developed by Miyake et al. [2002]. The technique idealizes both the coherent and stochastic summation of waveforms using empirical Green's functions. Due to the limitation of signal-to-noise ratio of the empirical Green's functions, the analyzed frequency bands were set within 0.05-10 Hz. We assumed a fault plane with 480 km in length by 180 km in width with a single time window for rupture following Koketsu et al. [2011] and Asano and Iwata [2012]. The inversion revealed source ruptures expanding from the hypocenter, and generated sharp slip-velocity intensities at the down-dip edge. In addition to test the effects of empirical/hybrid Green's functions and with/without rupture front constraints on the inverted solutions, we will discuss distributions of slip-velocity intensity and a progression of wave generation with increasing frequency.

  17. Dynamic ruptures in recent models of earthquake faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2001-09-01

    We discuss several problems of dynamic rupture relevant to mechanics of earthquake faults, material sciences, and physics of spatially extended dissipative systems. The problems include dynamic rupture along an interface separating different elastic solids, dynamic rupture on a planar surface governed by strongly velocity-weakening friction, and elastodynamic calculations of long deformation history on a smooth fault in an elastic continuum. These separate problems share a number of methodological and conceptual issues that form recurring themes in the paper. An important methodological issue for computational schemes is dependency of numerical results on the used grid size. This arises inevitably in computer simulations when the assumed constitutive laws do not include a length scale (e.g., of shear or extensional displacement) over which material properties evolve. Such simulations do not have a stable underlying solution, to which they may converge with sufficient grid refinement. However, they may provide rough approximations—lacking at present a rigorous foundation—to the behavior of systems containing elements of discreteness (associated with abrupt fluctuations) at scales relevant to observations of interest. Related important conceptual issues are connections between, or when appropriate separation of, small scale phenomena (e.g., nucleation of rupture, processes at rupture front) and large scale features of the response (e.g., overall space-time dimensions of rupture, statistics of many events). Additional recurring conceptual topics are crack vs. pulse modes of dynamic rupture, the stress under which earthquake faults slip, and the origin of spatio-temporal complexities of earthquakes. These seemingly different issues probably have one or more common origins. Dynamic rupture on an interface between different solids, strongly velocity-weakening friction on a homogeneous fault, and strong fault zone heterogeneities can all produce narrow self-healing slip pulses with low dynamic stress (and low associated frictional heat) during the active part of slip. Strong fault heterogeneities probably play the dominant role in producing the observed earthquake complexities. Improved understanding of the discussed problems will require establishing connections between discrete and continuum descriptions of mechanical failure processes, generalization of current models to realistic three-dimensional dynamic models, and high-resolution laboratory and in-situ observations over broad scales of space and time. These challenging problems provide by their subject matter and involved great difficulties important targets for multi-disciplinary research by engineers, earth scientists, and physicists.

  18. BWH emergency radiology-surgical correlation: intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Landman, Wendy; Khurana, Bharti; Briggs, Alexandra; Fairweather, Mark; Cooper, Zara; Riviello, Robert; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2015-12-01

    We describe the radiological and intraoperative correlation of two cases of intraperitoneal bladder rupture: a 23-year-old man involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision and a 49-year-old man with hematuria and abdominal pain after a night of heavy alcohol ingestion. Both patients underwent urgent exploratory laparotomies and repair of their bladder injuries. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of understanding the different etiologies of bladder rupture and recognizing the imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and CT cystography to help guide the surgeons in the patient's management. PMID:25998022

  19. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Rupture and Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Jahollari, Artan; Sarac, Atilla; Ozal, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump is used frequently to support a failing myocardium in cardiac patients. Due to the invasive nature of this device, usage is accompanied by consistent risk of complications. Balloon rupture, although it occurs rarely, may lead to entrapment if diagnosis delays. A 78-year male who underwent cardiac surgery experienced balloon rupture and entrapment in the right femoral artery during the postoperative follow-up. Surgical extraction under local anesthesia was performed and the patient had an uneventful course. Fast and gentle solution of the problem is necessary to prevent further morbidity or mortality related to a retained balloon catheter in these delicate patients. PMID:24707435

  20. Intra-aortic balloon pump rupture and entrapment.

    PubMed

    Jahollari, Artan; Sarac, Atilla; Ozal, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump is used frequently to support a failing myocardium in cardiac patients. Due to the invasive nature of this device, usage is accompanied by consistent risk of complications. Balloon rupture, although it occurs rarely, may lead to entrapment if diagnosis delays. A 78-year male who underwent cardiac surgery experienced balloon rupture and entrapment in the right femoral artery during the postoperative follow-up. Surgical extraction under local anesthesia was performed and the patient had an uneventful course. Fast and gentle solution of the problem is necessary to prevent further morbidity or mortality related to a retained balloon catheter in these delicate patients. PMID:24707435

  1. Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C. O.; Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A.; Steger, U.; Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R.

    2012-02-15

    Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

  2. Frontal lobe cerebral aneurysm rupture presenting as psychosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, D P; Young, S A

    1992-01-01

    A 23 year old male with acute onset of blunted affect, looseness of associations and auditory hallucinations presented to a tertiary care hospital 10 days after development of symptoms. Before transfer, the patient received a diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder and treatment with haloperidol was started which resulted in moderate improvement. Examination led to detection of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm in the left frontal lobe. Evacuation of the haematoma and repair of the aneurysm resulted in nearly complete resolution of symptoms. The rare incidence of acute aneurysm rupture, presenting in the case described, demonstrates the importance of a complete neurological examination in the evaluation of acute mental status changes. Images PMID:1479403

  3. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid documentation (<1 day) of co-seismic surface rupture location and slip is essential for scientific and emergency response. We demonstrate how social media (text messaging and Twitter) and the emerging 3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to adjust their field deployment plans in an effort to capture rapidly-decaying postseismic movement. With social media and rapid, inexpensive data collection methods like SfM in mind, scientific response to future events has the potential to be more efficient and coordinated than ever before.

  4. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: surviving a catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Bisoyi, Samarjit; Mohanty, Jitendu; Mohapatra, Raghunath; Nayak, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR) is rupture of the left ventricle (LV). This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period. PMID:25566717

  5. Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, M.

    2005-01-01

    This Letter presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound and consist of two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

  6. Spleen rupture due to primary angiosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koutelidakis, Ioannis M; Tsiaousis, Panagiotis Z; Papaziogas, Basilios Th; Patsas, Aristeides G; Atmatzidis, Stefanos K; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos S

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 79-year-old female with rupture of the spleen due to primary angiosarcoma is presented. Symptoms were non-specific. Diagnosis was based on histology postoperatively. Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is a very rare and aggressive neoplasm with a high metastatic rate and almost uniformly fatal. Due to small number of reported cases, there are no guidelines concerning adjuvant or palliative treatment or any beneficial protocols of chemotherapy or radiotherapy up to date. Splenectomy prior to rupture seems to have a positive impact on long-term survival. PMID:19016352

  7. Spontaneous rupture of non-parasitic hepatic cyst.

    PubMed

    Poggi, G; Gatti, C; Delmonte, A; Teragni, C; Bernardo, G

    2006-01-01

    Intrahepatic cysts are generally classified as congenital, traumatic, infectious or neoplastic. Non-parasitic hepatic cysts (NPHCs) include simple cysts and adult polycystic liver disease in which the liver is diffusely occupied by cysts. NPHCs usually reach a large size before causing symptoms, unless a complication such as rupture, bleeding, infection, obstructive jaundice or neoplastic transformation occurs. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with spontaneous rupture of simple liver cyst. The clinical pictures and the unusual ultrasound features of this rare condition are discussed. PMID:16409436

  8. Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona

    2014-05-01

    The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and geometry input for dynamic rupture propagation in terms of rupture path and dynamics. On the other hand, it will provide the opportunity to compare slow earthquake akin events developing in quasi-static geodynamic model to fully dynamic ruptures in terms of coseismic displacements and stress changes. Gabriel, A.-A. (2012), J.-P. Ampuero, L. A. Dalguer, and P. M. Mai, The transition of dynamic rupture modes in elastic media, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B9), 01480227. Gerya, T., and D. Yuen (2007), Robust characteristics method for modelling multiphase visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical problems, Phys. Earth Planet In., 163(1-4), 83-105. Pelties, C. (2012), J. De la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. B. Brietzke, and M. Käser Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture, Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B2), B02309. van Dinther, Y. (2013a), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, F. Corbi, F. Funiciello, and P.M. Mai, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models, J. Geophys. Res., 118(4), 1502-1525. van Dinther, Y. (2013b), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, P.M. Mai, G. Morra, and D. Giardini, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6183-6202.

  9. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Eric M.

    Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex simulations of earthquake ruptures and the resulting strong ground motion form a crucial component idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across

  10. Rupture termination at restraining bends: The last great earthquake on the Altyn Tagh Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Austin J.; Oskin, Michael E.; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Shao, Yanxiu

    2015-04-01

    Strike-slip rupture propagation falters where changes in fault strike increase Coulomb failure stress. Numerical models of this phenomenon offer predictions of rupture extent based on bend geometry, but have not been verified with field data. To test model predictions of rupture barriers, we examine rupture extent along a section of the sinistral Altyn Tagh Fault punctuated by three major double bends. We measure 3-8 m offsets and map >95 km of continuous scarps that define the most recent surface rupture. We document the eastern terminus of this rupture within the Aksay bend, where an undeformed Pleistocene alluvial fan we mapped and dated overlaps the fault. We conclude, based on this geomorphologic evidence, that multiple Holocene ruptures have stopped in the Aksay bend. Our field data validate model predictions of rupture termination at a >18° restraining bend and support use of geometric parameters to define expected earthquake sizes in seismic hazard models.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

  1. Improved Data Set for the Frequency of Gaps and Steps in Ground Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, G. P.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Morelan, A. E., III

    2014-12-01

    Observations of actual ground ruptures from moderate and large earthquakes show a wide range of behaviors, including fault-to-fault jumps, branching topologies, and rupture traces with multi-kilometer gaps between them. Seismic hazard assessments have responded to these observations by including increasingly sophisticated scenarios of possible ruptures in their earthquake rate forecasts. The largest of these to date has been the Uniform California Earthquake Forecast 3 (UCERF3), which explicitly included ruptures with fault-to-fault jumps in its rupture rate estimates. High-level site-specific seismic source characterizations such as for the Diablo Canyon Power Plant have also begun including complicated rupture geometries. Systematic collection of observations from ground rupturing earthquakes provide one way to evaluate these seismic source models. We have expanded an initial collection by Wesnousky (2008) with events post-dating that collection and events for which new information is available. New events increase the strike-slip and normal event set by 50% and reverse events by 35%. New data allow us to revise previous estimates for strike-slip rupture of the probability that a step of 1 km or more in width will arrest rupture. Observationally, 65% of strike-slip ruptures include at least one step of 1 km or greater. The number of steps through which ruptures are observed to rupture through can be modeled by a geometric distribution in which steps are crossed about 59% of the time. Steps are slightly more effective at arresting rupture in normal and reverse faulting cases, being crossed 56% and 50%, respectively. New events were also systematically examined for gaps in the mapped rupture trace. We find gaps of 1 km or more in about half of the ruptures of the new event set. These empirical data will compliment new research into rupture propagation across gaps, exemplified by the 2010 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake, which included a gap measured variously at 7 or 15 km in length.

  2. A New Surgical Repair Technique for Ischemic Total Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Kwang; Heo, Woon; Min, Ho-Ki; Kang, Do Kyun; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Papillary muscle (PM) rupture is an emergency surgical condition that may occur after acute myocardial infarction. In patients with compete rupture of the PM, mitral valve replacement is preferred or recommended generally because of unstable vital signs or technical difficulties with successful repair, as compared with patients with partial PM rupture. This case report describes the successful repair of a complete anterolateral PM rupture by using the single PM formation technique with subsequent ring annuloplasty. PMID:26522535

  3. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  4. Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault rupture directivity

    E-print Network

    Dmowska, Renata

    Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault rupture directivity Nora DeDontney,1 Elizabeth of the role of the stress state on the distribution of plastic deformation and the direction of preferred in determining the location of plastic deformation. For different orientations, plastic deformation can

  5. Double Passive Cavitation Detection of OptisonTM Shell Rupture

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    of ultrasonic excitation parameters (driving frequency, pulse duration, and peak rarefactional pressure transducer functioning in the pulse-echo mode. Post-excitation signals were used to detect rupture thresholds. By allowing acquisition of the signals received by the insonifying transducer (pulse-echo during

  6. Mechanics of shear rupture applied to earthquake zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Victor C.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanics of shear slippage and rupture in rock masses are reviewed. The essential ideas in fracture mechanics are summarized emphasizing the interpretation and relation among the fracture parameters in shear cracks. The slip-weakening model is described. The general formulation of the problem of nonuniform slip distribution in a continuum is covered.

  7. The Rupture and Repair of Cooperation in Borderline

    E-print Network

    Zeki, Semir

    The Rupture and Repair of Cooperation in Borderline Personality Disorder Brooks King-Casas,1 individuals afflicted with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to play a multiround economic exchange game group of individuals diagnosed with borderline per- sonality disorder (BPD), a psychiatric disorder

  8. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  9. Depth-varying rupture properties of subduction zone megathrust faults

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    ­45 km in subduction zones where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is being underthrust with shallowDepth-varying rupture properties of subduction zone megathrust faults Thorne Lay,1 Hiroo Kanamori,2] Subduction zone plate boundary megathrust faults accommodate relative plate motions with spatially varying

  10. Prediction of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture using Hemodynamic, Morphologic and Clinical

    E-print Network

    Riera, Jesús Bisbal

    Prediction of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture using Hemodynamic, Morphologic and Clinical Features¸cats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain jesus.bisbal@upf.edu Abstract. Cerebral aneurysms pose a major clinical threat of the patient and characteristics of the aneurysm. The dataset used included 157 cases, with 294 features each

  11. "The Little Gray Book": Pedagogy, Discourse and Rupture in 1937

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    In 1937, the Ministry of Education in Ontario published a document entitled "Programme of Studies for Grades 1 to VI of Public and Separate Schools" that became known amongst teachers as the "little gray book". The curriculum and pedagogy in the document enunciated a rupture or mutation in pedagogical discourse that broke with previously existing…

  12. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. On the theory of the rupture of black films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    1994-04-01

    The present work covers the solution of a problem on the fluctuation rupture of black films [Derjaguin, B.V., and Gutop, Yu. V., Kolloid. zh.24, 431 (1962); Dokl. AN SSSR153, 859 (1963); “Research in Surface Forces,” Vol. 2, p. 36. Consultants Bureau, New York, 1966], which is interpreted as a two-dimensional analog of the homogeneous boiling of fluid. Such a two-dimensional mechanism of rupture must be realized first of all for secondary black and lipid films. Using the solution of the stationary Kramers-Zeldovich equation as the basis, we have derived a general expression for the probability of the isothermal rupture of a stretched film of the given area per unit time. The use of Gibbs Grand Ensemble [Derjaguin, B.V., Zh. eksp. teor. fis.65, 2261 (1973); J. Chem. Phys.61, 3665 (1974)] enabled us to calculate accurately the pre-exponential factor in that expression. Criteria of the applicability of the results obtained have been determined. A possibility is discussed for applying the abrupt dependence of the rupture probability of a film on its linear tension, to the accurate measurement of the latter.

  14. Axial creep-rupture time of boron-aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Koichi; Hamada, Jun`ichi

    1995-11-01

    Axial creep tests of a 10vol% boron-aluminum hotpressed monolayer composite were carried out under several constant loads at 300 C in air. The composite behaved with slight primary creep, but did not show appreciable secondary creep. Several specimens encountered a momentary increase of strain during the creep test which separated the creep curve into two regions, because of the individual fiber breaks in the composite. And then, almost all the specimens suddenly fractured without tertiary creep. From the viewpoint of reliability engineering the statistical properties of the creep-rupture time were investigated. The average creep-rupture time decreased with an increase in the applied stress, and the relatively large coefficient of variation was estimated in every case, being around 1,000%. However, these scatters were estimated to be smaller than the scatter of creep-rupture time in the boron fiber itself. That means, the reliability of the fiber`s creep-rupture time is improved by compositing with matrix material.

  15. Diagnosis of splenic rupture in malignant lymphoma using radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The case of a 59-year-old woman with malignant lymphoma who was investigated for fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain is presented. A combined spleen/lung scan showed marked medial displacement of an enlarged spleen and a gallium scan showed increased splenic uptake consistent with lymphomatous infiltration. The diagnosis of prior splenic rupture with subphrenic hematoma was confirmed at laparotomy.

  16. Correlation of earthquake source parameters inferred from dynamic rupture simulations

    E-print Network

    Archuleta, Ralph

    authors. This database contains ruptures computed using different models of initial stress, peak stress of the physics of the earthquake process or at the very least, a reasonable approximation to the physics. Two the initial state of stress is given together with a friction law that describes how the shear stress evolves

  17. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Brent; Tabbarah, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient's worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient's flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided. PMID:26483981

  18. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-11-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquake-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergence-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of California-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record.

  19. Rupture of a left internal mammary artery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Metting, Austin; Curtis, Brydan; Mixon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of a left internal mammary artery rupture during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This case demonstrates that intrinsic cardiac/vascular injuries can occur even with manual CPR, and each patient should be monitored closely, considering the very subtle signs that can clue the physicians into the diagnosis. PMID:26722182

  20. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. Presentation of case A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Discussion Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. PMID:26298093

  1. Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1

    E-print Network

    Rawlinson, Nick

    Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1 and Alberto Michelini2] Effective tsunami early warning for coastlines near a tsunamigenic earthquake requires notification within 5, greater than about 50 s. Here we show that T0 gives more information on tsunami importance than moment

  2. Theory of time-dependent rupture in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, S.; Scholz, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is used to develop a theory of earthquake mechanism which includes the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth. The following phenomena are predicted: slow earthquakes, multiple events, delayed multiple events (doublets), postseismic rupture growth and afterslip, foreshocks, and aftershocks. The theory predicts a nucleation stage prior to an earthquake, and suggests a physical mechanism by which one earthquake may 'trigger' another.

  3. Stretching and Rupture of Suspension Bridges, of the Fluid Variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connington, Kevin; Miskin, Mark; Lee, Taehun; Shattuck, Mark; Morris, Jeffrey; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2013-11-01

    A ``suspension bridge'' is similar to a liquid bridge but contains solid particles suspended in the liquid. In this work, experiments and numerical simulations are performed to examine the dynamics of the stretching of a suspension bridge, and the eventual rupture. The experiments are performed using a suspension density matched with the surrounding immiscible liquid to minimize gravitational effects; the simulations are performed using a multi-component lattice-Boltzmann(LB) method coupled with an established method for LB simulation of suspended solids. The focus is on particle rearrangements and rupture dynamics, as well as the force required to stretch the bridge, with comparisons made between the case of a suspension bridge and simple liquid bridge. It is found that even under dilute particle loading, the rupture dynamics are significantly altered by the influence of particles. Under concentrated conditions, the rearrangements of the particles are associated with significant distortion of the interface, and a simpler simulation tool which balances particle interactions with the capillary forces from the boundary appears to capture salient features of the dynamics. The ultimate rupture dynamics are compared to the pinch-off behavior in drop formation from suspensions.

  4. Percutaneous and Endovascular Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Andrew F.; Lee, Wai Kit

    2002-06-15

    A 72-year-old woman presented with an intraperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured intrahepatic arteryaneurysm, with an associated pseudoaneurysm developing a high-flow arteriovenous fistula. Persistent coagulopathy and a median arcuate ligament stenosis of the celiac axis further complicated endovascular management. Aneurysm thrombosis required percutaneous embolization with coils, a removable core guidewire and polyvinyl alcohol particles.

  5. Spontaneous rupture of the liver in severe preeclampsia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, T S; Kwawukume, E Y

    1993-01-01

    Uncontrolled haemorrhage is the most common cause of death after spontaneous rupture of the liver in pregnancy. This severe complication of pregnancy-induced hypertension is associated with a high rate of both maternal and fetal mortality, and aggressive therapy should be instituted including treatment of haemorrhagic shock, control of hepatic bleeding, and delivery. PMID:8312216

  6. [Spontaneous liver rupture in pregnancy-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Perucca, E; Cazenave, H; Gutiérrez, I; Barrera, C; Fuenzalida, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of liver during pregnancy is associated with a very high maternal mortality. This lesion is an unusual complication of the preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome. We report the case of a 34 years old woman who suffered this complication; responding satisfactorily after conservative surgical treatment. PMID:1845200

  7. Ultrasound evaluation of a spontaneous plantar fascia rupture.

    PubMed

    Louwers, Michael J; Sabb, Brian; Pangilinan, Percival H

    2010-11-01

    Plantar fascia rupture is an occasional complication in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis or in patients with plantar fasciitis treated with steroid injection. Very few cases of spontaneous plantar fascia rupture have been reported in the literature (Herrick and Herrick, Am J Sports Med 1983;11:95; Lun et al, Clin J Sports Med 1999;9:48-9; Rolf et al, J Foot Ankle Surg 1997;36:112-4; Saxena and Fullem, Am J Sports Med 2004;32:662-5). Spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture in a 37-yr-old man with no preceding symptoms or steroid injections was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasound, which revealed severe fasciitis at the calcaneal insertion with partial tearing. After conservative treatment, the patient returned to full activities. We discuss the anatomy, risk factors, examination findings, and treatment for this condition, as well as the unique benefits that ultrasound offers over magnetic resonance imaging. It is important to consider plantar fascia rupture in patients with hindfoot pain and medioplantar ecchymosis, particularly if an injury occurred during acceleration maneuvers. Ultrasound in these cases can be used to diagnose a plantar fascia tear quickly, accurately, and cost-effectively. PMID:20962604

  8. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  9. Assessment of Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Rafael Izbicki, Ann B. Lee and Ender A. Finol

    E-print Network

    Assessment of Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Rafael Izbicki, Ann B. Lee and Ender A. Finol Carnegie Mellon University May 2011 Abstract The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated, it is important to find good predictors for immediate risk of rupture. Clinically, the size of the aneurysm

  10. Similarity solutions for van der Waals rupture of a thin film on a solid substrate

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    . INTRODUCTION Van der Waals forces can cause a thin liquid film on a solid substrate to rupture and form a dry. Van-der-Waals-driven film rupture is an important step in the collapse of a foam and in dropletSimilarity solutions for van der Waals rupture of a thin film on a solid substrate Wendy W. Zhang

  11. Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman

    E-print Network

    Allen, Richard M.

    Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

  12. Anicteric gallbladder rupture in dogs: 5 cases (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Guess, Sarah C; Harkin, Kenneth R; Biller, David S

    2015-12-15

    Objective-To describe clinical, laboratory, and surgical findings in dogs with confirmed gallbladder rupture and in which serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-5 dogs. Procedures-Medical records were searched to identify dogs with gallbladder rupture that underwent treatment at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center from November 2007 through November 2013. Dogs were included if they had undergone abdominal ultrasonography, serum total bilirubin concentration was ? 0.4 mg/dL, and abdominal exploratory surgery confirmed the presence of gallbladder upture. Results-An exploratory celotomy was performed in all dogs because of ultrasonographic findings of mild to marked abdominal effusion and either an unidentifiable gallbladder (n = 1 dog) or a distended gallbladder with a suspected gallbladder mucocele (4 dogs). Serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits (median, 0.2 mg/dL; range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL; reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL) in all dogs before surgery. In 1 dog, bile acids concentrations in serum and in peritoneal fluid were compared and the results (48 ?mol/L and 1,070 ?mol/L, respectively) were supportive of the diagnosis of gallbladder rupture. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that even when serum total bilirubin concentration is within reference limits, gallbladder rupture should be considered in dogs with acute signs of abdominal pain when a mucocele is suspected on abdominal imaging and free abdominal fluid is present. Results suggested that a comparison of serum to peritoneal fluid bile acids concentrations may provide additional support for a diagnosis of gallbladder rupture. PMID:26642136

  13. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.

    2012-12-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  14. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  15. Rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) indicated by the characteristics of the surface rupture zones and the fault striations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Li, H.; Si, J.; Pei, J.; Fu, X.

    2012-12-01

    On 12 May 2008, the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms 8.0) produced the most complicated yet longest thrust-type co-seismic surface rupture zone, which comprising the dextral-slip thrusting Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, the approximately pure thrusting Guanxian-Anxian fault, and the sinistral-slip thrusting Xiaoyudong rupture zone between the former two. Aiming at understanding the focal mechanism, here we discuss the rupture process by examining the segmentation and kinematic feature of the surface rupture zones, together with the co-seismic fault striations occur in various sites. Basing on the two displacement peaks, the different geometric and kinematic patterns for the southern and northern segment of the surface rupture zone, it is implied that the Wenchuan earthquake might consist of two rupture events, which is in agreement with the seismic wave inversion results. By comparing the kinematic feature of fault striations occur in the Bajiaomiao and Beichuan area, it is suggested that at the first stage, thrusting along both the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Guanxian-Anxian fault produced the about 80-100km long Yingxiu-Qingping surface rupture segment and Guanxian-Anxian surface rupture zone. Then, Beichuan fault was triggered by the first rupture process, causing the second rupture event, which was characterized by dextral strike-slip (or dextral oblique thrusting). Due to the overlap of the two rupture stages, the southern segment (Yingxiu-Qingping) of the Xingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone shows two different processes while the northern segment (Leigu-Beichuan-Nanba-Shikan) only suggests the second one. That is the reason why the Yingxiu-Beichuan surface rupture zone indicates both the thrusting and the dextral strike-slip, while the Guanxian-Anxian rupture zone is approximately pure thrusting. Considering that the earthquake is a dynamic and complicated physical process, though it can explain the development of the two different rupture zones, whether the model we discussed here is agree with the actual rupture process still need to be verified by the precise local seismic wave inversion.

  16. Fault slip and rupture velocity inversion by isochrone backprojection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, Gaetano; Zollo, Aldo

    2006-08-01

    A new technique is proposed here for the retrieval of slip images from the backprojection of high-frequency displacement records. When direct S waves are seen to be dominant in the near-source data, Green functions can be approximated by the far-field terms, as described by ray theory. Assuming that the slip rapidly reaches the final value (i.e. short slip duration), the measured displacement can be ascribed to the slip contributions lying on the corresponding isochrone on the fault plane. Here we use the far-field representation theorem to backproject on the fault plane the displacement amplitudes measured along the seismogram. Through the weighted stack of amplitude maps obtained from different stations we recover high slip zones on the fault. The resolution analysis of the backprojected images is realized with spike tests (that we refer to as `image Green functions'), which revealed to be an useful tool for detecting and locating artificial distortions of high slip patches, due to a poor data coverage. However, when the slip is uniformly spread along the isochrones, energy is scattered everywhere on the fault, leading to defocusing effects on the final images. A partial deconvolution technique is proposed by reiterating the backprojection. An important implication of this study is that slip maps can be obtained as functions of the rupture time on the fault, that is, the method can be used to retrieve variable rupture velocity kinematic models. Since the latter parameter is not known a priori, we suggest that a data set of coupled rupture velocity and slip maps is built up and the optimal model is chosen according to a waveform fitness criterion. This procedure allows the slip inversion to be separated from the rupture velocity inversion, significantly reducing the number of parameters to be estimated. Additionally, the parametrization of the rupture velocity is done on a less dense grid than the slip. By way of example, the technique is applied to estimation of the kinematic rupture model of the 2000 Tottori earthquake (M = 6.8), based on the inversion of near-source strong-motion data.

  17. Barrier-induced supershear ruptures on a slip-weakening fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Huihui; Huang, Jinshui; Yang, Hongfeng

    2015-06-01

    Here we investigate the effects of a patch with elevated effective normal stress (barrier) on two-dimensional in-plane supershear rupture propagation on a planar fault from numerical experiments. Our results confirm that the barrier may slow down or stop coseismic ruptures but may also induce supershear ruptures. We demonstrate that the supershear rupture may emerge in a region that is delineated by two approximate linear boundaries. If the barrier size is below the lower boundary, ruptures can overcome the barrier and propagate at subshear speeds. If the barrier size is larger than the upper boundary, ruptures are always stopped by the barrier. Furthermore, we find that the barrier-induced supershear ruptures may eventually slow down into subshear speed, depending on the size and the location of the barrier. The duration of supershear ruptures increases as the barrier sizes grow from the lower to the upper boundary, which are proportional to the reduction in rupture speeds caused by the barrier. These results indicate that a barrier on the fault may not stop coseismic ruptures. Rather, the barrier may induce ruptures propagating at supershear speeds that play important roles in near-field ground shaking and damage.

  18. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

  19. Telescoping of sheaths-an easy technique to facilitate the removal of a stuck ruptured transluminal angioplasty balloon.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Adrian; Artikov, Shukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Balloon rupture during angioplasty is an uncommon event. The ruptured balloon usually is removed through its introducer sheath without any problems. However, there may be occasions when a ruptured balloon cannot be withdrawn from an access. We describe a simple technique that can be used to extricate a stuck ruptured angioplasty balloon. PMID:25250769

  20. Management of Hepatic Rupture Diagnosed after an Emergency Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Gianluca Raffaello; Merola, Viviana; Barnaba, Mario; Landi, Stefano; Cormio, Gennaro; Pellegrino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management. PMID:25254049

  1. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Hamam, Rola N; Maalouf, Fadi C

    2014-01-01

    Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age) to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. PMID:25506201

  2. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

  3. [Traumatic Testicular Rupture Complicated with Hydrocele: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    A 17-year-old man presented with right hydrocele because of an athletic injury. His scrotum was hit with a ball 2 months ago while playing baseball. He was diagnosed with post-traumatic hydrocele and underwent needle puncture at another hospital 1 month after the trauma. However, the hydrocele did not improve. Therefore, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. For diagnosis of the traumatic hydrocele testis, a hydrocelectomy was scheduled. When we opened the tunica vaginalis, we realized that the tunica albuginea had been ruptured and the testicular parenchyma had gushed out. We tried to replace all the escaped testicular parenchyma into the tunica albuginea, but it was impossible. Therefore were moved some of the redundant testicular parenchyma, and replaced the remnants into the tunica albuginea. After the operation, right hydrocele and testicular atrophy did not occur. Traumatic testicular rupture complicated with hydrocele is rare. PMID:26563625

  4. Effect of heating method on stress-rupture life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.; Calfo, F. D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of radiant(furnace), resistance(electric current), burner(hot gas stream), and a combination of resistance and burner heating on intermediate time (100 to 300 hr) stress-rupture life and reduction of area was evaluated. All heating methods were studied using the nickel-based alloy Udimet 700 while all but burner heating were evaluated with the cobalt-based alloy Mar-M 509. Limited test results of eight other superalloys were also included in this study. Resistance heated specimens had about 20 to 30 percent of the stress-rupture life of radiant heated specimens. The limited burner heating data showed about a 50 percent life reduction as compared to the radiant heated tests. A metallurgical examination gave no explanation for these reductions.

  5. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

  6. The dependence of the dry friction threshold on rupture dynamics

    E-print Network

    Ben-David, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The static friction coefficient between two materials is considered to be a material constant. We present experiments demonstrating that the ratio of shear to normal force needed to move contacting blocks can, instead, vary systematically with controllable changes in the external loading configuration. Large variations in both the friction coefficient and consequent stress drop are tightly linked to changes in the rupture dynamics of the rough interface separating the two blocks.

  7. Analysis of uterine rupture at university teaching hospital Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Nousheen; Yousfani, Sajida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors, management modalities, fetomaternal outcome of uterine rupture cases at University teaching hospital in Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) for a period of one year from January 1st to December 31st 2012. Main outcome measures were frequency, age, parity, booking status, risk factors, management modalities, fetal and maternal mortality associated with uterine rupture. The data was collected on pre-designed proforma analysed using SPSS Version 16 statistical package. Results: The frequency of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.67%, giving a ratio of 1:148 deliveries. Highest incidence was found in age group 25-30 (44.26%) with mean age of 30.36 years. and parity group 2-3 (57.37%) with mean parity 4.08. The risk factors for ruptured uterus include Caesarean section 43(70.49%), injudicious use of oxytocin 33(54.09%), obstructed labour 15 (24.59%) and multiparty 18 (29.50%). Repair of uterus was performed in 47(77.04%) cases. Maternal case fatality was 5(8.19%), while foetal wastage was 51 (83.60%). Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of a serious preventable obstetric problem, with significant maternal mortality and foetal wastage. Integrated efforts include Health education, focused antenatal care, skilled attendance, avoidance of injudicious use of oxytocin, and need of hospital based deliveries in patients with caesarean section which should be intensified to reduce this drastic obstetrical complication. PMID:26430430

  8. Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Inconel 702 tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumto, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Seamless Inconel 702 tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1390 to 1575 F and internal helium pressures from 700 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 29 to 1561 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was about 70 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

  9. Bilateral Wünderlich Syndrome Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Sotošek, Stanislav; Marki?, Dean; Španjol, Josip; Krpina, Kristian; Kneževi?, Siniša; Mari?i?, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Wünderlich syndrome (WS) is a urological emergency characterized by retroperitoneal hemorrhage. In most cases, bleeding occurs from a renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and may be the first manifestation of the disease. We report a female patient with bilateral WS due to the metachronous rupture of renal AMLs. Because the patient was stable and the tumor was not malignant, treatment was conservative. Follow-up revealed the full recovery of kidney function and the resolution of the hematoma. PMID:25793141

  10. Atraumatic splenic rupture and ileal volvulus following cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Ballard, David H; Smith, J Patrick; Samra, Navdeep S

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old male with an atraumatic splenic rupture, hemoperitoneum, and ileal volvulus following acute cocaine intoxication. Computed tomography showed a "whirl sign", a subcapsular splenic hematoma with suspected peripheral laceration, and diffuse hemoperitoneum. At laparotomy, the spleen was confirmed to be the source of bleeding and was removed. A nonreducible volvulus was found at the distal ileum, and this segment of small bowel was removed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26324218

  11. Choriocarcinoma with Uterine Rupture and Shock: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manika; Pyrbot, Jupirika; Singh, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease. Choriocarcinoma is frequently preceded by a complete mole, ectopic pregnancy, nonmolar intrauterine abortion, and uncommonly by a partial mole. It is treated medically with chemotherapeutic drugs usually. However, we managed to save a life with appropriate and timely surgical intervention in a case of choriocarcinoma who presented with uterine rupture, haemoperitoneum, anaemia and hypovolemic shock. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and hysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26557535

  12. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture in the caudate lobe

    PubMed Central

    Hong, De-Fei; Liu, Ying-Bin; Peng, Shu-You; Pang, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Cheng, Jian; Shen, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yuan-Biao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that caudate lobectomy is a valid treatment in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture in the caudate lobe based on our experience with the largest case series reported to date. METHODS: A retrospective study of eight patients presenting with spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage of HCC in the caudate lobe was conducted. Two patients underwent ineffective transarterial embolization preoperatively. Caudate lobectomy was performed in all eight patients. Bilateral approach was taken in seven cases for isolated complete caudate lobectomy. Left-sided approach was employed in one case for isolated partial caudate lobectomy. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed postoperatively in all patients. RESULTS: Caudate lobectomy was successfully completed in all eight cases. The median time delay from the diagnosis to operation was 5 d (range: 0.25-9). Median operating time was 200 min (range: 120-310) with a median blood loss of 900 mL (range: 300-1500). Five patient remained in long-term follow-up, with one patient becoming lost to follow-up at 3 years and two patients currently alive at 7 and 19 mo. One patient required reoperation due to recurrence. Gamma knife intervention was performed for brain metastasis in another case. Two patients survived for 10 and 84 mo postoperatively, ultimately succumbing to multiple organ metastases. CONCLUSION: Caudate lobectomy is the salvage choice for HCC rupture in the caudate lobe. Local anatomy and physiologic features of the disease render caudate lobectomy a technically difficult operation. Postponement of surgical intervention is thus recommended while the rupture remains hemodynamically stable until an experienced surgeon becomes available. Prognosis is confounded by numerous factors, but long-term survival can be expected in the majority of cases. PMID:26185390

  13. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel; Varble, Nicole; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are potentially devastating pathological dilations of arterial walls that affect 2-5% of the population. In our previous CFD study of 119 IAs, we found that ruptured aneurysms were correlated with complex flow pattern and statistically predictable by low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index. To understand flow mechanisms that drive the pathophysiology of aneurysm wall leading to either stabilization or growth and rupture, we aim at exploring vortex dynamics of aneurysmal flow and provide insight into the correlation between the previous predictive morphological parameters and wall hemodynamic metrics. We adopt the Q-criterion definition of coherent structures (CS) and analyze the CS dynamics in aneurysmal flows for both ruptured and unruptured IA cases. For the first time, we draw relevant biological conclusions concerning aneurysm flow mechanisms and pathophysiological outcome. In pulsatile simulations, the coherent structures are analyzed in these 119 patient-specific geometries obtained using 3D angiograms. The images were reconstructed and CFD were performed. Upon conclusion of this work, better understanding of flow patterns of unstable aneurysms may lead to improved clinical outcome.

  14. Ruptured aneurysms of the aortic sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Chia, B L; Tan, N C; Lim, C H; Tan, L K; Toh, C C; Johan, A

    1975-01-01

    Aneurysms of the aortic sinus of Valsalva (ASV) are uncommon. This study describes eight cases of ruptured aneurysms of the congenital variety observed over a 10-year period in Singapore. Although ASV is classically diagnosed at the time of rupture, only one patient in this series presented with acute chest pain and dyspnea. All eight patients had continuous murmurs. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography in eight patients and by thoracotomy in six. In six patients, the aneurysm had ruptured into the right ventricle and in two into the right atrium. In the five patients where the site of the aneurysm could be definitely determined, four arose from the right coronary and one from the noncoronary sinus. This marked preponderance of right coronary sinus over noncoronary sinus aneurysm in Singapore is more in accordance with the Japanese rather than the Western experience. A systolic gradient due to the aneurysm pressing on the right ventricular outflow tract was established in four patients during cardiac catheterization and angiography and confirmed in three patients at thoracotomy. Six patients underwent operation and were alive and well from 7 months to 3 years later. PMID:1220871

  15. The Rupture Behaviour Of Woven Fabrics Containing Kevlar Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, N.; Qu, J.; Darley, M.; Lingard, S.

    2012-07-01

    Woven fabrics containing high performance fibres are frequently used in spacecraft structures and the rupture behaviour of these fabrics heavily influences the performance of its final products. However, the initiation and propagation of a ruptured fracture in the woven fabrics is not clear and the interpretation of the results from different tear testing methods varies. Currently there is a lack of knowledge about both the characteristics of tear propagation woven fabrics containing high performance fibres such as Kevlar and the influence of the fabric structural parameters on the rupture behaviour of the fabrics; this knowledge gap creates difficulties for the engineering design and selection of suitable fabric materials to meet specific requirements in each application case involving such woven fabrics. In this paper, the tear propagations in a polyurethane-coated woven fabric containing Kevlar fibres based on two different tear testing standards are examined; the mechanism of tear propagation in woven fabrics and the influences of tear testing design on the interpretation of the results from different tear testing methods are discussed. It is expected that the results will guide both the engineering design of Kevlar woven fabric structures and the evaluation of the fabric performance.

  16. Acute pancreatitis complicated with splenic rupture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hernani, Bruno L; Silva, Pedro C; Nishio, Ricardo T; Mateus, Henrique C; Assef, José C; De Campos, Tercio

    2015-01-01

    Atraumatic splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis. This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man with acute pancreatitis and splenic vein thrombosis complicated by splenic rupture. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with pain in the upper abdomen that had been present for six hours and was associated with vomiting and sweating. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis of alcoholic etiology. Upon computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, the pancreatitis was scored as Balthazar C grade, and a suspicious area of necrosis affecting 30% of the pancreas with splenic vein thrombosis was revealed. Seventy-two hours after admission, the patient had significant improvement in symptoms. However, he showed clinical worsening on the sixth day of hospitalization, with increasing abdominal distension and reduced hemoglobin levels. A CT angiography showed a large amount of free fluid in the abdominal cavity, along with a large splenic hematoma and contrast extravasation along the spleen artery. The patient subsequently underwent laparotomy, which showed hemoperitoneum due to rupture of the splenic parenchyma. A splenectomy was then performed, followed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage. PMID:26425272

  17. Monatomic metal nanowires: Rupture kinetics and mean lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailov, Michail; Kashchiev, Dimo

    2015-06-01

    We present a model for the kinetics of spontaneous (unforced) rupture of monatomically thick metal nanowire on atomically smooth crystal face. The nanowire breaks down spontaneously solely because of the thermal motion of the atoms in it and the underlying crystal. Our model describes the nanowire rupture as a three-step process involving (i) appearance of atoms active in vacating their positions, (ii) generation of atomic vacancies, and (iii) formation of holes (vacancy dimers) in the nanowire. The model is based on Monte Carlo simulation results for the temporal evolution of initially straight monatomic chain of Cu atoms on Cu(111) crystal face. The simulation provides data for the time dependence of the number Nv of vacancies and the number Nh of holes in the nanowire, as well as for the probabilities Pv and Ph to form, respectively, at least one vacancy and at least one hole until time t. We describe the nanowire rupture kinetics by using rate equations and obtain expressions for the nanowire mean lifetime and the Nv(t), Nh(t), Pv(t), and Ph(t) dependences. These expressions are found to conform well to the simulation data, which implies a Poissonian random appearance of the first few vacancies and holes in the nanowire.

  18. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  19. Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs.

  20. Acute pancreatitis complicated with splenic rupture: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hernani, Bruno L; Silva, Pedro C; Nishio, Ricardo T; Mateus, Henrique C; Assef, José C; De Campos, Tercio

    2015-09-27

    Atraumatic splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis. This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man with acute pancreatitis and splenic vein thrombosis complicated by splenic rupture. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with pain in the upper abdomen that had been present for six hours and was associated with vomiting and sweating. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis of alcoholic etiology. Upon computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, the pancreatitis was scored as Balthazar C grade, and a suspicious area of necrosis affecting 30% of the pancreas with splenic vein thrombosis was revealed. Seventy-two hours after admission, the patient had significant improvement in symptoms. However, he showed clinical worsening on the sixth day of hospitalization, with increasing abdominal distension and reduced hemoglobin levels. A CT angiography showed a large amount of free fluid in the abdominal cavity, along with a large splenic hematoma and contrast extravasation along the spleen artery. The patient subsequently underwent laparotomy, which showed hemoperitoneum due to rupture of the splenic parenchyma. A splenectomy was then performed, followed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage. PMID:26425272

  1. Mécanismes de rupture d'interfaces sous sollicitation dynamique rapide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolis, C.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.; Arrigoni, M.; Jeandin, M.; Barradas, S.

    2003-03-01

    Le test d'adhérence par choc laser (LASer Adhesion Test : LASAT) est développé afin de devenir une mesure non destructrice de l'adhérence à l'interface entre deux matériaux. Cette technique utilise un laser impulsionnel de forte puissance pour générer une onde de choc se propageant dans le substrat puis dans la couche. Des contraintes de traction peuvent ainsi être induites entre la couche et le substrat par le jeu des réflexions sur les différentes interfaces du système. La rupture peut être détectée sur l'historique de la vitesse de la face opposée au laser. Celle ci est mesurée par vélocimétrie Doppler de type VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus sur un système (substrat : aluminium, couche : cuivre) déposé par projection plasma permettent de valider cette nouvelle technique. En particulier, le test permet d'étudier l'influence des paramètres de projection sur l'adhérence entre le cuivre et l'aluminium. Par ailleurs, une première interprétation numérique des mécanismes de rupture sous sollicitation dynamique est donnée grâce à l'utilisation de différents critères de rupture dans un code de propagation des chocs.

  2. Near-field tsunami edge waves and complex earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

  3. Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

    2014-08-01

    Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

  4. Proximal humerus shaft fracture after pectoralis major tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Jeff A; Goldberg, Ben; Wolin, Preston

    2011-06-01

    Surgical repair of a complete pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion has superior results compared to nonoperative treatment. To our knowledge, a proximal humerus shaft fracture occurring at the site of the bone trough and cortical drill holes after a pectoralis major tendon rupture repair has not been reported in the literature.A 45-year-old man sustained an acute left pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion while performing a bench press maneuver. He underwent acute surgical repair. Approximately 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient fell from a standing height and sustained a proximal humerus shaft fracture through the repair site at the bone trough. Three days after the fracture, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus shaft fracture and exploration of the pectoralis major tendon repair. The fracture was found to be at the level of the repair site, and the pectoralis major tendon was completely intact to the distal fragment. The fracture healed uneventfully, and the patient regained full motion and strength of his extremity with no limitations.Any type of surgical fixation that creates a hole in the humerus or decreases the cross-sectional area such as a bone trough creates a stress riser. Patients undergoing pectoralis tendon repair that involves violating the humerus with a bone trough or hole have a slight risk of postoperative humerus fracture, especially if sustaining an early traumatic event such as a fall. PMID:21667914

  5. Silicone breast implant rupture presenting as bilateral leg nodules.

    PubMed

    Sagi, L; Baum, S; Lyakhovitsky, A; Barzilai, A; Shpiro, D; Trau, H; Goldan, O; Winkler, E

    2009-07-01

    Gross migration of silicone gel from ruptured breast implants is a rare event. It is associated with extravasation of gel into the breast parenchyma, and to distant locations such as the abdominal wall and inguinal areas. This silicone deposits present as subcutaneous nodules and cause a local reaction known as siliconoma. We evaluated a 56-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of painful, firm and ill-defined subcutaneous nodules on the medial aspect of the shins and ankles. Her medical history was notable for bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 30 years before presentation. Although there were no signs or symptoms on breast examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that both implants had ruptured. Histological examination of a punch biopsy from a nodule on the shin found lobular granulomatous panniculitis. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and was found to contain silicone. This is a rare case of gross migration of silicone to the shins, originating from ruptured breast implants. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of silicone migration to such a distant location. We discuss the common presentation of silicone migration and highlight the importance of awareness among dermatologists and plastic surgeons about this unusual occurrence. PMID:19438562

  6. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  7. Flow and rupture of vesicles in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Alison; Bertrand, Martin; Joos, Bela

    2012-02-01

    Small lipid bilayer vesicles, also known as liposomes, are used for drug delivery systems in vasculature. Consequently how they deform and when they become unstable and rupture (lose their inner contents) under capillary flow is of great interest. In addition vesicles with a filling fraction of 0.6 can be considered as a simple mechanical model of red blood cells. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations with explicit solvent to study lipid bilayer vesicles in 3D capillary flow with filling fractions of 1.0 and 0.6. The shapes of the vesicles obtained in these simulations compare well to other experimental and theoretical studies. Using CGMD allows the study of rupture. This is in contrast to the majority of other approaches which model the bilayer as a purely elastic surface and only allow the investigation of deformation. We look at the stress profiles of these vesicles as measured by the area expansion per lipid along the membrane, and determine the location and pressure of rupture for a given confinement ratio (diameter of the vesicle divided by diameter of the channel). We also discuss the subsequent loss of inner fluid content.

  8. Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elaz?? and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karl?ova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with our results. Results were compared with those of similar size earthquakes around the world and a new empirical relationship was proposed between seismic moment and rupture area. We expect our findings provide usefull information to resolving rupture mechanisms and triggering of the events in Eastern Anatoion Region. Key Words: Rupture Process, Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

  9. Blood flow characteristics in a terminal basilar tip aneurysm prior to its fatal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, D.M.; Putman, C.M.; Scrivano, E.; Lylyk, P.; Cebral, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The development and validation of methods to stratify the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms is highly desired since current treatment risks can exceed the natural risk of rupture. Because unruptured aneurysms are typically treated before they rupture, it is very difficult to connect the proposed risk indices to the rupture of an individual aneurysm. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the hemodynamic environment of a saccular aneurysm of the terminal morphology sub-type that was imaged just prior to its rupture and to test whether the hemodynamic characteristics would designate this particular aneurysm as at high risk. Methods A patient-specific computational fluid dynamics model was constructed from 3D rotational angiography images acquired just hours before the aneurysm ruptured. A pulsatile flow calculation was performed and hemodynamic characteristics previously connected to rupture were analyzed. Results It was found that the aneurysm had a concentrated inflow stream, small impingement region, complex intra-aneurysmal flow structure, asymmetric flow split from the parent vessel to the aneurysm and daughter branches, and high levels of aneurysmal wall shear stress near the impaction zone. Conclusions The hemodynamics characteristics observed in this aneurysm right before its rupture are consistent with previous studies correlating aneurysm rupture and hemodynamic patterns in saccular and terminal aneurysms. This study supports the notion that hemodynamic information may be used to help stratify the rupture risk of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:20150312

  10. The transition of dynamic rupture styles in elastic media under velocity-weakening friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, A.-A.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    Although kinematic earthquake source inversions show dominantly pulse-like subshear rupture behavior, seismological observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical models indicate that earthquakes can operate with different rupture styles: either as pulses or cracks, that propagate at subshear or supershear speeds. The determination of rupture style and speed has important implications for ground motions and may inform about the state of stress and strength of active fault zones. We conduct 2D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations with a spectral element method to investigate the diversity of rupture styles on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with dramatic velocity-weakening at high slip rate. Our rupture models are governed by uniform initial stresses, and are artificially initiated. We identify the conditions that lead to different rupture styles by investigating the transitions between decaying, steady state and growing pulses, cracks, sub-shear and super-shear ruptures as a function of background stress, nucleation size and characteristic velocity at the onset of severe weakening. Our models show that small changes of background stress or nucleation size may lead to dramatic changes of rupture style. We characterize the asymptotic properties of steady state and self-similar pulses as a function of background stress. We show that an earthquake may not be restricted to a single rupture style, but that complex rupture patterns may emerge that consist of multiple rupture fronts, possibly involving different styles and back-propagating fronts. We also demonstrate the possibility of a super-shear transition for pulse-like ruptures. Finally, we draw connections between our findings and recent seismological observations.

  11. Splay fault surface rupture triggered by the 2010 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.; Motagh, M.; Cisternas, M.

    2010-12-01

    Faults that splay from megathrusts have been imaged at several active plate boundaries and observed on exposed fossil sections. Due to their steep dip, slip along such structures triggered by a megathrust earthquake may enhance near-field tsunami waves and shorten arrival times. However, motion of splay faults and their role on seismotectonic segmentation has remained elusive due to their predominant offshore location and few historical accounts. Though splay fault slip has been inferred during the 2004 Sumatra and other events, surface ruptures triggered by the 1964 M9.2 Alaska earthquake have been the only documented so far. Here we use field, geodetic and InSAR data to document surface fault rupture and coastal tilting at Isla Santa Maria (ISM; 37S) during the M8.8 earthquake of February 27, 2010. We integrate the observed deformation with previous knowledge of the regional structure to propose triggering of a splay fault. ISM is 75 km inland from the trench, at the intersection of the Arauco Bay and Santa María fault systems (SMFS), both consisting of blind reverse faults that propagate folds. The SMFS is associated to a cluster of microseismicity extending from the plate interface at 15 km to 2 km depth. An offshore seismic reflection profile across this cluster images a main reverse fault with a flat-ramp-flat structure shortcutting to the footwall. The 2010 surface breaks extend across the entire northern part of the island for 900 m, divided in two domains of ENE-WSW oriented structures separated by an E-W striking transfer zone. Each domain consists of faults and fractures with en echelon patterns, with a maximum normal vertical displacement of 80 cm. The geometry of surface ruptures is consistent with dextral transtensional kinematics. We associate the surface breaks to transpressional growth of the fault-cored anticline northeast of ISM; transtension at the surface relates to fold bending. Surface rupture was accompanied by 1.6-2.2 m of coastal uplift and a northward tilt revealed by ALOS InSAR data, biomarkers, campaign GPS, and leveling of a benchmark. This pattern of tilting mimics that of emerged late Holocene beach ridges, and is rather associated to motion along the Arauco Bay fault. Both systems may have been triggered by the megathrust event. Alternatively, it could arise at the sharp edge of a patch of high megathrust slip. Prominent rush of fluids from the rupture started during the Maule earthquake and continued for weeks. A small lake adjacent to the rupture, dry during summer droughts, became filled by the offspring. The flat morphology leads to small drainage basins with barely sufficient water to supply inhabitants during dry summer months suggesting that fluids rose through the fault from deeper levels in the crust. The SMFS is associated to the position of a paleo backstop structure, which limited an older deformable domain from the stable continental framework. The SMFS branches upward near the updip limit of the seismogenic zone, where fluids are expelled from mineral transformations. The Maule earthquake may have released trapped fluids at depth, which migrated through the splay fault reducing its friction and facilitating fault slip and surface rupture.

  12. Two unusual case histories of brittle ruptures in fossil fuel boiler tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Port, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The common causes of brittle rupture in boiler tubes, such as hydrogen damage, corrosion, fatigue, and creep rupture, have often been presented in the corrosion literature. Because ruptures by such modes are anticipated, appropriate remedial measures can be taken. However, when all anticipated problems have been addressed, the only problems remaining are those which are unanticipated. Examples of such unanticipated problems are presented here in a pair of case histories which trace the causes of disabling, brittle ruptures to their origins. In each case, an unforeseen condition or circumstance led to the failure. The first case involves what may be an unprecedented brittle rupture in tubes which had been deslagged through the use of shotguns. This failure is traced to liquid metal embrittlement. The second case concerns a massive tube rupture which is linked to a manufacturing defect, and secondary severe erosion of an adjacent tube.

  13. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  14. Systematic Underestimation of Earthquake Magnitudes from Large Intracontinental Reverse Faults: Historical Ruptures Break Across Segment Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Because most large-magnitude earthquakes along reverse faults have such irregular and complicated rupture patterns, reverse-fault segments defined on the basis of geometry alone may not be very useful for estimating sizes of future seismic sources. Most modern large ruptures of historical earthquakes generated by intracontinental reverse faults have involved geometrically complex rupture patterns. Ruptures across surficial discontinuities and complexities such as stepovers and cross-faults are common. Specifically, segment boundaries defined on the basis of discontinuities in surficial fault traces, pronounced changes in the geomorphology along strike, or the intersection of active faults commonly have not proven to be major impediments to rupture. Assuming that the seismic rupture will initiate and terminate at adjacent major geometric irregularities will commonly lead to underestimation of magnitudes of future large earthquakes.

  15. Contrasting décollement and prism properties over the Sumatra 2004-2005 earthquake rupture boundary.

    PubMed

    Dean, Simon M; McNeill, Lisa C; Henstock, Timothy J; Bull, Jonathan M; Gulick, Sean P S; Austin, James A; Bangs, Nathan L B; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S; Permana, Haryadi

    2010-07-01

    Styles of subduction zone deformation and earthquake rupture dynamics are strongly linked, jointly influencing hazard potential. Seismic reflection profiles across the trench west of Sumatra, Indonesia, show differences across the boundary between the major 2004 and 2005 plate interface earthquakes, which exhibited contrasting earthquake rupture and tsunami generation. In the southern part of the 2004 rupture, we interpret a negative-polarity sedimentary reflector approximately 500 meters above the subducting oceanic basement as the seaward extension of the plate interface. This predécollement reflector corresponds to unusual prism structure, morphology, and seismogenic behavior that are absent along the 2005 rupture zone. Although margins like the 2004 rupture zone are globally rare, our results suggest that sediment properties influence earthquake rupture, tsunami hazard, and prism development at subducting plate boundaries. PMID:20616276

  16. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  17. Rupture de la rate au cours de l'accouchement: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Akrouch, Jamila; Lakhdar, Amina; Ferhati, Driss

    2011-01-01

    La rupture de rate est une extrême urgence chirurgicale abdominale qui met très rapidement en jeu le pronostic vital. Les étiologies fréquemment retrouvées sont les traumatismes abdominaux par contusions ou plaies pénétrantes. La survenue d'une rupture de rate au cours de l'accouchement est un événement rare. Nous rapportons dans cette observation le cas d'une rupture splénique suite à des expressions abdominales survenue au cours d'un accouchement dystocique. PMID:22355431

  18. Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-rupture degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress rupture study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.

  19. Speed of fast and slow rupture fronts along frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Sveinsson, Henrik Andersen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Scheibert, Julien; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The transition from stick to slip at a dry frictional interface occurs through the breaking of microjunctions between the two contacting surfaces. Typically, interactions between junctions through the bulk lead to rupture fronts propagating from weak and/or highly stressed regions, whose junctions break first. Experiments find rupture fronts ranging from quasistatic fronts, via fronts much slower than elastic wave speeds, to fronts faster than the shear wave speed. The mechanisms behind and selection between these fronts are still imperfectly understood. Here we perform simulations in an elastic two-dimensional spring-block model where the frictional interaction between each interfacial block and the substrate arises from a set of junctions modeled explicitly. We find that material slip speed and rupture front speed are proportional across the full range of front speeds we observe. We revisit a mechanism for slow slip in the model and demonstrate that fast slip and fast fronts have a different, inertial origin. We highlight the long transients in front speed even along homogeneous interfaces, and we study how both the local shear to normal stress ratio and the local strength are involved in the selection of front type and front speed. Last, we introduce an experimentally accessible integrated measure of block slip history, the Gini coefficient, and demonstrate that in the model it is a good predictor of the history-dependent local static friction coefficient of the interface. These results will contribute both to building a physically based classification of the various types of fronts and to identifying the important mechanisms involved in the selection of their propagation speed.

  20. Interleukin-6 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, was found to surge in the cerebral spinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized that the plasma level of IL-6 could be an independent biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods We prospectively included 53 consecutive patients treated with platinum coil embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured in the blood samples at the orifices of the aneurysms and from peripheral veins. The outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale one month after SAH. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the plasma IL-6 levels and the neurological outcome. Results Significant risk factors for the poor outcome were old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on day 0, high Fisher grades, and high aneurysmal and venous IL-6 levels in univariate analyses. Aneurysmal IL-6 levels showed modest to moderate correlations with GCS on day 0, vasospasm grade and Fisher grade. A strong correlation was found between the aneurysmal and the corresponding venous IL-6 levels (? = 0.721; P<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, the poor 30-day mRS was significantly associated with high aneurysmal IL-6 level (OR, 17.97; 95% CI, 1.51–214.33; P = 0.022) and marginally associated with high venous IL-6 level (OR, 12.71; 95% CI, 0.90–180.35; P = 0.022) after adjusting for dichotomized age, GCS on day 0, and vasospasm and Fisher grades. Conclusions The plasma level of IL-6 is an independent prognostic biomarker that could be used to aid in the identification of patients at high-risk of poor neurological outcome after rupture of the intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26176774

  1. Speed of fast and slow rupture fronts along frictional interfaces.

    PubMed

    Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Sveinsson, Henrik Andersen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Scheibert, Julien; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The transition from stick to slip at a dry frictional interface occurs through the breaking of microjunctions between the two contacting surfaces. Typically, interactions between junctions through the bulk lead to rupture fronts propagating from weak and/or highly stressed regions, whose junctions break first. Experiments find rupture fronts ranging from quasistatic fronts, via fronts much slower than elastic wave speeds, to fronts faster than the shear wave speed. The mechanisms behind and selection between these fronts are still imperfectly understood. Here we perform simulations in an elastic two-dimensional spring-block model where the frictional interaction between each interfacial block and the substrate arises from a set of junctions modeled explicitly. We find that material slip speed and rupture front speed are proportional across the full range of front speeds we observe. We revisit a mechanism for slow slip in the model and demonstrate that fast slip and fast fronts have a different, inertial origin. We highlight the long transients in front speed even along homogeneous interfaces, and we study how both the local shear to normal stress ratio and the local strength are involved in the selection of front type and front speed. Last, we introduce an experimentally accessible integrated measure of block slip history, the Gini coefficient, and demonstrate that in the model it is a good predictor of the history-dependent local static friction coefficient of the interface. These results will contribute both to building a physically based classification of the various types of fronts and to identifying the important mechanisms involved in the selection of their propagation speed. PMID:26274187

  2. A rare case of oesophageal rupture: Boerhaave's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old patient was referred to our emergency department with severe retrosternal pain after forceful vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left-sided oesophageal rupture with accompanying pneumomediastinum and bilateral pleural effusions. Conservative treatment with cessation of oral intake, intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, parenteral fluids and nutrition and left sided tube thoracostomy was initiated initially. After 5 days, however, the patient deteriorated. Follow-up CT scan demonstrated a mediastinal fluid collection as well as loculated pleural empyema. Open thoracotomy with mediastinal debridement and pleural drainage was performed, after which he made a slow but full recovery. Spontaneous oesophageal rupture due to an abrupt rise in intraluminal pressure caused by vomiting is also known as Boerhaave's syndrome. It is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. Many patients present with atypical symptoms, and therefore, physicians should have a high index of suspicion in any patient presenting with vomiting and retrosternal pain. When Boerhaave's syndrome is suspected, a CT scan of the thorax and upper abdomen should be performed since treatment depends on clinical and radiological findings. Conservative management (cessation of oral intake, nasogastric decompression, administration of intravenous fluids and parenteral nutrition, intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors and tube thoracostomies) may only be considered in patients with a contained rupture without systematic symptoms of infection. In these patients, endoscopic bridging of the tear with a self-expandable stent is also an option. Primary surgical repair (either by thoracotomy or by video assisted thoracoscopy (VATS)) should be considered when patients present with sepsis and/or large non-contained leaks or with severe mediastinal decontamination. PMID:25364474

  3. Investigation of Stress Rupture Tested Neutron Irradiated Tantalum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Howe, Jane Y.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of metals with high-energy particles produces nano-scale defects that act as obstacles to dislocation glide. This paper presents the effects of low-level neutron radiation on the stress rupture and microstructural properties of two tantalum alloys, Ta-10%W and Ta-8%W-2%Hf (T-111), which have been used to encapsulate radioactive fuel for space Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Ta-10%W and T-111 test specimens were exposed to a neutron fluence level (1.2×1015nvt) at temperatures less than <0.2 Tm, which is equivalent to the cumulative fluence associated with the 30-year mission life of a RPS. This fluence level results in an atomic displacement damage of approximately 3.0×10-7 dpa in both alloys. The atomic displacement damage produces an approximate two-order of magnitude increase in the stress rupture time, and a two-order of magnitude reduction in steady state creep rate. These observations are statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Transmission electron microscopy of rupture specimens reveals that the interaction of the irradiation produced defects with ao/2<111> screw dislocations results in a five-fold increase in dislocation density and a pronouncement of the ordering of dislocations into mosaic patterns of cellular or subgranular arrangements. The results of this research are significant because they provide a basic understanding of the strength mechanisms in two tantalum alloys (Ta-10%W and T-111) resulting from neutron irradiation at temperatures <0.2 Tm.

  4. Risk of rupture of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Date, Isao; Tokunaga, Koji; Tominari, Shinjiro; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Murayama, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Takao, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toshikazu; Nakayama, Takeo; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for rupture of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs) in elderly Japanese patients aged 70 years or older. Methods: The participants included all patients 70 years of age or older in 3 prospective studies in Japan (the Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Study of Japan [UCAS Japan], UCAS II, and the prospective study at the Jikei University School of Medicine). A total of 1,896 patients aged 70 years or older with 2,227 UCAs were investigated. The median and mean follow-up periods were 990 and 802.7 days, respectively. Results: The mean aneurysm size was 6.2 ± 3.9 mm. Sixty-eight patients (3.6%) experienced subarachnoid hemorrhage during the follow-up period. Multivariable analysis per patient revealed that in patients aged 80 years or older (hazard ratio [HR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–3.49, p = 0.012), aneurysms 7 mm or larger (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.35–7.03, p = 0.007 for 7–9 mm; HR, 7.82; 95% CI, 3.60–16.98, p < 0.001 for 10–24 mm; and HR, 43.31; 95% CI, 12.55–149.42, p < 0.001 for ?25 mm) and internal carotid–posterior communicating artery aneurysms (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.23–4.88, p = 0.011) were independent predictors for UCA rupture in elderly patients. Conclusions: In our pooled analysis of prospective cohorts in Japan, patient age and aneurysm size and location were significant risk factors for UCA rupture in elderly patients. PMID:26511450

  5. Evaluation and establishment of a canine model of delayed splenic rupture using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiangke; Xie, Xia; Lv, Faqin; Yu, Tengfei; Wu, Rong; Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a canine model of delayed splenic rupture (DSR). A total of 15 mongrel dogs were anesthetized and laparotomized. The hematomas were observed following an injection of heparin. The hematomas were ruptured. The severity of the spleen rupture was evaluated and the intra-abdominal free liquid was measured. The splenic hematomas in the dogs continued to form and the hematoma area gradually increased. The hematomas were ruptured after impacting the abdominal wall. The spleens were damaged, and conventional ultrasonography showed intra-abdominal free liquid. These conditions were demonstrated via computed tomography scanning. A DSR canine model was established successfully. PMID:22710316

  6. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  7. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion. PMID:26516433

  8. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J

    2015-10-28

    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion. PMID:26516433

  9. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  10. Birth of Universe following Rupture of Fractal Structure Filaments

    E-print Network

    Valentin A. Rantsev-Kartinov; Christian G. Parigger

    2010-03-19

    This work addresses unique characteristics of our Universe, namely fractal structures that consist of coaxial-tubular and wheel-like building blocks. The front view of the tubes may show a wheel, and in turn, the wheel may show radial tubes arranged as spokes. A flexible interconnect originates from magnetic fields. Neutrino astronomy indicates fractal structure in the core of stars and galaxies. Fractals are fundamental for modeling baryonic filaments important in "dark matter" with a topology that can be inferred from radiating cosmic objects. The rupture of dark-matter filaments may cause formation of cosmic objects including birth of the Universe.

  11. Hepatic hydatid cyst rupture and anaphylaxis after a fall.

    PubMed

    Elmali, Muzaffer; Ceyhan, Meltem; Ilgar, Mehtap; Koprulu, Cinar; Ozfindik, Meral; Sancak, Recep

    2009-03-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented to the emergency unit complaining of dyspnea, urticaria and vomiting developed after he fell down when he was playing football. Abdominal ultrasound showed a ruptured hydatid cyst in the right lobe of the liver which was of communicating type. Echinococcus granulosus serologic tests were positive. Medical treatment was started immediately. One week later, follow up US showed no changes in the findings. Intrabdominal fluid leakage was not detected. Patient's general condition showed improvement and he was discharged 12 days later. PMID:19205650

  12. Rupture Process for Hayward Microearthquakes Inferred from Borehole Seismic Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in the San Francisco Bay Area, California is one of the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, extending for about 70 km. Crustal deformation along the HF is characterized by a wide variety of fault slip behaviors from aseismic creep to stick-slip earthquake including a Mw ~6.8 earthquake in 1868. We here document the high-resolution imaging of the rupture models for the recent M 3+ HF earthquakes by making use of waveforms from the Hayward Fault Network (HFN). The HFN is an array of borehole seismic instrumentation and provides an unprecedented high-resolution coverage of the earthquake source study for HF earthquakes. Using the finite-source rupture inversion with an empirical Green's function approach, we find a variety of rupture propagations including subevents, directivity, and high stress drop. Our finite-source modeling reveals a complex slip distribution for the 2013 Mw 3.2 Orinda earthquake that is characterized by a patch of slip with a maximum slip of 4 cm concentrated near the hypocenter at about 6.6 km depth, with a large secondary patch of slip (peak slip of 2 cm) centered up-dip and southeast from the hypocenter at a distance of about 400 m away. The two subevents release 43% and 23% of the total seismic moment (6.7 x 1013 N m) and the inferred peak stress drops are 18 MPa and 10 MPa. The 2011 Mw 4.0 Berkeley and 2012 Mw 4.0 El Cerrito earthquakes are marked by high stress drop. The inferred peak and mean stress drops are about 130-165 MPa and 45 MPa, respectively, which suggests that there are locally high levels of the fault strength on the HF. Our finite-source modeling suggests that the radiation efficiency determined for these two earthquakes is very low (< 0.1) and implies that majority of energy is dissipated during the earthquake rupture process.

  13. Imaging signs and radiologists' jargon of ruptured breast implants.

    PubMed

    Beekman, W H; van Straalen, W R; Hage, J J; Taets van Amerongen, A H; Mulder, J W

    1998-09-01

    Silicone gel leakage problems are central to the furor over the complications alleged to be caused by breast implants. Because clinical examination may not reveal confirmatory signs of gel bleed or rupture, radiologists are often requested by plastic surgeons to evaluate the integrity of the implant's envelope. The findings of the various imaging investigations are reported in terms such as "teardrop," "linguini," and "snowstorm." To interpret the radiologist's report correctly, the plastic surgeon should be familiar with these terms and the findings they represent. In this article, we present an explanation of the radiologists' vocabulary in these matters, as well as an indication as to the significance of the various signs. PMID:9734460

  14. Abdominal aortic rupture from an impaling osteophyte following blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Seth A; Murphy, William R C; Murphy, Todd W; Haan, James M

    2014-04-01

    Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta is highly fatal. We present an unusual case of an osteophyte impaling the abdominal aorta treated by endovascular repair. A 77-year-old man sustained a thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation with posterior aortic rupture between his celiac and superior mesenteric artery origins. His aortic injury was treated with a stent graft, excluding the celiac origin. He was dismissed on postoperative day 6. At 6 months, he had returned to most preinjury activities, and at 2-year follow-up, he continues to have good functional outcome. Endovascular repair may be successfully employed in select aortic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients. PMID:23810261

  15. Autologous Pericardial Reconstruction of Ruptured Salmonella Mycotic Aortic Arch Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Landau, John H; Nagpal, A Dave; Chu, Michael W A

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of surgery for mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysms include control of sepsis, radical debridement of infected tissue, anatomic or extra-anatomic aortic reconstruction, and prevention of recurrent infection. Patients with Salmonella aortitis are a challenging subgroup of patients with aggressive infection and very poor prognosis, because bacterial eradication is difficult and risk of recurrent infection is high. We report the successful surgical management of a patient who presented with a ruptured Salmonella aortic arch aneurysm with extensive debridement and near circumferential autologous pericardial patch reconstruction of the aortic arch. PMID:26526328

  16. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopinski, Piotr

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  17. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-07-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. PMID:26323967

  18. Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part I: Structure and Rupture of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesakkers, V.; Murphy, S.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the structure of the Archaean Pretorius fault in TauTona mine, South Africa, as well as the rupture-zone that recently reactivated it. The analysis is part of the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) project that utilizes the access to 3.6 km depth provided by the mining operations. The Pretorius fault is a ~10 km long, oblique-strike-slip fault with displacement of up to 200 m that crosscuts fine to very coarse grain quartzitic rocks in TauTona mine. We identify here three structural zones within the fault-zone: (1) an outer damage zone, ~100 m wide, of brittle deformation manifested by multiple, widely spaced fractures and faults with slip up to 3 m; (2) an inner damage zone, 25-30 m wide, with high density of anastomosing conjugate sets of fault segments and fractures, many of which carry cataclasite zones; and (3) a dominant segment, with a cataclasite zone up to 50 cm thick that accommodated most of the Archaean slip of the Pretorius fault, and is regarded as the `principal slip zone' (PSZ). This fault-zone structure indicates that during its Archaean activity, the Pretorius fault entered the mature fault stage in which many slip events were localized along a single, PSZ. The mining operations continuously induce earthquakes, including the 2004, M2.2 event that rejuvenated the Pretorius fault in the NELSAM project area. Our analysis of the M2.2 rupture-zone shows that (1) slip occurred exclusively along four, pre-existing large, quasi-planer segments of the ancient fault-zone; (2) the slipping segments contain brittle cataclasite zones up to 0.5 m thick; (3) these segments are not parallel to each other; (4) gouge zones, 1-5 mm thick, composed of white `rock-flour' formed almost exclusively along the cataclasite-host rock contacts of the slipping segments; (5) locally, new, fresh fractures branched from the slipping segments and propagated in mixed shear-tensile mode; (6) the maximum observed shear displacement is 25 mm in oblique-normal slip. The mechanical analysis of this rupture-zone is presented in Part II (H eesakkers et al., Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part II: Mechanics of the 2004 M2.2 Earthquake Along the Pretorius Fault, TauTona mine, South Africa 2011, this volume).

  19. Multiple barriers in forced rupture of protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D.

    2012-01-01

    Curvatures in the most probable rupture force (f*) versus log-loading rate (log?rf) observed in dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) on biomolecular complexes are interpreted using a one-dimensional free energy profile with multiple barriers or a single barrier with force-dependent transition state. Here, we provide a criterion to select one scenario over another. If the rupture dynamics occurs by crossing a single barrier in a physical free energy profile describing unbinding, the exponent ?, from (1 ? f*/fc)1/? ? (log?rf) with fc being a critical force in the absence of force, is restricted to 0.5 ? ? ? 1. For biotin-ligand complexes and leukocyte-associated antigen-1 bound to intercellular adhesion molecules, which display large curvature in the DFS data, fits to experimental data yield ? < 0.5, suggesting that if ligand unbinding is assumed to proceed along one-dimensional pulling coordinate, the dynamics should occur in a energy landscape with multiple-barriers. PMID:22894385

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Aortocaval Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzardi, Giuseppe Fossaceca, Rita; Divenuto, Ignazio; Musiani, Antonello; Brustia, Piero; Carriero, Alessandro

    2010-08-15

    Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We report the endovascular repair of an AAA rupture into the inferior vena cava. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for acute hypotension. She presented with a pulsatile abdominal mass and became rapidly anuric. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed an AAA rupture into the inferior vena cava. The features of the AAA made it suitable for endovascular repair. To prevent pulmonary embolism caused by the presence of sac thrombosis near the vena cava lumen, a temporary vena cava filter was deployed before the procedure. A bifurcated stent-graft was placed with the patient under local anaesthesia, and the AAA was successfully treated. A transient type II endoleak was detected on CT 3 days after endograft placement. At routine follow-up 6 and 12 months after the procedure, the patient was in good clinical condition, and the type II endoleak had sealed completely. Endovascular treatment offers an attractive therapeutic alternative to open repair in case of ACF; however, only small numbers of patients have been treated, and long-term follow-up interval is lacking.

  1. Friction from formation and rupture of molecular contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbakh, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Frictional motion plays a central role in diverse systems and phenomena that span vast ranges of scales, from the nanometer contacts inherent in micro- and nanomachines and biological molecular motors to the geophysical scales characteristic for earthquakes. Despite the practical and fundamental importance of friction and the growing efforts in the field, many key aspects of dynamics of friction are still not well understood. One of the main difficulties in understanding and predicting frictional response is the complexity of highly non-equilibrium processes going on in any tribological contact which include detachment and re-attachment of multiple microscopic contacts (bonds) between the surfaces in relative motion while still in contact. In this lecture I will discuss microscopic models which establish relationships between the dynamics of formation and rupture of individual contacts and frictional phenomena. First, I will introduce a phenomenological model that describes friction through thermally activated rupture and formation of molecular contacts. Then, I will focus on a microscopic model that includes the effect of thermally activated jumps of the surface atoms between the sliding surfaces on nanoscopic friction. I will show that the proposed models explain a nonmonotonic dependence of friction on temperature, which has been observed in recent friction force microscopy experiments for different material classes. These models offer a new conceptual framework to describe the dynamics of nanoscale friction.

  2. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1?MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  3. Earthquake Recurrence and Rupture Dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ragona, Daniel; Thakur, Vikram C.; Seitz, Gordon G.

    2001-12-01

    The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last two earthquakes was at minimum 4.6 meters and 2.4 to 4.0 meters, respectively, and possibly larger for the 260 A.D. event. Abandoned terraces of the adjacent Markanda River record uplift due to slip on the underlying HFT of 4.8 +/- 0.9 millimeters per year or greater since the mid-Holocene. The uplift rate is equivalent to rates of fault slip and crustal shortening of 9.6-3.5+7.0 millimeters per year and 8.4-3.6+7.3 millimeters per year, respectively, when it is assumed that the HFT dips 30° +/- 10°.

  4. Genetic basis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Baird, Arabella Elizabeth Gardiner; Carter, Stuart D; Innes, John F; Ollier, William E; Short, Andrea D

    2014-08-01

    Cranial Cruciate Ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most common forms of lameness in dogs and is analogous to rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans, for which it can serve as a model. As there is a strong breed-related predisposition to CCLR in dogs, a study was undertaken to consider putative genetic components in susceptible dog breeds. A candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping approach using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (Sequenom Ltd) was designed to investigate several CCLR-susceptible dog breeds and identify CCLR-associated genes/gene regions that may confer susceptibility or resistance. A meta-analysis was performed using the breed case/control candidate gene data to identify SNP associations that were common to the whole cohort of susceptible dogs. We identified SNPs in key genes involved in ligament strength, stability and extracellular matrix formation (COL5A1, COL5A2, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL11A1, COL24A1, FBN1, LOX, LTBP2) which were significantly associated with CCLR susceptibility across the dog breeds used in this study. These SNPs could have an involvement in CCLR due to a detrimental effect on ligament structure and strength. This is the first published candidate gene study that has revealed significant genetic associations with canine CCLR. PMID:24684544

  5. Rupture of Extra-Corporeal Circuit Tubing During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Cheemalapati Sai; Kumar, Palli Venkata Naresh; Satpathy, Soumya Kanta; Mohan, Kanteti Ram; Babu, Vedangi Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Roller pumps are widely used for cardiopulmonary bypass in developing nations by virtue of proven safety during several years of institutional use and cost effectiveness. However, careful adjustment of roller occlusion is needed because they are known to cause spallation, tubing wear, and the occasional incident of rupture of tubing in the extracorporeal circuit. Rupture of polyvinylchloride tubing in the pump raceway during repair of a ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old child is discussed. The event was managed by exclusion and replacement of the defective tubing during a short period of arrest. Use of an inappropriate boot pump and failure to detect its inclusion in the bypass circuit was a significant departure from protocol. However, because occlusion settings and duration of perfusion were within acceptable limits, a manufacturing flaw could also have contributed to tubing failure, and the event may or may not have been averted by the use of larger tubing. In conclusion, this incident reiterates the need for adherence to established protocol during assembly of the pump and draws attention to the fact that tubing integrity is not a guarantee and vigilance is warranted to handle its failure. PMID:18389670

  6. Pectoralis major tendon rupture: a biomechanical analysis of repair techniques.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan D; Lindsey, Derek P; McAdams, Timothy R

    2011-11-01

    Rupture of the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle to the proximal humerus is becoming a common injury. Repair of these ruptures increases patient satisfaction, strength, and cosmesis, and shortens return to competitive sports. Several repair techniques have been described, but recently many surgeons are using suture anchors. The traditional repair technique uses transosseous sutures, but no study has biomechanically compared the strength of these two repair techniques in human cadavers. Twelve fresh-frozen human shoulder specimens were dissected. The pectoralis major tendon insertion was cut from the bone and repaired using one of the two repair techniques: specimens were randomly assigned to transosseous trough with suture tied over bone versus four suture anchors. The fixation constructs were pulled to failure at 4?mm/s on a materials testing system. The mean ultimate failure load of the transosseous repairs was 611?N and the mean ultimate failure load of the suture anchor repair was 620?N. The mean stiffness of the transosseous repair was 32 and 28?N/mm for the suture anchor group. We found no statistically significant difference between these two repair techniques. PMID:21538507

  7. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  8. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1?MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  9. [Right-sided posttraumatic ruptures of the diaphragm].

    PubMed

    Hromádka, P; Cernohorský, S; Baader, M; Skach, J; Gaalová, R

    2010-10-01

    The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle. It has the most significant function in respiratory excursions and the ability to maintain the negative thoracic pressure. Diaphragm injuries are relatively rare and they are the result of blunt or, in our conditions less often, penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma. (The ratio of blunt traumas to penetrating ones is 9:1). The diaphragmatic injuries in blunt injuries occur as a result of the increased pressure gradient between the pleural and peritoneal cavity [1]. The first description of traumatic diaphragm rupture is ascribed to Sennertus from 1541. Other sources award the primacy to the French royal surgeon A. Pare in 1579 [2]. It is similar to the primacy of the surgical repair of diaphragmatic injuries. Rioffi in 1886 [3] versus Naumann in 1888 who operated on traumatic herniation of the stomach into the left chest cavity [2]. Diaphragmatic injury diagnosis is difficult even today [4]; up to 10-50% of cases are not recognized in time. Left-sided traumatic lesion of the diaphragm occurs in 80-90% of cases. Our paper focuses on the specifics of right-sided diaphragm ruptures where the protective ability of the liver is probably reflected. PMID:21374949

  10. Ruptured thymoma causing a hemothorax: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HOKKA, DAISUKE; OGAWA, HIROYUKI; TANE, SHINYA; TANAKA, YUGO; TAUCHI, SHUNSUKE; MANIWA, YOSHIMASA

    2015-01-01

    A thymoma is a neoplasm that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus, and may cause various signs and symptoms dependent upon its local extent. A non-traumatic hemothorax is extremely rare. The present study reports the case of a 77-year-old female who presented with an acute onset of chest pain. Imaging procedures revealed a mass occupying the anterior mediastinum and left hemithorax, and a left pleural effusion. Progressive anemia was noted following admission. Left hemothorax due to rupture of the anterior mediastinal mass was suspected, and emergency surgery was performed. Hemorrhage was observed on the cut surface of the tumor. An analysis of frozen sections indicated a thymoma, and a thymo-partial thymectomy was subsequently performed to remove as much of the hematoma as possible. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 13 following an uneventful recovery. The present case suggests that in previously healthy individuals, sudden-onset dyspnea and chest pain co-occurring with an acute widening of the mediastinum observed on roentgenograph may be indicative of a ruptured thymoma.

  11. Stress Rupture Fracture Model and Microstructure Evolution for Waspaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhihao; Zhang, Maicang; Dong, Jianxin

    2013-07-01

    Stress rupture behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloy Waspaloy specimens from tenon teeth of an as-received 60,000-hour service-exposed gas turbine disk were studied between 923 K and 1088 K (650 °C and 815 °C) under initial applied stresses varying from 150 to 840 MPa. Good microstructure stability and performance were verified for this turbine disk prior to stress rupture testing. Microstructure instability, such as the coarsening and dissolution of ?' precipitates at the varying test conditions, was observed to be increased with temperature and reduced stress. Little microstructure variation was observed at 923 K (650 °C). Only secondary ?' instability occurred at 973 K (700 °C). Four fracture mechanisms were obtained. Transgranular creep fracture was exhibited up to 923 K (650 °C) and at high stress. A mixed mode of transgranular and intergranular creep fracture occurred with reduced stress as a transition to intergranular creep fracture (ICF) at low stress. ICF was dominated by grain boundary sliding at low temperature and by the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities due to microstructure instability at high temperature. The fracture mechanism map and microstructure-related fracture model were constructed. Residual lifetime was also evaluated by the Larson-Miller parameter method.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Shuttle Transportation System Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels for Stress Rupture Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Carillo, Marlene; Thesken, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing stress rupture testing on Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose for Testing; 2) NASA WSTF COPV Test Program; 3) NASA WSTF Test Facilities; 4) COPV Impact Study; 5) Fluids Compatibility Testing; 6) Stress Rupture Testing; and 7) COPV Lifting.

  13. Incidental detection of rupture of substitute urinary bladder on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Takahiro; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2013-07-01

    We report here a case of rupture of a substitute urinary bladder due to a relapse of bladder cancer detected incidentally on a bone scan. The radionuclides used in bone scans accumulate in the bone and are excreted in the urine. Incidental detection of rupture of a substitute urinary bladder may lead to appropriate intermediate neobladder repair. PMID:23579969

  14. 46 CFR 54.15-13 - Rupture disks (modifies UG-127).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). 54.15-13 Section 54.15-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-13 Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). (a) Paragraph UG-127 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  15. The structure of rupture fronts at the onset of frictional motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlizky, I.; Fineberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the failure of frictional interfaces and its spatiotemporal structure is crucial for our fundamental understanding of earthquakes. In the laboratory, we mimic ruptures along natural faults by performing dynamic stick-slip experiments along quasi one-dimensional spatially extended interfaces. We perform simultaneous measurements (at ?sec time scale) of the real area of contact together with corresponding real-time (?sec time scale) measurements of spatial profiles of all stress components adjacent to the interface. These measurements enable us to uncover the breakdown process near the tip of the slipping zone for rapidly propagating ruptures. The ruptures studied in this work range from slow rupture fronts (approximately 1% of the Rayleigh wave speed) to the Rayleigh wave speed. We will demonstrate that failure of frictional interfaces is governed by well-defined fracture processes. For the vast range of rupture velocities many nontrivial features of the stress fields observed in the experiment can be quantitatively described by classic linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). We will show, however, that aspects of these solutions systematically fail to describe very rapid ruptures that asymptotically approach the Rayleigh wave speed. While these studies were performed in brittle acrylics, the generality of these results and the corresponding fracture mechanics-based descriptions suggests their strong relevance to the dynamic rupture of natural faults. Experimental measurements of real-time stresses correspond to the fracture mechanical solution (shown) of the singular stress field surrounding a rapidly propagating rupture along a frictional interface.

  16. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum pressure and temperature,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section 25.1453 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section 25.1453 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum pressure and temperature,...

  20. Seismic response to slab rupture and variation in lithospheric structure beneath the Savu Sea, Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    Seismic response to slab rupture and variation in lithospheric structure beneath the Savu Sea depth seismicity Indonesia Savu Sea Slab rupture Variations in seismic moment release and stress state the western Savu Sea is unusual in that intermediate depth (70­300 km) events indicate that at this depth

  1. Biomechanical assessment of the individual risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms: a proof of concept

    E-print Network

    Nicoud, Franck

    Biomechanical assessment of the individual risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms: a proof-based measurement of the patient specific risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Following a previous exper- imental aneurysms, fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed to compare the deformations of a patient

  2. Effect of shear rupture on aggregate scale formation in sea ice Alexander V. Wilchinsky,1

    E-print Network

    Feltham, Daniel

    Effect of shear rupture on aggregate scale formation in sea ice Alexander V. Wilchinsky,1 Daniel L to the analytical critical confinement ratio of 0.32. Below this value, the cracks are bimodal delineating diamond. A. Hopkins (2010), Effect of shear rupture on aggregate scale formation in sea ice, J. Geophys. Res

  3. Patterns of Therapeutic Alliance: Rupture-Repair Episodes in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, AnnaMaria Aguirre; Keller, Stephanie M.; Feeny, Norah C.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand the role of therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment, we examined patterns of and shifts in alliance. First, we identified individuals with repaired ruptures, unrepaired ruptures, and no ruptures in alliance. Then, we explored group differences in these alliance events for clients with common clinical correlates (i.e., co-occurring depression and childhood abuse history) and whether or not the presence of these events influenced treatment outcome. Method At pre-treatment, clients (N = 116); 76.1% female; 66% Caucasian; age M = 36.7 years (SD = 11.3) completed measures assessing PTSD diagnosis and severity (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview and Self-Report), depression diagnosis and severity (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Beck Depression Inventory), and trauma history. During ten weeks of prolonged exposure therapy, alliance (California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale) measures were completed. At post-treatment, PTSD and depression were re-assessed. Results Ruptures in alliance were quite common (46%). No significant differences emerged in the frequency of repaired ruptures, unrepaired ruptures, or no ruptures between those with and without co-occurring MDD, X2 (2, N = 82) = 2.69, p =. 26, or those with and without a history of childhood abuse, X2 (2, N = 81) = 0.57, p = .75. Unrepaired ruptures predicted worse treatment outcome (? = .45, p = .001). Conclusions The current study underscores the importance of attending to discontinuities in alliance throughout treatment. PMID:24188510

  4. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section 25.1453 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum pressure and temperature,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section 25.1453 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum pressure and temperature,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section 25.1453 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum pressure and temperature,...

  10. Constructing subsurface structures of the Chelungpu fault to investigate mechanisms leading to abnormally large ruptures during

    E-print Network

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    to abnormally large ruptures during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan Chien-Ying Wang, Chien-Li Li, and Hsiang, a NS oriented thrust fault, was activated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6), Taiwan. At its the abnormal rupturing of the Chelungpu fault. INDEX TERMS: 0935 Exploration Geophysics: Seismic methods (3025

  11. Spontaneous splenic rupture in an active duty Marine upon return from Iraq: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare event that has been associated with several infectious disease processes. In the active duty military population, potential exposure to these pathogens is significant. Here we discuss the case of an active duty Marine with spontaneous splenic rupture upon return from a six-month deployment in Iraq. Case presentation A previously healthy 30-year-old Caucasian male active duty Marine presented with abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea after deployment to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Based on clinical and radiographic evidence, a diagnosis of spontaneous splenic rupture was ultimately suspected. After exploratory laparotomy with confirmation of rupture, splenectomy was performed, and the patient made a full, uneventful recovery. Histopathologic examination revealed mild splenomegaly with a ruptured capsule of undetermined cause. Conclusion Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare event that may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage if not diagnosed and treated quickly. Although the cause of this patient's case was unknown, atraumatic splenic rupture has been associated with a variety of infectious diseases and demonstrates some risks the active duty military population may face while on deployment. Having an awareness of these pathogens and their role in splenic rupture, clinicians caring for military personnel must be prepared to recognize and treat this potentially fatal complication. PMID:21054871

  12. Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3) --The Time-Independent Model

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bruce E.

    Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3) --The Time-Independent Model, and Yuehua Zeng Abstract The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP14) present the time-independent component of the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3

  13. Partial rupture of a locked patch of the Sumatra megathrust during the 2007 earthquake sequence

    E-print Network

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    LETTERS Partial rupture of a locked patch of the Sumatra megathrust during the 2007 earthquake of the area ruptured in 1833 and consist of distinct asperities within a patch of the megathrust that had strain accumulation in the interseismic period, with stress building up around locked patches

  14. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  15. Transcatheter Arterial Coil Embolization of Ruptured Common Hepatic Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Akihiro; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Asahi, Kouichi; Okada, Shingo; Tsuge, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysm is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. We report a case of ruptured common hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the preferred treatment modality in patients at high risk of surgical intervention. PMID:25821623

  16. Amplification of Tsunami Heights by Delayed Rupture of Great Earthquakes along the Nankai Trough

    E-print Network

    Furumura, Takashi

    Amplification of Tsunami Heights by Delayed Rupture of Great Earthquakes along the Nankai Trough of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai

  17. 46 CFR 54.15-13 - Rupture disks (modifies UG-127).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). 54.15-13 Section 54.15-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-13 Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). (a) Paragraph UG-127 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  18. 46 CFR 54.15-13 - Rupture disks (modifies UG-127).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). 54.15-13 Section 54.15-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-13 Rupture disks (modifies UG-127). (a) Paragraph UG-127 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  19. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis after proximal humerus fracture associated with axillary artery rupture.

    PubMed

    Mouzopoulos, G; Lasanianos, N; Mouzopoulos, D; Batanis, G; Tzurbakis, M; Georgilas, I

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of axillary artery to the humeral head makes it quite vulnerable to blunt trauma during shoulder injury. Axillary artery rupture and prolonged ischemia may lead to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Herein we present a case of a patient who sustained proximal humerus fracture associated with axillary artery rupture and acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. PMID:18587662

  20. Imaging of ruptured endocyst in an isolated intramuscular hydatid cyst - The Scroll appearance

    PubMed Central

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Rajan, Sriram; Aggarwal, Bharat; Sahu, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    The present article reports a case of a 21 years male that was diagnosed to have isolated intramuscular hydatid cyst of the biceps brachii on Ultrasound and MRI. The ‘Scroll appearance’ of the ruptured endocyst in this case is likely to be an intervening transient stage in evolution of the disease and also indicates recent rupture of the endocyst. PMID:23365713

  1. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture after intervention of the right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Morris, Liam; Desai, Anand; Akkus, Nuri Ilker

    2015-11-01

    Rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle following a right coronary artery occlusion is extremely rare, and when complicated by a right ventricular infarction, can be fatal. The literature on optimal management of this complication is limited. We present an unusual case of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture following intervention of the right coronary artery. PMID:26507415

  2. From Rupture to Resonance: Uncertainty and Scholarship in Fine Art Research Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Beverley; Holbrook, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of "rupture" identified in student narratives of uncertainty and scholarship experienced during the course of Fine Art research degrees in two Australian universities. Rupture captures the phenomenon of severe disruption or discontinuity in existing knowledge and typically signifies epistemological rift for…

  3. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along one-dimensional frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, David Skâlid; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasistatic velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a one-dimensional (1D) spring-block model of an extended frictional interface for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons-Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates steady-state rupture fronts and we give an approximate expression for this effect. We demonstrate that the 1D results are qualitatively valid in 2D. Our results provide insights into the qualitative role of various key parameters of a frictional interface on its rupture dynamics. They will be useful to better understand the many systems in which spring-block models have proved adequate, from friction to granular matter and earthquake dynamics.

  4. Detailed rupture imaging of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake using teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake with globally recorded teleseismic P waves. The rupture propagated east-southeast from the hypocenter for about 160 km with a duration of ˜55 s. Backprojection of both high-frequency (HF, 0.2 to 3 Hz) and low-frequency (LF, 0.05 to 0.2 Hz) P waves suggest a multistage rupture process. From the low-frequency images, we resolve an initial slow downdip (northward) rupture near the nucleation area for the first 20 s (Stage 1), followed by two faster updip ruptures (20 to 40 s for Stage 2 and 40 to 55 s for Stage 3), which released most of the radiated energy northeast of Kathmandu. The centroid rupture power from LF backprojection agrees well with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor solution. The spatial resolution of the backprojection images is validated by applying similar analysis to nearby aftershocks. The overall rupture pattern agrees well with the aftershock distribution. A multiple-asperity model could explain the observed multistage rupture and aftershock distribution.

  5. The 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    The 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy Xiaopeng Tong,1 with the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. The ALOS interferograms reveal a sharp transition in fringe. (2010), The 2010 Maule, Chile earth- quake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy, Geo- phys

  6. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along one-dimensional frictional interfaces.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasistatic velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a one-dimensional (1D) spring-block model of an extended frictional interface for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons-Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates steady-state rupture fronts and we give an approximate expression for this effect. We demonstrate that the 1D results are qualitatively valid in 2D. Our results provide insights into the qualitative role of various key parameters of a frictional interface on its rupture dynamics. They will be useful to better understand the many systems in which spring-block models have proved adequate, from friction to granular matter and earthquake dynamics. PMID:26465481

  7. Can Surgeons Assess CT Suitability for Endovascular Repair (EVAR) in Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm? Implications for a Ruptured EVAR Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Rayt, Harjeet Lambert, Kelly; Bown, Matthew; Fishwick, Guy; Morgan, Robert; McCarthy, Mark; London, Nick; Sayers, Robert

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeons without formal radiological training are able to assess suitability of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) for EVAR. The CT scans of 20 patients with AAA were reviewed under timed conditions by six vascular surgeons. Twenty minutes was allocated per scan. They were asked to determine if each aneurysm would be treatable by EVAR in the emergency setting and, if so, to measure for device selection. The results were then compared with those of a vascular radiologist. Six surgeons agreed on the suitability of endovascular repair in 45% of cases (95% CI, 23.1-68.5%; 9/20 scans; {kappa} = 0.41 [p = 0.01]) and concurred with the radiologist in eight of these. Individually, agreement ranged from 13 to 16 of the 20 scans, 65-80% between surgeons. The kappa value for agreement between all the surgeons and the radiologist was 0.47 (p = 0.01, moderate agreement). For the individual surgeons, this ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, while overall agreement was moderate between the surgeons and the radiologist, it is clear that if surgeons are to assess patients for ruptured EVAR in the future, focused training of surgical trainees is required.

  8. Numerical simulations of large earthquakes: Dynamic rupture propagation on heterogeneous faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Our current conceptions of earthquake rupture dynamics, especially for large earthquakes, require knowledge of the geometry of the faults involved in the rupture, the material properties of the rocks surrounding the faults, the initial state of stress on the faults, and a constitutive formulation that determines when the faults can slip. In numerical simulations each of these factors appears to play a significant role in rupture propagation, at the kilometer length scale. Observational evidence of the earth indicates that at least the first three of the elements, geometry, material, and stress, can vary over many scale dimensions. Future research on earthquake rupture dynamics needs to consider at which length scales these features are significant in affecting rupture propagation. ?? Birkha??user Verlag, Basel, 2004.

  9. The role of internal chain dynamics on the rupture kinetics of adhesive contacts

    E-print Network

    V. Barsegov; G. Morrison; D. Thirumalai

    2008-05-07

    We study the forced rupture of adhesive contacts between monomers that are not covalently linked in a Rouse chain. When the applied force ($f$) to the chain end is less than the critical force for rupture ($f_c$), the {\\it reversible} rupture process is coupled to the internal Rouse modes. If $f/f_{c}$$>$1 the rupture is {\\it irreversible}. In both limits, the non-exponential distribution of contact lifetimes, which depends sensitively on the location of the contact, follows the double-exponential (Gumbel) distribution. When two contacts are well separated along the chain, the rate limiting step in the {\\it sequential} rupture kinetics is the disruption of the contact that is in the chain interior. If the two contacts are close to each other, they cooperate to sustain the stress, which results in an ``all-or-none'' transition.

  10. Propose a Wall Shear Stress Divergence to Estimate the Risks of Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Takao, H.; Murayama, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Although wall shear stress (WSS) has long been considered a critical indicator of intracranial aneurysm rupture, there is still no definite conclusion as to whether a high or a low WSS results in aneurysm rupture. The reason may be that the effect of WSS direction has not been fully considered. The objectives of this study are to investigate the magnitude of WSS (|WSS|) and its divergence on the aneurysm surface and to test the significance of both in relation to the aneurysm rupture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to compute WSS and wall shear stress divergence (WSSD) on the aneurysm surface for nineteen patients. Our results revealed that if high |WSS| is stretching aneurysm luminal surface, and the stretching region is concentrated, the aneurysm is under a high risk of rupture. It seems that, by considering both direction and magnitude of WSS, WSSD may be a better indicator for the risk estimation of aneurysm rupture (154). PMID:24191140

  11. Quantitative evaluation of the ease of rupture of industrially promising microalgae by high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Spiden, Erin M; Yap, Benjamin H J; Hill, David R A; Kentish, Sandra E; Scales, Peter J; Martin, Gregory J O

    2013-07-01

    The susceptibility to rupture of the microalgae Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis suecica by high pressure homogenization was compared quantitatively to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods for quantifying cell rupture were investigated including cell counting, turbidity, metabolite release and particle sizing. Cell counting was the only reliable method for quantitative comparisons of all microalgae, with turbidity complicated by agglomeration of cell debris for T. suecica, and measurement of metabolite release affected by degradation occurring for all microalgae after significant rupture. The rupture of all microalgae followed exponential decay as a function of number of passes. The pressure required to achieve rupture of 50% of the cells per pass was determined to be 170, 1070, 1380, and ca. 2000 bar for Tetraselmis sp., Chlorella sp., S. cerevisiae, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. These results extend the criteria for selecting microalgae for industrial applications beyond consideration of growth and compositional attributes. PMID:23688668

  12. [Delayed and fortuitous diagnosis of right diaphragmatic rupture during preoperative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ould-Ahmed, M; Choplain, J-N; Andre, M; Mondine, P; Potier, L

    2005-04-01

    Although diaphragmatic rupture occurs after violent blunt trauma, its diagnosis is often delayed. The intra-thoracic displacement of abdominal organs through diaphragmatic rupture may lead to early or delayed complications because of compression of heart and lungs or strangulation of the abdominal viscera. A 49-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo elective lumbar disc surgery in prone position. The preoperative chest radiograph revealed an abnormally elevated right hemi diaphragm with loops of colon filling the right costophrenic angle. The CT-scan confirmed right chronic diaphragmatic rupture with colon and liver herniations. Fifteen months previously, this woman had been involved in a traffic accident, with blunt right trauma resulting in right pelvic fractures. Perianaesthetic course increase the pre-existing mechanical risk of complications of chronic diaphragmatic rupture. Primary repair of right chronic diaphragmatic rupture through thoracotomy must be recommended. When another surgery must be done in emergency, the feasibility of regional anaesthesia should be considered. PMID:15826792

  13. Patellar Tendon Rupture after Lateral Release without Predisposing Systemic Disease or Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, S.; Notarnicola, A.; Vicenti, G.; Moretti, B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and often unilateral lesion. Nevertheless, in case of systemic diseases (LES, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic renal insufficiency) that can weaken collagen structures, bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are described. We report a case of a 24-year-old girl with spontaneous rupture of patellar tendon who, at the age of 16, underwent an arthroscopic lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. This is the first case of described spontaneous patellar tendon rupture that occurred some years after an arthroscopic lateral release. PMID:25960904

  14. Flexor tendon repair after rupture caused by volar plate fixation of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Rubensson, Carin C; Ydreborg, Karin; Boren, Linda; Karlander, Lars-Erik

    2015-04-01

    Volar plate fixation of unstable fractures of the distal radius is preferred by a majority of surgeons today. One known complication is the rupture of flexor tendons. The aim of this paper is to present flexor tendon ruptures after volar plate fixation analysing the clinical outcome after tendon surgery, aetiology, and methods of prevention. Seventeen consecutive ruptures in 14 patients were included. The incidence was 1.4%. Three patients declined tendon surgery. Eleven patients were treated with a free tendon graft. Only two patients showed excellent results regarding mobility in the thumb and/or fingers. Analysis of radiographs demonstrated sub-optimal placement of plate or screws in all cases. Rupture of a flexor tendon is a serious complication where the functional outcome after surgical reconstruction is uncertain. Early removal of the plate when the placement is sub-optimal or when local volar tenderness appears would probably prevent many ruptures. PMID:25162925

  15. Rupture dimensions of the 1998 Antarctic Earthquake from low-frequency waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Zhao, Li; Jordan, Thomas H.

    2000-08-01

    We inverted frequency dependent phase and amplitude measurements from 1st orbit Rayleigh waves at global stations for the 1st and 2nd degree polynomial moments of the stress-glut rate tensor. The higher moments of the slip-rate distribution determine the fault plane and approximate rupture dimensions. The results show strong rupture propagation to the west with an average velocity of the instantaneous centroid of 3.6±.1 km/s. The rupture had a characteristic length of 178±46 km in the east-west direction and a characteristic duration of 48±2 s. The results are consistent with unilateral rupture on the east-west fault plane of the focal mechanism and rule out significant rupture on the north-south nodal plane.

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Aqueous Nanofilm Rupture by Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tiefeng; Nguyen, Anh V.; Peng, Hong; Dang, Liem X.

    2012-01-26

    In this study, we used molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the rupture process for a water film to define and determine the critical rupture time (CRT). This new approach could be an important method for authentically defining and determining the rupture point of a water film and associated phenomena. We were able to generically predict the CRT and the critical thickness of the water film. Then, we studied the effect of ions on the film rupture process. Our results showed that addition of sodium chloride did not significantly affect on the stability of the water film. Results from MD simulations, when compared with results from experimental measurements, can provide insights into the film rupture process.

  17. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 108, NO. B?, PAGES 119, 2003 Effects of pre-stress state and rupture

    E-print Network

    Kame, Nobuki

    is controlled by rupture velocity vr and the preexisting stress state [Poli- akov et al., 2002]. In describing ahead, when rupture velocity vr becomes close to the lim- iting velocity, which is the Rayleigh wave

  18. Rupture Dynamics of Strike-Slip Faults with Stepovers: From Conceptually Simplified to Realistically Complex Fault Systems 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Zaifeng

    2014-05-05

    This dissertation investigates the interaction of model II in-plane dynamic rupture with a geometrical discontinuity along the fault strike: stepover. One goal is to understand how large the stepover width must be to stop the dynamic rupture...

  19. Rupture History of the 2001 Nisqually Washington Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Creager, K. C.; Crosson, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    We analyze the temporal-spatial rupture history of the magnitude 6.8 February 28, 2001 Nisqually earthquake using about two dozen 3-component strong-motion records from the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) and the USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) network. We employ a finite-fault inversion scheme similar to Hartzell and Heaton [Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 1983] to recover the slip history. We assume rupture initiates at the epicenter and origin time determined using PNSN P arrival times and a high-resolution 3-D velocity model. Hypocentral depth is 54 km based on our analysis of teleseismic pP-P times and the regional 3-D model. Using the IASP91 standard Earth model to explain the pP-P times gives a depth of 58 km. Three-component strong motion accelerograms are integrated to obtain velocity, low-pass filtered at 4 s period and windowed to include the direct P- and S- wave arrivals. Theoretical Green's functions are calculated using the Direct Solution Method (DSM) [Cummins, etal, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1994] for each of 169, 4km x 4km, subfaults which lie on one of the two fault plates specified by the Harvard CMT solution. A unique 1-D model that gives an adequate representation of velocity structure for each station is obtained by path averaging the 3-D tomographic model. The S velocity model is generated from the P velocity model. For Vp larger than 4.5 km/s, We use the linear relationship Vs=0.18+0.52Vp obtained from laboratory measurements of local mafic rock samples. For slower velocities, probably associated with sedimentary rocks, we derived Vs=Vp/2.04 which best fits the strong-motion S-arrival times. The resulting source model indicates unilateral rupture along a fault that is elongated in the north-south direction. Inversion for the near vertical (strike 1° , dip 72° ) and horizontal (strike 183° , dip 18° ) fault planes reveal the same source directivity, however, the horizontal fault plane gives a slightly better fit to the data than the vertical one. We will also incorporate teleseismic P pP and sP waves into the waveform modeling to provide additional constraints on vertical source directivity.

  20. Sex Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Brorsson, Annelie; Olsson, Nicklas; Eriksson, Bengt I.; Karlsson, Jon; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tendon healing differs between the sexes. Comparisons in outcome between the sexes after an Achilles tendon rupture are often not possible because of the small cohort (<20%) of women. Purpose: To evaluate whether there are any differences in outcome between the sexes by combining the data from 2 large randomized controlled trials that used identical outcome measures. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Included in the evaluation were patients from 2 consecutive randomized controlled trials comparing surgical and nonsurgical treatment performed at our research laboratory. Patients who had a rerupture were excluded from analysis. A total of 182 patients (152 males, 30 females), with mean ± SD age of 40 ± 11 years, were included; 94 (76 males, 18 females) were treated with surgery and 88 (76 males, 12 females) nonsurgically. Patient-reported outcome was evaluated using the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), and the functional outcome was measured with a heel-rise test (measurement of muscular endurance and heel-rise height) at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results: Male patients had a greater improvement in heel-rise height at 12 months (P = .004). When each treatment group was analyzed separately, it was found that female patients had significantly (P < .03) more symptoms after surgical treatment (mean ± SD ATRS, 59 ± 24) compared with males at 6 (73 ± 19) and 12 months (74 ± 27 vs 86.5 ± 17). This sex difference was not found in the nonsurgical treatment group. For the entire group, there were no significant differences between treatments on ATRS at 6 and 12 months. The surgical group had significantly better results compared with the nonsurgical group in heel-rise endurance at 6 and 12 months and in heel-rise height recovery at 6 months (P < .03 for both). Conclusion: Sex differences were demonstrated, and female patients had a greater degree of deficit in heel-rise height as compared with males, irrespective of treatment. Females had more symptoms after surgery both at 6 and 12 months, but this difference was not found when treated nonsurgically. Clinical Relevance: Further research is needed to determine whether women will benefit more from nonsurgical compared with surgical treatment after an Achilles tendon rupture.

  1. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, underground mining industry has developed high-technology mass mining methods to optimise the productivity at deep levels. Such massive extraction induces high-level stress redistribution generating seismic events around the mining works, threatening safety and economics. For this reason mining irregular deep ore bodies calls for steadily enhanced scientific practises and technologies to guarantee the mine environment to be safer and stable for the miners and the infrastructures. INERIS, within the framework of the FP7 European project I2Mine and in partnership with the Swedish mining company Boliden, has developed new methodologies in order to monitor both quasi-static stress changes and ruptures in a seismic prone area. To this purpose, a unique local permanent microseismic and stress monitoring network has been installed into the deep-working Garpenberg mine situated to the north of Uppsala (Sweden). In this mine, ore is extracted using sublevel stoping with paste fill production/distribution system and long-hole drilling method. This monitoring network has been deployed between about 1100 and 1250 meter depth. It consists in six 1-component and five 3-component microseismic probes (14-Hz geophones) deployed in the Lappberget area, in addition to three 3D stress monitoring cells that focus on a very local exploited area. Objective is three-fold: to quantify accurately quasi-static stress changes and freshly-induced stress gradients with drift development in the orebody, to study quantitatively those stress changes versus induced detected and located microseismic ruptures, and possibly to identify quasi-static stress transfer from those seismic ruptures. Geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired continuously and automatically transferred to INERIS datacenter through the web. They are made available on a secured web cloud monitoring infrastructure called e.cenaris and completed with mine data. Such interface enables the visualisation of the monitoring data coming from the mine in quasi-real time and facilitates information exchanges and decision making for experts and stakeholders. On the basis of these data acquisition and sharing, preliminary analysis has been started to highlight whether stress variations and seismic sources behaviour might be directly bound with mine working evolution and could improve the knowledge on the equilibrium states inside the mine. Knowing such parameters indeed will be a potential solution to understand better the response of deep mining activities to the exploitation solicitations and to develop, if possible, methods to prevent from major hazards such as rock bursts and other ground failure phenomena.

  2. Risk Factors for Aneurysm Rupture in Patients Kept Under Ultrasound Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise C.; Powell, Janet T.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors associated with aneurysm rupture using patients randomized into the U.K. Small Aneurysm Trial (n = 1090) or monitored for aneurysm growth in the associated study (n = 1167). Summary Background Data The U.K. Small Aneurysm Trial has shown that ultrasound surveillance is a safe management option for patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms (4.0 to 5.5 cm in diameter), with an annual rupture rate of 1%. Methods In the cohort of 2257 patients (79% male), aged 59 to 77 years, 103 instances of abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture were identified during the 7-year period of follow-up (1991–1998). Almost all patients (98%) had initial aneurysm diameters in the range of 3 to 6 cm, and the majority of ruptures (76%) occurred in patients with aneurysms ?5 cm in diameter. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis were used to identify baseline risk factors associated with aneurysm rupture. Results After 3 years, the annual rate of aneurysm rupture was 2.2% (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 2.8). The risk of rupture was independently and significantly associated with female sex (p < 0.001), larger initial aneurysm diameter (p < 0.001), lower FEV1 (p = 0.004), current smoking (p = 0.01), and higher mean blood pressure (p = 0.01). Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol concentration, and ankle/brachial pressure index were not associated with an increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Conclusions Within this cohort of patients, women had a threefold higher risk of aneurysm rupture than men. Effective control of blood pressure and cessation of smoking are likely to diminish the risk of rupture. PMID:10493476

  3. Induced rupture of vesicles adsorbed on glass by pore formation at the surface-bilayer interface.

    PubMed

    Kataoka-Hamai, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2015-02-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are often formed by spontaneous vesicle rupture and fusion on a solid surface. A well-characterized rupture mechanism for isolated vesicles is pore nucleation and expansion in the solution-exposed nonadsorbed area. In contrast, pore formation in the adsorbed bilayer region has not been investigated to date. In this work, we studied the detailed mechanisms of asymmetric rupture of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) adsorbed on glass using fluorescence microscopy. Asymmetric rupture is the pathway where a rupture pore forms in a GUV near the edge of the glass-bilayer interface with high curvature and then expansion of the pore yields a planar bilayer patch. We show that asymmetric rupture occasionally resulted in SLB patches bearing a defect pore. The defect formation probability depended on lipid composition, salt concentration, and pH. Approximately 40% of negatively charged GUVs under physiological conditions formed pore-containing SLB patches, while negatively charged GUVs at low salt concentration or pH 4.0 and positively charged GUVs exhibited a low probability of defect inclusion. The edge of the defect pore was either in contact with (on-edge) or away from (off-edge) the edge of the planar bilayer. On-edge pores were predominantly formed over off-edge defects. Pores initially formed in the glass-adsorbed region before rupture, most frequently in close contact with the edge of the adsorbed region. When a pore formed near the edge of the adsorbed area or when the edge of a pore reached that of the adsorbed area by pore expansion, asymmetric rupture was induced from the defect site. These induced rupture mechanisms yielded SLB patches with an on-edge pore. In contrast, off-edge pores were produced when defect pore generation and subsequent vesicle rupture were uncoupled. The current results demonstrate that pore formation in the surface-adsorbed region of GUVs is not a negligible event. PMID:25575280

  4. Creep rupture as a non-homogeneous Poissonian process

    PubMed Central

    Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Creep rupture of heterogeneous materials occurring under constant sub-critical external loads is responsible for the collapse of engineering constructions and for natural catastrophes. Acoustic monitoring of crackling bursts provides microscopic insight into the failure process. Based on a fiber bundle model, we show that the accelerating bursting activity when approaching failure can be described by the Omori law. For long range load redistribution the time series of bursts proved to be a non-homogeneous Poissonian process with power law distributed burst sizes and waiting times. We demonstrate that limitations of experiments such as finite detection threshold and time resolution have striking effects on the characteristic exponents, which have to be taken into account when comparing model calculations with experiments. Recording events solely within the Omori time to failure the size distribution of bursts has a crossover to a lower exponent which is promising for forecasting the imminent catastrophic failure. PMID:24045539

  5. Rupture of the musculotendinous cuff of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, G L

    1978-01-01

    Codman established the diagnostic criteria and treatment for musculotendinous cuff rupture over 40 years ago. Chronic shoulder pain after a history of trauma which is unresponsive to usual conservative treatment may indicate rotator cuff tear. Point tenderness, weakness of abduction and external rotation, atrophy, and palpable crepitus or a gap are confirming signs. X-rays may be negative in the acute injury but show definite changes with chronicity. An arthrogram confirms the presence of a tear. An electromyograph should be performed to rule out suprascapular nerve lesions. Surgical repair will result in good or excellent results in at least two-thirds of cases properly selected. Complications which can adversely influence the results include deltoid avulsion, residual impingement and ectopic bone formation. A successful repair is generally permanent. PMID:729251

  6. Damage and rupture mechanisms in an austenoferritic duplex steel

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaeghe, B.; Louchet, F.; Brechet, Y.; Massoud, J.P.

    1997-05-01

    The influence of ageing on damage and rupture mechanisms in an austenoferritic duplex stainless steel is studied using conventional straining and impact toughness testing at 20 C and 320 C, and in situ SEM straining at 20 C. While the as-received alloy fails in a ductile mode, damage in the aged material starts with cleavage nucleation in ferrite. The authors show that, owing to the bipercolated topology of the alloy, these cleavage cracks can propagate while passing round austenite ligaments whose plastic stretching controls the crack extension. The variations with strain of both the crack size and the average crack separation are computed analytically and their comparison gives a good prediction of ductility.

  7. Environmental Durability and Stress Rupture of EBC/CMCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the strength and creep performance of SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems under complex simulated engine environments. Tensile-strength and stress-rupture testing was conducted to illustrate the material properties under isothermal and thermal gradient conditions. To determine material durability, further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal cycling, thermal gradients and simulated combustion environments. Emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation, including modal acoustic emission and electrical resistivity monitoring, to characterize strength degradation and damage mechanisms. Currently, little is known about the behavior of EBC-CMCs under these conditions; consequently, this work will prove invaluable in the development of structural components for use in high temperature applications.

  8. Pseudo-renal failure: bladder rupture with urinary ascites.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Masami; Ando, Naokatsu; Kumabe, Ayako; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of pseudo-renal failure caused by urinary ascites due to spontaneous bladder rupture following transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TUR-BT). A 63-year-old man presented with 2?months of abdominal distension due to ascites. Laboratory findings showed elevated serum creatinine and hyperkalaemia. Peritoneal fluid urea, creatinine and potassium levels were greater than those in serum levels. CT scan showed partial wall thinning in the bladder wall, and cystography indicated fragility in the dome where the latest TUR-BT was performed. Pseudo-renal failure (laboratory abnormalities of acute kidney injury in the setting of normal kidney function) from urinary ascites and reverse intraperitoneal dialysis was diagnosed. Symptoms and laboratory abnormalities improved promptly with insertion of a urinary catheter. This report aims to increase recognition of urinary ascites when a patient with genitourinary surgical procedures or radiation therapy, or blunt abdominal trauma, presents with ascites and elevated creatinine simultaneously. PMID:26590189

  9. Lithospheric rupture variations along the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, A.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2013-05-01

    In order to interpret the lithospheric rupture of the Gulf of California and to identify the regional differences in the aperture of the Gulf, we compute S receivers functions from teleseismic broadband records at 29 stations of the seismological networks around the Gulf: NARS-Baja (Network Of Autonomously Recording Seismographs), RESBAN (Broadband Network) and SSN (National Seismological Service, Mexico). Profiles of receiver functions, around and across the Gulf of California, show variations in the mode of the lithosphere extension. These variations are associated to the preexisted conditions at the aperture of the Gulf of California; i.e., volcanism, ductility of the crust, obliquity and relative velocity between the Pacific-North American margins.

  10. Fast numerical simulation for full bore rupture of pressurized pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Mahgerefteh, H.; Saha, P.; Economou, I.G.

    1999-06-01

    An efficient numerical simulation (CNGS-MOC), based on the method of characteristics for simulating full bore rupture of long pipelines containing two-phase hydrocarbons, was developed. The use of curved characteristics, in conjunction with a compound nested grid system, as well as a fast mathematical algorithm, lead to a significant reduction of CPU time, while improving accuracy. The model is validated extensively against field data including those obtained during the Piper Alpha tragedy, as well as the Isle of Grain depressurization tests. Its predictions are compared with those based on other mathematical models including PLAC, META-HEM, MSM-CS, as well as BLOWDOWN. Both CNGS-MOC and META-HEM produce reasonably accurate predictions with the remaining models assessed performing relatively poorly.

  11. [Left Ventricular Rupture during Both Mitral and Aortic Valve Replacements].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation. PMID:25963782

  12. Light Driven Formation and Rupture of Droplet Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sanhita S.; Kim, Hanyoup; Vasilyev, Arseny; Eid, Aya; Faris, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation of nanoliter aqueous droplets containing surfactant or lipid molecules and immersed in an organic liquid using near infrared light. The resulting emulsion droplets are manipulated using both the thermocapillary effect and convective fluid motion. Droplet pair-interactions induced in the emulsion upon optical initiation and control provide direct observations of the coalescence steps in intricate detail. Droplet-droplet adhesion (bilayer formation) is observed under several conditions. Selective bilayer rupture is also realized using the same infrared laser. The technique provides a novel approach to study thin film drainage and interface stability in emulsion dynamics. The formation of stable lipid bilayers at the adhesion interface between interacting water droplets can provide an optical platform to build droplet-based lipid bilayer assays. The technique also has relevance for understanding and improving microfluidics applications by devising Petri dish based droplet assays requiring no substrate fabrication. PMID:20361732

  13. Systemic lupus erythaematosus presenting as spontaneous splenic rupture.

    PubMed

    Cruz, António José; Castro, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) is known to involve the reticuloendothelial system, but spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) in the context of the disease is a very rare complication. We observed a 61-year-old woman with an unremarkable previous medical history who presented with SSR and underwent an emergency splenectomy. The histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed signs of vasculitis. On review of symptoms with the patient, a history of oligoarthralgia, photosensitivity, xerostomia and Raynaud phenomenon was elicited. Laboratory investigations revealed lymphopaenia, mild proteinuria and positive antinuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies. The patient was started on hydroxychloroquine and the disease has since remained silent. This article addresses the rare association between SLE and SSR. PMID:26621866

  14. Spontaneous rupture of primary splenic angiosarcoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    XU, BOTAO; XIE, XIAONA; ZHOU, XIONG; ZHAI, MENGHE; YANG, WENJUN

    2015-01-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm of vascular origin that often has a poor prognosis. The majority of cases presents with splenic rupture and hemorrhage. The present study retrospectively analyzed the case of 77-year-old female who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and distension. During laparotomy, a huge actively bleeding spleen was identified and a splenectomy was performed. Since an accurate diagnosis could not be achieved by abdominal computed tomography, a pathological examination was performed. The patient and the family refused post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The patient succumbed to uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and lung metastases at 2 weeks post-surgery. PMID:26722324

  15. Rupture of anterior lens capsule from blunt ocular injury.

    PubMed

    Banitt, Michael R; Malta, João B; Mian, Shahzad I; Soong, H Kaz

    2009-05-01

    We report 3 cases of blunt trauma causing rupture of the anterior lens capsule with cataract formation. The injuries were caused by a paintball gun, a ball-bearing air pistol, and an aluminum rivet. In all 3 cases, the anterior capsule tears were central and the posterior capsules and zonules intact; uneventful cataract extraction with implantation of an intraocular lens was performed. The postoperative visual acuities was 20/40 in 1 case and 20/20 in the other 2 cases. We propose that the anterior lens capsule may have been torn by direct contusion from rapid focal indentation of the cornea onto the lens (coup injury) or by a fluid-mechanical, anteriorly directed rebound of the vitreous, bursting open the anterior capsule (contrecoup injury). PMID:19393898

  16. Separation and detection of bacteria using rupture event scanning.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew A; Dultsev, Fedor N; Ostanin, Victor P; Klenerman, David

    2011-09-30

    We have developed a sensitive and economical method to directly detect bacteria, based on the interaction between the bacteria and specific antibodies attached to an oscillating surface. By monotonously increasing the amplitude of oscillation of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with the antibody, the QCM can be used to sensitively detect the acoustic noise produced when the interactions between the bacteria and the surface were broken. We term this process rupture event scanning (REVS). The method is quantitative over at least 6 orders of magnitude and can detect as few as 10 bacteria. We demonstrate here that this approach allows one to arrange separation of bacteria and follow the process completion on the basis of the acoustic signal. Detection is not significantly affected by non-specific binding of sample contaminants and thus can be achieved both in buffer and in serum. PMID:21839203

  17. A Unified Simulation Framework for Megathrust Rupture Dynamics and Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E. M.; Lotto, G. C.; Kozdon, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many earthquakes, including megathrust events in subduction zones, occur offshore. In addition to seismic waves, such earthquakes also generate tsunamis. We present a methodology for simultaneously investigating earthquake rupture dynamics and tsunamigenesis, based on solution of the elastic and acoustic wave equations, in the solid and fluid portions of the domain, respectively. Surface gravity waves or tsunamis emerge naturally in such a description when gravitational restoring forces are properly taken into account. In our approach, we adopt an Eulerian description of the ocean and within it solve for particle velocities and the perturbation in pressure, ?p, about an initial hydrostatic state. The key step is enforcing the traction-free boundary condition on the moving ocean surface. We linearize this boundary condition, in order to apply it on the initial surface, and express it as ?p-?g?=0, where -?g is the initial hydrostatic gradient in pressure and ? is the sea surface uplift (obtained, to first order, by integrating vertical particle velocity on the initial ocean surface). We show that this is the only place one needs to account for gravity. Additional terms in the momentum balance and linearized equation of state describing advection of pressure and density gradients can be included to study internal gravity waves within the ocean, but these can be safely neglected for problems of interest to us. We present a range of simulations employing this new methodology. These include test problems used to verify the accuracy of the method for modeling seismic, ocean acoustic, and tsunami waves, as well as more detailed models of megathrust ruptures. Our present work is focused on tsunami generation in models with variable bathymetry, where previous studies have raised questions regarding how horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor excites tsunamis. Our approach rigorously accounts for time-dependent seafloor motion, horizontal momentum transfer, and nonhydrostatic corrections to the commonly employed shallow water theory. We envision this approach being used to provide more accurate initial conditions for tsunami models.

  18. Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar earthquake estimated from tsunamis

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar earthquake on the India/Andaman plate boundary resulting in 10­60 cm of uplift of the island of Car Nicobar. The rupture., and R. Bilham, Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar

  19. Properties of Inelastic Yielding Zones Generated by In-plane1 Dynamic Ruptures: II. Detailed parameter-space study2

    E-print Network

    Ampuero, Jean Paul

    1 Properties of Inelastic Yielding Zones Generated by In-plane1 Dynamic Ruptures: II. Detailed parameter-space study on properties of yielding zones25 generated by 2D in-plane dynamic ruptures rupture35 speed and higher inclination angle of expected microfractures on the extensional36 side

  20. Lithological and rheological constraints on fault rupture scenarios for ground motion hazard prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Foxall, W.

    1994-04-18

    This paper tests an approach to predict the range of ground motion hazard at specific sites generated by earthquakes on specific faults. The approach is based upon structural, lithological and rheological descriptions of the fault zones, development of fault rupture scenarios, and computation of synthetic seismograms using empirical Green`s functions. Faults are placed within a regional geomechanical model. The approach is based upon three hypothesis: (1) An exact solution of the representation relation that utilizes empirical Green`s functions enables very accurate computation of ground motions generated by a given rupture; (2) a general description of the rupture is sufficient; and (3) the structural, lithological and Theological characteristics of a fault can be used to constrain, in advance, possible future rupture histories. Ground motion hazard here refers to three-component, full wave train descriptions of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over the frequency band 0.01 to 25 Hz. Corollaries to these hypotheses are that the range of possible fault rupture histories is narrow enough to functionally constrain the range of strong ground motion predictions, and that a discreet set of rupture histories is sufficient to span the infinite combinations possible from a given range of rupture parameters.

  1. Lithological and rheological constraints on fault rupture scenarios for ground motion hazard prediction. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper tests a new approach to predict a range of ground motion hazard at specific sites generated by earthquakes on specific faults. The approach utilizes geodynamics to link structural, lithological and Theological descriptions of the fault zones to development of fault rupture scenarios and computation of synthetic seismograms. Faults are placed within a regional geomechanical model that is used to calculate stress conditions along the fault. The approach is based upon three hypothesis: (1) An exact solution of the representation relation that u@s empirical. Green`s functions enables very accurate computation of ground motions generated by a given rupture scenario; (2) a general description of the rupture is sufficient; and (3) the structural, lithological and Theological characteristics of a fault can be used to constrain, in advance, possible future rupture histories. Ground motion hazard here refers to three-component, full wave train descriptions of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over the frequency band 0.01 to 25 Hz. Corollaries to these hypotheses are that the range of possible fault rupture histories is narrow enough to functionally constrain the range of strong ground motion predictions, and that a discreet set of rupture histories is sufficient to span the infinite combinations possible from a given range of rupture parameters.

  2. Thrust-type subduction-zone earthquakes and seamount asperites: A physical model for seismic rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Cloos, M. )

    1992-07-01

    A thrust-type subduction-zone earthquake of M{sub W} 7.6 ruptures an area of {approximately}6,000 km{sup 2}, has a seismic slip of {approximately}1 m, and is nucleated by the rupture of an asperity {approximately}25km across. A model for thrust-type subduction-zone seismicity is proposed in which basaltic seamounts jammed against the base of the overriding plate act as strong asperities that rupture by stick-slip faulting. A M{sub W} 7.6 event would correspond to the near-basal rupture of a {approximately}2-km-tall seamount. The base of the seamount is surrounded by a low shear-strength layer composed of subducting sediment that also deforms between seismic events by distributed strain (viscous flow). Planar faults form in this layer as the seismic rupture propagates out of the seamount at speeds of kilometers per second. The faults in the shear zone are disrupted after the event by aseismic, slow viscous flow of the subducting sediment layer. Consequently, the extent of fault rupture varies for different earthquakes nucleated at the same seamount asperity because new fault surfaces form in the surrounding subducting sediment layer during each fast seismic rupture.

  3. Historical seismicity and dynamic rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Satoshi; Aochi, Hideo

    2013-07-01

    A number of studies have documented the complex rupture process of the Mw9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which is characterized by different stages of rupture, including a large delayed slip near the trench and multiple high-frequency ruptures along the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone. In this study, a multiscale circular patch model was used to represent the spatial heterogeneity of fracture energy inferred on the plate interface, with spontaneous dynamic rupture simulated by solving the elasto-dynamic equation with a slip-weakening friction law. Historical seismicity, recorded over the past 100 years, was used to determine the spatial heterogeneity of seismic events, with an additional large patch used to model large slip movements near the trench. Dynamic rupture processes qualitatively consistent with observations were successfully modeled during this study, although slight adjustments, including the introduction of foreshock-related stress concentrations, were needed to accomplish this. The delayed failure of the shallow largest patch, representing the main rupture stage, was only achieved by a dynamic nucleation process comprising cascading ruptures within small and moderately sized patches near the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone; this failure was followed by successive ruptures along the down-dip edge of the zone. This study confirms that a free surface significantly increases fault slip and released seismic moment during an earthquake. In addition, we found that the largest patch occupies the area where the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship is much smaller than 1, while the hypocenter corresponds to a local maximum b-value of about 1.5. This research also suggests that seismicity catalogs can be used to constrain the spatial segmentation of plate boundaries and to propose possible scenarios for the dynamic rupture processes of future earthquakes.

  4. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

  5. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  6. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlazim, Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics; Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia

    2012-06-01

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, Tdur. Tdur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (?) while Tdur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or ?. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/?, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because Tdur is proportional L and greater Mo/?. Because Mo/? is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.

  7. Creep-rupture behavior of iron superalloys in high-pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.

    1984-01-01

    The creep-rupture properties of five iron-base and one cobalt-base high temperature alloys were investigated to assess the feasibility of using the alloys as construction materials in a Stirling engine. The alloys were heat treated and hardness measurements were taken. Typical microstructures of the alloys are shown. The creep-rupture properties of the alloys were determined at 760 and 815 C in 15.0 MPa H2 for 200 to 1000 hours. Plots of rupture life versus stress for the six superalloys are presented along with creep strain-time plots.

  8. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, Gianpiero Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone; Harst, Erwin van der

    2005-06-15

    We present a case of the rapid development and rupture of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic shock due to a ruptured celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of rupture. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.

  9. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  10. Ruptured Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy at 18 Weeks Gestation Diagnosed by MRI: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ehab SM; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin WH; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore present characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging of a ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy which had reached 18 weeks, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:24421921

  11. [The ruptures of the trachea with the intubation tube in patients with esophagus cancer].

    PubMed

    Khasanov, A F; Sigal, E I; Khasanova, N A; Taziev, R M; Trifonov, V R; Burmistrov, M V

    2012-01-01

    Postintubation tracheal ruptures is a rare but serious complication with high risk for the patient's life. The preliminary diagnosis is usually made after occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema, blood spitting, respiratory insufficiency, pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum. The suspected rupture of the trachea should be verified by fiber-optic bronchoscopy. The decision about necessity of surgical or conservative treatment is based on the compilation of clinical, radiologic and endoscopic data. We present 9 cases (7 women and 2 men) of postintubation tracheal ruptures, occurred during the esophageal (6), lung (2) and mammary gland (1) surgery. PMID:23258356

  12. Missed Medial Malleolar Fracture Associated With Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Koji; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old man sustained an Achilles tendon rupture while playing futsal. A concomitant medial malleolar fracture was not diagnosed until the patient underwent an operation for Achilles tendon repair. A routine postoperative radiograph showed a minimally displaced medial malleolar fracture. Conservative treatment was chosen for the fracture. The function of the Achilles tendon recovered well, and the fracture was united. A medial malleolar fracture can be missed when an Achilles tendon rupture occurs simultaneously. Thus, surgeons should consider the possibility of medial malleolar fracture associated with an Achilles tendon rupture. PMID:25441273

  13. Rupture force of adsorbed self-assembled surfactant layers. Effect of the dielectric exchange force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, O.; Ceotto, G.; de Souza, E. F.

    2001-08-01

    The tip applied force necessary to obtain tip/substrate contact, i.e., rupture force between adsorbed layers of self-assembled surfactant films and atomic force microscope (AFM) tips in water has been measured. A substantial contribution of this rupture force is due to the dielectric exchange force (DEF). The DEF model is in agreement with the observation that the surfactant layer rupture forces are smaller in the thickest layers, where the compactness of the adsorbed film results in the smallest values of the dielectric permittivity. Within experimental accuracy a dielectric permittivity value of ˜4 for bilayers and of ˜36 for monolayers is found.

  14. Endovascular repair of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm associated with popliteal arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, G; Marek, J; Fargion, A; Pulli, R; Dorigo, W; Pratesi, C

    2010-11-01

    Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) represent the most common peripheral arterial aneurysm and are a significant cause of patient morbidity and limb loss. Complications of PAA include distal embolisation, thrombosis and, rarely, rupture. Whereas open surgical repair remains the gold standard, endovascular exclusion has been demonstrated to be a valid alternative in selected patients. We present an unusual case of ruptured PAA associated with popliteal vein arteriovenous fistula that was successfully treated with an endovascular approach. In our opinion, higher-risk patients as well as patients presenting with rupture may constitute a subgroup warranting an endovascular approach whenever possible. PMID:20739202

  15. Creep-rupture behavior of iron superalloys in high-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.

    1984-06-01

    The creep-rupture properties of five iron-base and one cobalt-base high-temperature alloys were investigated to assess the feasibility of using the alloys as construction materials in a Stirling engine. The alloys were heat treated and hardness measurements were taken. Typical microstructures of the alloys are shown. The creep-rupture properties of the alloys were determined at 760 and 815 C in 15.0 MPa H2 for 200 to 1000 hours. Plots of rupture life versus stress for the six superalloys are presented along with creep strain-time plots.

  16. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of valsalva aneurysm into the left ventricle: a retrograde approach.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurakti; Radha, Anil Sivadasan

    2012-02-01

    Aneurysms of sinuses of Valsalva (ASOV) are thin-walled saccular or tubular outpouchings of the aortic sinuses, which can be either congenital or acquired. They can rupture into heart chambers, the pulmonary artery, or the pericardial space (Perloff, Clinical recognition of congenital heart disease, [8]). This report presents a rare case of a patient with treated infective endocarditis who had a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a coronary cameral fistula, and a ruptured ASOV (RASOV) into the left ventricle (LV). Successful transcatheter closure of the ruptured ASOV and the other two lesions was performed using three Amplatzer duct occluders (AGA Medical Corporation, Golden Valley, MN, USA). PMID:22271388

  17. Spontaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon due to Unusual Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ta?, Süleyman; Balta, Serkan; Benlier, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology of spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon includes systemic or local steroid injections, wrist fracture, tenosynovitis, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and repetitive wrist motions. Case Report: We encountered a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture with an unusual etiology, cow milking. In this case, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius tendon was performed successfully. At 1 year after surgery, extension of the thumb was sufficient. Conclusion: It appears that patients with occupations involving repetitive motions are at a high risk of closed tendon ruptures. PMID:25207178

  18. Type 1 Achilles tendon rupture caused by grooming trauma in a young dog

    PubMed Central

    Isaka, M.; Befu, M.; Matsubara, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Aono, H.; Namba, S.

    2014-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is uncommon in small animal practice. A 9-month-old, female, mixed breed dog (weighing 2.2kg) was referred to our hospital with a primary complaint of right hind limb lameness. Complete right Achilles tendon rupture was diagnosed by physical examination and radiography. The tendon was surgically repaired the next day by using a three-loop and single near-far-far-near suture methods. Complete healing was achieved by 97 days post-surgery. This report describes the surgical technique used for complete Achilles tendon rupture repair in a young dog.

  19. Self-similar rupture of thin free films of power-law fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh; Anthony, Christopher; Basaran, Osman A.; Doshi, Pankaj

    2015-08-01

    The rupture of a thin free film of a power-law fluid under the competing influences of destabilizing van der Waals pressure and stabilizing surface tension pressure is analyzed. In such a fluid, viscosity decreases with the deformation rate raised to the n -1 power where 0 rupture occurs under a balance between van der Waals pressure, inertial stress, and viscous stress. When n <6 /7 , however, the dominant balance changes: Viscous stress becomes negligible and the film ruptures under the competition between van der Waals pressure, inertial stress, and surface tension pressure.

  20. Coil Embolization Treatment in Pulmonary Artery Branch Rupture During Swan-Ganz Catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwalles, Yannick; Wunschel-Joseph, Marie-Eve; Hanssen, Michel

    2000-11-15

    Rupture of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches during Swan-Ganz catheterization is a complication that is rare but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this accident have been widely reported. Management is twofold: resuscitation procedures and specific medical or even surgical treatment. We report a case of pulmonary artery rupture occurring during Swan-Ganz catheterization that was treated by coil embolization. This technique, which is quick and simple to use, would appear to be very promising. This is the first case of successful emergency treatment of pulmonary artery rupture using an endovascular technique.

  1. Stress-rupture strength and microstructural stability of W-HF-C wire reinforced superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    W-Hf-C/superalloy composites were found to be potentially useful for turbine blade applications on the basis of stress-rupture strength. The 100-and 1000-hour rupture strengths obtained for 70 volume percent fiber composites tested at 1090 C were 420 and 280 MN/sq m (61,000 and 41,000 psi). The investigation indicated that with better quality fibers, composites having 100- and 1000-hour rupture strengths of 570 and 370 MN/sq m (82,000 and 54,000 psi) may be obtained. Metallographic studies indicated sufficient fiber-matrix compatibility for long time applications at 1090 C for 1000 hours or more.

  2. Survival after left ventricular free wall rupture due to acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh-Maleki, Mahmood; Valizadeh, Niloufar; Rafatpanah, Niloofar; Moezi, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Left ventricular free wall rupture is a frequent catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and occurs in 1-3% of patients with acute myocardial infarction; it is the third most common cause of death caused by acute myocardial infarction, too. CASE REPORT We describe acute left ventricular free wall rupture due to acute myocardial infarction in a 60-year-old man. He was survived after urgent surgical intervention. CONCLUSION The long-term survivors of free wall rupture repair have not been extensively reported; early diagnosis is very critical and immediate surgical repair is the treatment of choice. PMID:26715937

  3. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Madlazim

    2012-06-20

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.

  4. Creep-rupture behavior of 6 candidate stirling engine iron-base superalloys in high pressure hydrogen. Volume 1: Air creep-rupture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    1982-01-01

    Four wrought alloys (A-286, IN 800H, N-155, and 19-9DL) and two cast alloys (CRM-6D and XF-818) were tested to determine their creep-rupture behavior. The wrought alloys were used in the form of sheets of 0.89 mm (0.035 in.) average thickness. The cast alloy specimens were investment cast and machined to 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) gage diameter. All specimens were tested to rupture in air at different times up to 3000 h over the temperature range of 650 C to 925 C (1200 F to 1700 F). Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% creep strain were statistically analyzed as a function of stress at different temperatures. Temperature-compensated analysis was also performed to obtain the activation energies for rupture life, time to 1% creep strain, and the minimum creep rate. Microstructural and fracture analyses were also performed. Based on statistical analyses, estimates were made for stress levels at different temperatures to obtain 3500 h rupture life and time to 1% creep strain. Test results are to be compared with similar data being obtained for these alloys under 15 MPa (2175 psi) hydrogen.

  5. Greater fear of re-injury and increased tibial translation in patients who later sustain an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare fear of re-injury, patient reported function, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength assessed before and 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction between individuals who sustained a subsequent ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years after the reconstruction, and individuals with no subsequent injury. Nineteen patients were investigated before, and 5 weeks after an ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon graft. At 5 years follow up, 3 patients had sustained an ACL graft rupture and 2 patients had sustained a contralateral ACL rupture. Fear of re-injury, confidence with the knee, patient reported function, activity level, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength were assessed. The re-injured group reported greater fear of re-injury and had greater static tibial translation in both knees before the ACL reconstruction compared to those who did not sustain another ACL injury. There were no other differences between groups. In conclusion, fear of re-injury and static tibial translation before the index ACL reconstruction were greater in patients who later on suffered an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture. These factors may predict a subsequent ACL injury. PMID:25894209

  6. The Rupture Characteristic of 1999 Izmit Sequence Using IRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konca, A. O.; Helmberger, D. V.; Ji, C.; Tan, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The standard source studies use teleseismic data (30° to 90° ) to analyze earthquakes. Therefore, only a limited portion of the focal sphere is involved in source determinations. Furthermore, the locations and origin times of events remain incompatible with local determinations. Here, we attempt to resolve such issues by using IRIS data at all distances, leading to more accurate and detailed rupture properties and accurate relative locations. The 1999 Izmit earthquake sequence is chosen to test our method. The challenge of using data outside the conventional teleseismic distance range is that the arrival times and waveforms are affected more by the Earth structure. We overcome this difficulty by calibrating the path effects for the mainshock using the simpler aftershocks. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the source parameters of the aftershock. We constructed a Green's function library from a regionalized 1-D model and performed a grid search to establish the depth and fault parameters based on waveform matching for the Pnl waves between the synthetics and data, allowing the synthetics in each station to shift separately to account for the path effect. Our results show that the earthquake depth was around 7 km, rather than 19 km from local observatory (Kandilli) and 15 km from the Harvard's CMT solution. The best focal mechanism has a strike of 263° , a dip of 65° , and a rake of 180° , which is very close to the Harvard's CMT solution. The waveform fits of this aftershock is then used as a criterion to select useful source-station paths. A path with a cross-correlation value above 90% between data and synthetics is defined as a "good path" and can be used for studying the Izmit and Duzce earthquakes. We find that the stations in Central Europe and some of the Greek Islands are "good paths", while the stations in Northeast Africa and Italy cannot be used. The time shifts that give the best cross-correlation values are used to calibrate the picks of the Izmit and Duzce events. We realize that this is a very objective way to pick arrival times. However, our preliminary inversions using teleseismic data for Duzce and Izmit events show that handpicked P and S arrival times of the same station from two very close events are not always well correlated. Obviously, how we pick the arrival time governs the rupture pattern and rupture velocity. Therefore, our methodology brings a more objective approach to pick the travel times. To the end, we will invert for the source history of the Duzce and Izmit earthquakes with the regional data and compare with the inversion result using teleseismic data. Moreover, predictions of the teleseismic data, using the solution from the inversion using regional phases will be presented.

  7. SHERPA: Towards better accessibility of earthquake rupture archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théo, Yann; Sémo, Emmanuel; Mazet Roux, Gilles; Bossu, Rémy; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Large crustal earthquakes are the subject of extensive field surveys in order to better understand the rupture process and its tectonic consequences. After the earthquake, pictures of the rupture can easily viewed quite easily on the web. However, once the event gets old, pictures disappear and can no longer be viewed, a heavy loss for researchers looking for information. Even when available, there are linked to a given survey and comparison between different earthquakes of the same phenomenon can not be easily performed. SHERPA, Sharing of Earthquake Rupture Pictures Archive, a web application developed at EMSC aims to fill this void. It aims at making available pictures of past earthquakes and sharing resources while strictly protecting the authors copyright and keeping the authors in charge of the diffusion to avoid unfair or inappropriate use of the photos. Our application is targeted at scientists and scientists only. Pictures uploaded on SHERPA are marked by a watermark "NOT FOR PUBLICATION" spread all over, and state the author's name. Authors and authors only have the possibility to remove this mark should they want their work to enter the public domain. If a user sees a picture he/she would like to use, he/she can put this picture in his/her cart. After the validation of this cart, a request (stating the name and purposes of the requestor) will be sent to the author(s) to ask to share the picture(s). If an author accepts this request, the requestor will be given the authorization to access a protected folder and download the unmarked picture. Without the author explicit consent, no picture will never be accessible to anyone. We want to state this point very clearly because ownership and copyright protection are essential to the SHERPA project. Uploading pictures is quick and easy: once registered, you can very simply upload pictures that can then be geolocalised using a Google map plugged on the web site. If the camera is equipped with a GPS, the software will automatically retrieve the location from the exif file. Pictures can be linked to an earthquake and be described through a system of tags. This way, they are searchable in the database. Once uploaded, pictures become available for browsing for any visitors. Using the tags, visitors can search the database for pictures of a same phenomenon in several events, or extract the ones from a given region, or a certain type of faulting. The selected pictures can be viewed on a map and on a carousel. By providing such a service we hope to contribute to a better accessibility of the pictures taken during field survey and then improving earthquake documentation which remain a key element for our field of research. http://sherpa.emsc-csem.org/

  8. Left ventricular rupture after embolic myocardial infarction due to mitral valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Thibault; Delabranche, Xavier; Mazzucotelli, Jean-Philippe; Samet, Hafida; Morel, Olivier; Ohlmann, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We report a very rare case of a 43-year-old patient with fatal left ventricular subepicardial aneurysm rupture complicating embolic myocardial infarction due to mitral valve infective endocarditis. PMID:24447262

  9. From sub-Rayleigh to supershear ruptures during stick-slip experiments on crustal rocks.

    PubMed

    Passelègue, François X; Schubnel, Alexandre; Nielsen, Stefan; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raùl

    2013-06-01

    Supershear earthquake ruptures propagate faster than the shear wave velocity. Although there is evidence that this occurs in nature, it has not been experimentally demonstrated with the use of crustal rocks. We performed stick-slip experiments with Westerly granite under controlled upper-crustal stress conditions. Supershear ruptures systematically occur when the normal stress exceeds 43 megapascals (MPa) with resulting stress drops on the order of 3 to 25 MPa, comparable to the stress drops inferred by seismology for crustal earthquakes. In our experiments, the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear transition length is a few centimeters at most, suggesting that the rupture of asperities along a fault may propagate locally at supershear velocities. In turn, these sudden accelerations and decelerations could play an important role in the generation of high-frequency radiation and the overall rupture-energy budget. PMID:23744944

  10. Composite Stress Rupture NDE Research and Development Project (Kevlar[R] and Carbon)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop and demonstrate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation for carbon composite pressure vessels, either in a structural health monitoring (SHM) or periodic inspection mode.

  11. Management of posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification using the dry technique.

    PubMed

    Akura, J; Hatta, S; Kaneda, S; Ishihara, M; Matsuura, K; Tamai, A

    2001-07-01

    To manage posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification, we use a dry technique in which all procedures are performed without an irrigation/aspiration system. The dry technique is characterized by (1) continuous viscoelastic injection instead of fluid irrigation to maintain anterior chamber depth with the posterior capsule and vitreous located posteriorly and (2) static removal of most residual lens material by viscoexpression and/or manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction without aspiration and dynamic water flow. In 16 cases of posterior capsule rupture managed using the dry technique, the residual nucleus and cortex were readily removed with minimum extension of the ruptured area and new vitreous loss. Although large amounts of viscoelastic material (mean 5.8 mL) were required, rapid and stable visual recovery was comparable to that in patients having uneventful surgery. The dry system is a safe and reliable technique for managing posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification. PMID:11489564

  12. Achilles tendon rupture: physiotherapy and endoscopy-assisted surgical treatment of a common sports injury

    PubMed Central

    Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Dönmez, Gürhan; Demirel, Murat; Kaya, Defne; Ate?ok, K?vanç; Atay, Özgür Ahmet; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest tendon in the human body, rupture of this tendon is one of the most common sports injuries in the athletic population. Despite numerous nonoperative and operative methods that have been described, there is no universal agreement about the optimal management strategy of acute total AT ruptures. The management of AT ruptures should aim to minimize the morbidity of the injury, optimize rapid return to full function, and prevent complications. Since endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon that is important in biological healing of the AT, this technique becomes a reasonable treatment option in AT ruptures. Furthermore, Achilles tendoscopy technique may decrease the complications about the sural nerve. Also, early functional postoperative physiotherapy following surgery may improve the surgical outcomes. PMID:24198562

  13. Spontaneous Atraumatic Urinary Bladder Rupture Secondary to Alcohol Intoxication: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Mohammed; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zarour, Ahmad; Awad, Ahmed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Atraumatic urinary bladder rupture Symptoms: Drowsiness • diffuse abdominal pain • vomiting Medication: None Clinical Procedure: CT cystogram • exploratory laparotomy • urinary bladder repair Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB) secondary to alcohol intoxication is an uncommon presentation with high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reported a rare case of spontaneous atraumatic rupture of the urinary bladder due to alcohol intoxication. Case Reports: A 45-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with drowsiness, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting with odor of alcohol, and urinary retention 24 hours prior to the index admission. CT cystogram confirmed the urinary bladder rupture at the dome, which was repaired through exploratory laparotomy. Conclusions: An SRUB patient with alcohol abuse often presents with non-specific symptoms due to absence of a traumatic event, which results in missed or delayed-diagnosis. Early diagnosis and management of SRUB is crucial for uneventful recovery. PMID:26522816

  14. EMG monitoring during functional non-surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D

    2002-07-01

    After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy. PMID:12146771

  15. Feasibility of utilizing the patellar ligament angle for assessing cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-ha; Jeong, Soon-wuk

    2014-12-01

    The patellar ligament angle (PLA) was assessed in 105 normal stifle joints of 79 dogs and 33 stifle joints of 26 dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). The PLA of stifles with complete CrCL rupture was significantly lower than that of normal stifles, particularly at a flexion angle of 60 ˜ 80° in both plain and stress views. If the PLA was < 90.55° on the stress view with a 60 ˜ 80° flexion angle, the dog was diagnosed with a complete rupture of the CrCL with a sensitivity of 83.9% and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, measuring the PLA is a quantitative method for diagnosing complete CrCL rupture in canines. PMID:24962409

  16. Feasibility of utilizing the patellar ligament angle for assessing cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-ha

    2014-01-01

    The patellar ligament angle (PLA) was assessed in 105 normal stifle joints of 79 dogs and 33 stifle joints of 26 dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). The PLA of stifles with complete CrCL rupture was significantly lower than that of normal stifles, particularly at a flexion angle of 60~80° in both plain and stress views. If the PLA was <90.55° on the stress view with a 60~80° flexion angle, the dog was diagnosed with a complete rupture of the CrCL with a sensitivity of 83.9% and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, measuring the PLA is a quantitative method for diagnosing complete CrCL rupture in canines. PMID:24962409

  17. Poro-elastic Rebound Along the Landers 1992 Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltzer, G.; Rosen, P.; Rogez, F.; Hudnut, K.

    1998-01-01

    Maps of post-seismic surface displacement after the 1992, Landers, California earthquake, generated by interferometric processing of ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, reveal effects of various deformation processes near the 1992 surface rupture.

  18. Reactive oxygen species mediate pollen tube rupture to release sperm for fertilization in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Johnson, Eric A.; Aggarwal, Mini; Gates, Laura; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2014-01-01

    In flowering plants, sperm are transported inside pollen tubes to the female gametophyte for fertilization. The female gametophyte induces rupture of the penetrating pollen tube, resulting in sperm release and rendering them available for fertilization. Here we utilize the Arabidopsis FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase mutants, whose female gametophytes fail to induce pollen tube rupture, to decipher the molecular mechanism of this critical male-female interactive step. We show that FER controls the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species at the entrance to the female gametophyte to induce pollen tube rupture and sperm release. Pollen tube growth assays in vitro and in the pistil demonstrate that hydroxyl free radicals are likely the most reactive oxygen molecules, and they induce pollen tube rupture in a Ca2+-dependent process involving Ca2+ channel activation. Our results provide evidence for a RHO GTPase-based signalling mechanism to mediate sperm release for fertilization in plants.

  19. Prompt Recognition of Left Ventricular Free-Wall Rupture Aided by the Use of Contrast Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Toshimasa; Julien, Howard M.; Kaliyadan, Antony G.; Siu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In the modern period of reperfusion, left ventricular free-wall rupture occurs in less than 1% of myocardial infarctions. Typically, acute left ventricular free-wall rupture leads to sudden death from immediate cardiac tamponade. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman who sustained a posterior-wall myocardial infarction and subsequent cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. A bedside transthoracic echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Emergency pericardiocentesis yielded 500 mL of blood, and spontaneous circulation returned. Contrast-enhanced echocardiograms revealed inferolateral akinesis and a new, small myocardial slit with systolic extrusion of contrast medium, consistent with left ventricular free-wall rupture. During immediate open-heart surgery, a small hole in an area of necrotic tissue was discovered and repaired. This case highlights the usefulness of bedside contrast-enhanced echocardiography in confirming acute left ventricular free-wall rupture and enabling rapid surgical treatment. PMID:26504446

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid membranes with lateral force: rupture and dynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun Yu; Ding, Guang Hong; Karttunen, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    Membranes' response to lateral tension, and eventual rupture, remains poorly understood. In this study, pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers, under tension/pressure, were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The irreversible membrane breakdown is demonstrated to depend on the amplitude of lateral tension, loading rate, and the size of the bilayer. In all of our simulations, -200bar lateral pressure was found to be enough to rupture lipid membrane regardless of the loading rate or the membrane size. Loading rate and membrane size had a significant impact on rupture. A variety of dynamic properties of lipid molecules, probability distribution of area per lipid particularly, have been determined, and found to be fundamental for describing membrane behavior in detail, thus providing the quantitative description for the requirement of membrane rupture. PMID:24374317