These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Pathological examination of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical course of fusiform compared with saccular aneurysms. The case of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm accompanied by dissection at the M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is reported, along with pathological findings. Case Description: A 41-year-old female presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was revealed to have a ruptured fusiform aneurysm at the M2 portion of the right MCA on angiography. She was treated with superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm consisted of a whitish fusiform dilatation with a thickened wall of the MCA and two red protrusions on it. Pathological examinations revealed disruption and fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina and intimal thickening in the fusiform lesion. There were two aneurysmal protrusions on the main fusiform dilatation. In one protruded lesion, a dissection of the intima was observed. Conclusion: We propose that a dissection and saccular aneurysm additionally developed on the wall of a preexisting segmental ectasia of the MCA in our case. In this report, we discuss the etiology of fusiform aneurysms of the MCA. PMID:25422790

Kinoshita, Masashi; Kida, Shinya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

2

Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm associated with giant cell arteritis in a child.  

PubMed

A 3 ½-year-old previously healthy female experienced an episode of sudden unresponsiveness witnessed by her mother. Upon arrival to the local hospital, imaging studies of the still unresponsive child revealed severe bilateral "flash" pulmonary edema and diffuse anoxic brain injury. Aggressive resuscitative efforts were unsuccessful, and she was pronounced dead. External examination at autopsy was essentially unremarkable. Internal examination of the head revealed diffuse basilar subarachnoid blood originating from a collapsed, 2 cm irregular aneurysm arising from the junction of the vertebral and basilar arteries. Additionally, multiple calcified subpleural, parenchymal, and hilar nodal pulmonary granulomas were identified. The remaining internal examination, including that of the aorta and its major branches, was unremarkable. Histologic examination of the aneurysm revealed alternating mural attenuation and thickening, the latter resulting from prominent intimal proliferation with active fibroplasia. Most notably, numerous isolated and clustered multinucleated giant cells were seen, most prominently in areas of more intense inflammation. Specific immunolabeling and silver staining of the pulmonary granulomas revealed evidence of histoplasmosis, but both were negative for fungal elements in the aneurysm, as was ultrastructural examination. The cause of death is fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a vertebrobasilar artery aneurysm caused by isolated intracranial giant cell arteritis. PMID:20177371

Corliss, Robert F; Zydowicz, Sara; Salamat, M Shahriar

2011-09-01

3

Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!  

PubMed Central

The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

2015-01-01

4

Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia  

PubMed Central

Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

2014-01-01

5

Ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery variant  

PubMed Central

Background: Primitive trigeminal artery variants (PTAVs) are one of the rare persistent fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations. They originate from the internal carotid artery and join one of the cerebellar arteries instead of the basilar artery. Case Description: We present an 82-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm originating at a PTAV. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiogram and cerebral angiography revealed bilateral PTAV and two aneurysms originating at the left PTAV. The proximal and distal aneurysms were saccular and fusiform, respectively. She underwent surgical treatment and her postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates that extremely rare cerebral aneurysms associated with PTAV can be addressed successfully by surgical intervention. PMID:22059121

Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Yu; Ohmori, Yuki; Kawano, Takayuki; Kai, Yutaka; Morioka, Motohiro; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

2011-01-01

6

Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients' outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

Kamper, Lars, E-mail: lars.kamper@helios-kliniken.de; Meyn, Hannes [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Nordmeyer, Simone [St. Josef-Hospital Oberhausen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Germany); Kempkes, Udo; Piroth, Werner [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Isenmann, Stefan [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Neurology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Haage, Patrick [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany)

2012-06-15

7

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in 16 patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD). Five patients had compressive cranial nerve deficits and 11 patients presented with transient or permanent ischemic deficits related to the vertebrobasilar system. VBD did not present with distinct clinical findings and no clear correlation between basilar artery ectasia and the presence of

Franz T. Aichner; Stephan R. Felber; Günther G. Birbamer; Andrea Posch

1993-01-01

8

Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Study Design  Population-based, case-control and case-crossover study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To investigate associations between chiropractic visits and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke and to contrast this with\\u000a primary care physician (PCP) visits and VBA stroke.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of Background Data  Chiropractic care is popular for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk for VBA dissection and stroke. Neck pain\\u000a and headache are common symptoms of

J. David Cassidy; Eleanor Boyle; Pierre Côté; Yaohua He; Sheilah Hogg-Johnson; Frank L. Silver; Susan J. Bondy

2008-01-01

9

Differential Expression of Pine and Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme Genes in Fusiform Rust Galls  

PubMed Central

Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme is the causative agent of fusiform rust disease of southern pines in the United States. This disease is characterized by the formation of woody branch and stem galls. Differential display was used to identify pine genes whose expression is altered by C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme infection and to identify C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme genes that are expressed in fusiform rust galls. Six pine cDNAs that appeared to be differentially expressed in galled and healthy stems and 13 C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cDNAs expressed in galled tissues were identified. A probe that hybridizes specifically to C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme 18S rRNA was used to estimate that 14% of the total RNA in fusiform rust galls was from C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. This finding was used to calibrate gene expression levels in galls when comparing them to expression levels in uninfected pines or in isolated C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cultures. According to Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, all six of the pine clones were expressed at lower levels in galls than in healthy tissues. Seven of the nine C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme clones that were assayed were expressed at higher levels in galls than in axenic culture. A number of the cDNAs encode proteins that are similar to those that play roles in plant development, plant defense, or fungal stress responses. PMID:14711673

Warren, Jaimie M.; Covert, Sarah F.

2004-01-01

10

Transcranial Doppler validation of hemodynamic vertebrobasilar insufficiency diagnosis.  

PubMed

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be useful in the diagnosis and validation of surgical treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). A case is reported in which TCD confirmed the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and validated the indication of surgery by detecting a bidirectional flow in a stenotic and compressed vertebral artery. In the postoperative period and at late follow-up TCD demonstrated a restored antegrade flow, as a consequence of a well functioning revascularization. Surgical indication of VBI is rare and TCD can be proposed as part of routine patients' study before a surgical decision is taken. PMID:9177624

Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

1996-01-01

11

Time Management in Acute Vertebrobasilar Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) is associated with a high risk of stroke and death. Although local thrombolysis may achieve recanalization and improve outcome, mortality is still between 35% and 75%. However, without recanalization the chance of a good outcome is extremely poor, with mortality rates of 80-90%. Early treatment is a fundamental factor, but detailed studies of the exact time management of the diagnostic and interventional workflow are still lacking. Data on 18 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Time periods between symptom onset, admission to hospital, time of diagnosis, and beginning of intervention were correlated with postinterventional neurological status. The Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used to examine patients before and after local thrombolysis. Additionally, multivariate statistics were applied to reveal similarities between patients with neurological improvement. Primary recanalization was achieved in 77% of patients. The overall mortality was 55%. Major complications were intracranial hemorrhage and peripheral embolism. The time period from symptom onset to intervention showed a strong correlation with the postinterventional NIHSS as well as the patient's age, with the best results in a 4-h interval. Multivariate statistics revealed similarities among the patients. Evaluation of time management in acute VBO by multivariate statistics is a helpful tool for definition of similarities in this patient group. Similarly to the door-to-balloon time for acute coronary interventions, the chances for a good outcome depend on a short time interval between symptom onset and intervention. While the only manipulable time period starts with hospital admission, our results emphasize the necessity of efficient intrahospital workflow.

Kamper, Lars, E-mail: lars.kamper@helios-kliniken.d [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Mansour, Michael; Winkler, Sven B.; Kempkes, Udo; Haage, Patrick [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany)

2009-03-15

12

Thrombolysis in the Vertebrobasilar Circulation: The Australian Urokinase Stroke Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke due to basilar artery occlusion has a high mortality and morbidity. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has been reported to improve survival and outcome status. Our aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial urokinase in a consecutive series of patients with clinically severe brainstem ischaemic stroke and major vertebrobasilar vessel occlusion. Incremental doses of urokinase were administered until clot

P. J. Mitchell; R. P. Gerraty; G. A. Donnan; G. Fitt; B. M. Tress; K. R. Thomson; S. M. Davis

1997-01-01

13

Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

1973-01-01

14

Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography of the Carotid and Vertebrobasilar Circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) is a proven diagnostic tool in evaluation of the carotid arteries; however, few studies have addressed its accuracy in the vertebrobasilar system. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of CE MRA compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for detection of vertebrobasilar disease. METHODS: Forty patients with

Carina W. Yang; James C. Carr; Stephen F. Futterer; Mark D. Morasch; Benson P. Yang; Stephanie M. Shors; J. Paul Finn

2005-01-01

15

Examining Vertebrobasilar Artery Stroke in Two Canadian Provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Study Design  Ecological study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine the annual incidence of hospitalized vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke and chiropractic utilization in Saskatchewan\\u000a and Ontario between 1993 and 2004. To determine whether at an ecological level, the incidence of VBA stroke parallels the\\u000a incidence of chiropractic utilization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of Background Data  Little is known about the incidence and time trends of VBA stroke diagnoses in

Eleanor Boyle; Pierre Côté; Alexander R. Grier; J. David Cassidy

2008-01-01

16

Vertebrobasilar infarction related to giant cell (temporal) arteritis: case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old male with a 3-month history of headache and elevated C-reactive protein levels was admitted for biopsy of the superficial temporal artery, which led to the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Two days after prednisolone therapy was initiated, the patient began to experience transient vertigo attacks. Two days later, dysarthria, left-sided hemiparesis, right abducens palsy, and horizontal nystagmus developed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging disclosed fresh infarctions in the vertebrobasilar territory. Since the patient became drowsy because of brainstem compression and hydrocephalus due to cerebellar swelling, emergency suboccipital decompression surgery and ventricular drainage were performed. Subsequently, the patient's consciousness levels improved. MR angiography revealed right vertebral artery (VA) occlusion and left VA stenosis due to arteritis. Ischemic stroke is a serious though relatively rare complication of GCA. Similar cases have been reported, in which ischemic stroke developed despite or possibly due to steroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of vertebrobasilar infarction associated with GCA in the Japanese population. The merits and potential demerits of steroid therapy are briefly discussed. PMID:24390182

Haisa, Toshihiko; Tsuda, Tokutaro; Hagiwara, Kiyofumi; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Seki, Kunihiko

2015-01-15

17

Spread of fusiform rust in Texas with Cronartium fusiforme and C. comptoniae comparisons  

E-print Network

to C. fusiforme and showed that water oak (g. ~ni ra L. ) and willow oak (q. ~hellos L. ) were highly susceptib'le. Blackjack (g'. marilandica Muenchh. ), southern red (g. falcata Michx. ), h ryb k (g, falcata v . ~deaf li El 1. ), orth ed (g, rubra...

Tisserat, Ned Andrew

1978-01-01

18

On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

Weiner, Kevin S

2015-03-01

19

Recurrent facial hemiparesis due to dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery: an unusual and ignored cause  

PubMed Central

Dolichoectatic arteries are elongated tortuous aneurysms of intracranial arteries most commonly of vertebrobasilar tree presenting with ischaemic, haemorrhagic, thromboembolic lesions or with cranial nerve compression. The clinical presentation includes tic douloureux, neuralgia, tinnitus, vertigo, motor or sensory deficits, ataxia, dementia, Parkinsonism, hydrocephalus, headache, migraine, aneurysm, neoplasm, stroke/transient ischaemic attacks, leukoencephalopathy, central sleep apnoea and cerebellar dysfunctions. We present a case of recurrent facial nerve palsy secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, an interesting and rare condition. PMID:23505276

Mishra, Vijay Nath; Chaurasia, Rameshwar Nath; Gupta, Shailesh; Joshi, Deepika

2013-01-01

20

The assessment value of transcranial Doppler sonography versus magnetic resonance angiography in vertebrobasilar stroke  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to determine the reliability of TCD in evaluation of vertebrobasilar arteries in comparison with brain MRA in patients suffering from acute vertebrobasilar stroke. METHODS: Samples were patients with definite clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar stroke. For all patients brain MRI, MRA and TCD were performed during the first 48 hours of admission. Basilar artery was insonated at the depth of 75 to 85 mm and vertebral arteries were insonated at the depth of 45 to 55 mm. On brain MRA, the degree of stenosis in vertebrobasilar arteries was graded from I (normal) to IV (total stenosis) and the correlation between the grade of stenosis and TCD indices were studied. RESULTS: Spearman correlation test revealed a significant correlation between mean flow velocity (MFV) and MRA grading (correlation coefficient = -0.486) as well as end diastolic velocity (EDV) and MRA grading (correlation coefficient = -0.323) with no significant correlation between pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and MRA grading (p > 0.05). One way ANOVA analysis showed that there was only significant mean MFV and mean EDV difference between grade 1 and other grades. CONCLUSIONS: TCD was only able to differentiate between stenotic and normal pattern and could not assist in the grading of stenosis. On the other hand, in acute vertebrobasilar stroke that TCD performed blindly without visualization of arteries and in a fixed depth it might have limited value in the grading of vertebrobasilar system stenosis. PMID:21526072

Ghorbani, Abbas; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Fatehi, Farzad

2010-01-01

21

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdo?an

2014-01-01

22

Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of subclavian (SA), innominate (IA) and vertebral (VA) arteries. Procedures were done by radiologists experienced in systematic stenting of the lesions. VBI was manifested by persistent signs in 15 patients, and by transitory ischemic attacks in the posterior circulatory territory in 4 (19%). Two patients (10%) experienced ischemic strokes (in the vertebrobasilar circulation in both cases). In 3 patients (14%) VBI was accompanied by upper limb vascular insufficiency symptoms. All cases were resistant to medical treatment. A neurologist assessed complaints, initial VBI signs and their alteration after intervention in all patients. Outcomes were measured with the 5-point scale suggested by Malek et al.: (1) excellent result (asymptomatic, no neurologic deficits and no symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (2) good (no neurologic deficits, at most one transient episode of vertebrobasilar ischemia over a period of 3 months after treatment); (3) fair (minimal neurologic deficit and at most one transient episode per month of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (4) poor (no improvement compared with neurologic status before treatment and/or persistent symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (5) death (regardless of cause). Endovascular treatment was performed for SA stenosis in 15 patients, for SA occlusion in 2, for IA stenosis in 2, and for VA stenosis in 2. There were 15 cases of atherosclerosis, 2 of aortoarteritis, 4 of proximal SA kinking. SA and IA stenoses ranged from 60% to 100% (mean 74.5%), VA stenoses were 90% in both cases. Results. Initial technical success was achieved in 96% of cases. There were no postprocedural complications or deaths. During 6-36 months (mean 21.3 months) of follow-up all patients showed improvement in VBI symptoms or upper limb ischemia. Within 36 months after the procedure outcomes were estimated as excellent and good in 13 patients (76%) and poor in 2 (12%), the last being attributed to atherosclerosis progression in other vascular areas. Restenosis in the stented area has developed in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of extracranial vertebrobasilar arterial stenoses appeared to be effective in endovascular treatment of medically resistant VBI. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of subclavian artery kinking in VBI development and indications for various methods of its correction.

Zaytsev, A.Y., E-mail: cir-auz@mail.ru; Stoyda, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.E. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Scherbyuk, A.N. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kondrashin, S.A [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Artukchina, E.G. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kikevitch, V.A. [N.N. Burdenko Interventional Radiology Center, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation)

2006-10-15

23

[Recurrence of a giant fusiform aneurysm after neck clipping: case report].  

PubMed

The patient was a 71-year-old female. On December 20, 1995, she suddenly developed a severe headache with vomiting and was transferred to our hospital. On admission, her conciousness level was 1-2 on the Japan Coma Scale, but there was no neurological deficit except for right oculomotor palsy. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage which had permeated the right lateral ventricle. On cerebral angiography, a giant fusiform aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery was recognized. During the emergency operation, neither neck clipping nor carotid reconstruction was possible because of the tight adhesion of the aneurysm to the peripheral tissue. On account of this, proximal clipping of the carotid artery with external carotid-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with saphenous vein graft was selected. This patient had had an episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage owing to rupture of the right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm ten years earlier. At that time, the aneurysmal neck was clipped with a slight residual neck and she left the hospital on foot. Five days later, when the aneurysm was found to be completely thrombosed on CT scan, antiplatelet therapy was started. Although low density areas which corresponded to the regions fed by the right anterior choroidal artery were presented, re-rupture did not occur. Follow-up angiography showed that the aneurysm was completely thrombosed and that the right middle cerebral and the anterior cerebral artery blood was circulated via the vein graft. Among recurrent cases of aneurysm after neck clipping, it is unusual for a giant fusiform aneurysm to be recognized. The growth may have been caused by sclerotic change of the arterial wall. Oculomotor palsy may have delayed the detection of the recurrence of the aneurysm. When residual neck is presented on follow-up angiography, the next angiography should be carried out within at least three years. In this case, antiplatelet therapy was effective to prevent thromboembolism from the aneurysm. PMID:8934889

Iwamuro, Y; Miyake, H; Ito, T; Kumai, J; Kuroda, T; Sugino, T

1996-04-01

24

Endovascular Therapy of Acute Vertebrobasilar Occlusion: Early Treatment Onset as the Most Important Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the poor prognosis for patients with acute intracranial vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO), factors were sought that predict survival and good neurologic outcome after acute endovascular treatment by means of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). LIF was performed in 83 patients with angiographically established acute VBO. A significant residual stenosis after LIF was treated by

Bernd Eckert; Thomas Kucinski; Gustav Pfeiffer; Christoph Groden; Herrmann Zeumer

2002-01-01

25

The fusiform face area is enlarged in Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by atypical brain structure, cognitive deficits, and a life-long fascination with faces. Face recognition is relatively spared in WS, despite abnormalities in aspects of face processing, and structural alterations in the fusiform gyrus, part of the ventral visual stream. Thus, face recognition in WS may be subserved by abnormal neural substrates in the ventral stream. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the fusiform face area (FFA), which is implicated in face recognition in typically developed individuals (TD), but its role in WS is not well understood. We found that the FFA size was approximately twice larger among WS than TDs, (both absolutely and relative the fusiform gyrus), despite apparently normal levels of face recognition performance on a Benton face recognition test. Thus, a larger FFA may play a role in face recognition proficiency among WS. PMID:20463232

Golarai, Golijeh; Hong, Sungjin; Haas, Brian W.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Mills, Debra L.; Bellugi, Ursula; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

2013-01-01

26

MRI diffusion tensor tracking of a new amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathway system in humans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To use MRI diffusion-tensor tracking (DTT) to test for the presence of unknown neuronal fiber pathways interconnecting mid-fusiform cortex and anteromedial temporal lobe in humans. Such pathways are hypothesized to exist because these regions co-activate in functional MRI (fMRI) studies of emotion-valued faces and words, suggesting a functional link that could be mediated by neuronal connections. Materials and Methods 15 normal human subjects were studied using unbiased DTT approaches designed for probing unknown pathways, including whole-brain seeding and large pathway-selection volumes. Several quality-control steps verified the results. Results Parallel amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathways were found in all subjects. The pathways begin/end at mid-fusiform gyrus above the lateral occipitotemporal sulcus bilaterally. The superior pathway ends/begins at the superolateral amygdala. The inferior pathway crosses medially and ends/begins at the hippocampal head. The pathways are left-lateralized, with consistently larger cross-sectional area, higher anisotropy, and lower minimum eigenvalue (D-min) on the left, where D-min assesses intrinsic cross-fiber diffusivity independent of curvature. Conclusion A previously-undescribed pathway system interconnecting mid-fusiform region with amygdala/hippocampus has been revealed. This pathway system may be important for recognition, memory consolidation, and emotional modulation of face, object, and lexical information, which may be disrupted in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19418556

Smith, Charles D.; Lori, Nicolas F.; Akbudak, Erbil; Sorar, Ertugrul; Gultepe, Eren; Shimony, Joshua S.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Conturo, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

27

Face-Specific Processing in the Human Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of faces is sometimes regarded as a specialized task involving discrete brain regions. In an attempt to identi$ face-specific cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation evoked by faces presented in a continuously changing montage of common objects or in a similar montage of nonobjects. Bilateral regions of the posterior fusiform gyrus were activated

Gregory McCarthy; Aina Puce; John C. Gore; Truett Allison

1997-01-01

28

Unexplained Perioperative Vertebrobasilar Stroke in a Patient Undergoing Anterior Cervical Decompression and Disc Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrobasilar stroke associated with the anterior approach to the cervical spine is rare and has not been reported in cervical disc arthroplasty surgery. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. Postoperatively, due to symptoms and signs of a cerebellar stroke, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was obtained confirming this diagnosis. Despite thorough investigation no specific identifiable cause for the stroke has been identified. We hypothesis an unrecognised period of intraoperative hypotension may have caused a temporary reduction in vertebrobasilar blood flow. Methods A retrospective review of the patient's case notes and a focused review of literature has been performed. Results Now two years postoperatively the patient has regained full power but has residual problems with balance. She has neuralgic pain down the right side of her body which following investigation is believed to result from the stroke. Conclusions / Level of Evidence Surgeons should be aware vertebrobasilar stroke is a possible rare perioperative complication associated with anterior cervical decompression and disc arthroplasty. Level V. PMID:25713773

Jensen, Cyrus Dokhanian; Jeavons, Richard Paul; Reddy, Guru Raj; Freisem, Tai

2015-01-01

29

Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.  

PubMed

What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

2015-01-01

30

Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area  

PubMed Central

What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

2015-01-01

31

Ibudilast, a mixed PDE3\\/4 inhibitor, causes a selective and nitric oxide\\/cGMP-independent relaxation of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibudilast, a mixed phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3\\/4 inhibitor, is a cerebral vasodilator widely used in Japan for treating post-stroke dizziness. However, little studies have been conducted on the vasorelaxant effects of PDE inhibitors in the vertebrobasilar artery associated with dizziness onset. The in vitro vasorelaxant properties of ibudilast were, therefore, investigated by comparing with known selective PDE inhibitors, using vertebrobasilar arteries.

Takanobu Yamazaki; Tsuyoshi Anraku; Shigeki Matsuzawa

2011-01-01

32

Hemodynamic Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar System Analyzed Using MRI-Based Models  

PubMed Central

The vertebrobasilar system (VBS) is unique in human anatomy in that two arteries merge into a single vessel, and it is especially important because it supplies the posterior circulation of the brain. Atherosclerosis develops in this region, and atherosclerotic plaques in the vertebrobasilar confluence can progress with catastrophic consequences, including artery occlusion. Quantitative assessments of the flow characteristics in the VBS could elucidate the factors that influence flow patterns in this confluence, and deviations from normal patterns might then be used to predict locations to monitor for potential pathological changes, to detect early signs of disease, and to evaluate treatment options and efficacy. In this study, high-field MRI was used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the hemodynamics of subject-specific confluence models (n?=?5) and to identify different geometrical classes of vertebrobasilar systems (n?=?12) of healthy adult subjects. The curvature of the vessels and their mutual orientation significantly affected flow parameters in the VBS. The basilar artery geometry strongly influenced both skewing of the velocity profiles and the wall shear stress distributions in the VBS. All five subjects modeled possessed varying degrees of vertebral asymmetry, and helical flow was observed in four cases, suggesting that factors other than vertebral asymmetry influence mixing of the vertebral artery flow contributions. These preliminary studies verify that quantitative, MR imaging techniques in conjunction with subject-specific CFD models of healthy adult subjects may be used to characterize VBS hemodynamics and to predict flow features that have been related to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis in large arteries. This work represents an important first step towards applying this approach to study disease initiation and progression in the VBS. PMID:23251503

Wake-Buck, Amanda K.; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.

2012-01-01

33

Selectivity for the Human Body in the Fusiform Gyrus Marius V. Peelen and Paul E. Downing  

E-print Network

Report Selectivity for the Human Body in the Fusiform Gyrus Marius V. Peelen and Paul E. Downing in final form 3 August 2004 Peelen, Marius V. and Paul E. Downing. Selectivity for the human body that the mid-fusiform gyrus responds with nearly the same level of selectivity to images of human bodies

Downing, Paul

34

Brief article The effect of face inversion on the human fusiform face area  

E-print Network

Brief article The effect of face inversion on the human fusiform face area Nancy Kanwishera faces and the ability to see the stimulus as a face in two-tone Mooney images. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the effect of face inversion on the human fusiform face area (FFA). MR

Tong, Frank

35

Clinical Results of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Atherosclerotic Stenoses and Occlusions  

PubMed Central

Summary Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebrobasilar stenosis and occlusion were treated by PTA or stenting. In 11 of 18 cases, only PTA was performed and in seven of 18 cases, we used stents. The mean stenosis before and after PTA/stenting was 82.8% and 22.3%, respectively. In 11 cases of PTA only, the stenotic rate decreased from 81.8% to 29.6%, while 85.0% of the stenotic rate remarkably reduced to 6.0% in seven cases of stenting. The 30 days morbidity and 30 days mortality rate were 5.5% and 5.5%, respectively. There was only one haemorrhagic complication (cerebellar haemorrhage) in cases of stenting, and no ischemic events during or after the procedures. Restenosis (more than 50% stenosis) occurred in four of 18 cases(22.2%) during mean follow-up period of 12 months. Two patients with VA occlusion before treatment, developed restenosis and reocclusion. Complete total occlusion seems to be a high-risk lesion and strict follow-up is required. In this study, PTA/stenting for intracranial vertebrobasilar artery stenosis or occlusion is an effective treatment, but strict indications may be required because procedure-related 30 days morbidity rate was 5.5% in addition to unclear natural history. PMID:20587244

Tsuura, M.; Terada, T.; Masuo, O.; Tsumoto, T.; Yamaga, H.; Itakura, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Hyoutani, G.; Hayashi, S.

2004-01-01

36

Intradural vertebral endarterectomy with nonautologous patch angioplasty for refractory vertebrobasilar ischemia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: The natural history of patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms due to chronic bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease is progressive, and poses significant challenges when refractory to medical therapy. Surgical treatment options depend largely on location and characteristics of the atheroma (s), and generally include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stent placement, posterior circulation revascularization (bypass), extracranial vertebral artery reconstruction, or vertebral artery endarterectomy. Case Description: We present the case of a 56-year-old male with progressive vertebrobasilar ischemia due to tandem lesions in the right vertebral artery at the origin and intracranially in the V4 segment. The contralateral vertebral artery was occluded to the level of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and posterior communicating arteries were absent. Following PTA and stent placement at the right vertebral artery origin, the patient was successfully treated with intradural vertebral artery endarterectomy (V4EA) and patch angioplasty via the far lateral approach. Distal endovascular intervention at the V4 segment proved not technically feasible after multiple attempts. Conclusions: V4EA is an uncommonly performed procedure, but may be considered for carefully selected patients. The authors’ techniques and indications are discussed. Historical outcomes, relevant anatomic considerations, and lessons learned are reviewed from the literature. PMID:25558424

Uschold, Timothy; Abla, Adib A.; Wilson, David A.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Nakaji, Peter

2014-01-01

37

Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: surgical strategies, technical nuances and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Hemifacial spasm (HFS) due to direct compression of the facial nerve by a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery is rare. Vessels are often non-compliant and tethered by critical brainstem perforators. We set out to determine surgical strategies and outcomes for this challenging disease. All patients undergoing surgery for HFS secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia were reviewed. Hospital records, clinic notes and radiographic imaging were collected for outcome measures. Seventeen patients (eight males, nine females) were identified. Sixteen patients (94%) were treated with Teflon pledgets (DuPont, Wilmington, DE, USA) and one (6%) patient had a vascular sling placed around a severely diseased vertebral artery. All patients had significant reduction in symptoms and 82% of patients had complete resolution of symptoms (average follow-up: 41.4 months). One patient suffered persistent facial nerve paresis and swallowing difficulty. Two other patients suffered a 1 point decrease in the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading scale. Four patients (23%) required re-operation (infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and two patients with delayed recurrence of HFS). Of the latter, one patient required repositioning of a Teflon pledget and another patient underwent a sling decompression. There were no perioperative strokes or death. Excellent relief of symptoms with acceptable preoperative morbidity can be achieved using Teflon pledgets alone in most cases. In recalcitrant cases, sling transposition can be used to further augment the decompression. Careful attention must be paid to prevent vascular kinking and preserve brainstem perforators. PMID:25510536

Zaidi, Hasan A; Awad, Al-Wala; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Fusco, David; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

2015-01-01

38

Complete Nonvisualization of Basilar Artery on MR Angiography in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Ischemic Stroke: Favorable Outcome Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) occasionally fails to visualize the basilar artery, but in these patients, little attention has been given to establishing correlations between the clinical and the radiological findings. Our aim was to identify clinical or radiological measures that could assist in predicting a favorable clinical outcome. Methods: Risk factors, clinicoradiological features, and functional

H. Y. Kim; C. S. Chung; S. Y. Moon; K. H. Lee; S. H. Han

2004-01-01

39

Long-term experience with Chinese language shapes the fusiform asymmetry of English reading.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

2015-04-15

40

Size and Location of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of study was to review our patient population to determine whether there is a critical aneurysm size at which the incidence of rupture increases and whether there is a correlation between aneurysm size and location. Methods We reviewed charts and radiological findings (computed tomography (CT) scans, angiograms, CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography) for all patients operated on for intracranial aneurysms in our hospital between September 2002 and May 2004. Of the 336 aneurysms that were reviewed, measurements were obtained from angiograms for 239 ruptured aneurysms by a neuroradiologist at the time of diagnosis in our hospital. Results There were 115 male and 221 female patients assessed in this study. The locations of aneurysms were the middle cerebral artery (MCA, 61), anterior communicating artery (ACoA, 66), posterior communicating artery (PCoA, 52), the top of the basilar artery (15), internal carotid artery (ICA) including the cavernous portion (13), anterior choroidal artery (AChA, 7), A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (3), A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (11), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA, 8), superior cerebellar artery (SCA, 2), P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (1), and the vertebral artery (2). The mean diameter of aneurysms was 5.47±2.536 mm in anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 6.84±3.941 mm in ICA, 7.09±3.652 mm in MCA and 6.21±3.697 mm in vertebrobasilar artery. The ACA aneurysms were smaller than the MCA aneurysms. Aneurysms less than 6 mm in diameter included 37 (60.65%) in patients with aneurysms in the MCA, 43 (65.15%) in patients with aneurysms in the ACoA and 29 (55.76%) in patients with aneurysms in the PCoA. Conclusion Ruptured aneurysms in the ACA were smaller than those in the MCA. The most prevalent aneurysm size was 3-6 mm in the MCA (55.73%), 3-6 mm in the ACoA (57.57%) and 4-6 mm in the PCoA (42.30%). The more prevalent size of the aneurysm to treat may differ in accordance with the location of the aneurysm. PMID:19242565

Jung, Yong-Tae; Kim, Moo-Seong; Eun, Choong-Ki; Jang, Sang-Hwan

2009-01-01

41

Supersonic Rupture of Rubber  

E-print Network

The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

M Marder

2005-04-24

42

Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

Li Jian, E-mail: ns981212@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao Zhenwei, E-mail: zzwzc@sina.com; Gao Guodong, E-mail: gaoguo_dong@163.com; Deng Jianping [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Team of Neurovascular Angioplasty, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology and Neurosurgery (China); Yu Jia [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurology (China); Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology (China)

2012-04-15

43

Vertebro-basilar junction aneurysms: a single centre experience and meta-analysis of endovascular treatments.  

PubMed

Vascular lesions of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are challenging in neurosurgical practice, and their gold-standard therapy is still under debate. We describe the operative strategies currently in use for the management of these complex vascular lesions and discuss their rationale in a literature meta-analysis and single centre blinded retrospective study. The single centre study included a review of initial presentation, angiographic features and clinical outcome (with modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores) over a long-term follow-up. In our series, small aneurysms were effectively treated by endosaccular coil embolization, whereas a strategy including flow-diverter devices combined with endosaccular coil embolization was the option of choice in large and giant aneurysms, leading to satisfactory outcomes in most cases. Our Medline review showed that endovascular treatment was chosen in most VBJ cases, whereas the microsurgical option was assigned to only a few cases. Among the endovascular treatments, the most common techniques used for the treatment of VBJ aneurysms were: coiling, stent-assisted coiling and flow diversion. Our study highlights that aneurysm morphology, location and patient-specific angio-architecture are key factors to be considered in the management of VBJ aneurysms. Most case series, including our own, show that parent artery reconstruction using a flow-diverter device is a feasible and successful technique in some cases of giant and complex aneurysms (especially those involving the lower third of the basilar artery) while a "sit back, wait and see" approach may represent the safest and most reasonable option. PMID:25489898

Graziano, Francesca; Ganau, Mario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Boccardi, Edoardo

2014-12-01

44

The effect of face inversion on the human fusiform face area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inversion severely impairs the recognition of greyscale faces and the ability see the stimulus as a face in two-tone Mooney images. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the effect of face inversion on the human fusiform face area (FFA). MR signal intensity from the FFA was reduced when greyscale faces were presented upside-down, but this effect was small

Nancy Kanwisher; Frank Tong; Ken Nakayama

1998-01-01

45

Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the ventral temporal lobe is thought to be critical for face perception, but what determines this specialization remains unknown. We present evidence that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference. Acquisition of expertise with novel objects

Isabel Gauthier; Michael J. Tarr; Adam W. Anderson; Pawel Skudlarski; John C. Gore

1999-01-01

46

Facial Affect Recognition Training in Autism: Can We Animate the Fusiform Gyrus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most consistent findings in the neuroscience of autism is hypoactivation of the fusiform gyrus (FG) during face processing. In this study the authors examined whether successful facial affect recognition training is associated with an increased activation of the FG in autism. The effect of a computer-based program to teach facial affect identification was examined in 10 individuals

Sven Bölte; Daniela Hubl; Sabine Feineis-Matthews; David Prvulovic; Thomas Dierks; Fritz Poustka

2006-01-01

47

The Fusiform Face Area: A Module in Human Extrastriate Cortex Specialized for Face Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found an area in the fusiform gyrus in 12 of the 15 subjects tested that was significantly more active when the subjects viewed faces than when they viewed assorted common objects. This face activation was used to define a specific region of interest individually for each subject, within which several new tests of

Nancy Kanwisher; Josh McDermott; Marvin M. Chun

1997-01-01

48

The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces  

E-print Network

The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces Nancy Kanwisher1, PO Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Faces are among the most important visual stimuli we perceive. The ability to extract this information within a fraction of a second of viewing a face is important

Kanwisher, Nancy

49

Neurons in the Fusiform Gyrus are Fewer and Smaller in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abnormalities in face perception are a core feature of social disabilities in autism. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that patients with autism could perform face perception tasks. However, the fusiform gyrus (FG) and other cortical regions supporting face processing in controls are hypoactive in patients with autism.…

van Kooten, Imke A. J.; Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; von Cappeln, Patricia; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Korr, Hubert; Heinsen, Helmut; Hof, Patrick R.; van Engeland, Herman; Schmitz, Christoph

2008-01-01

50

Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus  

PubMed Central

Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more numerous. PMID:25294990

Salloum, Rony H.; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F.; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J.; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A.

2014-01-01

51

Is cervical spine rotation, as used in the standard vertebrobasilar insufficiency test, associated with a measureable change in intracranial vertebral artery blood flow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine rotation is used by manual therapists as a premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) test to identify patients at risk of developing VBI post-manipulation. Investigations of the effect of rotation on vertebral artery blood flow have yielded conflicting results, the validity of the test being debated. It was the aim of this study, therefore, to investigate the effects of cervical

Jeanette Mitchell; David Keene; Craig Dyson; Lyndsay Harvey; Christopher Pruvey; Rita Phillips

2004-01-01

52

Excess copper induced proteomic changes in the marine brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for algal growth and development; however, it is also generally considered to be one of the most toxic metals when present at higher levels. Seaweeds are often exposed to low concentrations of metals, including Cu, for long time periods. In cases of ocean outfall, they may even be abruptly exposed to high levels of metals. The physiological processes that are active under Cu stress are largely unknown. In this study, the brown macroalga Sargassum fusiforme was cultured in fresh seawater at final Cu concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 24 and 47 ?M. The Cu(2+) concentration and chlorophyll autofluorescence were measured to establish the toxic effects of Cu on this economically important seaweed. The accumulation of Cu by S. fusiforme was also dependent upon the external Cu concentration. Algal growth displayed a general decline with increasing media Cu concentrations, indicating that S. fusiforme was able to tolerate Cu stress at low concentrations, while it was negatively impacted at high concentrations. The term "acute stress" was employed to indicate exposure to high Cu concentrations for 1 day in this study. On the other hand, "chronic stress" was defined as exposure to lower sub-lethal Cu concentrations for 7 days. Proteins were extracted from control and Cu-treated S. fusiforme samples and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct patterns of protein expression in the acute and chronic stress conditions were observed. Proteins related to energy metabolism and photosynthesis were reduced significantly, whereas those related to carbohydrate metabolism, protein destination, RNA degradation and signaling regulation were induced in S. fusiforme in response to acute copper stress. Energy metabolism-related proteins were significantly induced by chronic Cu stress. Proteins from other functional groups, such as those related to membranes and transport, were present in minor quantities. These results suggest that S. fusiforme is sensitive to excess Cu, regardless of the presence of acute or chronic stress. We discuss the possible function of these identified proteins, taking into consideration the information available from other plant models. PMID:25450944

Zou, Hui-Xi; Pang, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Lin, Li-Dong; Li, Nan; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2015-01-01

53

Rupture of the diaphragm  

PubMed Central

Christiansen, L. A., Stage, P., Bille Brahe, E., and Bertelsen, S. (1974).Thorax, 29, 559-563. Rupture of the diaphragm. A 23-year series of 25 patients with rupture of the diaphragm is presented. Symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatment are mentioned. A high index of suspicion of the diagnosis of ruptured diaphragm is most important in patients with a history of trauma. Familiarity with the signs on the plain chest film is important. Furthermore, we advocate an additional examination, that is diagnostic pneumoperitoneum, in all cases of suspected rupture of the diaphragm. If doubt still exists, we consider the final diagnostic procedure of choice to be exploratory thoracotomy until proof of the complete reliability of diagnostic pneumoperitoneum has been established. Images PMID:4428456

Christiansen, L. A.; Stage, P.; Bille Brahe, E.; Bertelsen, S.

1974-01-01

54

Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Your: Achilles Tendon Rupture. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2014: appendix V. Sokolove PE, Barnes DK. Extensor and Flexor Tendon Injuries ...

55

Endovascular Stenting for Restenosis of the Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Artery After Balloon Angioplasty: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) has been used in the treatment of critical stenosis of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA). PTA of the intracranial VBA carries the risk of fatal complications such as arterial dissection or acute occlusion as well as postoperative restenosis. The estimated risk of periprocedural complications and restenosis were approximately 20% and 27%. The use of recently developed stents could prevent these problems of PTA. We present two cases of restenosis of the intracranial VBA after PTA which stenoses were successfully retreated with endovascular stenting using flexible coronary stents without any complications. Neither restenosis nor other recurrent symptoms were observed during the 4- and 6-month follow-up period. Reviewing the literature of 33 cases and our 2 cases, the overall complication rates related to stenting and restenosis were 5.6% and 7.8%. Endovascular stenting for the treatment of intracranial VBA can reduce the risk of arterial dissection and restenosis.

Kiyosue, Hiro, E-mail: hkiyosue@oita-med.ac.jp; Okahara, Mika [Department of Radiology, Nagatomi Neurosurgical Hospital, Oita Medical University, 3-2, Omichi-machi (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori; Nagatomi, Hirofumi [Neurosurgery, Nagatomi Neurosurgical Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Natsuki [Shinbeppu Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Japan); Mori, Hiromu [Oita Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2004-09-15

56

The fusiform face area subserves face perception, not generic within-category identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the fusiform face area (FFA), a face-selective region in human extrastriate cortex, is a matter of active debate. Here we measured the correlation between FFA activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral outcomes in perceptual tasks to determine the role of the FFA in the detection and within-category identification of faces and objects. Our

Nicholas Knouf; Nancy Kanwisher; Kalanit Grill-Spector

2004-01-01

57

New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source parameters for historical earthquakes worldwide are com- piled to develop a series of empirical relationships among moment magnitude (M), surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, rupture area, and maximum and average displacement per event. The resulting data base is a significant update of previous compilations and includes the ad- ditional source parameters of seismic moment, moment

Donald L. Wells; Kevin J. Coppersmith

1994-01-01

58

Multivoxel Patterns in Fusiform Face Area Differentiate Faces by Sex and Race  

PubMed Central

Although prior research suggests that fusiform gyrus represents the sex and race of faces, it remains unclear whether fusiform face area (FFA)–the portion of fusiform gyrus that is functionally-defined by its preferential response to faces–contains such representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate whether FFA represents faces by sex and race. Participants were scanned while they categorized the sex and race of unfamiliar Black men, Black women, White men, and White women. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that multivoxel patterns in FFA–but not other face-selective brain regions, other category-selective brain regions, or early visual cortex–differentiated faces by sex and race. Specifically, patterns of voxel-based responses were more similar between individuals of the same sex than between men and women, and between individuals of the same race than between Black and White individuals. By showing that FFA represents the sex and race of faces, this research contributes to our emerging understanding of how the human brain perceives individuals from two fundamental social categories. PMID:23936077

Contreras, Juan Manuel; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Mitchell, Jason P.

2013-01-01

59

Incidence of fusiform rust infection on loblolly pine related to tip moth damage  

SciTech Connect

Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) is a limiting factor in the production of southern pines throughout a broad area of the southeastern United States, extending from South Carolina to Texas. The target areas on the hosts for both pests are young, succulent shoot tissues. Carbofuran, a systematic insecticide, was used to determine the effect of controlling tip moth on seedlings infected by the fusiform rust organism. Beginning with the 2nd year carbofuran was applied over 4 successive years. The insecticide sharply reduced the incidence of tip moth and increased the height of 5-year-old saplings compared with untreated controls. Usually any treatment that stimulates the growth of pines also results in increased rust infection. However, this was not the case here because untreated saplings had significantly more infection. It is not known whether the increased disease incidence on untreated trees was due to the susceptibility and/or total number of secondary shoots initiated in response to tip dieback caused by the tip moth, or if carbofuran itself has some fungicidal effect resulting in lower infection on treated seedlings. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Powers, H.R. Jr.; Stone, D.M.

1985-09-01

60

How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.  

PubMed

While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

2014-11-01

61

Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): genome architecture and taxonomic consideration.  

PubMed

Abstract Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell (=Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura) is one of the most important economic seaweeds for mariculture in China. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. fusiforme. The genome is 34,696?bp in length with circular organization, encoding the standard set of three ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 35 protein-coding genes, and two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Its total AT content is 62.47%, lower than other brown algae except Pylaiella littoralis. The mitogenome carries 1571?bp of intergenic region constituting 4.53% of the genome, and 13 pairs of overlapping genes with the overlap size from 1 to 90?bp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. fusiforme has a closer evolutionary relationship with Sargassum muticum than Sargassum horneri, indicating Hizikia are not distinct evolutionary entity and should be reduced to synonymy with Sargassum. PMID:24989050

Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Luo, Minbo

2014-07-01

62

Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme  

PubMed Central

A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

63

The orthography-specific functions of the left fusiform gyrus: Evidence of modality and category specificity  

PubMed Central

We report on an investigation of the cognitive functions of an individual with a resection of the left fusiform gyrus. This individual and a group of control participants underwent testing to examine the question of whether or not there are neural substrates within the left fusiform gyrus that are dedicated to orthographic processing. We evaluated the modality specificity (written vs. spoken language) and the category specificity (written language vs. other visual categories) of this individual’s impairments. The results clearly reveal deficits affecting lexical processes in both reading and spelling. Specifically, we find disruption of normal, rapid access to meaning from print in reading and of accurate retrieval of the spellings of words from their meaning in writing. These deficits stand in striking contrast with intact processing of spoken language and categories of visual stimuli such as line drawings of objects and faces. The modality and category specificity of the deficits provide clear evidence of neural substrates within the left mid-fusiform gyrus that are specialized and necessary for normal orthographic processing. PMID:19428003

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Rapp, Brenda

2010-01-01

64

Achilles Tendon Rupture  

PubMed Central

Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

2013-01-01

65

Treatment of a recurrent traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: Vertebro-basilar approach after surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of a post-traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula treated by endovascular approach through the vertebrobasilar system is reported. The 16 year old female patient was hurt in a car accident. The instantly-occuring carotid-cavernous fistula was treated with a Fogarty catheter, the internal carotid artery being occluded during this procedure. Ten years later the fistula recurred with a predominantly cortical venous drainage.

E. Garcia-Cervigon; S. Bien; A. Laurent; I. Wietzner; A. Biondi; J. J. Merland

1988-01-01

66

Solvothermal synthesis of fusiform hexagonal prism SrCO{sub 3} microrods via ethylene glycol solution  

SciTech Connect

Fusiform hexagonal prism SrCO{sub 3} microrods were prepared by a simple solvothermal route at 120 deg. C, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. By controlling the content of ethylene glycol (EG), it was found that ethylene glycol (EG) played an important role in the formation of such SrCO{sub 3} microrods. Finally, effects of other solvents on the products, including 1,2-propanediol and glycerin, were also investigated.

Shi Liange [Key Laboratory for Nanostructured Materials, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Du Fanglin [Key Laboratory for Nanostructured Materials, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)]. E-mail: dufanglin@qust.edu.cn

2007-08-07

67

Intracranial and Extracranial Fusiform Aneurysms in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has a variety of localized or systemic manifestations. Among them, Cerebrovascular dysplasia can be very rare finding of neurofibromatosis which can be very rarely seen. Here we report a case of 17-year-old boy representing bilateral giant fusiform aneurysms of extracranial internal carotid arteries and intracranial aneurysms of left middle cerebral artery. He showed no related symptoms at all, but screening for vascular lesions and close monitoring is warranted in NF-1 patients considering that it can be symptomatic unexpectedly. PMID:22125747

You, Myung Won; Choi, Woo Suk

2011-01-01

68

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Visual Word Form and Fusiform Face Areas.  

PubMed

Two areas of the occipitotemporal cortex show a remarkable hemispheric lateralization: written words activate the visual word form area (VWFA) in the left fusiform gyrus and faces activate a symmetrical site in the right hemisphere, the fusiform face area (FFA). While the lateralization of the VWFA fits with the leftward asymmetry of the speech processing network, origin of the rightward asymmetry for faces is still unclear. Using fMRI data from 64 subjects (including 16 monozygotic (MZ) and 13 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs), we investigated how activations evoked by written words, faces, and spoken language are co-lateralized in the temporal lobe, and whether this organization reflects genetic factors or individual reading expertise. We found that the lateralization of the left superior temporal activation for spoken language correlates with the lateralization of occipitotemporal activations for both written words and faces. Behavioral reading scores also modulate the responses to words and faces. Estimation of genetic and environmental contributions shows that activations of the VWFA, the occipital face area, and the temporal speech areas are partially under genetic control whereas activation of the FFA is primarily influenced by individual experience. Our results stress the importance of both genetic factors and acquired expertise in the occipitotemporal organization. PMID:24825786

Pinel, Philippe; Lalanne, Christophe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Fauchereau, Fabien; Poupon, Cyril; Artiges, Eric; Le Bihan, Denis; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Dehaene, Stanislas

2014-05-13

69

Two-stage selection in slash pine produces good gains in fusiform rust resistance  

SciTech Connect

The best 6 of 21 progeny-tested first-generation slash pine selections were crossed in a half diallel to study inheritance patterns of their superior fusiform rust resistance (5 trees) and height (1 tree). Their six first-test progenies were duplicated and included in the study. These two groups of progenies, along with two commercial check lots, were planted on an Upper Coastal Plain and a Flatwoods site in Georgia. At age 10 yr, the 15 progenies in the half diallel averaged 23% rust-infected compared with 54% for the check lots. First-test progenies averaged 30% infected. For percentage infection, the six parents differed in general combining ability (GCA) (0.01>P>0.001) on both test sites and in specific combining ability (0.05>P>0.01) on one site. GCA variation for height was significant (0.05>P>0.01) on one site. The parent selected for height had the highest breeding value for height at age 10 yr. These results show that resistance to the fusiform rust disease, a serious problem in management of the species, can be improved in slash pine. These 6 parents and their 15 progenies in the half-diallel cross are a good source of rust resistance genes for use in slash pine improvement programs.

Sluder, E.R.

1996-08-01

70

Hemispheric asymmetry in the fusiform gyrus distinguishes Homo sapiens from chimpanzees.  

PubMed

While the neural basis for linguistic communication has been linked to brain structural asymmetries found only in humans (wider connective spacing is found between the minicolumns of neurons in the left hemisphere language areas), it is unknown if the opposite microanatomical asymmetry exists in the fusiform gyrus which typically supports a right hemisphere bias for face processing. Unlike language, face processing is an ability shared with chimpanzees and, as Darwin observed, the widespread use of facial expressions in animal communication suggests a biological basis. We tested the principle that minicolumn asymmetry follows typical functional dominance in humans, and tested its evolutionary continuity, by measuring minicolumn width, neuronal size and density in the mid-fusiform cortex in 14 humans and 14 chimpanzees. We found that microanatomical asymmetry distinguishes humans from chimpanzees although the direction of asymmetry is the same as in language areas-the right hemisphere contained narrower minicolumns and smaller pyramidal neurons, as in auditory language areas. Uniformly narrow minicolumns in chimpanzees and in the human right hemisphere are consistent with mechanistic predictions supporting the apparent bias towards holistic face processing. Wider minicolumns and larger neurons in the human left hemisphere may be consistent with a language function such as word-form processing. Microanatomical asymmetry in the neocortex therefore provides a correlate of hemispheric specialisation. PMID:23108793

Chance, Steven A; Sawyer, Eva K; Clover, Linda M; Wicinski, Bridget; Hof, Patrick R; Crow, Timothy J

2013-11-01

71

Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus  

PubMed Central

Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

2013-01-01

72

Diffuse idiopathic intracranial fusiform aneurysm development. Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusiform intracranial aneurysms (FIAs) are uncommon lesions representing less than 15% of all intracranial aneurysms in most large series. Their etiology has been linked to a variety of causes including atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, cystic medial necrosis, connective tissue disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, infection, cardiac myxoma, oral contraceptive use, vasculitis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. The finding of numerous lesions in a single patient is distinctly uncommon. Case Description: We describe the unique case of a 47-year-old female who developed multiple FIAs over a 6-year period without an obvious underlying pathology. The patient's medical history was significant for obesity, migraine headaches, insomnia, breast cancer, and chronic skin rash. Various diagnoses were explored including infectious etiologies, autoimmune vasculopathies, malignancy-related causes, connective tissue disorders, and underlying genetic conditions. However, all investigations, including aneurysm wall and skin biopsies were negative or deemed noncontributory toward making a definitive diagnosis. Conclusion: We report an unusual case of a patient with a normal cerebral angiogram developing numerous, FIAs without obvious underlying etiology over a 6-year period. Close clinical and radiological follow-up is recommended in this case because the natural history of the disease is unclear at this point. The literature regarding potential causes of multiple fusiform intracranial aneuryms is reviewed. PMID:25101202

Nussbaum, Eric S.; Defillo, Archie; Mcdonald, William; Hanson, Sandra; Zelensky, Andrea

2014-01-01

73

Neonatal bladder rupture.  

PubMed

Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic cause such as umbilical catheterization. The present study describes the case of a 27-day old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary to bladder wall necrosis as a result of severe urinary tract infection. The baby was treated aggressively with antibiotics and underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation. PMID:19205633

Tran, Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nguyen, Tap

2009-04-01

74

Rupture of renal transplant.  

PubMed

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients. PMID:25685589

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A

2015-01-01

75

Rupture of Renal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients. PMID:25685589

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A.

2015-01-01

76

Multiple aneurysms of the radial artery in a woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 presenting as aneurysm rupture.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) experienced progressive forearm swelling coupled with impending compartment syndrome. Computed tomography angiography revealed a ruptured aneurysm of the proximal radial artery, multiple fusiform radial artery aneurysms, and a high independent ulnar artery origin. Compartment syndrome required prompt hematoma evacuation. Radial artery reconstruction, technically demanding due to vessel wall fragility, was deemed unnecessary because of satisfactory blood supply to the hand. Histologic findings indicated NF1-related vascular abnormalities also in the apparently normal radial artery as well as in a forearm vein, suggesting diffused vasculopathy. This case report is the first on ruptured radial artery aneurysm in NF1-related polianeurysmatic degeneration. PMID:23561427

De Santis, Francesco; Negri, Giovanni; Martini, Guido; Mazzoleni, Guido

2013-11-01

77

Ibudilast, a mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor, causes a selective and nitric oxide/cGMP-independent relaxation of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery.  

PubMed

Ibudilast, a mixed phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3/4 inhibitor, is a cerebral vasodilator widely used in Japan for treating post-stroke dizziness. However, little studies have been conducted on the vasorelaxant effects of PDE inhibitors in the vertebrobasilar artery associated with dizziness onset. The in vitro vasorelaxant properties of ibudilast were, therefore, investigated by comparing with known selective PDE inhibitors, using vertebrobasilar arteries. Vasorelaxant activities of PDE3, PDE4, PDE5 inhibitors, and ibudilast were assessed in 5-hydroxytryptamine precontracted ring preparations from rabbit intracranial and extracranial vertebrobasilar arteries. Ibudilast more selectively relaxed the intracranial than extracranial artery. Similarly, selective PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors showed higher selectivity for intracranial arteries. Furthermore, like selective PDE4 inhibitor, the vasorelaxation by ibudilast accompanied by increase in cAMP levels was inhibited by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 in intracranial arteries. Next, it was examined whether nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling is involved in this vasorelaxation in intracranial arteries. The suppression of NO/cGMP signaling by an NO synthase inhibitor or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor potentiated the vasorelaxion by a PDE3 inhibitor and reduced that by a PDE4 inhibitor, while either suppression of the signaling had little influence on that by ibudilast. These results suggest that ibudilast has the high vasoselectivity for intracranial artery based on a mixed PDE3 and PDE4-inhibition, and effectively relaxes intracranial arteries independently of NO/cGMP signaling because of its vasorelaxation compensated by either PDE3- or PDE4-inhibition depending on the state of NO/cGMP signaling change. PMID:21036126

Yamazaki, Takanobu; Anraku, Tsuyoshi; Matsuzawa, Shigeki

2011-01-15

78

Fingerspelling, signed language, text and picture processing in deaf native signers: the role of the mid-fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

In fingerspelling, different hand configurations are used to represent the different letters of the alphabet. Signers use this method of representing written language to fill lexical gaps in a signed language. Using fMRI, we compared cortical networks supporting the perception of fingerspelled, signed, written, and pictorial stimuli in deaf native signers of British Sign Language (BSL). In order to examine the effects of linguistic knowledge, hearing participants who knew neither fingerspelling nor a signed language were also tested. All input forms activated a left fronto-temporal network, including portions of left inferior temporal and mid-fusiform gyri, in both groups. To examine the extent to which activation in this region was influenced by orthographic structure, two contrasts of orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were made: one using static stimuli (text vs. pictures), the other using dynamic stimuli (fingerspelling vs. signed language). Greater activation in left and right inferior temporal and mid-fusiform gyri was found for pictures than text in both deaf and hearing groups. In the fingerspelling vs. signed language contrast, a significant interaction indicated locations within the left and right mid-fusiform gyri. This showed greater activation for fingerspelling than signed language in deaf but not hearing participants. These results are discussed in light of recent proposals that the mid-fusiform gyrus may act as an integration region, mediating between visual input and higher-order stimulus properties. PMID:17363278

Waters, Dafydd; Campbell, Ruth; Capek, Cheryl M; Woll, Bencie; David, Anthony S; McGuire, Philip K; Brammer, Michael J; MacSweeney, Mairéad

2007-04-15

79

Biosorption of Hg(II) and Cu(II) by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme in aquatic solution.  

PubMed

The biosorption of heavy metals Hg(II) and Cu(II) from aquatic solution by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme was studied in the paper. The Sargassum fusiforme was able to absorb appreciable amount of mercury and copper from the aquatic solutions within 60 min of contact time with the metal solution and exhibited high removal of mercury and copper at low equilibrium concentrations. The specific adsorption of both Hg(II) and Cu(II) increased at low concentration of biomass and decreased when biomass concentration exceeded 2.0 g/L. The binding of mercury followed Freundlich model while copper supported Langmuir isotherm for adsorption with their r(2) values of 0.971 and 0.923, respectively. The maximum adsorption per unit masses of Sargassum fusiforme (mg/L) at equilibrium (qmax) for Hg(II) and Cu(II) were calculated to be 30.86 and 7.69 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption by Sargassum fusiforme was best described using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model for copper and mercury ions in solution in the study. The adsorption was pH dependent as the maximum mercury biosorption and copper adsorption was happened at solution pH of 8-10. PMID:25806112

Huang, Shengmou; Lin, Gan

2015-01-01

80

Decreased GABAB Receptors in the Cingulate Cortex and Fusiform Gyrus in Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder and among its symptoms are disturbances in face and emotional processing. Emerging evidence demonstrates abnormalities in the GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) system in autism, which likely contributes to these deficits. GABAB receptors play an important role in modulating synapses and maintaining the balance of excitation-inhibition in the brain. The density of GABAB receptors in subjects with autism and matched controls was quantified in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, important for socio-emotional and cognitive processing, and the fusiform gyrus, important for identification of faces and facial expressions. Significant reductions in GABAB receptor density were demonstrated in all three regions examined suggesting that alterations in this key inhibitory receptor subtype may contribute to the functional deficits in individuals with autism. Interestingly, the presence of seizure in a subset of autism cases did not have a significant effect on the density of GABAB receptors in any of the three regions. PMID:20557420

Gibbs, Terrell T.; Blatt, Gene J.

2010-01-01

81

Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2? production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

2015-01-01

82

Ruptured Intracranial Dermoid Cyst Associated with Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Many tumors have been reported to coexist with cerebral aneurysm. However, intracranial dermoid cysts associated with cerebral aneurysm are very rare. We report a case in which rupture of a cerebral aneurysm resulted in a ruptured dermoid cyst. We present this interesting case and review current literature about the relationship between tumors and aneurysm formation. PMID:22259693

Kim, Ki Hong

2011-01-01

83

Spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, management and outcome of patients with spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus in a single centre. Methods: Between October 1993 and May 2007, 51 consecutive patients with spontaneous oesophageal rupture were evaluated with contrast radiology and flexible endoscopy. Patients with limited contamination who fulfilled specific criteria were managed by a

S. M. Griffin; P. J. Lamb; J. Shenfine; D. L. Richardson; D. Karat; N. Hayes

2008-01-01

84

Plantar Fascia Ruptures in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To educate sports medicine practitioners as to length of time for an athlete to return to activity after sustaining a rupture of the plantar fascia.Methods: Athletic patients sustaining plantar fascia ruptures and subsequent treatment were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings, although radiographic studies were done. Patients were treated for 2 to 3 weeks with a below-knee or

Amol Saxena; Brian Fullem

2004-01-01

85

Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-04-01

86

Treatment for Giant Fusiform Aneurysm Located in the Cavernous Segment of the Internal Carotid Artery Using the Pipeline Embolization Device  

PubMed Central

The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a new endovascular device for treatment of complex, fusiform and wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. The main mechanism of this stent is to divert the flow in the parent artery with reduction of inflow in the aneurysm leading to thrombosis. We treated a 40-year-old woman who had left facial pain and orbit discomfort. Angiography showed a giant fusiform aneurysm located in the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. A PED was successfully deployed across the aneurysm. The procedure and post-procedural course were uneventful. After 3 months, angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with good patency of the branching vessels originating from the deployed segment. The patient's symptoms improved completely without complications. PMID:24570815

Oh, Se-yang; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

2014-01-01

87

Treatment for giant fusiform aneurysm located in the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery using the pipeline embolization device.  

PubMed

The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a new endovascular device for treatment of complex, fusiform and wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. The main mechanism of this stent is to divert the flow in the parent artery with reduction of inflow in the aneurysm leading to thrombosis. We treated a 40-year-old woman who had left facial pain and orbit discomfort. Angiography showed a giant fusiform aneurysm located in the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. A PED was successfully deployed across the aneurysm. The procedure and post-procedural course were uneventful. After 3 months, angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with good patency of the branching vessels originating from the deployed segment. The patient's symptoms improved completely without complications. PMID:24570815

Oh, Se-Yang; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Bum-Soo; Shin, Yong Sam

2014-01-01

88

Differential effects of androgenic and anti-androgenic progestins on fusiform and frontal gray matter volume and face recognition performance.  

PubMed

Effects of oral hormonal contraceptives (OC) on human brain structure and behavior have only recently become a focus of research. Two explorative reports observed larger regional gray matter (GM) volumes in OC users within the prefrontal cortex, ACC and fusiform gyri, as well as parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus and cerebellum. These studies did however not control for the androgenicity of the progestin compound of OC, did not take into consideration how long OC users had been on their OC, and did not control for age differences between the OC group and the naturally cycling group. We compared 20 naturally cycling women during their early follicular cycle phase to 18 users of OC containing androgenic progestins and 22 users of OC containing anti-androgenic progestins. When controlling for age, we found that in users of anti-androgenic progestins relative GM volumes within the bilateral fusiform gyri, fusiform face area (FFA), parahippocampal place area (PPA) and cerebellum, were significantly larger than in naturally cycling women, while in users of androgenic progestins, relative as well as absolute volumes within the bilateral middle and superior frontal gyri were significantly smaller compared to naturally cycling women. These morphological changes were related to performance in a face recognition task. Face recognition performance was significantly better in users of anti-androgenic progestins compared to the other groups and significantly related to absolute as well as relative GM volumes in the FFA and PPA. Total GM volume, as well as absolute GM volumes within the bilateral fusiform gyri, FFA, hippocampus, parahippocampus, PPA, middle frontal gyri and ACC were significantly larger, the longer the duration of OC use, particularly in users of androgenic progestins. Morphological differences between active and inactive pill phase were observed in users of androgenic progestins. These findings suggest differential effects of androgenic and anti-androgenic progestins on human brain structure. PMID:25446458

Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Kerschbaum, Hubert

2015-01-30

89

Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate–fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned  

PubMed Central

How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the activity level of the fusiform–caudate circuit in the left hemisphere, which nonetheless is not predictive of the ability to read in the native language. We scanned 10-y-old children while they performed a lexical decision task on L2 (and L1) stimuli. The subjects’ written language (reading) skills were behaviorally assessed twice, the first time just before we performed the fMRI scan (time 1 reading) and the second time 1 y later (time 2 reading). A whole-brain based analysis revealed that activity levels in left caudate and left fusiform gyrus correlated with L2 literacy skills at time 1. After controlling for the effects of time 1 reading and nonverbal IQ, or the effect of in-scanner lexical performance, the development in L2 literacy skills (time 2 reading) was also predicted by activity in left caudate and fusiform regions that are thought to mediate language control functions and resolve competition arising from L1 during L2 learning. Our findings suggest that the activity level of left caudate and fusiform regions serves as an important neurobiological marker for predicting accomplishment in reading skills in a new language. PMID:21262807

Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H. D.; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Siok, Wai Ting

2011-01-01

90

Steam generator tube rupture study  

E-print Network

This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

Free, Scott Thomas

1986-01-01

91

Is the whole the sum of its parts? Configural processing of headless bodies in the right fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to explore the functional magnetic resonance (fMR)-adaption effect by presenting intact and scrambled headless bodies and faces. This fMR-adaption paradigm allows investigating processing specificity in distinct brain areas by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal related to the presentation of same or different pairs of bodies. There is clear evidence that we prefer whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. This effect refers to a subtype of configural processing termed first-order relational information. The preference for whole bodies seems to be associated with activation pattern in body-sensitive brain regions. However, it remains unclear until now, which cortical area exactly mediates this preference. In the present study, we investigated whether there are neuronal populations that show a selective adaption to whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. The right fusiform body area (FBA) showed a preference for whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts as the right and left fusiform face area showed a preference for whole faces compared to the sum of their parts. Thus, the present data support the idea that configural body and face processing is mediated by the fusiform gyrus. The current data further support the view that bodies are a special stimulus class with specific characteristics which are processed in body-sensitive brain areas. PMID:25510195

Soria Bauser, Denise; Suchan, Boris

2015-03-15

92

Left fusiform BOLD responses are inversely related to word-likeness in a one-back task.  

PubMed

Although its precise functional contribution to reading remains unclear, there is broad consensus that an activity in the left mid-fusiform gyrus is highly sensitive to written words and word-like stimuli. In the current study, we take advantage of a particularity of the Chinese writing system in order to manipulate word-likeness parametrically, from real characters, to pseudo-characters that vary in whether they contain phonological and semantic cues, to artificial stimuli with varying surface similarity to real characters. In a one-back task, BOLD activity in the left mid-fusiform was inversely related to word-likeness, such that the least activity was observed in response to real characters, and the greatest to artificial stimuli that violate the orthotactic constraints of the writing system. One possible explanation for this surprising result is that the short-term memory demands of the one-back task put more pressure on the visual system when other sources of information cannot be used to aid in detecting repeated stimuli. For real characters and, to a lesser extent for pseudo-characters, information about meaning and pronunciation can contribute to performance, whereas artificial stimuli are entirely dependent on visual information. Consistent with this view, functional connectivity analyses revealed a strong positive relationship between left mid-fusiform and other visual areas, whereas areas typically involved in phonological and semantic processing for text were negatively correlated with this region. PMID:21216293

Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason D

2011-04-01

93

Perceived communicative context and emotional content amplify visual word processing in the fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

The personal significance of a language statement depends on its communicative context. However, this is rarely taken into account in neuroscience studies. Here, we investigate how the implied source of single word statements alters their cortical processing. Participants' brain event-related potentials were recorded in response to identical word streams consisting of positive, negative, and neutral trait adjectives stated to either represent personal trait feedback from a human or to be randomly generated by a computer. Results showed a strong impact of perceived sender. Regardless of content, the notion of receiving feedback from a human enhanced all components, starting with the P2 and encompassing early posterior negativity (EPN), P3, and the late positive potential (LPP). Moreover, negative feedback by the "human sender" elicited a larger EPN, whereas positive feedback generally induced a larger LPP. Source estimations revealed differences between "senders" in visual areas, particularly the bilateral fusiform gyri. Likewise, emotional content enhanced activity in these areas. These results specify how even implied sender identity changes the processing of single words in seemingly realistic communicative settings, amplifying their processing in the visual brain. This suggests that the concept of motivated attention extends from stimulus significance to simultaneous appraisal of contextual relevance. Finally, consistent with distinct stages of emotional processing, at least in contexts perceived as social, humans are initially alerted to negative content, but later process what is perceived as positive feedback more intensely. PMID:25878274

Schindler, Sebastian; Wegrzyn, Martin; Steppacher, Inga; Kissler, Johanna

2015-04-15

94

Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area.  

PubMed

It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex. PMID:24194707

Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

2013-01-01

95

Structure and biological activities of an alginate from Sargassum fusiforme, and its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

An alginate fraction, 04S2P, was isolated from the brown seaweed Sargassum fusiforme and was structurally characterized by the ratio (M/G) of ?-d-mannuronic acid residues (M) to ?-l-guluronic acid residues (G) via (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. When compared to commercial alginate (Alg) and alginates from other brown algae, 04S2P has a higher M/G ratio of 9.0:1.0 as determined by a modified high-performance liquid chromatography method after pre-column derivatization with PMP. Furthermore, the sulfated polysaccharides 04S2P-S and Alg-S were prepared by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. Both C-2 and/or C-3 of M and G residues of 04S2P-S were substituted by sulfate groups, with C-3 of M residues preferentially substituted. Their effects on tube formation of HMEC-1 cells were examined, and the results indicated that the sulfated Alg, Alg-S, exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic effect on HMEC-1 cells. The anti-tumor activity of native and sulfated alginates was tested on five different tumor cell lines. Alg-S demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects on the Bel7402, SMMC7721, and HT-29 cell lines, whereas 04S2P-S showed a distinct anti-tumor effect only on the Bel7402 cell line. PMID:24877643

Cong, Qifei; Xiao, Fei; Liao, Wenfeng; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

2014-08-01

96

Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri  

PubMed Central

People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

2014-01-01

97

The neural code for face orientation in the human fusiform face area.  

PubMed

Humans recognize faces and objects with high speed and accuracy regardless of their orientation. Recent studies have proposed that orientation invariance in face recognition involves an intermediate representation where neural responses are similar for mirror-symmetric views. Here, we used fMRI, multivariate pattern analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the neural encoding of faces and vehicles at different rotational angles. Corroborating previous studies, we demonstrate a representation of face orientation in the fusiform face-selective area (FFA). We go beyond these studies by showing that this representation is category-selective and tolerant to retinal translation. Critically, by controlling for low-level confounds, we found the representation of orientation in FFA to be compatible with a linear angle code. Aspects of mirror-symmetric coding cannot be ruled out when FFA mean activity levels are considered as a dimension of coding. Finally, we used a parametric family of computational models, involving a biased sampling of view-tuned neuronal clusters, to compare different face angle encoding models. The best fitting model exhibited a predominance of neuronal clusters tuned to frontal views of faces. In sum, our findings suggest a category-selective and monotonic code of face orientation in the human FFA, in line with primate electrophysiology studies that observed mirror-symmetric tuning of neural responses at higher stages of the visual system, beyond the putative homolog of human FFA. PMID:25186759

Ramírez, Fernando M; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

2014-09-01

98

Affective judgments of faces modulate early activity (approximately 160 ms) within the fusiform gyri.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the fusiform gyri (FG) in structural encoding of faces, while event-related potential (ERP) and magnetoencephalography studies have shown that such encoding occurs approximately 170 ms poststimulus. Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that processes involved in face recognition may be strongly modulated by socially relevant information conveyed by faces. To test the hypothesis that affective information indeed modulates early stages of face processing, ERPs were recorded to individually assessed liked, neutral, and disliked faces and checkerboard-reversal stimuli. At the N170 latency, the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density was computed in stereotactic space using a tomographic source localization technique. Mean activity was extracted from the FG, defined by structure-probability maps, and a meta-cluster delineated by the coordinates of the voxel with the strongest face-sensitive response from five published functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In the FG, approximately 160 ms poststimulus, liked faces elicited stronger activation than disliked and neutral faces and checkerboard-reversal stimuli. Further, confirming recent results, affect-modulated brain electrical activity started very early in the human brain (approximately 112 ms). These findings suggest that affective features conveyed by faces modulate structural face encoding. Behavioral results from an independent study revealed that the stimuli were not biased toward particular facial expressions and confirmed that liked faces were rated as more attractive. Increased FG activation for liked faces may thus be interpreted as reflecting enhanced attention due to their saliency. PMID:12169251

Pizzagalli, Diegon A; Lehmann, Dietrich; Hendrick, Andrew M; Regard, Marianne; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Davidson, Richard J

2002-07-01

99

Why is the Fusiform Face Area recruited for novel categories of expertise?: A neurocomputational investigation  

PubMed Central

What is the role of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Is it specific to face processing, or is it a visual expertise area? The expertise hypothesis is appealing due to a number of studies showing that the FFA is activated by pictures of objects within the subject’s domain of expertise (e.g., cars for car experts, birds for birders, etc.), and that activation of the FFA increases as new expertise is acquired in the lab. However, it is incumbent upon the proponents of the expertise hypothesis to explain how it is that an area that is initially specialized for faces becomes recruited for new classes of stimuli. We dub this the “visual expertise mystery.” One suggested answer to this mystery is that the FFA is used simply because it is a fine discrimination area, but this account has historically lacked a mechanism describing exactly how the FFA would be recruited for novel domains of expertise. In this study, we show that a neurocomputational model trained to perform subordinate-level discrimination within a visually homogeneous class develops transformations that magnify differences between similar objects, in marked contrast to networks trained to simply categorize the objects. This magnification generalizes to novel classes, leading to faster learning of new discriminations. We suggest this is why the FFA is recruited for new expertise. The model predicts that individual FFA neurons will have highly variable responses to stimuli within expertise domains. PMID:17959155

Joyce, Carrie A.; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

2008-01-01

100

Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri.  

PubMed

People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G; Van Bavel, Jay J

2014-03-01

101

Is This Car Looking at You? How Anthropomorphism Predicts Fusiform Face Area Activation when Seeing Cars  

PubMed Central

Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts. PMID:25517511

Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Gallinat, Jürgen

2014-01-01

102

Face, eye, and body selective responses in fusiform gyrus and adjacent cortex: an intracranial EEG study  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have investigated the degree to which processing of whole faces, face-parts, and bodies are differentially localized within the fusiform gyrus and adjacent ventral occipitotemporal cortex. While some studies have emphasized the spatial differentiation of processing into discrete areas, others have emphasized the overlap of processing and the importance of distributed patterns of activity. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from subdural electrodes provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution of local neural activity, and thus provides an alternative method to fMRI for studying differences and commonalities in face and body processing. In this study we recorded iEEG from 12 patients while they viewed images of novel faces, isolated eyes, headless bodies, and flowers. Event-related potential analysis identified 69 occipitotemporal sites at which there was a face-, eye-, or body-selective response when contrasted to flowers. However, when comparing faces, eyes, and bodies to each other at these sites, we identified only 3 face-specific, 13 eye-specific, and 1 body-specific electrodes. Thus, at the majority of sites, faces, eyes, and bodies evoked similar responses. However, we identified ten locations at which the amplitude of the responses spatially varied across adjacent electrodes, indicating that the configuration of current sources and sinks were different for faces, eyes, and bodies. Our results also demonstrate that eye-sensitive regions are more abundant and more purely selective than face- or body-sensitive regions, particularly in lateral occipitotemporal cortex. PMID:25191255

Engell, Andrew D.; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-01-01

103

Increased BOLD signal in the fusiform gyrus during implicit emotion processing in anorexia nervosa?  

PubMed Central

Background The behavioural literature in anorexia nervosa (AN) has suggested impairments in psychosocial functioning and studies using facial expression processing tasks (FEPT) have reported poorer recognition and slower identification of emotions. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used alongside a FEPT, depicting neutral, mildly happy and happy faces, to examine the neural correlates of implicit emotion processing in AN. Participants were instructed to specify the gender of the faces. Levels of depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive symptoms and eating disorder behaviour were obtained and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to acquire uncorrelated variables. Results fMRI analysis revealed a greater blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in AN in the right fusiform gyrus to all facial expressions. This response showed a linear increase with the happiness of the facial expression and was found to be stronger in those not taking medication. PCA analysis revealed a single component indicating a greater level of general clinical symptoms. Conclusion Neuroimaging findings would suggest that alterations in implicit emotion processing in AN occur during early perceptual processing of social signals and illustrate greater engagement on the FEPT. The lack of separate components using PCA suggests that the questionnaires used might not be suited as predictive measures. PMID:24501698

Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent; Surguladze, Simon; Williams, Steven; Tchanturia, Kate

2013-01-01

104

Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.  

PubMed

The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children. PMID:23153968

James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

2013-02-15

105

Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... or scalp Slurred speech Sudden falls (drop attacks) Vertigo (sensation of things spinning around) Memory loss Other ... symptoms is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment is similar to that for stroke . Treatment ...

106

Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

2011-01-01

107

Spontaneous Forniceal Rupture in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Forniceal rupture is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal rupture at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411

Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda

2015-01-01

108

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2010-10-01

109

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2012-10-01

110

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2011-10-01

111

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2014-10-01

112

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2013-10-01

113

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

114

Distal biceps and triceps ruptures.  

PubMed

Biceps and triceps tendon ruptures are rather uncommon injuries and are most commonly diagnosed clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging can help the clinician to differentiate an incomplete tear and define any degeneration of the tendon. Surgical anatomical repair is typically performed in acute complete ruptures whereas nonoperative treatment can be used for partial ruptures, as well as for patients unfit for surgery. Single incision techniques are associated with a higher rate of nerve injuries, while double incision repairs have a higher prevalence of heterotopic ossification. Although various fixation methods have been applied including bone tunnels, interference screws, suture anchors, cortical button fixation, the current evidence does not support the superiority of one method over the other. A well-planned postoperative rehabilitation programme is essential for a good final outcome. As better fixation devices are being used, more aggressive rehabilitation programmes have been applied. Epidemiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, surgical and conservative management of these injuries are presented in this review along with the authors' preferred technique for the anatomical repair of acute complete ruptures. PMID:23352149

Kokkalis, Zinon T; Ballas, Efstathios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Soucacos, Panayotis N

2013-03-01

115

NPR fuel rupture monitor system tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel rupture monitoring system at the New Production Reactor (NPR) has the following features and innovations which are not present on the rupture monitors at the other Hanford reactors: (1) each process tube is individually monitored for a fuel element rupture, (2) the electronics of the system are completely transistorized, and (3) the process water is monitored for gross

1964-01-01

116

A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

117

Behavior of the Edible Seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to Copper Pollution: Short-Term Acclimation and Long-Term Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

118

A genomic map enriched for markers linked to Avr1 in Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme.  

PubMed

A novel approach is presented to map avirulence gene Avr1 in the basidiomycete Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme, the causal agent of fusiform rust disease in pines. DNA markers tightly linked to resistance gene Fr1 in loblolly pine tree 10-5 were used to classify 10-5 seedling progeny as either resistant or susceptible. A single dikaryotic isolate (P2) heterozygous at the corresponding Avr1 gene was developed by crossing Fr1 avirulent isolate SC20-21 with Fr1 virulent isolate NC2-40. Bulk basidiospore inoculum derived from isolate P2 was used to challenge the pine progeny. The ability to unambiguously marker classify 10-5 progeny as resistant (selecting for virulence) or susceptible (non-selecting) permitted the genetic mapping of the corresponding Avr1 gene by bulked segregant analysis. Using this approach, 14 genetic markers significantly linked to Avr1 were identified and placed within the context of a genome-wide linkage map produced for isolate P2 using samples from susceptible seedlings. PMID:20888926

Kubisiak, Thomas L; Anderson, Claire L; Amerson, Henry V; Smith, Jason A; Davis, John M; Nelson, C Dana

2011-03-01

119

Models for earthquake rupture propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic processes associated with earthquake rupture propagation are poorly understood. In particular the crack-tip problem is singular when considered in terms of a stress-intensity factor. We introduce the Barenblatt cohesive zone to remove this singularity and consider a uniformly propagating, mode III crack that bisects a strip. Downstream of the crack tip we consider both a stress-free condition and a viscous resistance on the crack surface. The technique of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain solutions. However, with a stress-free boundary condition a Griffith energy balance for the initiation of rupture in terms of cohesive forces is obtained but the solution does not determine a rupture speed. The available elastic energy must be greater than the energy required to break the cohesive bond. With a viscous resistance to slip on the crack surface, the tip singularity associated with the outer solution is reduced from {1}/{2} to a smaller value and a velocity of crack propagation is found. The rupture initiation criterion is unaffected by the viscosity while, as the viscous or cohesive forces are decreased, the rupture velocity increases towards the shear-wave velocity. Our results are similar to those obtained by Nakanishi [Nakanishi, H., 1994. Continuum model of mode-III crack propagation with surface friction. Phys. Rev. E49, 5412-5419.] applying a Wiener-Hopf technique to a related problem. We believe that our solution provides an explanation for the observation of Heaton (slip) pulses during earthquakes. We suggest that there are two slip-mode regimes during an earthquake rupture. In the immediate vicinity of the crack tip, slip velocities are very small and cohesive forces dominate. This is the regime that has been studied experimentally in the laboratory; plastic deformation of the surfaces and gouge dominate and the drop in the frictional stress is small. At higher slip velocities, away from the crack tip, there is a second frictional mode with low frictional stresses. This may be due to the fluidization of the granular fault gauge and provides a rational basis for a transition from cohesion to viscous resistance on the crack surface. As the driving stress drops the slip velocity decreases, there is a return to the cohesive mode and the fault locks and heals.

Morgan, J. D.; Turcotte, D. L.; Ockendon, J. R.

1997-08-01

120

Spontaneous rupture of the ureter.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mecha nisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition. PMID:25715862

Eken, A; Akbas, T; Arpaci, T

2015-02-01

121

Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in fermented seaweed by-product groups were much higher than in non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, IgG concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than in control group (p<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that by-product dietary supplementation of BS, SF, FBS, and FSF in poultry may provide positive effects of growth performance and immune response. PMID:25050025

Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.

2014-01-01

122

fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal hypoactivation in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus, brain areas that participate in face processing and social cognition, has consistently been demonstrated in persons with autism. We investigated activity in these areas in a boy with autism, DD, who had a special interest in “Digimon” cartoon characters. DD individuates Digimon faster than familiar faces and objects, but he individuates familiar

David J. Grelotti; Ami J. Klin; Isabel Gauthier; Pawel Skudlarski; Donald J. Cohen; John C. Gore; Fred R. Volkmar; Robert T. Schultz

2005-01-01

123

Influence of initial stress and rupture initiation parameters on forbidden zone rupture propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established theoretical and numerical results of 2-D ruptures have been accepted for years to limit the speed of mode II cracks to be below the Rayleigh velocity or above the shear wave speed. However, recent work has numerically produced rupture speeds in this so-called `forbidden zone', that is the region of rupture velocities between the Rayleigh wave speed and the shear wave speed, for 3-D simulations. We verify that finding here and further examine the dependence of that behaviour on initial stress and rupture initiation parameters. Using a 3-D finite element model for dynamic rupture propagation, numerical experiments were performed for different initial stress conditions as well as different size initiation patches and forced rupture velocities. It is shown that the initial stress on the fault has a strong influence on the resulting rupture, specifically with regards to the distance at which the rupture transitions to supershear speeds, the maximum rupture velocity attained on the fault, and how rapidly the rupture passes through the forbidden zone. It is also demonstrated that for the same initial stress, increasing the size of the nucleation patch or the speed of forced rupture can artificially increase the gradient of the rupture velocity within the forbidden zone. This suggests that the rupture is uniquely predetermined by the stress state and material properties of the fault and surrounding medium in these models.

Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.

2015-04-01

124

Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic ?4/?2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24126835

Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

2015-01-01

125

Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

1973-01-01

126

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

127

Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair. PMID:23955186

Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

2013-10-01

128

Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

2010-11-01

129

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the experience with aneurysm rupture after deployment of Guidant\\/EVT (Guidant) endografts and review previously reported cases with other devices. Methods: Records from Guidant\\/EVT clinical trials and postmarket approval databases from February 1993 to August 2000 were analyzed to identify patients with rupture and to extract pertinent data. Previously reported cases were

Victor M. Bernhard; R. Scott Mitchell; Jon S. Matsumura; David C. Brewster; Maria Decker; Patrick Lamparello; Dieter Raithel; Jack Collin

2002-01-01

130

Free wall rupture after arterial switch operation.  

PubMed

A neonate underwent arterial switch operation, supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 3 days. Two weeks later, a pseudoaneurysm was seen on an echocardiogram, and a free wall rupture was suggested. Prompt surgery was performed, a free wall rupture assessed, and a patch with BioGlue was applied successfully. One year later, the child is in good condition. PMID:25468102

Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; Aroca, Ángel; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón; Pita, Ana

2014-12-01

131

Neonatal splenic rupture: an unusual manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal splenic rupture is relatively rare [4] and is usually associated with a traumatic delivery [3]. The clinical manifestation are those of hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock. We present two unusual cases of spontaneous neonatal splenic rupture whose initial clinical manifestation was a hematocele of the scrotal sac. The clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and management of such cases is discussed with

David Bader; Jorge G. Mogilner; Anna Berger; Samuel Eldar; Daniel Reich; Leonardo Siplovich

1993-01-01

132

Spontaneous intraventricular rupture of craniopharyngioma cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDRupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon. The rupture of the cyst causes decompression of the adjacent neural structures resulting in spontaneous improvement of the visual symptoms or level of sensorium. The leakage of its contents into the subarachnoid space gives rise to meningismus. We report an extremely rare phenomenon of an intraventricular rupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma,

Vaijayantee Kulkarni; Roy Thomas Daniel; Ramachandra Pranatartiharan

2000-01-01

133

Rupture Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The rupture model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different rupture criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In

D. J. Andrews

1976-01-01

134

Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

Xu, Chong

2014-07-01

135

Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts. PMID:21838077

Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

2011-01-01

136

Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

137

Closteriopsis acicularis (G. M. Smith) Belcher et Swale is a fusiform alga closely related to Chlorella kessleri Fott et Nováková(Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nuclear 18S rRNA and chloroplast 16S rRNA coding sequences of the fusiform green alga Closteriopsis acicularis (G. M. Smith) Belcher et Swale (Chlorophyta) were used to determine its phylogenetic position within the Chlorophyta. Phylogenetic trees inferred from both genes show that C. acicularis is most closely related to Chlorella kessleri Fott et Nováková (Trebouxiophyceae) and does not belong to

Iana Ustinova; Lothar Krientiz; Volker A. R. Huss

2001-01-01

138

Age at intracranial aneurysm rupture among generations  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have reported intracranial aneurysm (IA) occurring at young ages in subsequent generations. These studies did not correct for duration of follow-up. Second-generation members who would have their ruptured IA late in life may not be detected due to shorter follow-up time than the first generation. We examined families in which ruptured IA occurred in two consecutive generations for the hypothesis that the second generation (F1) was more likely to have a rupture at a younger age than the older generation (F0). Methods: The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is a multicenter, international study recruiting families of ruptured and unruptured IA. All available family members are interviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine differences by generation. Results: Although we found that the F1 generation was more likely to have an aneurysm rupture at a younger age than the F0 generation, we found that this was largely because of a lack of follow-up time in the F1 generation. The F1 generation had 50% the rupture rate of the prior generation. When analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, we found a tendency to have a slightly later rupture rate in the F1 generation once time to follow-up was included in the analysis model. Conclusions: Families of ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA) do not appear to demonstrate “anticipation.” Our finding suggests that genetic epidemiology of ruptured IA should examine all types of variations such as single base-pair changes, deletions, insertions, and other variations that do not demonstrate anticipation. GLOSSARY FIA = familial intracranial aneurysm; IA = intracranial aneurysm; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:19237697

Woo, D; Hornung, R; Sauerbeck, L; Brown, R; Meissner, I; Huston, J; Foroud, T; Broderick, J

2009-01-01

139

Thyroid rupture secondary to blunt neck trauma.  

PubMed

Rupture of the thyroid gland is uncommon in cases of blunt neck trauma. We report a case of thyroid rupture after a motor vehicle accident in a patient without a preexisting goiter. He presented with a painful anterior neck swelling associated with dysphagia and hoarseness of voice. Computed tomographic scans showed lacerations of the right thyroid lobe and isthmus with features suggestive of slow active bleeding. Neck exploration was subsequently performed, and a ruptured right thyroid lobe was found with ongoing venous hemorrhage. A right hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the patient recovered without complications. PMID:23399341

Sow, Yih-Liang; Aziz, Nora Abdul; Ng, Khoon-Leong

2013-04-01

140

CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

1984-08-01

141

Detection of a major gene for resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine by genomic mapping.  

PubMed Central

Genomic mapping has been used to identify a region of the host genome that determines resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine where no discrete, simply inherited resistance factors had been previously found by conventional genetic analysis over four decades. A resistance locus, behaving as a single dominant gene, was mapped by association with genetic markers, even though the disease phenotype deviated from the expected Mendelian ratio. The complexity of forest pathosystems and the limitations of genetic analysis, based solely on phenotype, had led to an assumption that effective long-term disease resistance in trees should be polygenic. However, our data show that effective long-term resistance can be obtained from a single qualitative resistance gene, despite the presence of virulence in the pathogen population. Therefore, disease resistance in this endemic coevolved forest pathosystem is not exclusively polygenic. Genomic mapping now provides a powerful tool for characterizing the genetic basis of host pathogen interactions in forest trees and other undomesticated, organisms, where conventional genetic analysis often is limited or not feasible. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8632980

Wilcox, P L; Amerson, H V; Kuhlman, E G; Liu, B H; O'Malley, D M; Sederoff, R R

1996-01-01

142

Learning to read an alphabet of human faces produces left-lateralized training effects in the fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Numerous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that most orthographic stimuli, such as printed English words, produce a left-lateralized response within the fusiform gyrus (FG) at a characteristic location termed the visual word form area (VWFA). We developed an experimental alphabet (FaceFont) comprising 35 face-phoneme pairs to disentangle phonological and perceptual influences on the lateralization of orthographic processing within the FG. Using functional imaging, we found that a region in the vicinity of the VWFA responded to FaceFont words more strongly in trained versus untrained participants, whereas no differences were observed in the right FG. The trained response magnitudes in the left FG region correlated with behavioral reading performance, providing strong evidence that the neural tissue recruited by training supported the newly acquired reading skill. These results indicate that the left lateralization of the orthographic processing is not restricted to stimuli with particular visual-perceptual features. Instead, lateralization may occur because the anatomical projections in the vicinity of the VWFA provide a unique interconnection between the visual system and left-lateralized language areas involved in the representation of speech. PMID:24168219

Moore, Michelle W; Durisko, Corrine; Perfetti, Charles A; Fiez, Julie A

2014-04-01

143

Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ?2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

2015-01-28

144

Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

2009-01-01

145

Plantaris rupture: why is it important?  

PubMed Central

Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its rupture cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is rupture of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris rupture confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested ruptured plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486

Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas

2013-01-01

146

Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.

Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)

2007-04-15

147

Creep-rupture reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

1984-01-01

148

Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

2015-03-01

149

Electrical Stimulation of the Left and Right Human Fusiform Gyrus Causes Different Effects in Conscious Face Perception  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies across species have confirmed bilateral face-selective responses in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and prosopagnosia is reported in patients with lesions in the VTC including the fusiform gyrus (FG). As imaging and electrophysiological studies provide correlative evidence, and brain lesions often comprise both white and gray matter structures beyond the FG, we designed the current study to explore the link between face-related electrophysiological responses in the FG and the causal effects of electrical stimulation of the left or right FG in face perception. We used a combination of electrocorticography (ECoG) and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 10 human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left (5 participants, 30 FG sites) or right (5 participants, 26 FG sites) hemispheres. We identified FG sites with face-selective ECoG responses, and recorded perceptual reports during EBS of these sites. In line with existing literature, face-selective ECoG responses were present in both left and right FG sites. However, when the same sites were stimulated, we observed a striking difference between hemispheres. Only EBS of the right FG caused changes in the conscious perception of faces, whereas EBS of strongly face-selective regions in the left FG produced non-face-related visual changes, such as phosphenes. This study examines the relationship between correlative versus causal nature of ECoG and EBS, respectively, and provides important insight into the differential roles of the right versus left FG in conscious face perception. PMID:25232118

Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Foster, Brett L.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Jacques, Corentin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

2014-01-01

150

Electrical stimulation of the left and right human fusiform gyrus causes different effects in conscious face perception.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies across species have confirmed bilateral face-selective responses in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and prosopagnosia is reported in patients with lesions in the VTC including the fusiform gyrus (FG). As imaging and electrophysiological studies provide correlative evidence, and brain lesions often comprise both white and gray matter structures beyond the FG, we designed the current study to explore the link between face-related electrophysiological responses in the FG and the causal effects of electrical stimulation of the left or right FG in face perception. We used a combination of electrocorticography (ECoG) and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 10 human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left (5 participants, 30 FG sites) or right (5 participants, 26 FG sites) hemispheres. We identified FG sites with face-selective ECoG responses, and recorded perceptual reports during EBS of these sites. In line with existing literature, face-selective ECoG responses were present in both left and right FG sites. However, when the same sites were stimulated, we observed a striking difference between hemispheres. Only EBS of the right FG caused changes in the conscious perception of faces, whereas EBS of strongly face-selective regions in the left FG produced non-face-related visual changes, such as phosphenes. This study examines the relationship between correlative versus causal nature of ECoG and EBS, respectively, and provides important insight into the differential roles of the right versus left FG in conscious face perception. PMID:25232118

Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Foster, Brett L; Weiner, Kevin S; Jacques, Corentin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Parvizi, Josef

2014-09-17

151

Fusiform gyrus responses to neutral and emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorders: a high density ERP study.  

PubMed

Face processing is a neural mechanism that allows understanding social information and cues conveyed by faces, whose dysfunction has been postulated to underlie some of the behavioral impairments characterizing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A special region of the cortex, the fusiform gyrus (FG), is believed to be the specific area for processing face features and emotions. However, behavioral, fMRI and ERP studies addressed to investigate the role of FG dysfunction in ASD have led to conflicting results. Using a high-density EEG system, we recorded the face-sensitive ERP to neutral and emotional (happiness and fearful) faces, as a measure of early activity of the FG, in children with high functioning ASD. By controlling a number of experimental and clinical variables that could have biased previous research--such as gaze direction, attention to tasks, stimulus appearance and clinical profiles--we aimed to assess the effective role of the FG in the face emotion processing deficit hypothesized in ASD. No significant differences in early face-sensitive ERP components were found between ASD and neurotypical children. However, a systematic latency delay and amplitude reduction of all early potentials were observed in the ASD group, regardless of the stimulus, although more evident for emotions. Therefore, we can assume a diffuse dysfunction of neural mechanisms and networks in driving and integrating social information conveyed by faces, in particular when emotions are involved, rather than a specific impairment of the FG-related face processing circuit. Nevertheless, there is need of further investigation. PMID:23124137

Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico; Federico, Rosario R; Campatelli, Giulia; Muratori, Filippo

2013-08-15

152

General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

2015-01-01

153

Rupture progression along discontinuous oblique fault sets: implications for the Karadere rupture segment of the 1999 Izmit earthquake, and future rupture in the Sea of Marmara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large earthquakes in strike-slip regimes commonly rupture fault segments that are oblique to each other in both strike and dip. This was the case during the 1999 Izmit earthquake, which mainly ruptured E–W-striking right-lateral faults but also ruptured the N60°E-striking Karadere fault at the eastern end of the main rupture. It will also likely be so for any future large

Jordan R. Muller; Atilla Aydin

2004-01-01

154

Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire ruptures.  

PubMed

Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden rupture resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These rupture events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden rupture has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472

Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William

2013-05-01

155

Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture  

SciTech Connect

Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

1992-11-01

156

Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture  

SciTech Connect

Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

1992-01-01

157

Shock wave theory for rupture of rubber  

E-print Network

This article presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound, and consist in two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

M. Marder

2004-07-09

158

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture  

PubMed Central

Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

2015-01-01

159

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture  

E-print Network

mapping or other) data, and (c) inversions incorporating both seismic andseismic, teleseismic, trilateration, leveling, GPS, InSAR, surface rupture mapping,rupture mapping and other data. In other words, “seismic”

Wurman, Gilead

2010-01-01

160

Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (?CFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ?CFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko

2014-12-01

161

Progress in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the clinical, pathological, and surgical aspects of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The significant\\u000a risk of rupture of these aneurysms is well documented. Although large aneurysms are more prone to rupture, the risk of rupture\\u000a of small aneurysms less than 4 cm in diameter is well established. While most aneurysms are a result of atherosclerosis, a\\u000a small number

Gerald M. Lawrie; E. Stanley Crawford; George C. Morris; Jimmy F. Howell

1980-01-01

162

Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341

García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A

2014-10-28

163

Surgical Resection of Ruptured Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a ruptured FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918

Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo

2013-01-01

164

Laparoscopic splenectomy for atraumatic splenic rupture.  

PubMed

A traumatic splenic rupture (ASR) is a rare clinical entity. Several underlying benign and malignant conditions have been described as a leading cause. We report on a case of ASR in a 41-year-old man treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. Considering ASR as a life-threatening condition, a prompt diagnosis can be life saving. PMID:21675627

Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Amato, Gerardo; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina M C; Cavicchioni, Camillo; Bellantone, Rocco

2011-01-01

165

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

166

What Is an Earthquake?: Rupture Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault ruptures from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.

167

fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism.  

PubMed

Abnormal hypoactivation in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus, brain areas that participate in face processing and social cognition, has consistently been demonstrated in persons with autism. We investigated activity in these areas in a boy with autism, DD, who had a special interest in "Digimon" cartoon characters. DD individuates Digimon faster than familiar faces and objects, but he individuates familiar faces no faster than objects. In contrast, a typically developing boy with an interest in "Pokemon" cartoon characters is equally fast at individuating faces and Pokemon and faster at individuating faces and Pokemon than objects and Digimon. In addition, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that DD activates his amygdala and fusiform gyrus for perceptual discriminations involving Digimon but not for those involving familiar or unfamiliar faces. This pattern of activation is not seen in the typically developing control with an interest in Pokemon or in a second comparison case who has autism but no interest in Digimon. These results have important implications for our understanding of autism, cortical face specialization, and the possible role of the amygdala in the development of perceptual expertise. PMID:15707614

Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami J; Gauthier, Isabel; Skudlarski, Pawel; Cohen, Donald J; Gore, John C; Volkmar, Fred R; Schultz, Robert T

2005-01-01

168

Rupture Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their rupture zones, and, where possible, the direction of rupture propagation. Rupture zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of

John A. Kelleher

1972-01-01

169

Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

2015-01-01

170

Creep and rupture of an ods alloy with high stress rupture ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by ?? precipitates, was studied at 760 °C and 1093\\u000a °C. At both temperatures the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation\\u000a and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed

Mona E. McAlarney; Richard M. Arons; Tim E. Howson; John K. Tien; Sanford Baranow

1982-01-01

171

Creep and rupture of an ods alloy with high stress rupture ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma' precipitates, was studied at 760 °C and 1093 °C. At both temperatures the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed

Mona E. McAlarney; Richard M. Arons; Tim E. Howson; John K. Tien; Sanford Baranow

1982-01-01

172

Posterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture mimicking apoplexy  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebral aneurysm rupture can lead to devastating neurological complications and present a complex problem to treat. We report a unique case of a ruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm presenting with sudden and complete vision loss. Case Description: A 39-year-old man presented with the acute onset of severe headache and complete bilateral vision loss. The patient described headaches for several months prior to presentation. However, prior to the day of presentation, he had no visual disturbance. A CT angiogram (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 1.6-cm, non-contrast enhancing suprasellar mass, eccentric to the left side, consistent with hemorrhagic mass. There was no obvious aneurysm or vascular malformation. The sella tursica was normal in appearance. The patient was taken for an immediate endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum approach for optic nerve decompression. Hematoma without an associated tumor was encountered and partially evacuated before aborting with resultant partial improvement in vision. A subsequent cerebral angiogram revealed an irregularly shaped, postero-laterally pointing, 2.5-mm left PCoA aneurysm. The patient was then taken for open clipping of the ruptured aneurysm. A large, fibrinous capsule was found over the superolateral aspect of the aneurysm. The ruptured aneurysm was secured with clips and the surrounding hematoma was evacuated. Conclusion: In the immediate postoperative period, the patient regained vision in the nasal field of his right eye. This case illustrates a unique presentation of a ruptured PCoA aneurysm, and thus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a suprasellar hemorrhage resulting in visual loss in absence of a recognizable associated tumor. PMID:22145088

Bonfield, Christopher M.; Gardner, Paul A.

2011-01-01

173

SORD: A New Rupture Dynamics Modeling Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our progress in validating our rupture dynamics modeling code, capable of dealing with nonplanar faults and surface topography. The method uses a "mimetic" approach to model spontaneous rupture on a fault within a 3D isotropic anelastic solid, wherein the equations of motion are approximated with a second order Support-Operator method on a logically rectangular mesh. Grid cells are not required to be parallelepipeds, however, so that non-rectangular meshes can be supported to model complex regions. However, for areas in the mesh which are in fact rectangular, the code uses a streamlined version of the algorithm that takes advantage of the simplifications of the operators in such areas. The fault itself is modeled using a double node technique, and the rheology on the fault surface is modeled through a slip-weakening, frictional, internal boundary condition. The Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, was prototyped in MATLAB, and all algorithms have been validated against known (including analytical solutions, eg Kostrov, 1964) solutions or previously validated solutions. This validation effort is conducted in the context of the SCEC Dynamic Rupture model validation effort led by R. Archuleta and R. Harris. Absorbing boundaries at the model edges are handled using the perfectly matched layers method (PML) (Olsen & Marcinkovich, 2003). PML is shown to work extremely well on rectangular meshes. We show that our implementation is also effective on non-rectangular meshes under the restriction that the boundary be planar. For validation of the model we use a variety of test cases using two types of meshes: a rectangular mesh and skewed mesh. The skewed mesh amplifies any biases caused by the Support-Operator method on non-rectangular elements. Wave propagation and absorbing boundaries are tested with a spherical wave source. Rupture dynamics on a planar fault are tested against (1) a Kostrov analytical solution, (2) data from foam rubber scale models, and (3) numerical results from other types rupture dynamics codes. We also test the case of a simple kinked fault that has a known analytical solution. SORD has now been ported to Fortran 95 for multi-processor execution, with parallelization implemented using MPI. This provides a modeling capability on large scale platforms such as the SDSC DataStar machine, the various Teragrid platforms, or the SCEC High-performance computing facility. We will report on progress in validating that version of the code.

Ely, G.; Minster, B.; Day, S.

2005-12-01

174

Earthquake ruptures modulated by waves in damaged fault zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake ruptures and modulate rupture properties such as rupture speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic rupture simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of rupture speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear rupture with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of rupture speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of rupture speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating ruptures. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating rupture speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear ruptures.

Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.

2014-04-01

175

Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

1985-01-01

176

Early diagnosis and management of myocardial rupture.  

PubMed

Left ventricular free wall rupture is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with rupture or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556

Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W

2015-01-01

177

Transient gravity perturbations induced by earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static and transient deformations produced by earthquakes cause density perturbations which, in turn, generate immediate, long-range perturbations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, an analytical solution is derived for gravity perturbations produced by a point double-couple source in homogeneous, infinite, non-self-gravitating elastic media. The solution features transient gravity perturbations that occur at any distance from the source between the rupture onset time and the arrival time of seismic P waves, which are of potential interest for real-time earthquake source studies and early warning. An analytical solution for such prompt gravity perturbations is presented in compact form. We show that it approximates adequately the prompt gravity perturbations generated by strike-slip and dip-slip finite fault ruptures in a half-space obtained by numerical simulations based on the spectral element method. Based on the analytical solution, we estimate that the observability of prompt gravity perturbations within 10 s after rupture onset by current instruments is severely challenged by the background microseism noise but may be achieved by high-precision gravity strainmeters currently under development. Our analytical results facilitate parametric studies of the expected prompt gravity signals that could be recorded by gravity strainmeters.

Harms, J.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Barsuglia, M.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Montagner, J.-P.; Somala, S. N.; Whiting, B. F.

2015-06-01

178

Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2011-02-15

179

Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face-and body-evoked activity patterns  

E-print Network

investigate a special case of the grouping of components into a whole: the composition of the human bodyWhole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns Daniel Kaiser,1 * Lukas Strnad,1

Kastner, Sabine

180

[Simultaneous determination of ten phytohormones in five parts of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of indole-3-acetic acid, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenosine, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine, trans-zeatin riboside, zeatin, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, gibberellin A3 and jasmonic acid in five different parts of main branch, lateral branch, primary leaf, secondary leaf and stem of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell was established by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-TQMS). The samples were extracted with methanol/water/formic acid (15 : 4 :1, v/v/v) (containing 0.5% 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) after vacuum freeze-drying. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column by using methanol and water as mobile phases with gradient elution. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for the quantitative analysis in the positive mode or negative mode. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) of the ten phytohormones were from 0. 9989 to 1. 0000 in the linear ranges. The detection limits of the ten phytohormones were 0. 001 2-4. 651 2 ?/L. The average recoveries were 72. 24% -91. 31% with the relative standard deviations not more than 6. 59%. In the five parts of fresh Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell samples, the contents of the ten phytohormones were from not detected to 4 041. 431 ng/g. This method has good sensitivity, precision, recovery, and can be used to simultaneously determine the phytohormones. PMID:25507721

Li, Yan; Xu, Jilin; Zheng, Liyang; Li, Min; Yan, Xiaojun; Luo, Qijun

2014-08-01

181

[Simultaneous determination of ten phytohormones in five parts of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of indole-3-acetic acid, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenosine, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine, trans-zeatin riboside, zeatin, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, gibberellin A3 and jasmonic acid in five different parts of main branch, lateral branch, primary leaf, secondary leaf and stem of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell was established by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-TQMS). The samples were extracted with methanol/water/formic acid (15 : 4 :1, v/v/v) (containing 0.5% 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) after vacuum freeze-drying. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column by using methanol and water as mobile phases with gradient elution. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for the quantitative analysis in the positive mode or negative mode. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) of the ten phytohormones were from 0. 9989 to 1. 0000 in the linear ranges. The detection limits of the ten phytohormones were 0. 001 2-4. 651 2 ?/L. The average recoveries were 72. 24% -91. 31% with the relative standard deviations not more than 6. 59%. In the five parts of fresh Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell samples, the contents of the ten phytohormones were from not detected to 4 041. 431 ng/g. This method has good sensitivity, precision, recovery, and can be used to simultaneously determine the phytohormones. PMID:25434123

Li, Yan; Xu, Jilin; Zheng, Liyang; Li, Min; Yan, Xiaojun; Luo, Qijun

2014-08-01

182

Femoral pseudoaneurysm rupturing into urinary bladder: A rare presentation.  

PubMed

Femoral pseudoaneurysm is a common occurrence in intravenous drug abuser due to repeated trauma to the femoral artery causing arterial leak contained by the surrounding tissue and does not contain all the layers of arterial wall. Rupture of these aneurysm to exterior is a common presentation while rupture into surrounding structure deemed an emergency surgical attention. Hence, we report an unusual case of rupture of femoral pseudoaneurysm into urinary bladder who presented us with history of hematuria and was successfully managed. PMID:25887167

Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Luitel, Bhoj Raj; Shrestha, Ujma; Shrestha, Uttam Krishna

2015-01-01

183

Dynamic stress changes during earthquake rupture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the rupture front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the rupture front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.

Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.

1998-01-01

184

Capturing Continental Rupture Processes in Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate rupture. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at rupture, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate rupture? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.

Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

2014-05-01

185

Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.  

PubMed

Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

2014-05-01

186

Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical ruptures in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.

Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

187

Tendon rupture associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy.  

PubMed

A case of spontaneous biceps tendon rupture in a physician during therapy with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe (Vytorin) is reported. Rechallenge produced tendinopathy in the contralateral biceps tendon that abated with drug discontinuation. Tendon rupture generally occurs in injured tendons. Physiological repair of an injured tendon requires degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Statins are known to inhibit MMPs. It was hypothesized that statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity. In conclusion, statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity. PMID:17599460

Pullatt, Raja C; Gadarla, Mamatha Reddy; Karas, Richard H; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Thompson, Paul D

2007-07-01

188

What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-Rupture Analogies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault rupture accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of rupture propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault rupture. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault rupture, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.

189

Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake rupture processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.

Geist, E.L.

2002-01-01

190

Traumatic rupture of healed cataract wounds.  

PubMed

Three patients suffered blunt trauma that caused rupture of the site of cataract incision three to 12 years after surgery. Epithelial cells were noted in the old cataract would of a 79-year-old white man. The second patient, a 25-year-old black women, had bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis and loss of vitreous humor at the time of lens extraction. The third patient, a 63-year-old white woman, had open-angle glaucoma treated previously with filtering procedures and cyclocryotherapy. The ultimate outcome was poor in each case. PMID:937423

Kass, M A; Lahav, M; Albert, D M

1976-06-01

191

Rupture of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces, despite its scientific and technological significance, is poorly understood. By simultaneously taking into account (i) the dynamics of spontaneous pore opening and closing in surface bound vesicles; (ii) their volume loss via leakage through the pores; (iii) and the propagation of their contact line, we have developed a simple model that can fully describe the detailed mechanism of and provide the necessary conditions for the rupture of vesicles and the subsequent formation of supported lipid bilayers. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with many of the experimental observations.

Takáts-Nyeste, Annamária; Derényi, Imre

2014-11-01

192

Ruptures of the distal biceps tendon.  

PubMed

Distal biceps ruptures occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic ruptures present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon. PMID:25150334

Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J

2014-01-01

193

GPU Acceleration of Support Operator Rupture Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SORD (Support Operator Rupture Dynamics) is an open-source software based on a fourth-order finite-difference method which can simulate 3D elastic wave propagation and spontaneous rupture on hexahedral mesh. It can be used for many kinds of surface boundary conditions, including free surface. The original software is developed by Geoffrey Ely from USC and modified by us for acceleration on GPU with NVIDIA CUDA. Our motivation on accelerating SORD on GPU is inspired by new generation GPU’s superior ability on general purpose computing and NVIDIA CUDA’s user-friendly developing environment for academic users. After translating the code from Fortran 95 to CUDA and implementing the transformed CUDA SORD code on the NVIDIA Tesla C1060, we obtained a factor of 6 speedup as compared to the original Fortran 95 version code , which was run on Intel Xeon X5570 2.9GHz. Our 3D wave solutions show explicitly visually in 3D format the different propagating wave fronts associated with the P and S waves according to the appropriate elastic parameter ratios. Because of the limitation of the global memory of NVIDIA Tesla C1060, too many more grid points would slow the calculation. However, by using the new NVIDIA Tesla C2070, which has 6 GBytes global memory, we can increase the simulation data size into 350X350X350.

Zhou, Y.; Dong, T.; Yuen, D. A.

2010-12-01

194

Roles of hypertension in the rupture of intracranial aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Systemic hypertension has long been considered as a risk factor of aneurysmal rupture. However, a causal link between systemic hypertension and the development of aneurysmal rupture has not been established. In this study, using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm rupture, we examined the roles of systemic hypertension in the development of aneurysmal rupture. Methods Aneurysms were induced by a combination of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension and a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid in mice. Anti-hypertensive treatment was started six days after aneurysm induction. Aneurysmal rupture was detected by neurological symptoms and confirmed by the presence of intracranial aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hydralazine (direct vasodilator) or the discontinuation of the DOCA-salt treatment was used to assess the roles of systemic hypertension. Captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) was used to assess the roles of the local renin-angiotensin system in the vascular wall. Results Normalization of blood pressure by hydralazine significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and the rupture rate. There was a dose dependent relationship between the reduction of blood pressure and the prevention of aneurysmal rupture. Captopril and losartan were able to reduce the rupture rates without affecting systemic hypertension induced by DOCA-salt treatment. Conclusions Normalization of blood pressure after aneurysm formation prevented aneurysmal rupture in mice. In addition, we found that the inhibition of the local renin-angiotensin system independent from the reduction of blood pressure can prevent aneurysmal rupture. PMID:24370755

Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I.; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki

2014-01-01

195

Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation Ruth A. Harris  

E-print Network

Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction Ruth A. Harris U) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake (2005), Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction, Geophys. Res. Lett

Day, Steven M.

196

Dynamic path selection along branched faults: Experiments involving sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures  

E-print Network

ruptures Carl-Ernst Rousseau1 and Ares J. Rosakis2 Received 27 October 2008; revised 12 March 2009 of rupture propagation along a branch by the Mach cone, when the initial rupture is supershear driven

Rosakis, Ares J.

197

Achilles tendon rupture following coblation for insertional Achilles tendinosis.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency microdebridement for Achilles tendinosis is a relatively new technique. We report a case of Achilles tendon rupture in a patient eight weeks after coblation for his right insertional Achilles tendinosis. We believe that this is the first reported case of Achilles tendon rupture following this new treatment of radiofrequency microdebridement for chronic Achilles tendinosis. PMID:20307450

Akhtar, M A; Montgomery, H; Shenolikar, A

2009-03-01

198

Ruptured diaphragmatic eventration: a rare cause of acute postpartum dyspnea.  

PubMed

Rupture of a maternal diaphragmatic hernia (DH) during pregnancy is a rare but significant complication. We describe a case of a maternal ruptured DH, presenting as acute postpartum dyspnea, which required urgent operative repair. We report our surgical strategy and review the key concepts in the multidisciplinary management of this condition. PMID:22632531

Servais, Elliot L; Stiles, Brendon M; Finnerty, Brendan M; Paul, Subroto

2012-06-01

199

Achilles tendon rupture and sciatica: a possible correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between Achilles tendon rupture and sciatica was investigated by questionnaire in 138 patients who underwent repair of an Achilles tendon rupture, and in a group of individuals nominated by the patients, matched for age, sex, and occupation. A total of 102 patients (74%) and 128 peer nominated controls (71%) replied to the questionnaire. Of the 102 respondent patients,

N. Maffulli; A. S. Irwin; M. G. Kenward; F. Smith; R. W. Porter

1998-01-01

200

Splenic rupture after diagnostic colonoscopy: a case report.  

PubMed

Colonoscopy is a commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Splenic injury or rupture after this procedure is rare. We report a case of splenic rupture and hematoma in a middle-aged man who presented with symptoms of worsened anemia after diagnostic colonoscopy. PMID:16816956

Zenooz, Navid A; Win, Thomas

2006-09-01

201

SECONDARY POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE DUE TO RUPTURE OF UTERUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a very unusual case of secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine rupture. Our case was a 23 years old lady who presented with heavy bleeding per vagina and gave his- tory of home delivery. Rupture was most probably caused by injudicious use of oxytocic injec- tion by a Traditional Birth Attendant at home. Surprisingly, after recovering completely from

Amna Memon; Raheel Sikandar; Fatima Memon; Farhana Saeed

202

Survivors of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for ruptured aneurysms among series

R H Armour

1977-01-01

203

Anterior tibial compartment syndrome following rupture of a popliteal cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ruptured popliteal cyst usually results in calf pain and swelling. We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis\\u000a who developed anterior compartment syndrome of the leg following rupture of a popliteal cyst. Since acute compartment syndrome\\u000a requires prompt treatment, clinicians should be aware of this rare complication.

Toshio Ushiyama; Taku Kawasaki; Yoshitaka Matsusue

2003-01-01

204

Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant. PMID:23198167

El-Charnoubi, Waseem Asim Ghulam; Foged Henriksen, Trine; Joergen Elberg, Jens

2011-01-01

205

The physics of strain localization in dynamic earthquake rupture simulations  

E-print Network

) and Jean M. Carlson (UCSB) #12;Goal: improve our understanding of the basic physics of earthquake rupture of the physics governing earthquake rupture. Why? 2nd Problem: Occur at extreme physical conditions (hard in materials similar to faults: Faults contain granular material (gouge) Very finely crushed, no crystal

Daub,Eric G.

206

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as hemoperitoneum mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma rupture.  

PubMed

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic mesenchynal sarcoma. It is uncommonly arises primarily from the intra-peritoneal cavity. Primary peritoneal MFH with tumor bleeding and rupture is rare. We describe the imaging features of a 70-year-old patient presenting with ruptured hemorrhagic peritoneal MFH at subhepatic area, accompanied by massive hemoperitoneum, mimicking a ruptured pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large heterogeneous enhanced subhepatic mass with adjacent liver, gallbladder and colon invasion. Tumor hemorrhage and rupture complicated with peritoneal seeding and massive bloody ascites were also detected. Angiography showed a hypervascular tumor fed by enlarged right hepatic arteries, cystic artery and omental branches of gastroepiploic artery. The patient underwent laparotomy for tumor resection, but the tumor recurred one month after operation. To our knowledge, the CT appearance of ruptured intraperitoneal MFH complicated by hemoperitoneum has not been previously described. PMID:18081238

Chen, Hsin-Chi; Chen, Chi-Jen; Jeng, Chin-Ming; Yang, Chan-Ming

2007-12-21

207

Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is rupture behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake rupture propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake rupture propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake rupture propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

2005-01-01

208

Rupture of right hepatic duct into hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Michalopoulos, Nickolaos; Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T

2012-08-01

209

Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

2012-01-01

210

Simultaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures associated with statin medication despite regular rock climbing exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRuptures of the Achilles tendon are common however simultaneous ruptures occur less frequently. Eccentric loading exercise programmes have been used to successfully treat Achilles tendinopathy.

Michael R. Carmont; Adrian M. Highland; Christopher M. Blundell; Mark B. Davies

2009-01-01

211

Triceps tendon rupture: an uncommon orthopaedic condition.  

PubMed

Triceps tendon disruption is a rare orthopaedic injury that can lead to poor outcomes if misdiagnosed or managed inappropriately. This case report illustrates the importance of early, precise diagnosis of triceps rupture by clinical and radiological examination with appropriate management. A weightlifter who had fallen while riding his bike presented with pain, swelling around the posterior aspect of the left arm just above the elbow. Physical examination revealed ecchymosis and weakness in elbow extension. A radiograph of the elbow showed a small fleck of bone proximal to the tip of the olecranon. The patient was initially stabilised. Early intervention in the form of primary tendon repair was performed within 3?days and rehabilitation was started. The patient improved significantly to his best possible functional status with Mayo elbow score of 85. Early intervention was the key to better prognosis. PMID:25766435

Bunshah, Jamshed Jal; Raghuwanshi, Sagar; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Aakash

2015-01-01

212

Multifractal scaling of thermally activated rupture processes.  

PubMed

We propose a "multifractal stress activation" model combining thermally activated rupture and long memory stress relaxation, which predicts that seismic decay rates after mainshocks follow the Omori law approximately 1/t(p) with exponents p linearly increasing with the magnitude M(L) of the mainshock. We carefully test this prediction on earthquake sequences in the Southern California earthquake catalog: we find power law relaxations of seismic sequences triggered by mainshocks with exponents p increasing with the mainshock magnitude by approximately 0.1-0.15 for each magnitude unit increase, from p(M(L) = 3) approximately 0.6 to p(M(L) = 7) approximately 1.1, in good agreement with the prediction of the multifractal model. PMID:15698332

Sornette, D; Ouillon, G

2005-01-28

213

[New clinical grading in ruptured cerebral aneurysm].  

PubMed

A new clinical grading of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured aneurysm, classified by the presence or absence of vomiting, and by the duration of initial unconciousness at the time of bleeding, is proposed. Grade I: headache without vomiting, Grade II: headache, vomiting, and/or loss of consciousness lasting less than one hour, Grade III: loss of consciouness for over one hour. Grade IV: permanent unconsciousness or cerebral herniation signs. Based on the clinical records, 142 cases of ruptured cerebral aneurysms directly operated on in phases varying from peracute phase (within 72 hours) to delayed phase (22 days or over) were retrospectively analyzed. They included 99 cases which were operated on under microscope. The Hunt & Hess grading was applied just before surgery. Outcome at the 6 month to 1 year follow-up was rated as good, fair, poor and dead. Correlations between the severity and the outcome were calculated using the chi-square test and the levels of significance were compared with those between the recent Hunt and Hess grading and the outcome. In the total of 142 cases, correlation between the clinical severity and the outcome was significant (P less than 0.0005), whereas correlation between the Hunt & Hess grading and the outcome was not significant. In the analysis of cases classified by the operative timing, the clinical severity showed good correlation in the peracute (within 72 hours after SAH) (P less than 0.05) alone, while Hunt & Hess grading showed correlation in delayed phase alone. Neither of the gradings was significant in the acute phase or subacute phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3785560

Sato, J; Masuzawa, H; Shiraishi, K; Kanazawa, I; Kamitani, H

1986-09-01

214

Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

1982-01-01

215

Fracture morphology of tensile cracks and rupture velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccation cracks in starch-water mixtures are studied with respect to morphological features, mainly plumose structures, on their faces. Specimens have diameters of 50-100 mm and thicknesses of 2-40 mm. Structures similar to those on joints in rocks are found. Rupture velocities are measured from videos and estimated from photos. Rupture covers the range from spontaneously nucleating, dynamic cracks with velocities of 100-200 mm/s to quasi-static cracks with velocities of 0.1 mm/s and less. Plumose lines give the rupture direction, and their relation to rupture velocity is similar to the relation between seismic rays and seismic wave velocity. A ray-tracing method from seismology is used to calculate plumose lines for depth-dependent rupture velocity. Moreover, an inverse method, based on finite difference travel times and conjugate gradients, is developed to invert a set of measured plumose directions into a rupture-velocity distribution which can also depend on the horizontal coordinate on the rupture surface. The main results of this paper are as follows. (1) Plumose lines can successfully be inverted into relative rupture velocity. (2) In thin starch layers (thickness less than 0.2 times diameter), rupture velocity decreases from top to bottom by a factor of 2-5, following a decrease of tensile stress due to the increase in water concentration. (3) Horizontal variation of rupture velocity reflects horizontal variation of stress, including stress relaxation due to the propagating crack, and ranges from dynamic to quasi-static velocities. (4) In thick starch layers (thickness about 0.5 times diameter), rupture is predominantly quasi-static. (5) Starch cracks sometimes have a fringe zone where topographic amplitudes are higher and rupture velocities lower than on the main part of the crack; this probably also applies to joints in rocks and their fringe zones. (6) Starch-water mixtures at rupture have a Poisson ratio close to 0.5. Cracks in starch are closest to subsidence or diagenesis joints in sedimentary rocks.

Müller, Gerhard; Dahm, Torsten

2000-01-01

216

Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns  

PubMed Central

Visual cues from the face and the body provide information about another's identity, emotional state, and intentions. Previous neuroimaging studies that investigated neural responses to (bodiless) faces and (headless) bodies have reported overlapping face- and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies are typically perceived together and are effortlessly integrated into the percept of a whole person, raising the possibility that neural responses to whole persons are qualitatively different than responses to isolated faces and bodies. The present study used fMRI to examine how FG activity in response to a whole person relates to activity in response to the same face and body but presented in isolation. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we modeled person-evoked response patterns in right FG through a linear combination of face- and body-evoked response patterns. We found that these synthetic patterns were able to accurately approximate the response patterns to whole persons, with face and body patterns each adding unique information to the response patterns evoked by whole person stimuli. These results suggest that whole person responses in FG primarily arise from the coactivation of independent face- and body-selective neural populations. PMID:24108794

Kaiser, Daniel; Strnad, Lukas; Seidl, Katharina N.; Kastner, Sabine

2013-01-01

217

Whole person-evoked fMRI activity patterns in human fusiform gyrus are accurately modeled by a linear combination of face- and body-evoked activity patterns.  

PubMed

Visual cues from the face and the body provide information about another's identity, emotional state, and intentions. Previous neuroimaging studies that investigated neural responses to (bodiless) faces and (headless) bodies have reported overlapping face- and body-selective brain regions in right fusiform gyrus (FG). In daily life, however, faces and bodies are typically perceived together and are effortlessly integrated into the percept of a whole person, raising the possibility that neural responses to whole persons are qualitatively different than responses to isolated faces and bodies. The present study used fMRI to examine how FG activity in response to a whole person relates to activity in response to the same face and body but presented in isolation. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we modeled person-evoked response patterns in right FG through a linear combination of face- and body-evoked response patterns. We found that these synthetic patterns were able to accurately approximate the response patterns to whole persons, with face and body patterns each adding unique information to the response patterns evoked by whole person stimuli. These results suggest that whole person responses in FG primarily arise from the coactivation of independent face- and body-selective neural populations. PMID:24108794

Kaiser, Daniel; Strnad, Lukas; Seidl, Katharina N; Kastner, Sabine; Peelen, Marius V

2014-01-01

218

Goal-directed actions activate the face-sensitive posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus in the absence of human-like perceptual cues.  

PubMed

The conditions under which we identify entities as animate agents and the neural mechanisms supporting this ability are central questions in social neuroscience. Prior studies have focused upon 2 perceptual cues for signaling animacy: 1) surface features representing body forms such as faces, torsos, and limbs and 2) motion cues associated with biological forms. Here, we consider a third cue--the goal-directedness of an action. Regions in the social brain network, such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform face area (FFA), are activated by human-like motion and body form perceptual cues signaling animacy. Here, we investigate whether these same brain regions are activated by goal-directed motion even when performed by entities that lack human-like perceptual cues. We observed an interaction effect whereby the presence of either human-like perceptual cues or goal-directed actions was sufficient to activate the right pSTS and FFA. Only stimuli that lacked human-like perceptual cues and goal-directed actions failed to activate the pSTS and FFA at the same level. PMID:21768227

Shultz, Sarah; McCarthy, Gregory

2012-05-01

219

Rupture geometry of microearthquakes inferred from analysis of multiple events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complicated waveforms of some swarm earthquakes in West Bohemia, Central Europe indicate complicated rupture history and possible space separation of several subruptures. I obtained the position and timing of the subevents building up the multiple event by waveform modeling with the use of empirical Green's functions. In total 18 multiple events were successfully modeled as double or triple events with separate rupture positions. The separation of subsources reached 100 ms in time and 320 m in space. The relative positions of the subevents with respect to the geometry of the fault indicate that most of them occurred very close to the common fault plane that was activated during the swarm. The space-time separation of the subevents corresponds to a speed of 3.0 km/s, a value typical for rupture propagation of large earthquakes. The later subevents occur farther than the nominal rupture radius of the first subevent, and their mutual distance scales with magnitude. These observations suggest that the analyzed multiple-events share a common fault surface and that their subevents represent individual rupture episodes. The angular distribution of the position vectors of later subevents indicates that many of them result from a slip-parallel rupture growth, while some of the ruptures propagate upwards. The hypocenters of the multiple events are not distributed uniformly on the fault plane; their clustering indicates that some patches of the fault are more likely to generate a stick-slip failure than the others.

Fischer, T.

2005-12-01

220

Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. A 5-year experience.  

PubMed Central

Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial rupture (13[40.6%]), left atrial rupture (8 [25%]), right ventricular rupture (10[31.3%]), left ventricular rupture (4[12.5%]), and rupture of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with rupture of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular rupture died. The mortality rate from myocardial rupture is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761

Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R

1990-01-01

221

Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

2014-05-01

222

TachoSil for postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture.  

PubMed

Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall rupture has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil patching to achieve free wall rupture repair, has been described. PMID:22419793

Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco

2012-06-01

223

TachoSil® for postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture  

PubMed Central

Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil® (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall rupture has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil® patching to achieve free wall rupture repair, has been described. PMID:22419793

Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco

2012-01-01

224

Endovascular Treatment of an Aortic Traumatic Double Rupture  

PubMed Central

Traumatic thoracic aortic rupture is a life-threatening condition; aortic isthmus is the most common site of rupture, but in rare cases traumatic injury can localize elsewhere, such as at aortic arch or at the level of the diaphragm. In the past few years, endovascular treatment of traumatic aortic injury became a safe procedure, with lower mortality and complication, if compared with open surgery. We report a case of a 40-year-old-man admitted to emergency department after a violent car crash in which an aortic traumatic double rupture was successfully treated with two endovascular stent-grafts coverage. PMID:25859315

Attinà, Domenico; Buia, Francesco; Russo, Vincenzo; Pilato, Emanuele; Lovato, Luigi; Bartolomeo, Roberto Di; Zompatori, Maurizio

2015-01-01

225

Prophylactic decompression of extensor pollicis longus to prevent rupture.  

PubMed

We present a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture of right extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon, who had also developed left wrist pain and weakness in his left EPL that MRI studies confirmed to be caused by tendinosis. Subsequently, decompression of left EPL and reconstruction of right EPL with palmaris longus tendon graft was undertaken. In this case, decompression of the left EPL tendon led to resolution of the patient's symptoms as well as preventing tendon rupture. We advocate the use of ultrasound imaging to evaluate EPL in these cases and prophylactic decompression of EPL tendon to avoid rupture in those patients found to have tendinosis. PMID:23780776

Navaratnam, A V; Ball, S; Eckersley, R

2013-01-01

226

Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {?ij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ?kk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ? k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a dozen fault-spanning volumes. At the magnitude threshold M = 7, the ACDF can be well fit by renewal models with fairly small aperiodicity parameters (? < 0.2) for all fault volumes but one (on the San Jacinto fault). At interseismic (Reid) time scales, we observe pairs of fault segments that are tightly locked, such as the Cholame and Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), where the CCDF and two ACDFs are nearly equal; segments out of phase (Carrizo-SAF/Coachella-SAF and Coachella-SAF/San Jacinto), where the CCDF variation is an odd function of time; and segments where events are in phase with integer ratios of recurrence times (2:1 synchronicity of Coachella-SAF/Mojave-SAF and Carrizo-SAF/Mojave-SAF). At near-seismic (Omori) time scales, we observe various modes of clustering, triggering, and shadowing in RSQSim catalogs; e.g., events on Mojave-SAF trigger Garlock events, and events on Coachella-SAF shut down events on San Jacinto. Therefore, despite its geometrical complexity and multiplicity of time scales, the RSQSim model of the San Andreas fault system exhibits a variety of synchronous behaviors that increase the predictability of large ruptures within the system. A key question for earthquake forecasting is whether the real San Andreas system is equally, or much less, synchronous.

Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

227

Geomorphic Signals for Preferred Propagation Direction of Earthquake Ruptures on North Anatolian Fault System, TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Anatolian Fault ruptured in a sequence of large earthquakes between 1939 and 1999, generally progressing from east to west. The 1943 and 1944 ruptures propagated unilateraly in opposite directions. Preliminary analysis of the geomorphology along these ruptures shows distinct differences that may reflect repeated ruptures with similar propagation directions. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage

C. Yildirim; O. Dor; T. Rockwell; O. Emre; Y. Ben-Zion; M. Sisk; T. Duman

2005-01-01

228

Early surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysms: technical note.  

PubMed

We describe a collection of techniques to be considered in the early clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms located in the anterior circulation when dealing with the swollen red and scaring brain many times found after craniotomy. PMID:18345441

Sillero, Rafael de Oliveira; Sillero Filho, Valter José; Freire, Sylvio de Barros; Sillero, Valter José

2007-12-01

229

Stress heterogeneities in earthquake rupture experiments with material contrasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate significant heterogeneous stresses along bimaterial interfaces in laboratory and numerical experiments. These stresses, partially induced by model or experimental configuration, affect the supershear transition length and rupture speed, mode and directivity in uniaxial compression tests and dynamic rupture experiments with bimaterial interfaces. Using numerical simulations we show that normal and tangential stresses at the fault are distorted by the different stress-strain relationships of the materials. This distortion leads to altered supershear transition lengths, higher rupture potencies and amplifies the preference for rupture in the direction of slip of the slower and more compliant material. We demonstrate how this stress-distortion can be decreased in laboratory experiments by using larger specimen samples and in numerical models by using periodic boundary conditions.

Langer, Sebastian; Weatherley, Dion; Olsen-Kettle, Louise; Finzi, Yaron

2013-03-01

230

Aneurysmal Rupture of a Mesodiverticular Band to a Meckel's Diverticulum  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal rupture of a mesodiverticular band has not previously been reported in the clinical literature. We are reporting a case of hemoperitoneum in a 51-year-old male after an aneurysmal rupture of a mesodiverticular band. This case demonstrates that in rare instances, a rupture of the mesodiverticular band leading to Meckel's diverticulum can lead to significant hemoperitoneum. This is usually caused by a traumatic injury but in our case was apparently caused by an aneurysm of the mesodiverticular artery. Patients with known Meckel's diverticula should be aware of the possibility of rupture, as should clinicians treating those with a history of this usually benign congenital abnormality. Rapid surgical intervention is necessary to repair the source of bleeding, as massive blood loss was encountered in this case. PMID:25688323

Sommerhalder, Christian; Fretwell, Kenneth R.; Salzler, Gregory G.; Creasy, John M.; Robitsek, R. Jonathan; Schubl, Sebastian D.

2015-01-01

231

Surgical treatment options for patella tendon rupture, Part I: Acute.  

PubMed

Patella tendon rupture is a debilitating injury. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In a young patient with an acute rupture, primary repair usually is possible with various methods described to protect the repair. In acute injuries with inadequate tissue, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft generally is necessary. Because of the different types of rupture and the possibility for poor quality tissue, the surgeon should always be prepared to combine different techniques to obtain tthe best repair. Continuous passive motion generally can be initiated early with a secure repair. In patients with a patella tendon ruptured that is promptly diagnosed, securely repaired, and followed closely through their rehabilitation, good results can be expected. PMID:16119282

Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Lahav, Amit

2005-07-01

232

[Rupture of the left bronchus during intubation by Carlens tube].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of left main bronchus rupture following endotracheal intubation with a Carlens double-lumen tube. The bronchus rupture occurred during a cure of gastro-oesophageal-reflux and resection of oesophageal diverticula through a left thoracotomy. The patient was a 65-year-old woman treated with corticosteroids for an Addison's disease. The weakness of the bronchial wall initiated by the steroid hormones was an important factor contributing to the perforation. There is also a higher risk of rupture during oesophageal surgery because of surgical dissection and stretch on the tracheobronchial airway. This case demonstrates that such a complication can occur without ventilatory failure. A rupture must be recognized and treated surgically very rapidly. Recommendations regarding the use of double-lumen endotracheal tubes are reviewed in order to decrease the occurrence of such a complication. PMID:8092569

Boulanger, V; Papion, H; Jusserand, J; Testart, J; Winckler, C

1994-01-01

233

Rupture of Cylindrical Ice Model and Tuna Fish during Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gape and heave produced on the surface of tuna fish during freezing were confirmed by rupture of cylindrical type ice model. The results of experiment were shown as summarized below; 1) in case of restraining the progress of ice formation of model during freezing,any rupture was produced at not only slow freezing but also quick freezing. It was the same as tuna fish; 2) in case of closing surface of ice model covered perfectly by outside shell ice during slow freezing,it was not ruptured at not only ice model but also tuna fish. On the contrary it was cracked at quick freezing not only ice model but also tuna fish; 3) therefore it was confirmed that the rupture of tuna fish during freezing had been easy to produce at quick freezing.

Ogawa, Yutaka; Uno, Mitsuyo

234

Seafloor changes above the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a subduction earthquake like the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Earth's crust continues to deform. Scientists have been monitoring this deformation near the earthquake's rupture zone to estimate further seismic hazards.

Orwig, Jessica

2014-12-01

235

Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented...

Sadat, Umar; Noor, Nadim; Tang, Tjun Y; Varty, Kevin

2007-07-02

236

Controls on earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms in subduction zones  

E-print Network

Large earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms that drive seismicity in subduction zones are investigated in this thesis using a combination of earthquake observations, statistical and physical modeling. A comparison ...

Llenos, Andrea Lesley

2010-01-01

237

Spontaneous Ureteral Rupture Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:24455381

Pampana, E.; Altobelli, S.; Morini, M.; Ricci, A.; D'Onofrio, S.; Simonetti, G.

2013-01-01

238

A viscoelastic model for axonal microtubule rupture.  

PubMed

Axon is an important part of the neuronal cells and axonal microtubules are bundles in axons. In axons, microtubules are coated with microtubule-associated protein tau, a natively unfolded filamentous protein in the central nervous system. These proteins are responsible for cross-linking axonal microtubule bundles. Through complimentary dimerization with other tau proteins, bridges are formed between nearby microtubules creating bundles. Formation of bundles of microtubules causes their transverse reinforcement and has been shown to enhance their ability to bear compressive loads. Though microtubules are conventionally regarded as bearing compressive loads, in certain circumstances during traumatic brain injuries, they are placed in tension. In our model, microtubule bundles were formed from a large number of discrete masses. We employed Standard Linear Solid model (SLS), a viscoelastic model, to computationally simulate microtubules. In this study, we investigated the dynamic responses of two dimensional axonal microtubules under suddenly applied end forces by implementing discrete masses connected to their neighboring masses with a Standard Linear Solid unit. We also investigated the effect of the applied force rate and magnitude on the deformation of bundles. Under tension, a microtubule fiber may rupture as a result of a sudden force. Using the developed model, we could predict the critical regions of the axonal microtubule bundles in the presence of varying end forces. We finally analyzed the nature of microtubular failure under varying mechanical stresses. PMID:25835789

Shamloo, Amir; Manuchehrfar, Farid; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

2015-05-01

239

Determination of closure disk rupture parameters  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of decoupling strain rate from burn rate effects for tests designed to characterize closure disks is discussed. A method for simulating the high rates of pressure increase to which closure disks are subjected and which does not employ pyrotechnic material as a means of pressurization is presented. It consists of slowly pressurizing both sides of a closure disk to a high pressure and then rapidly releasing the pressure from one side of the disk. Means of rapidly releasing gas from the downstream side of the closure disk and measuring the pressure differential across the closure disk are discussed in detail. Rates of pressure decrease as high as 335,000,000 psi/sec downstream from the closure disk have been attained. Baseline disks slotted by wire EDM failed at an average pressure differential of 10,150 psi. Disks slotted by chemical etching exhibited a higher burst pressure differential and greater variability. Glass-ceramic closure disks had the lowest average burst pressure and highest variability. An increase in the diameter of a closure disk was found to lower the pressure differential required to rupture the disk. Burst pressure was found to increase linearly with the thickness of the web in the slot. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Merten, C.W.; Robinson, M.A. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Evans, N.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

240

Creep and creep rupture of rock salt  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental review is given of creep properties and flow processes of experimentally and naturally deformed rocksalt as background pertinent to waste repository design. Deformational behavior of halite single crystals is discussed first, followed by a brief treatment of experimentally deformed artifically prepared halite aggregates. The results of recent extensive quasi-static compression and creep tests on natural aggregates, especially on southeastern New Mexico bedded salt and on Avery Island domal salt, are then reviewed in some detail. The mechanical behavior of these two very different rocksalts is remarkably similar, an observation that provides some confidence to extrapolations of the results to repository condition. The relatively scarce data for accelerating creep and creep-rupture of rocksalt are reviewed, followed by a general treatment of relevant experiments and observations from the Project Salt Vault demonstration. The question of brine migration is then discussed and pertinent observations from flow of rocksalt glaciers and diapirs are reviewed briefly. Recommendations are made for additional fundamental research in various areas and it is concluded, on the basis of all available information, that dry domal salt deposits would provide nearly ideal media for radioactive waste repositories.

Carter, N.L.

1983-06-01

241

Laboratory investigation of the radiative energy transfer during rupture nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triaxial compression experiments were performed on several materials (Glass, Granite, Basalt, Sandstone, Marble and Gypsum) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100MPa, and from room temperature to 70 degrees C. During each of these experiments, acoustic waves radiated from damage accumulation and fast crack propagation were continuously monitored thanks to a fast acoustic recorder, which enables to obtain continuous acoustogram of rupture nucleation and propagation, without the limitations of former trigger systems. In our experiments, rupture does not need to be slowed down, and the transition from quasi-static nucleation to dynamic propagation has now been systematically investigated.Comparing each material, three main observation can be drawn : - First, the amount of damage accumulation before the dynamic rupture propagation varies from material to material, and also depends on the pressure and temperature conditions. For instance, glass, granites and sandstones are typically materials where the nucleation involves a large amount of cracking prior to rupture. In contrast, rupture in basalt at low confinement is not preceded by any damage accumulation. Finally, pre-rupture damage accumulation can also be purely aseismic, which is the case of marble for instance. - Second, the brittle-ductile transition does not exactly overlaps the aseismic-seismic transition, at least in the conditions at which we performed our experiments. For example, marble deforms plastically beyond 50MPa, and although the deformation is ductile, a large amount of crack accumulates in the rock, which tends to make it unstable. In the same way, acoustic emissions decrease in gypsum with increasing pressure and temperatures. - Finally, the time during which rupture propagates depends largely on the rheology. For instance, and in the case of ductile failures such as in marble, dislocation and twin accumulation is such that cracks propagation steps are small and/or slow, and thus the radiated energy release rate remains small at early stages of rupture and increases with rupture speed. Put together, our observations clearly highlight the dependence of the radiated acoustic (and microseismic?) energy during rupture nucleation and early stages of crack propagation not only on the rupture propagation speed and the slip velocity but most importantly on the rock’s lithology and rheology.

Schubnel, A. J.; Brantut, N.; Ougier-Simonin, A.; Adelinet, M.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

2009-12-01

242

Acoustic investigation of rupture nucleation in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triaxial compression experiments were performed on several materials (Glass, Granite, Basalt, Sandstone, Marble and Gypsum) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100MPa, and from room temperature to 70 degrees C. During each of these experiments, acoustic waves radiated from damage accumulation and fast crack propagation were continuously monitored thanks to a fast acoustic recorder, which enables to obtain continuous acoustogram of rupture nucleation and propagation, without the limitations of former trigger systems. In our experiments, rupture does not need to be slowed down, and the transition from quasi-static nucleation to dynamic propagation has now been systematically investigated.Comparing each material, three main observation can be drawn : - First, the amount of damage accumulation before the dynamic rupture propagation varies from material to material, and also depends on the pressure and temperature conditions. For instance, glass, granites and sandstones are typically materials where the nucleation involves a large amount of cracking prior to rupture. In contrast, rupture in basalt at low confinement is not preceded by any damage accumulation. Finally, pre-rupture damage accumulation can also be purely aseismic, which is the case of marble for instance. - Second, the brittle-ductile transition does not exactly overlaps the aseismic-seismic transition, at least in the conditions at which we performed our experiments. For example, marble deforms plastically beyond 50MPa, and although the deformation is ductile, a large amount of crack accumulates in the rock, which tends to make it unstable. In the same way, acoustic emissions decrease in gypsum with increasing pressure and temperatures. - Finally, the time during which rupture propagates depends largely on the rheology. For instance, and in the case of ductile failures such as in marble, dislocation and twin accumulation is such that cracks propagation steps are small and/or slow, and thus the radiated energy release rate remains small at early stages of rupture and increases with rupture speed. Put together, our observations clearly highlight the dependence of the radiated acoustic (and microseismic?) energy during rupture nucleation and early stages of crack propagation not only on the rupture propagation speed and the slip velocity but most importantly on the rock's lithology and rheology.

Schubnel, Alexandre; Brantut, Nicolas; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Adeliner, Mathilde; Fortin, Jerome; Gueguen, Yves

2010-05-01

243

Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle: Surgical treatment in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectoralis major tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury, resulting from violent, eccentric contraction of the muscle.\\u000a Over 50% of these injuries occur in athletes, classically in weight-lifters during the ‘bench press’ manoeuvre. We present\\u000a 13 cases of distal rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in athletes. All patients underwent open surgical repair. Magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging was used to confirm

R. G. Kakwani; J. J. Matthews; K. M. Kumar; A. Pimpalnerkar; N. Mohtadi

2007-01-01

244

Early radiographic features in patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo determine, in a preliminary cross sectional study of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptured knees, which of the radiographic features—subchondral cortical plate thickness, trabecular sclerosis, and osteophytosis—appears before or in association with changes in joint space width (JSW) as a surrogate for articular cartilage thickness in patients with ruptured knees.METHODS19 patients (14 men), mean (95% CI) age 28.7

J C Buckland-Wright; J A Lynch; B Dave

2000-01-01

245

Patellar Tendon Ruptures in National Football League Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, ruptures of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes.Hypothesis: Professional football players with isolated rupture of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport.Study Design: Case series; Level of

Martin Boublik; Theodore Schlegel; Ryan Koonce; James Genuario; Charles Lind; David Hamming

2011-01-01

246

Continuous microwire patterns dominated by controllable rupture of liquid films.  

PubMed

Controllable microwire patterns are prepared by dominating the rupture of liquid films. Regular rhombic-shaped micropillar arrays serve as wetting defects to pin or depin liquids, yielding continuous, herringbone, bead-shaped polystyrene microwire patterns or bead arrays. The results provide a deeper understanding of the controllable rupture of liquid films and offer a general strategy for the organization of polymers into structures needed for wiring, interconnects, and functional devices for future microfabrication. PMID:23161834

Xin, Zhiqing; Su, Bin; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xingye; Zhang, Zhiliang; Deng, Mengmeng; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

2013-03-11

247

Rupture of Plantaris Muscle - A Mimic: MRI Findings  

PubMed Central

Calf muscle trauma commonly involves the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Plantaris muscle is a vestigial muscle coursing through the calf. Similar clinical features may be seen with injury to the plantaris muscle. It can also mimic other conditions like deep vein thrombosis, rupture of Baker's cyst, and tumors. MRI is helpful in identifying and characterizing it. We report two cases of ruptured plantaris muscle seen on MRI. PMID:22616036

Gopinath, T. N.; Jagdish, J.; Krishnakiran, K.; Shaji, P. C.

2012-01-01

248

Rupture of plantaris muscle - a mimic: MRI findings.  

PubMed

Calf muscle trauma commonly involves the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Plantaris muscle is a vestigial muscle coursing through the calf. Similar clinical features may be seen with injury to the plantaris muscle. It can also mimic other conditions like deep vein thrombosis, rupture of Baker's cyst, and tumors. MRI is helpful in identifying and characterizing it. We report two cases of ruptured plantaris muscle seen on MRI. PMID:22616036

Gopinath, T N; Jagdish, J; Krishnakiran, K; Shaji, P C

2012-01-01

249

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

Chatra, Priyank S

2013-01-01

250

The Role of Gamma-Band Activity in the Representation of Faces: Reduced Activity in the Fusiform Face Area in Congenital Prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes an impairment in face processing that is presumably present from birth. The neuronal correlates of this dysfunction are still under debate. In the current paper, we investigate high-frequent oscillatory activity in response to faces in persons with CP. Such neuronal activity is thought to reflect higher-level representations for faces. Methodology Source localization of induced Gamma-Band Responses (iGBR) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to establish the origin of oscillatory activity in response to famous and unknown faces which were presented in upright and inverted orientation. Persons suffering from congenital prosopagnosia (CP) were compared to matched controls. Principal Findings Corroborating earlier research, both groups revealed amplified iGBR in response to upright compared to inverted faces predominately in a time interval between 170 and 330 ms and in a frequency range from 50–100 Hz. Oscillatory activity upon known faces was smaller in comparison to unknown faces, suggesting a “sharpening” effect reflecting more efficient processing for familiar stimuli. These effects were seen in a wide cortical network encompassing temporal and parietal areas involved in the disambiguation of homogenous stimuli such as faces, and in the retrieval of semantic information. Importantly, participants suffering from CP displayed a strongly reduced iGBR in the left fusiform area compared to control participants. Conclusions In sum, these data stress the crucial role of oscillatory activity for face representation and demonstrate the involvement of a distributed occipito-temporo-parietal network in generating iGBR. This study also provides the first evidence that persons suffering from an agnosia actually display reduced gamma band activity. Finally, the results argue strongly against the view that oscillatory activity is a mere epiphenomenon brought fourth by rapid eye-movements (micro saccades). PMID:21573175

Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus; Gruber, Thomas

2011-01-01

251

Isolated renal pelvis rupture secondary to blunt trauma: Case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isolated rupture of the renal pelvis is a very rare condition and thus causes delays in the diagnosis of the rupture. It is most commonly seen in the setting of obstructive ureteric calculus. Other rare causes include neoplasms, trauma, and iatrogenic procedures. Diagnosis is usually established on computed tomography (CT) which demonstrates the extravasation of the contrast in the peripelvic, perinephric, or retroperitoneal collections. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to multiple traumas associated with motor vehicle accidents. The patient had clear urine output. A large pelvic rupture was detected by abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and after consulting with other departments, emergency repair of the renal pelvis was performed and a ureteral stent was implanted. Discussion Only a few isolated cases of pelvis rupture with resultant extravasation have been reported in the literature. The treatment of pelvic rupture should be preceded by the removal of underlying causes, followed by conservative management. However, surgical intervention should be warranted in the emergency cases presenting with the symptoms that may impede the decision-making process and in the cases whose diagnosis cannot be clarified by radiological techniques. Conclusion Renal pelvic injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis of blunt trauma. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. We present a case who underwent surgery due to isolated renal pelvis rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:25734319

Taken, Kerem; Oncü, Mehmet Re?it; Ergün, Müslüm; Ery?lmaz, Recep; Güne?, Mustafa

2015-01-01

252

Volume Fraction Dependence of Droplet Rupturing in Concentrated Nanoemulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate droplet rupturing by extreme shear in concentrated silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. According to Taylor's prediction for dilute emulsions, the ruptured droplet radius, a, varies inversely with the viscosity of the continuous phase. If one assumes that the emulsion's effective viscosity controls the average radius of the ruptured droplets, then emulsions that have larger droplet volume fractions, ?s would be ruptured by the same shear flow to smaller radii. In stark contrast to this, we find that the average droplet radius actually rises with as ? approaches the quiescent maximally random jammed value of 0.64. This is evidence that both droplet rupturing and coalescence occur when concentrated emulsions are subjected to extreme shear. We have also observed phase inversion to an oil-continuous emulsion for ? > 0.64. This supports the idea that coalescence occurs as the driving shear breaks thin films between the concentrated oil droplets at high ?. In addition, we find that the ruptured droplet size is relatively insensitive to large changes in the oil viscosity inside the droplets.

Meleson, K.

2005-03-01

253

Dynamic rupture modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When rupture nucleation is artificially forced at fixed rupture velocity, rupture models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier rupture models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic rupture following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with rupture nucleation. -from Author

Okubo, P.G.

1989-01-01

254

The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.

1994-01-01

255

Evidence for Supershear Rupture During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake is perhaps the single most important event in the history of earthquake science. Measurements taken and analyzed for that event led to the demonstration of elastic rebound. Despite the importance of this earthquake, the two most recently published source models, one based on seismic data and the other based on geodetic data, are sharply discordant. We suggest the two source models can be reconciled if rupture in the 1906 earthquake exceeded the shear wave velocity. Observations of super-shear rupture in recent large strike-slip earthquakes suggests that it is possible and may even be typical of large strike-slip events. We find that we can fit the geodetic data and the envelope of the seismic data provided the rupture exceeds the shear wave speed to the north of Point Arena. We are analyzing non-repeated triangulation measurements and solving the joint slip/rupture velocity inverse problem to test this hypothesis more rigorously. If supershear rupture in large earthquakes is common, it would be of fundamental importance for understanding the hazard posed by large strike-slip faults in general, and for our understanding seismic hazard in northern California in particular, because so much of our characterization of the hazard in that region is based on our understanding of what happened in 1906. The prediction of strong ground motion in future large strike-slip earthquakes will be profoundly different if earthquake rupture velocity is routinely supershear.

Song, S.; Beroza, G. C.; Segall, P.

2005-12-01

256

Do Surface Fault Ruptures Cause More Destruction of Houses?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface fault ruptures accompanying large earthquakes are commonly thought to cause more destruction of houses. In some regions such as California, Utah, and Taiwan, formal regulations are put in place to restrict building of houses on land with known surface fault ruptures. However, the question of whether surface fault ruptures do actually cause more destruction of houses has never been checked by empirical data. In this paper, we use the spatial distribution of the percentage of totally collapsed houses from two destructive earthquakes in central Taiwan to address this question. The first earthquake took place on April 21, 1935 with a magnitude of 7.1. The earthquake was accompanyed by two segments of surface fault ruptures, the NE-SW striking right lateral strike-slip Tun-tze-chiao fault and the N-S striking reverse Shih-tan fault. The second earthquake took place on September 21, 1999 with a magnitude 7.6. The earthquake was acompanyed by the N-S striking thrust Chelungpu fault. We first obtained the percentage of houses totally collapsed as well as the percentage of people killed in each village (¡Tsun-li¡", the smallest administrative district). Then we plot the data on a map to show the spatial distribution patterns of houses collapsed and people killed. The results are summarized as follows: Fault Zone Houses collapsed People killed 1935 Surface ruptures 58.67% 5.85% Tun-tze-chiao S-E side 46.16% 1.82% (Strike-slip ) N-W side 28.47% 1.04% 1935 Surface ruptures 62.19% 1.89% Shih-tan East side 77.21% 0.46% (Reverse) West side 81.59% 1.52% 1999 Surface ruptures 14.54% 0.24% Chelungpu East side 29.41% 0.55% (Thrust) West side 9.73% 0.11% We can see from the table that the surface fault ruptures of the strike-slip Tun-tze-chiao fault did cause more destruction of houses than the outside zones, respectively. In contrary, the surface fault ruptures of the reverse-slip Shih-tan fault and the thrust Chelungpu fault did not cause more destruction of houses than the outside zones. Thus, the building code regulation to restrict building of houses on land with surface fault ruptures apparently is warranted for strike slip faults, but is not necessarily warranted for reverse and thrust faults.

Tsai, Y.; Yu, T.; Lee, C.

2004-12-01

257

STS-93 SSME Nozzle Tube Rupture Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-93 was launched on July 23, 1999. There was an anomaly at the end of the launch in that the main engines shut down 0.16 second early because sensors detected a low level of oxidizer in the LOX tank (actually the duct from the tank to the vehicle). This resulted in a cutoff velocity for the vehicle that was 16 ft/sec low. It should have been 25872 ft/sec. The OMS engines were subsequently used to achieve the proper orbit. An investigation was immediately initiated into the cause of this LOX tank low level cutoff. It was noticed during the launch that the turbine temperatures for Main Engine 3 (E2019) were approximately 100 F higher than the preflight prediction. Linear Engine Model matching of the data indicated that a nozzle leak best fit the data. Post launch review of the data showed, that at approximately five seconds into the start, numerous parameters indicated small anomalous shifts. These shifts were all consistent with a rupture of nozzle tubes. Post launch review of the films showed that just after Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ignition and just prior to liftoff a streak is seen in the exhaust plume of E2019. Just after liftoff the streak can be seen emanating from the nozzle wall. This photo confirmed that a leak was coming from the nozzle tubes. Based on the photo, the axial location of the leak was estimated to be 28 in. from the aft end of the nozzle and in line with nozzle coolant feed line #1. The streak continued to be visible during the launch.

Romine, W. Dennis

1999-01-01

258

Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 ruptured), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/ruptured). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the rupture status, identifying 84.21 % of the ruptured aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as ruptured) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm rupture status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, ruptured IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.

Trylesinski, Gabriel

259

Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

1984-01-01

260

Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

2009-01-01

261

Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

2007-01-01

262

Hemodynamic-Morphologic Discriminants for Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To identify significant morphologic and hemodynamic parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture status using 3D angiography and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods 119 IAs (38 ruptured, 81 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D angiographic images and CFD. Six morphologic and seven hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating ruptured from unruptured aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis in 3 predictive models—morphology only, hemodynamics only, and combined—to identify independent discriminants, and the AUC-ROC of the predicted probability of rupture status was compared among these models. Results Morphologic parameters (Size Ratio [SR], Undulation Index, Ellipticity Index, and Nonsphericity Index) and hemodynamic parameters (Average Wall Shear Stress [WSS], Maximum intra-aneurysmal WSS, Low WSS Area, Average Oscillatory Shear Index [OSI], Number of Vortices, and Relative Resident Time) achieved statistical significance (p<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated SR to be the only independently significant factor in the morphology model (AUC=0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.91), whereas WSS and OSI were the only independently significant variables in the hemodynamics model (AUC=0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.93). The combined model retained all three variables, SR, WSS, and OSI (AUC=0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96). Conclusion All three models—morphological (based on SR), hemodynamic (based on WSS and OSI), and combined—discriminate IA rupture status with high AUC values. Hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status. PMID:21106956

Xiang, Jianping; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Tremmel, Markus; Ma, Ding; Mocco, J; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui

2010-01-01

263

Earthquake early warning and the physics of earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great debates in seismology today revolves around the question of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow predetermined at the start of the rupture. If earthquakes are self-similar there is theoretically no way to determine the magnitude of an event until the rupture has completely terminated, while if it is deterministic the magnitude should be immediately discernible. Recent advances in Earthquake Early Warning methodologies provide new insight into the fundamental physics of earthquake rupture and highlight the importance of understanding the answer to this question. Observations of the amplitude and frequency content of early P-wave arrivals suggest that some information about the final size of an earthquake is already present within a few seconds of the initiation of rupture, in agreement with a host of other observations that show a degree of scaling between large and small earthquakes. While this suggests that earthquakes are deterministic, there is likewise a large body of work, both observational and model-based, that indicates that this is not true and earthquakes are self-similar. This work documents the process of calibrating and testing the ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning methodology in northern California on the Northern California and Berkeley Digital Seismic Networks. In the process the work adds to the body of observations which show a dependency on event magnitude of P-wave frequency content and amplitude. These observations are corroborated with a new set of independent observations of kinematic slip distributions. These new observations indicate that the early slip on a fault also scales with magnitude and suggest again that earthquakes are not entirely self-similar cascading events. In an effort to assign a physical mechanism to the observations of scaling, both in P-waves and in kinematic slip inversions, a hypothetical model is tested wherein the intensity of the early rupture imparts more or less energy to the rupture front and affects the likelihood of the rupture continuing or dying out in the face of unfavorable conditions further along the fault plane. The results of testing this hypothesis are somewhat equivocal, but they are suggestive of the likely truth, that earthquakes exhibit aspects of both deterministic and cascading rupture to some degree. Understanding the details of the interplay between these two aspects is crucial to the successful application of Earthquake Early Warning systems, especially in rare large earthquakes for which there is little empirical data on the performance of these systems.

Wurman, Gilead

264

Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518

Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

2010-01-01

265

Stress-rupture behavior of small diameter polycrystalline alumina fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous length polycrystalline alumina fibers are candidates as reinforcement in high temperature composite materials. Interest therefore exists in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, obtaining possible insights into underlying mechanisms, and understanding fiber performance under long term use. Results are reported on the time-temperature dependent strength behavior of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Below 1000 C and 100 hours, Nextel 610 with the smaller grain size had a greater fast fracture and rupture strength than Fiber FP. The time exponents for stress-rupture of these fibers were found to decrease from approximately 13 at 900 C to below 3 near 1050 C, suggesting a transition from slow crack growth to creep rupture as the controlling fracture mechanism. For both fiber types, an effective activation energy of 690 kJ/mol was measured for rupture. This allowed stress-rupture predictions to be made for extended times at use temperatures below 1000 C.

Yun, Hee Mann; Goldsby, Jon C.; Dicarlo, James A.

1993-01-01

266

Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament in soccer.  

PubMed

Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are serious, common and costly injuries. The present 12-year investigation was undertaken to examine the frequency of ACL ruptures and identify the game events that may have contributed to the cause of these injuries in male soccer players across a French district. A retrospective questionnaire was used to record the players' age at the time of injury, laterality, standard of play, playing position and injured side. The characteristics of the injury situations were described in detail to investigate the game events involved in each case. A total of 934 ruptures was reported. Significantly more ruptures were sustained in a non-contact versus a contact situation (p<0.01). Of the total number of lesions, 34.5% occurred during a pivot action. The right knee was affected more than the left knee (p<0.001), irrespective of the dominant side of the player. Certain game events reported in the injury situations were shown to be related to player's age, standard and position. While these results have confirmed observations from previous investigations on ACL ruptures in soccer, the analysis of a considerably larger number of injury cases has brought new findings to the literature as well as recommendations for future research. PMID:19199222

Rochcongar, P; Laboute, E; Jan, J; Carling, C

2009-05-01

267

Robustness Tests for Reliably Determining the Earthquake Rupture Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems related to the determination of the earthquake rupture process details from analysis of body-wave seismograms was first discussed by Kostrov in 1974. We discuss how to use robustness tests to identify the reliable properties of the rupture process obtained from inversion of broadband body wave data (Das and Kostrov, JGR 1990; PEPI 1994). We then interpret the results for the following submarine subduction zone earthquakes: the Mw 8.0 Andreanof Islands earthquake (Das and Kostrov, ibid.), the Mw 8.2 Biak, Indonesia earthquake (Das et al., JGR, 2000) and the Mw 8.4 2001 Peru earthquake (Robinson et al., Science, 2006), in terms of subducting seafloor features and its influence on the earthquake rupture process. In particular, subducting seamounts appear to be affecting the rupture process of all these great earthquakes. The question of how much of a seamount still remains after it is subducted to be able to affect the earthquake rupture on the subduction plane will be addressed.

Das, S.; Robinson, D.

2007-12-01

268

Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  

PubMed

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

2014-01-01

269

Spontaneous ureteric rupture secondary to an invasive desmoid tumour  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Spontaneous ureteric rupture is a rare entity that presents as an extravasation of urine from the ureter without previous surgery, ureteric manipulation and external trauma of the ureter. We report the case of a desmoid tumour presenting as spontaneous ureteric rupture which was managed in our institution. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 years old healthy male presented with a four day history of generalised abdominal pain secondary to spontaneous right ureteric rupture. Patient was initially managed via insertion of nephrostomy tube and antibiotics. After unsuccessful attempts of retrograde and antegrade ureteric stent insertion, patient was subsequently managed via elective surgical intervention. The excised specimen revealed desmoid tumour as cause of the ureteric rupture. DISCUSSION Desmoid tumours are rare benign tumours arising from fascial or musculoaponeurotic structures that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. It is often initially managed medically prior to undertaking a definitive surgical intervention. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of ureteric perforation secondary to a desmoid tumour of the mesentery. CONCLUSION Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is often misdiagnosed as other conditions. History taking and examination can be unreliable, hence a high level of suspicion and further investigations should be utilised. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment can be individualised based on aetiology. PMID:25460442

Yoon, Peter Daechul; Ahmadi, Nariman; Strahan, Stephen; Wang, Audrey

2014-01-01

270

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

2009-01-01

271

Prehistoric ruptures of the Gurvan Bulag fault, Gobi Altay, Mongolia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1957 Gobi Altay M8.3 earthquake in southern Mongolia was associated with the simultaneous rupture of several faults, including the Gurvan Bulag reverse fault, which is located about 25 km south of the main strike-slip Bogd fault. Our study of paleoseismic excavations across the Gurvan Bulag fault suggests that the penultimate surface rupture occurred after 6.0 ka, most likely between 2.6 and 4.4 ka, and a possible earlier rupture occurred after 7.3 ka. Our interpretation of the stratigraphic relations in one of the exposures suggests that at least five earthquakes have generated surface rupture of the Gurvan Bulag fault since the abandonment of an ancient alluvial fan surface. Luminescence dating of sediment associated with this surface indicates that it formed either 26.6 ?? 2.1 ka or 16.1 ?? 2.0 ka. These data imply that the recurrence intervals for surface faulting on the Gurvan Bulag and Bogd faults are similar, on the order of several thousands of years, but that the penultimate surface ruptures of the two faults did not occur during the same earthquake.

Prentice, C.S.; Kendrick, K.; Berryman, K.; Bayasgalan, A.; Ritz, J.F.; Spencer, J.Q.

2002-01-01

272

Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture resulting in acute compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture is an uncommon injury. Compartment syndrome of the upper arm is rarely described in the literature. The diagnosis of upper arm compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion, and emergent surgical treatment with fasciotomy in the acute setting is necessary to avoid devastating neurovascular complications. This article reports a case of acute compartment syndrome of the anterior compartment of the upper arm after a complete rupture of the distal biceps brachii tendon. A healthy 45-year-old man presented with increasing arm pain; paresthesia in the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve distribution; and a tense, swollen anterior compartment of his upper arm. Side port catheter absolute pressure measurement was 83 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure of 92 mm Hg. The patient underwent an emergent fasciotomy and was found to have a complete rupture of his distal biceps brachii tendon. He subsequently underwent distal biceps tendon repair and delayed primary closure of his incision. Postoperatively, his paresthesia improved and he has no neurological deficit. There is a paucity of case reports describing compartment syndrome after rupture of either the proximal or distal end of the biceps brachii tendon, and none of the reports describe compartment syndrome of the upper arm after rupture of the distal biceps tendon. This article highlights an unusual complication of an uncommon injury and reviews diagnostic and treatment principles for the management of acute compartment syndrome of the upper arm. PMID:24200459

Grandizio, Louis C; Suk, Michael; Feltham, Glen T

2013-11-01

273

Creep rupture of a tropical wood polymer composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood polymer composite (WPC) specimens were produced by impregnating a tropical wood with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and subsequently polymerised by gamma irradiation. Beam specimens of varying weight percentages of polymer were then subjected to three-point-bend creep rupture test under a constant load condition. Results indicated that the impregnation of MMA and subsequent polymerisation by irradiation to form WPC significantly increased the creep rupture resistance of the wood. Two models, namely, a three element non-linear mechanical model derived from an energy failure criterion and a power law model derived from a damage parameter concept, modelled adequately the creep rupture time of the WPC. The energy criterion model was useful because the equation parameters such as elastic modulus, anelastic modulus and resilience of WPC show a general trend of increase with the amount of polymer impregnated into the wood, and also it could predict the upper stress limit where the specimens rupture immediately on application of load and the lower stress limit where the specimens sustain the load indefinitely. Results indicated that the equation parameters increase significantly in the first 20 or 30% polymer loading in agreement with previous work. An interfacial interaction between the polymer and the wood cell wall was used to account for the behaviour of the increase in the creep rupture resistance.

Teoh, S. H.; Chia, L. H. L.; Boey, F. Y. C.

274

Creep Rupture Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep rupture properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep rupture tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep rupture strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep rupture tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h rupture strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.

Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

275

Resting-state fMRI reveals functional connectivity between face-selective perirhinal cortex and the fusiform face area related to face inversion.  

PubMed

Studies examining the neural correlates of face perception and recognition in humans have revealed multiple brain regions that appear to play a specialized role in face processing. These include an anterior portion of perirhinal cortex (PrC) that appears to be homologous to the face-selective 'anterior face patch' recently reported in non-human primates. Electrical stimulation studies in the macaque indicate that the anterior face patch is strongly connected with other face-selective patches of cortex, even in the absence of face stimuli. The intrinsic functional connectivity of face-selective PrC and other regions of the face-processing network in humans are currently less well understood. Here, we examined resting-state fMRI connectivity across five face-selective regions in the right hemisphere that were identified with separate functional localizer scans: the PrC, amygdala (Amg), superior temporal sulcus, fusiform face area (FFA), and occipital face area. A partial correlation technique, controlling for fluctuations in occipitotemporal cortex that were not face specific, revealed connectivity between the PrC and the FFA, as well as the Amg. When examining the 'unique' connectivity of PrC within this face processing network, we found that the connectivity between the PrC and the FFA as well as that between the PrC and the Amg persisted even after controlling for potential mediating effects of other face-selective regions. Lastly, we examined the behavioral relevance of PrC connectivity by examining inter-individual differences in resting-state fluctuations in relation to differences in behavioral performance for a forced-choice recognition memory task that involved judgments on upright and inverted faces. This analysis revealed a significant correlation between the increased accuracy for upright faces (i.e., the face inversion effect) and the strength of connectivity between the PrC and the FFA. Together, these findings point to a high degree of functional integration of face-selective aspects of PrC in the face processing network with notable behavioral relevance. PMID:24531049

O'Neil, Edward B; Hutchison, R Matthew; McLean, D Adam; Köhler, Stefan

2014-05-15

276

Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral Rupture in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the disease mechanism underlying the arthropathy. PMID:25254499

Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter

2014-01-01

277

Rupture of latissimus dorsi muscle in a tennis player.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of the latissimus dorsi muscle is a rare injury, and few reported cases were avulsion injuries at their humeral insertion. Seven cases of spontaneous rupture of the latissimus dorsi muscle have been reported, but only 1 occurred at the myotendinous junction. The mechanism of this injury is reported to be forceful resisted arm adduction or extension, and reported injuries were rock climbing and attempting to pull up on an overhead handhold, waterskiing injury during pull-up with ski rope, overuse in golf in the leading arm, and abduction-external rotation with horizontally extended arm during a professional steer wrestling performance. The latissimus dorsi muscle is not a critical muscle for activities of daily living; however, the significance of the muscle is increased in professional or elite athletes. This article presents a case of rupture of the latissimus dorsi muscle at the myotendinous junction that occurred during a sports activity. PMID:19225999

Park, Jin-Young; Lhee, Sang-Hoon; Keum, Jeong-Sup

2008-10-01

278

Rupture Zones of Strong Earthquakes In The Corinth Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruptures zones of the strong (M 8805; 6) earthquakes that occurred in the Corinth rift in the last three hundred years have been determined on the basis of aftershock epi- central distributions , intensity distributions and observations regarding seismogenic ground failures and tsunamis. The space U time distribution of the rupture zones indi- cates that (1) for time intervals of about 50yrs the rupture zones do not overlap; over- alpping appear, however, in longer time intervals , (2) there is a trend of the seismic activity to decrease westwards , and (3) particular regions constitute potential seis- mic gaps , like the Kiato UXylocastro region in the south coast of the Corinth Gulf, where the large 1402 earthquake occurred, and the Livadia U Desfina region where the A.D.361 and 551 large earthquakes possibly took place.

Papadopoulos, G. A.; Kouskouna, V.; Plessa, A.

279

Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed. PMID:24757027

Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

2015-02-01

280

A Case of Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is rare complication of pregnancy that is associated with a significant maternal and fetal mortality. Case. A multiparous female presented in the third trimester with hypotension, tachycardia, and altered mental status. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was discovered at the time of laparotomy and cesarean delivery. The patient made a full recovery following resection of the aneurysm. The neonate survived but suffered severe neurologic impairment. Conclusion. The diagnosis of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm should be considered in a pregnant woman presenting with signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Early intervention by a multidisciplinary surgical team is key to preserving the life of the mother and fetus. PMID:25574408

Corey, Elizabeth K.; Harvey, Scott A.; Sauvage, Lynnae M.; Bohrer, Justin C.

2014-01-01

281

Evaluating fault rupture hazard for strike-slip earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present fault displacement data, regressions, and a methodology to calculate in both a probabilistic and deterministic framework the fault rupture hazard for strike-slip faults. To assess this hazard we consider: (1) the size of the earthquake and probability that it will rupture to the surface, (2) the rate of all potential earthquakes on the fault (3) the distance of the site along and from the mapped fault, (4) the complexity of the fault and quality of the fault mapping, (5) the size of the structure that will be placed at the site, and (6) the potential and size of displacements along or near the fault. Probabilistic fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in design of structures or lifelines that are located within about 50m of well-mapped active faults.

Petersen, M.; Cao, T.; Dawson, T.; Frankel, A.; Wills, C.; Schwartz, D.

2004-01-01

282

Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery  

SciTech Connect

We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: t-matsu@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ikeda, Jun [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Emergency (Japan); Nagata, Akihiro [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

2011-02-15

283

[Diagnosis and treatment of the ruptured Achilles tendon].  

PubMed

The treatment of the recently ruptured Achilles tendon can be conservative or surgical. The conservative treatment may be carried out using either a static cast immobilisation or using a dynamic brace and an early functional rehabilitation. The surgical technique can be either open or mini-invasive. Neglected and ancient ruptures may need to be treated surgically by a tendinoplasty. There is an ongoing discussion about how to manage the recently ruptured Achilles tendon, especially since recent descriptions of conservative-functional treatment procedures and mini-invasive surgical techniques. We present the choice of the different treatment options and the clinical reasoning to identify the best adapted treatment for the individual patient. The ideal treatment option depends on the functional demand and the medical condition of the patient. PMID:22912999

Neumayer, F; Assal, M; Crevoisier, X

2012-07-25

284

Emergency Stenting of a Ruptured Infected Anastomotic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm  

SciTech Connect

A 74-year-old man presented with a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Due to severe medical comorbidities he was considered unsuitable for conventional surgical management and underwent an emergency endovascular repair with a balloon-expandable covered stent. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded successfully and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery with long-term suppressive antimicrobials. He remained well for 10 months after the procedure with no signs of recurrent local or systemic infection and finally died from an acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, emergency endovascular treatment of a free ruptured bleeding femoral artery pseudoaneurysm has not been documented before in the English literature. This case illustrates that endovascular therapy may be a safe and efficient alternative in the emergent management of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms when traditional open surgery is contraindicated.

Klonaris, Chris, E-mail: chris_klonaris@yahoo.com; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Tsigris, Chris; Papadopouli, Katerina ['LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division (Greece); Tsiodras, Sotiris [Attikon Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 4th Academic Department of Internal Medicine (Greece); Bastounis, Elias ['LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division (Greece)

2007-11-15

285

[Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].  

PubMed

Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome. PMID:25741921

Karahasano?lu, ?lker; Yolo?lu, Osman; Kerimo?lu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet U?ur

2015-04-01

286

Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ?41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

Suter, Max

2015-01-01

287

Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Problems of Ruptured Globe Injury?  

PubMed Central

Background Ocular trauma is a major cause of vision loss, especially in the young patients, and is the leading cause of unilateral blind in China. Objective The aims of this report are to analyze ciliary and choroidal lesion characteristics and outcomes of a group of patients with ruptured globe injuries and discuss finding a more effective treatment protocol. Here we report our experience treating ruptured globe injuries. Methods Seventy-five patients (75 eyes) with a diagnosis of ruptured globe injuries were selected from 264 patients with open globe injuries at the Shierming Eye Hospital of Shandong Province between January 2009 and December 2011. General information and clinical characteristics such as ciliary and choroidal lesion features were reviewed. Results Of the 75 patients, 85.3% were men, and the average age of the patients was 37.2 years (range, 6–63 years). The right eye was injured in 52.0%; enucleation was performed in 9 patients. There was no light perception, in the final corrected visual acuity in another 3 patients. The ratio of better visual acuity (better than 0.1) increased from 0 preoperatively to 16.0% postoperatively. Among the 75 patients with ruptured globe injuries, 13 had ciliary injury and 47 (62.7%) had choroidal injuries. Both ciliary and choroidal injuries were detected in 15 patients. Retinal tissue incarceration during sclera suturing was usually the vital point leading to unfavorable results. Conclusions Ruptured globe injury usually results in severe visual acuity damage. Active treatment could help to restore visual acuity in patients to some degree. Some effective treatment protocols for ruptured globe injuries could be followed. Some unsuitable procedures in primary treatment should be avoided to achieve a better prognosis. PMID:24385006

Bi, Hongsheng; Cui, Yan; Li, Yang; Wang, Xingrong; Zhang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

288

Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms. PMID:25657862

Graffeo, Christopher S.; Tanweer, Omar; Nieves, Cesar Fors; Belmont, H. Michael; Izmirly, Peter M.; Becske, Tibor; Huang, Paul P.

2015-01-01

289

Improved results of surgical management of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture.  

PubMed

Fifty-five patients had surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture in Massachusetts General Hospital from 1968 through 1981. In patients operated more than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival has been 93% (14/15). Before 1975 in patients operated less than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival was 41% (7/17). In this same era patents operated for septal rupture with cardiogenic shock present before operation had a hospital survival rate of only 27% (3/11). Before 1975 patients with cardiogenic shock were supported with intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) and vasopressors, and operation deferred pending hemodynamic stabilization. Before 1975 patients with anterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of 64% (9/14), while patients with posterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of only 38% (5/13). This difference in survival according to the location of septal rupture occurred despite comparable numbers of patients in each group requiring early operation, as well as incidence of cardiogenic shock. Since January 1, 1975 patients operated less than three weeks after infarction have had an overall hospital survival rate of 70% (16/23). Of the 10 most recent patients operated early, nine are survivors. In patients with anterior defects 85% (11/13) survived, while in patients with posterior defects 67% survived (10/15). In patients operated with cardiogenic shock present before operation, survival has been 67% (10/15). Changes in management leading to improved results include (1) immediate operation for patients with cardiogenic shock, (2) cold cardioplegic protection of the myocardium, and (3) prosthetic replacement of posterior left ventricular free wall defect, after infarctectomy and septal repair, in patients with posterior septal rupture. PMID:7114934

Daggett, W M; Buckley, M J; Akins, C W; Leinbach, R C; Gold, H K; Block, P C; Austen, W G

1982-09-01

290

Association of Hemodynamic Characteristics and Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Hemodynamic factors are thought to play an important role in the initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. This report describes a study of the associations between qualitative intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics and the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Methods 210 consecutive aneurysms were analyzed using patient-specific CFD simulations under pulsatile flow conditions. The aneurysms were classified into categories depending on the complexity and stability of the flow pattern, size of the impingement region, and inflow concentration by two blinded observers. A statistical analysis was then performed with respect to history of previous rupture. Inter-observer variability analysis was performed. Results Ruptured aneurysms were more likely to have complex flow patterns (83%, p<0.001), stable flow patterns (75%, p=0.0018), 66% concentrated inflow (66%, p=<0.0001), and small impingement regions (76%, p=0.0006) compared to unruptured aneurysms. Inter-observer variability analyses indicate that all the classifications performed are in very good agreement, i.e. well within the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions A qualitative hemodynamic analysis of cerebral aneurysms using image based patient-specific geometries has shown that concentrated inflow jets, small impingement regions, complex flow patterns, and unstable flow patterns are correlated with a clinical history of prior aneurysm rupture. These qualitative measures provide a starting point for more sophisticated quantitative analysis aimed at assigning aneurysm risk of future rupture. These analyses highlight the potential for CFD to play an important role in the clinical determination of aneurysm risks. PMID:21051508

Cebral, Juan R.; Mut, Fernando; Weir, Jane; Putman, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

291

Damage-enhanced creep and creep rupture in fiber composites  

SciTech Connect

Creep in fiber composites at high temperatures is an important phenomenon that can lead to accelerated failure in several different ways. For systems with matrix creep rates larger than those of the fibers, creep transfers load onto the fibers and the fibers undergo progressive damage under the increasing load. This leads to enhanced composite creep rates, relative to non-breaking fibers, in both ceramic and metal matrix composites. In metal composites, creep rupture can then occur by excessive damage accumulation even in the absence of explicit high-temperature fiber degradation mechanisms. In ceramic composites, creep rupture occurs following fiber degradation such as slow crack growth, a process accelerated by the enhanced stress on the fibers. Here, these phenomena are discussed within the framework of the composite model of Curtin, which is generalized to include creep and creep rupture. The model generally accounts for the statistical evolution of fiber damage and for the interfacial slip between fibers and matrix that occur in both CMC and MMC materials, both of which can be functions of time at elevated temperatures. Application of the theory to creep rupture in titanium matrix composites reinforced with SiC fibers shows good agreement with experimental results for creep rates and failure times versus applied load. Application to creep rupture in ceramic matrix composites in which the fibers undergo slow crack growth demonstrates the dependence of lifetime on load and crack growth rate. A much longer lifetime for composites, as compared to the lifetime of individual fibers tested in the laboratory, is demonstrated; this is a result of the small effective gauge length of fibers in the composite relative to the typical gauge lengths tested in single fiber stress rupture tests.

Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Iyengar, N. [Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-12-31

292

The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

California?s 35 million people live among some of the most active earthquake faults in the United States. Public safety demands credible assessments of the earthquake hazard to maintain appropriate building codes for safe construction and earthquake insurance for loss protection. Seismic hazard analysis begins with an earthquake rupture forecast?a model of probabilities that earthquakes of specified magnitudes, locations, and faulting types will occur during a specified time interval. This report describes a new earthquake rupture forecast for California developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP 2007).

2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

2008-01-01

293

Early aortic valve cusp rupture in relapsing polychondritis.  

PubMed

Aortic regurgitation associated with relapsing polychondritis usually occurs late in the disease as a result of aortic root dilatation. A case where aortic regurgitation occurred early and was due to cusp rupture with a normal aortic root is reported. The patient required urgent aortic valve replacement within six weeks of developing a murmur despite apparent control of inflammation with immunosuppressive treatment. The possibility of cusp rupture with sudden haemodynamic deterioration should be considered in patients with relapsing polychondritis who develop aortic regurgitation. PMID:1575597

Marshall, D A; Jackson, R; Rae, A P; Capell, H A

1992-03-01

294

Ruptured Valsalva Sinus Aneurysm to Pericardium Simulated Aortic Root Dissection  

PubMed Central

Ruptured valsalva sinus aneurysm to pericardium is a rare condition. Here, we described a case presented with tamponade. Initially, hemopericardium was partially drained and then, imaging evaluations were done. Transesophageal echocardiography showed limited dissection of aortic sinus and CT angiography of the ascending aorta showed deformed dilated right coronary sinus. Besides, surgery showed that windsock tract of the right coronary sinus had ruptured into the pericardium with avulsed right coronary aortic cusp. This case indicated a rare cause of cardiac tamponade and insufficiency of imaging modalities for making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24936486

Davarpasand, Tahereh; Hosseinsabet, Ali; Abassi, Kumars; Arzhan, Sorya

2014-01-01

295

Surgical treatment options for patella tendon rupture, part II: chronic.  

PubMed

Patella tendon rupture is a debilitating injury that often occurs in the setting of preexisting tendon degeneration. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In the setting of a chronic rupture, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft reconstruction generally is necessary. Patients who undergo delayed repair are at risk for a compromised result secondary to loss of full knee flexion and decreased quadriceps strength, although a functional extensor mechanism is likely to be reestablished. Overall the results of chronic repair are less satisfactory than the acute repair, but still provide an extensor mechanism for the patient and thus provide function. PMID:16119741

Greis, Patrick E; Lahav, Amit; Holmstrom, Michael C

2005-08-01

296

Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

Ritter, C. O., E-mail: ritter@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Steger, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of General, Visceral, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany)

2012-02-15

297

Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound and consist of two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

Marder, M.

2005-01-01

298

Spontaneous liver rupture after treatment with drug-eluting beads.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC. PMID:21431968

Ritter, C O; Wartenberg, M; Mottok, A; Steger, U; Goltz, J P; Hahn, D; Kickuth, R

2012-02-01

299

Right atrial free wall rupture after blunt chest trauma.  

PubMed

We report the case of an 18-year-old man, victim of a car accident, presenting with severe hypotension and signs of cardiac tamponade. Transoesophageal echocardiography was suggestive of right atrial free wall rupture. The patient underwent urgent cardiac surgery for repair of right atrial rupture. The immediate clinical outcome was favourable; the patient is in good general condition at 24-month follow-up. The right atrium is rarely involved in cardiac contusion as compared to the right ventricle or other cardiac structures, owing to its anatomical location and direction of physical forces. PMID:17906483

De Maria, Elia; Gaddi, Oscar; Navazio, Alessandro; Monducci, Igor; Tirabassi, Giovanni; Guiducci, Umberto

2007-11-01

300

Renal allograft transplant recipient with ruptured hydatid native kidney  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis of the kidneys in a renal transplant recipient is extremely rare and its occurrence being related to immunosuppression is a possibility which needs further characterisation. Ruptured renal hydatid in a renal transplant recipient is not reported so far to our best knowledge. We present a 42-year-old renal allograft receipient who presented one year after transplant with left flank pain, palpable left lumbar mass and gross hydatiduria. Investigations revealed a ruptured native hydatid kidney. Patient was managed with a combination of chemotherapy and left native nephrectomy and discharged in a satisfactory condition. PMID:25125908

Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Wani, Imtiyaz; Khan, Imran; Wani, Muzaffar

2014-01-01

301

Rupture process at the beginning of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Niigata, Japan, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rupture process at the beginning stage of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Niigata, Japan, earthquake (MW 6.6) is investigated by analyzing P-wave records from local strong-motion stations. The P-wave portion of the near-source strong-motion records shows about 2 s of small but increasing amplitude arrival (so-called "initial rupture phase") followed by the onset of the main energy release ("main rupture phase"). Two issues are addressed in this paper: (1) where the initial rupture process occurred and (2) where the seismic energy corresponding to the main rupture phase was released at the primary stage of the main rupture. The first issue is addressed by locating the main rupture onset position, and the second issue is then approached by introducing a method for mapping the wave energy onto plausible fault planes. Eventually, the following were revealed. The rupture initiated and propagated on the NW-dipping plane, which is a nodal plane of the focal mechanism solution. At 2.1 s after rupture initiation the subsequent main rupture started at a position of approximately 4 km away, southwestward and updipward from the hypocenter. The main rupture at this stage has two possible rupture planes: the same plane as the initial rupture plane, and the conjugated plane, which shares the main rupture onset point with the initial rupture plane. Although it is difficult to determine which plane was actually ruptured at the primary stage of the main rupture, we found that the possible areas radiating strong wave energy on the two possible planes, which could correspond to the first asperity of this earthquake, are located between the hypocenter and the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant.

Takenaka, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamasaki, H.

2009-02-01

302

Rupture of a highly stretchable acrylic dielectric elastomer Matt Pharr, Jeong-Yun Sun, and Zhigang Suo  

E-print Network

and are susceptible to rupture. Here we carry out an experimental study of the rupture behavior of membranes availability.1,5,19 Despite its popularity, the only investigation of rupture of VHB is that of by Schmidt et

303

Spontaneous Zone III rupture of the flexor tendons of the ulnar three digits in elderly Korean farmers.  

PubMed

Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is a rare condition and the aetiology is not clear. We report 12 elderly Korean farmers with spontaneous flexor tendon ruptures. We found the rupture in the dominant hand in ten patients. A rupture in the little finger was found in all 12 patients (seven with both flexor tendons ruptured and five with only the profundus ruptured), in the ring finger in four patients (the profundus ruptured in all and both flexor tendons in two patients), and in the middle finger a partial rupture of the profundus in one patient. The tendons were ruptured close to the hook of the hamate. Repetitive friction between the flexor tendons and the hamate hook may cause the ruptures. The hamate hook was excised and the ruptured profundus tendons were reconstructed with tendon transfers with quite favourable functional recovery at follow-up of 1 to 2 years. The ruptured superficialis tendons were not reconstructed. Level of Evidence IV. PMID:25005564

Lee, G J; Kwak, S; Kim, H K; Ha, S H; Lee, H J; Baek, G H

2015-03-01

304

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

2013-01-01

305

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

2014-01-01

306

14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

2013-01-01

307

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

2012-01-01

308

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

2010-01-01

309

14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

2012-01-01

310

14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

2011-01-01

311

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 25.1453 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines between tanks and...

2011-01-01

312

14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

2010-01-01

313

14 CFR 23.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. 23.1453 ...Equipment § 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture. (a) Each element of the oxygen system must have sufficient...

2014-01-01

314

ANL/ALCF/ESP-13/8 Using Multi-scale Dynamic Rupture Models to  

E-print Network

under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass seismic hazard results, including a state-wide extended earthquake rupture forecast with rupture

Kemner, Ken

315

Quantitative relations between earthquake source properties from dynamic rupture simulations incorporating off-fault plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High stress concentrations at earthquake rupture fronts may generate inelastic off-fault response around the rupture tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Accounting for off-fault plasticity in earthquake rupture simulations imposes physical limits on extreme ground motion as plastic dissipation limits the rupture speed and peak slip rate of pulses. We present physics-based relations between earthquake source parameters derived from analytic considerations and from a consistent set of 2D dynamic rupture models that incorporate severe velocity-weakening friction and off-fault plasticity assuming homogeneous initial conditions. Specifically, we deduce a non-linear relation between the peak slip velocity and rupture speed, which holds for sub- and super-shear, crack- and pulse-like ruptures. We find that these relations are statistically consistent with the correlation of peak slip rate and rupture speed in 3D dynamic rupture models under linear slip weakening friction and highly heterogeneous initial stress. Furthermore the closeness to failure (CF) parameter introduced by Templeton and Rice (2008) is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for slow ruptures, whereas rupture speeds larger than ~80% S-wave speed have a more complicated dependence on stress orientation and the relative strength of the fault. These relations, combined with the limits on rupture speed imposed by off-fault plasticity, may encapsulate a major influence of plastic deformation on near-field ground motions. Our study captures fundamental processes governing dynamic rupture propagation coupled to self-similar off-fault energy dissipation. Thus, our results may be a suitable starting point to develop new pseudo-dynamic source parametrizations for source inversion and ground motion prediction that account for off-fault plasticity. We will report on the suitability of these relations in the presence of other sources of rupture complexity, e.g. coalescing rupture fronts.

Gabriel, Alice; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Dalguer, Luis A.; Mai, P. Martin

2013-04-01

316

Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

2007-01-01

317

Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Vasospasm  

PubMed Central

Objective The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. Materials and Methods A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. Results This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. Conclusion Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm. PMID:25598688

Cho, Young Dae; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Chang Hun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lim, Jeong Wook

2015-01-01

318

Spontaneous postpartum rupture of an intact uterus: a case report.  

PubMed

Rupture of uterus is an obstetrical complication characterized by a breach in the uterine wall and the overlying serosa. We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vaginally after 2 days, giving birth to a male neonate of 3,020 g with normal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute. Her uterus was intact and gynecological examination after delivery was normal without any potential signs or symptoms of pathology. However, the day following her labor, patient complained of left iliac fossa pain. Her blood tests revealed a CRP value at 27.6 mg/L, whereas the X-rays revealed an extensive impacted fecal mass in the colon. MRI revealed that the left lower myometrial part of the uterus was depicted abrupt, with simultaneous presence of hemorrhagic stuff. The decision of laparotomy was therefore made in order to further evaluate rupture of uterus and properly treat patient. And subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Postoperative follow-up period was not characterized by any complications and patient was finally discharged 4 days after hysterectomy. PMID:25368704

Mavromatidis, George; Karavas, George; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Petousis, Stamatios; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Rousso, David

2015-01-01

319

Anterolateral rupture of popliteal cysts in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popliteal cysts occur commonly in both normal and arthritic knees. Most cysts are formed by distension of the medially situated semimembranosus bursa. Popliteus bursa distension occurs uncommonly as a lateral popliteal cyst. Two cases of rupture of lateral cysts which produced symptoms related to the anterolateral lower leg are reported. The difficulty of diagnosing the condition because of this unusual

B Kirkham; M Churchill; B Dasgupta; L Wedderburn; J Spencer; D G Macfarlane

1991-01-01

320

INTERNAL RUPTURE OF BONDED RUBBER CYLINDERS IN TENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual rupture process is described. It consists of the sudden ; appearance of internal cracks in bonded rubber cylinders at a well-defined and ; comparatively small tensile load. The cracks occur in all the vulcanizates ; examined, and in particularly weak rubbers are found to cause failure. Their ; appearance may also lead to marked cbanges in the load-deflection

A. N. Gent; P. B. Lindley

1959-01-01

321

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1  

E-print Network

Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration Anthony Lomax1 and Alberto Michelini2] Effective tsunami early warning for coastlines near a tsunamigenic earthquake requires notification within 5, greater than about 50 s. Here we show that T0 gives more information on tsunami importance than moment

Rawlinson, Nick

322

"The Little Gray Book": Pedagogy, Discourse and Rupture in 1937  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1937, the Ministry of Education in Ontario published a document entitled "Programme of Studies for Grades 1 to VI of Public and Separate Schools" that became known amongst teachers as the "little gray book". The curriculum and pedagogy in the document enunciated a rupture or mutation in pedagogical discourse that broke with previously existing…

Milewski, Patrice

2008-01-01

323

Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: Achilles tendon rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achilles tendon rupture is a relatively uncommon occurrence in a general ED population. The history can be subtle, and physical findings may not be clear-cut. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these injuries, however, is important to improved clinical outcome. The emergency physician needs to remain vigilant for this diagnosis to avoid this orthopedic pitfall. This review article examines the clinical

Jacob Ufberg; Richard A. Harrigan; Thomas Cruz; Andrew D. Perron

2004-01-01

324

[Proximal and distal ruptures of the biceps brachii tendon].  

PubMed

Proximal ruptures. Ruptures of the long head of the M. biceps humeri are commonly caused by degenerative changes within the tendon. Non-operative treatment gives good results, the loss of power regarding elbow flexion and supination amounts to only 8-21%. Refixation may be indicated for cosmetic reasons and offers a small but evident improvement of flexion and supination power. Deformity of the slipped muscle can be corrected effectively. Residual complaints after conservative treatment often result from associated subacromial problems. Distal ruptures. Ruptures of the distal tendon should be treated operatively. The loss of power after conservative treatment is evident (30-40% for flexion, >50% for supination). Extra-anatomical tenodesis to the brachialis muscle or anatomical fixation to the radial tuberosity can be applied. Flexion power and cosmesis can be addressed by both techniques. If supination strength is to be restored, the tendon has to be fixed anatomically. Preparation of the tuberosity bears the risk of heterotopic ossification or nerve damage. Mini-open techniques, using only a limited anterior approach, may decrease risks. PMID:14959750

Klonz, A; Loitz, D; Reilmann, H

2003-09-01

325

Spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery after severe cough.  

PubMed

Pleural or abdominal hematomas induced by spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery are very rare but can often cause fatal problems leading to hypovolemic shock. Spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery mostly occurs in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, coarctation of aorta, or trauma. In the absence of these conditions, there are very few cases. We report a 39-year-old man who complained of left flank pain after severe cough for a few days. His final diagnosis was hematoma of the left lateral abdominal wall induced by rupture of the left 11th intercostal artery. He was treated immediately by transarterial embolization. Without any serious problems during hospitalization, he was discharged. This case indicates that, in generally healthy individuals, even mild physical force such as cough can lead to rupture of the intercostal artery. Although it is very rare, injury to the intercostal artery should be considered when patients complain of unexplained chest pain, abdominal pain, or flank pain after strong cough or sneezing. PMID:25085284

Jang, Jee Yong; Lim, Yong Su; Woo, Jae Hyug; Jang, Jae Ho

2015-01-01

326

Complications of splenic artery aneurysm other than intraperitoneal rupture.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight patients with aneurysms of the splenic artery were identified in the records of 11 years, but only one aneurysm was ruptured. Portal hypertension was found in nine patients (24%); in two of these the reaction surrounding the aneurysm prevented the construction of a patent splenorenal shunt or caused compartmented portal hypertension. One aneurysm encountered during the survey period and another encountered just after its conclusion ruptured into the stomach. There was a twofold overrepresentation of multiparous women. Intraperitoneal rupture is rare, except in pregnancy. If elective therapy is considered, angiography should be performed. Exclusion or resection of the aneurysm is advocated only for patients with symptomatic or ruptured aneurysms or (very rare) large aneurysms and for women of childbearing age. The spleen should be preserved, when possible. In high-risk patients occlusion of the aneurysm via an intra-arterial catheter should be considered. If the splenic artery aneurysm causes compartmented portal hypertension, splenectomy is indicated; if portal hypertension is general, the form of portasystemic decompression chosen should avoid the region of the aneurysm. PMID:7058498

de Vries, J E; Schattenkerk, M E; Malt, R A

1982-02-01

327

Ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst with anaphylactic shock and pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by a parasitic tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, and most commonly involves liver and lung. Ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst can present a diagnostic challenge, and radiograph can be inconclusive. Anaphylactic reaction is a rare complication of ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst. A 22-year-old male came to our emergency department in shock with symptoms of shortness of breath and altered mental status from the previous day. Radiograph showed a thin-walled circular translucent area in the right upper lung field, which was misdiagnosed as pneumothorax, and an intercostal chest tube was inserted. After 5 days, repeat radiograph revealed a cavity with an air/fluid level. The chest tube was removed and contrast-enhanced computed tomogram showed a cavity with water-lily sign, which suggests ruptured hydatid cyst. Immunoglobin-G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Echinococcus was positive. The patient responded well to treatment with crystalloid infusion, supplemental oxygen, and albendazole, and then underwent surgery. Anaphylactic reaction due to rupture of a hydatid cyst is rare, but hydatid disease should be suspected in patients from areas where Echinococcus is endemic. PMID:21333077

Shameem, Mohammad; Akhtar, Jamal; Bhargava, Rakesh; Ahmed, Zuber; Khan, Nafees Ahmad; Baneen, Ummul

2011-06-01

328

Advances in the surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, the mortality rate for elective repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms has improved to an acceptable level (<5%). However, surgical results of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms have remained fairly constant with about 50% in hospital mortality rates. Growing experience with the use of the left retroperitoneal exposure for elective aortic surgery allowed the authors to

R. C Darling; J. A Cordero; B. B Chang; D. M Shah; P. S. K Paty; W. E Lloyd; R. P Leather

1996-01-01

329

Creep and creep rupture of strongly reinforced metallic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A creep and creep damage theory is presented for metallic composites with strong fibers. Application is to reinforced structures in which the fiber orientation may vary throughout but a distinct fiber direction can be identified locally (local transverse isotropy). The creep deformation model follows earlier work and is based on a flow potential function that depends on invariants reflecting stress and the material symmetry. As the focus is on the interaction of creep and damage, primary creep is ignored. The creep rupture model is an extension of continuum damage mechanics and includes an isochronous damage function that depends on invariants specifying the local maximum transverse tension and the maximum longitudinal shear stress. It is posited that at high temperature and low stress, appropriate to engineering practice, these stress components damage the fiber/matrix interface through diffusion controlled void growth, eventually causing creep rupture. Experiments are outlined for characterizing a composite through creep rupture tests under transverse tension and longitudinal shear. Application is made to a thin-walled pressure vessel with reinforcing fibers at an arbitrary helical angle. The results illustrate the usefulness of the model as a means of achieving optimal designs of composite structures where creep and creep rupture are life limiting.

Robinson, D. N.; Binienda, W. K.; Miti-Kavuma, M.

1990-01-01

330

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

2013-08-01

331

Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm previously treated by endovascular stentgraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a case of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with rupture 16 months after treatment by an endograft. A 76-year-old patient on Coumadin after aortic valve replacement had initially successful exclusion by stentgraft. There was no evidence of an endoleak seven months after stentgraft repair, although a computed tomography scan detected an enlargement of the aneurysm sac. Sixteen months after

Giovanni B. Torsello; Eckhard Klenk; Bernd Kasprzak; Thomas Umscheid

1998-01-01

332

Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization  

SciTech Connect

This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

Ham, J.E.

1996-01-04

333

Role of Myocardial Revascularization in Postinfarction Ventricular Septal Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture requires urgent closure. The role of systematic coronar- ography a nd c oronary r evascularizatio n n eeds clarification. Methods. Fifty-four patients who underwent patch closure of postinfarction ventricular septal defect were reviewed. A coronarography had been systematically and myocardial revascularization selectively (when signifi- cant coronary artery stenosis existed) performed. Results. No patient died or

Qing Ye; Jurg Grunenfelder; Gregor Zund; Marko I. Turina

2010-01-01

334

Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

Zoutendyk, John A.

1993-01-01

335

Axial creep-rupture time of boron-aluminum composites  

SciTech Connect

Axial creep tests of a 10vol% boron-aluminum hotpressed monolayer composite were carried out under several constant loads at 300 C in air. The composite behaved with slight primary creep, but did not show appreciable secondary creep. Several specimens encountered a momentary increase of strain during the creep test which separated the creep curve into two regions, because of the individual fiber breaks in the composite. And then, almost all the specimens suddenly fractured without tertiary creep. From the viewpoint of reliability engineering the statistical properties of the creep-rupture time were investigated. The average creep-rupture time decreased with an increase in the applied stress, and the relatively large coefficient of variation was estimated in every case, being around 1,000%. However, these scatters were estimated to be smaller than the scatter of creep-rupture time in the boron fiber itself. That means, the reliability of the fiber`s creep-rupture time is improved by compositing with matrix material.

Goda, Koichi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hamada, Jun`ichi [Nippon Steel Co., Hikari, Yamaguchi (Japan). Hikari R and D Lab.

1995-11-01

336

Force-induced rupture of a DNA duplex  

E-print Network

The rupture of double-stranded DNA under stress is a key process in biophysics and nanotechnology. In this article we consider the shear-induced rupture of short DNA duplexes, a system that has been given new importance by recently designed force sensors and nanotechnological devices. We argue that rupture must be understood as an activated process, where the duplex state is metastable and the strands will separate in a finite time that depends on the duplex length and the force applied. Thus, the critical shearing force required to rupture a duplex within a given experiment depends strongly on the time scale of observation. We use simple models of DNA to demonstrate that this approach naturally captures the experimentally observed dependence of the critical force on duplex length for a given observation time. In particular, the critical force is zero for the shortest duplexes, before rising sharply and then plateauing in the long length limit. The prevailing approach, based on identifying when the presence o...

Mosayebi, Majid; Doye, Jonathan P K; Ouldridge, Thomas E

2015-01-01

337

Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault rupture directivity  

E-print Network

Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault rupture directivity Nora DeDontney,1 Elizabeth of the role of the stress state on the distribution of plastic deformation and the direction of preferred in determining the location of plastic deformation. For different orientations, plastic deformation can

Dmowska, Renata

338

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Plaque rupture is often the precipitating event in acute coronary syndromes. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in stenotic carotid plaques in association with ischemic neurologic symptoms. Our purpose was to examine several morphologic features of stenotic carotid plaques and to determine which characteristics are more commonly associated with plaques obtained from patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease

Sandra Carr; Andrew Farb; William H. Pearce; Renu Virmani; James S. T. Yao

1996-01-01

339

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

Nablo, Brian J; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E; Robertson, Joseph W F; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M; Kasianowicz, John J

2013-08-14

340

Perioperative predictors of colonic ischemia after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Colonic ischemia and colonic resection occur frequently after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). The purpose of this study was to identify the perioperative risk factors that might help to determine earlier in the postoperative period which patients are at risk for colonic ischemia and colonic resection. Methods: The medical records of the 43 patients who underwent repair of rAAA

Jonathan A. Levison; Vivienne J. Halpern; Roxana G. Kline; Glenn R. Faust; Jon R. Cohen

1999-01-01

341

Prediction of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture using Hemodynamic, Morphologic and Clinical  

E-print Network

Prediction of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture using Hemodynamic, Morphologic and Clinical Features¸cats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain jesus.bisbal@upf.edu Abstract. Cerebral aneurysms pose a major clinical threat of the patient and characteristics of the aneurysm. The dataset used included 157 cases, with 294 features each

Riera, Jesús Bisbal

342

Delayed rupture of aortic aneurysms following endovascular stent grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Deployment of transfemoral, endovascular stent grafts for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms is appealing for several reasons: avoidance of abdominal incision, lack of aortic cross-clamping, potential for regional anesthesia, and shortened hospital stay. Concerns remain, however, regarding the ability of these devices to completely exclude the aneurysm and prevent aneurysm rupture and the long-term integrity of the device. The

Alan B. Lumsden; Robert C. Allen; Elliot L. Chaikof; Michael Resnikoff; Mark W. Moritz; Harvey Gerhard; John J. Castronuovo

1995-01-01

343

Extending a Spectrin Repeat Unit. II: Rupture Behavior  

PubMed Central

A spectrin repeat unit was subject to extension using cyclic expansion nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. Periodic boundary conditions were used to examine the effects of the contiguous ?-helical linker on the force response. The measured force-extension curve shows a linear increase in the force response when the spectrin repeat unit is extended by ?0.4 nm. After that point, the force response peaks and subsequently declines. The peak in the force response marks the point where the spectrin repeat unit undergoes a change in its material properties from a strongly elastic material to a mostly viscous one, on the timescales of the simulations. The force peak is also correlated with rupture of the ?-helical linker, and is likely the event responsible for the peaks in the sawtooth-pattern force-extension curves measured by atomic force microscopy experiments. Rupture of the linker involves simultaneously breaking approximately four hydrogen bonds that maintain the ?-helical linker. After this initial rupture, the linker undergoes simple helix-to-coil transitions as the spectrin repeat unit continues to be extended. The implications of linker rupture in the interpretation of unfolding and atomic force microscopy experiments are also discussed. PMID:16227505

Paramore, Sterling; Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

344

Thermosiphon solar water heater having freeze rupture protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermosiphon solar water heating system is described, having passive protection against freeze rupture during periods when insufficient solar energy exists for the system to generate heating and ambient air temperature conditions drop to the freezing point of water. It has a solar energy collector for generating heat, including cover for exposure to solar energy and ambient air. A water

1986-01-01

345

Scaphoid Nonunion and Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients presented with a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon that was associated with a longstanding scaphoid nonunion. A radiocarpal arthrosis was present in 3 of the 4 patients and a dorsiflexed intercalated segment instability deformity was also seen in 3 of the 4 patients. Three patients underwent surgery consisting of an osteosynthesis with an iliac bone graft

Satoru Saitoh; Yukihiko Hata; Narimichi Murakami; Yukio Nakatsuchi; Hiroshi Seki; Kunio Takaoka

1999-01-01

346

Mechanics of shear rupture applied to earthquake zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of shear slippage and rupture in rock masses are reviewed. The essential ideas in fracture mechanics are summarized emphasizing the interpretation and relation among the fracture parameters in shear cracks. The slip-weakening model is described. The general formulation of the problem of nonuniform slip distribution in a continuum is covered.

Li, Victor C.

1986-01-01

347

Theory of time-dependent rupture in the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture mechanics is used to develop a theory of earthquake mechanism which includes the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth. The following phenomena are predicted: slow earthquakes, multiple events, delayed multiple events (doublets), postseismic rupture growth and afterslip, foreshocks, and aftershocks. The theory predicts a nucleation stage prior to an earthquake, and suggests a physical mechanism by which one earthquake may 'trigger' another.

Das, S.; Scholz, C. H.

1980-01-01

348

Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

2010-01-01

349

Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface

G. P. Hayes; R. W. Briggs; A. Sladen; E. J. Fielding; C. Prentice; K. Hudnut; P. Mann; F. W. Taylor; A. J. Crone; R. Gold; T. Ito; M. Simons

2010-01-01

350

Ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into main pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

A young adult who presented with congestive heart failure was found to have ruptured aneurysm of right sinus of Valsalva. The aneurysm was opening into the main pulmonary artery, which was demonstrated well by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Aneurysm was repaired followed by aortic valve replacement. PMID:22629032

Mohite, Prashant N; Rohit, Manoj K; Thingnam, Shyam K

2012-04-01

351

ACCELERATED TECHNIQUE TO PREDICT STRESS-RUPTURE BEHAVIOUR OF ARAMID  

E-print Network

-term creep behaviour of geogrids in soil reinforcement applications. Later, Alwis (2003) applied this method-rupture, Accelerated testing, Jaw effect, Creep activation energy ABSTRACT: The Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) allows accelerated testing of materials to determine their creep response, and in particular, their creep

Burgoyne, Chris

352

Variable Rupture Mode at Subduction Zones Around the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enormity of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, in comparison with 19th- and 20th-century earthquakes in its rupture area, serves as a reminder that a subduction zone may produce earthquakes larger than those in recorded in the past. Historical record and paleoseismological data show that variability in rupture mode is characteristic of some subduction zones. Infrequent, gigantic earthquakes predominate in geologic records, while historic data tell of more frequent, smaller earthquakes. This implies that along the Cascadia subduction zone, great (M > 8) earthquake can occur more frequently than estimated from paleoseismological record. Like the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the giant 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) was unusually large. Historical predecessors of the 1960 earthquake occurred in 1837, 1737, and 1575. However, midway along the 1960 rupture, only the 1575 event produced geologic records of subsidence and tsunami as obvious as those of 1960. The 1837 and 1737 ruptures were probably small, at least at this latitude (Cisternas et al., 2005). Along the Nankai trough of southwest Japan, recurrence of semi-regular earthquakes has been documented in the 1300 years' written history, with an indication of some variability. The easternmost Suruga trough was ruptured in 1854 but not in 1944, leaving a seismic gap for the anticipated Tokai earthquake. The 1707 earthquake ruptured both Nankai and Tokai sources that ruptured separately in 1854 and in 1944 and 1946. The 1605 earthquake seems to be an unusual tsunami earthquake. Near Tokyo, along the Sagami trough, historical records and marine terraces show two types of large earthquakes (1923 type and 1703 type; Shishikura, 2003); their average recurrence intervals are estimated geologically as several hundred years and a few thousand years, respectively. Earthquakes larger than Mw 8.2 can happen along the southern Kuril trench even though they are unknown from the 200-year written history of Hokkaido. Plate-boundary earthquakes close to M 8, at intervals of 100 years or less, had been considered characteristic in this subduction zone. The 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (M 8.0), for instance, was preceded by similar earthquakes, from slightly different source areas, in 1952 and 1843. However, tsunami deposits show that unusually large tsunamis repeated at intervals averaging about 500 yr, with the most recent event in the 17th century (Hirakawa et al., 2000; Nanayama et al., 2003). The inferred inundation area is much wider than those typical earthquakes, and is best explained by earthquakes that broke more than one of the historical segments. Only these multi-segment earthquakes triggered deep postseismic creep that produced decimeters of coastal uplift (Sawai et al., 2004).

Satake, K.

2005-12-01

353

Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x

Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

2010-05-01

354

Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar to those of the main traces. In contrast, when the L/W < 2, the vertical slip is either increased or decreased as the horizontal slip is decreased, depending on the maturity of the linking zone. Thus, we argue that slip patterns at linking damage zones may be controlled by the LW-ratio of linking damage zones and hence structural maturities of the segmented fault systems. In conclusion, slip patterns at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures are various depending on the maturity of linkage zones and/or the rupture propagation direction. Therefore, the consideration of slip compensation as well as damage structures along surface ruptures must be very useful to understand fault evolution and, hence, to assess seismic hazards around active fault systems.

Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

2013-12-01

355

Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.

Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.

1980-01-01

356

Etiology and management of hemmorrhage in spontaneous liver rupture: a report of 70 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To analyze the causes and management of hemorrhage in spontaneous liver rupture. METHODS: Seventy cases of spontaneous liver rupture were retrospectively analyzed for causes of hemorrhage and therapeutic effects of surgical approaches. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that the causes of spontaneous liver rupture were primary liver cancer in 60 cases (85.7 %), cirrhosis in 3 cases (4.3 %), liver

Zhe-Yu Chen; Qing-Hui Qi; Zuo-Liang Dong

357

Linearized inversion for fault rupture behavior: Application to the 1984 Morgan Hill, California, earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique to infer the rupture history of an earthquake from near-source records of ground motion. Unlike most previous studies, each point on the fault is assumed to slip only once, when the rupture front passes, with a spatially variable slip intensity. In this parameterization the data are linearly related to slip intensity but nonlinearly related to rupture

Gregory C. Beroza; Paul Spudich

1988-01-01

358

Risk of rupture analysis for advanced level of AAA under combined physiological and physical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of rupture for advanced level of aneurysm is very much investigated by medical practitioners and researchers. Numerical modelers have also been contributing to the prediction of this rupture. In this study, the effect of various physiological and physical conditions to the increased of the risk rupture is investigated. This study uses simplified model of aneurysm based on actual

Ishkrizat Taib; Kahar Osman; M. Kadir; M. H. Padzillah

2009-01-01

359

Rupture failure and mechanical strength of the electrode wire used in wire EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the application of wire EDM, wire rupture is very troublesome and impedes further increase of cutting speed. Instead of the spark characteristics or the temperature distribution, the rupture mechanism and the mechanical strength of the wire are the focus of this investigation. Wire rupture is a mechanical failure in essence, although the process heat has significant influence on the

Y. F. Luo

1999-01-01

360

Spontaneous isolated rupture of popliteus tendon presenting as locked knee: case study and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic isolated rupture of the popliteus tendon has been described as a rare cause of haemarthrosis of the knee. There has been only one reported case of spontaneous rupture of the popliteus tendon in the English literature before. We present the case of a 70-year-old lady who had spontaneous rupture of the popliteus tendon without history of significant trauma. She

Ehab Kheir; Ali Ghoz; K. Gorgees; David MacDonald; David Limb; Peter Giannoudis

2006-01-01

361

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman  

E-print Network

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

Allen, Richard M.

362

Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

2013-04-01

363

Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.

2012-12-01

364

[Analysis of 53 ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms].  

PubMed

In spite of a recent remarkable progress in operative results of ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms, a mortality rate of 2-8% appears to be unavoidable. In the present study, 53 ruptured MCA aneurysms were retrospectively analyzed to determine causative factors of unfortunate outcome (fair, poor and dead). Surgical results of 53 ruptured MCA aneurysms are shown in Table 1, where the outcome was unfortunate in 7 cases (17%). Intracerebral hematoma was responsible for 4 cases, two of which were fatal and postoperative vasospasm for 3 cases. There were 13 cases with intracerebral hematomas (25%) ranging from 21 mm to 68 mm in diameter. Although hematomas less than 40 mm in diameter localized in temporal or frontal subcortical areas and yielded no neurological deficits, those more than 60mm extended to the caudate nucleus or thalamus through the internal capsule and led to deep coma (Table 2, Fig. 1). Intracerebral hematoma with the diameter between 50 to 60 mm seems to be critical in regard to postoperative outcome. Repeated rupture caused intracerebral hematoma (50%) more frequently than single rupture (21%) and aneurysm with intracerebral hematoma was liable to bleed (27%), resulting in acute deterioration of neurological conditions by marked enlargement of the hematoma (Fig. 2). Accordingly it is essential for the cases with intracerebral hematoma to prevent rerupture. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptomatic vasospasm were observed less frequently in hematoma group than in non-hematoma group. However, prophylactic treatment of vasospasm is important even in the cases with intracerebral hematoma since more than half of them suffer from relatively thicker subarachnoid clot. PMID:4069316

Nagasawa, S; Tashiro, Y; Yonekawa, Y; Handa, H

1985-09-01

365

[Analysis of 42 membrane ruptures during the second pregnancy trimester].  

PubMed

65 cases of premature rupture of the membranes before the 28th week of amenorrhoea occurred during the 5 years between 1983 and 1987 in two maternity units in Paris. A retrospective study was carried out on 42 of these cases where conservative measures had been decided on. In two-thirds of the cases, of which 42% had had bleeding and 40% vaginal infection, the pregnancy had appeared to be progressing normally before the rupture of the membranes. 14% had had cerclage and 12% had had selective intrauterine fetal reduction or biopsy of the trophoblast or removal of an intrauterine device. Rupture of the membranes rarely happens in isolation because it is usually accompanied by uterine contraction or bleeding, which may occur separately or associated with one another in half the cases. In 21% of cases bacteriological examination was positive after the rupture. All patients were treated conservatively in this study. Antibiotics were prescribed in 35 cases and tocolysis in 13 cases. The membranes were ruptured on an average for 7 days. It was almost impossible to avoid infection except in two patients who delivered rapidly. The pregnancies resulted in 8 intrauterine deaths, 15 deliveries of babies that were not viable, 19 deliveries of live babies of which 7 were by caesarean section. 15 babies survived the neonatal period. This work makes it possible to judge whether it is really hazardous to try to be conservative before the 24th week of amenorrhea. Even if neonatal mortality is being lowered at term, overall in our series it was 25%. Finally, it does not seen that tocolytics or antibiotics help to lower this mortality significantly. PMID:2600378

Camus, M; Khadam, L; Iloki, L H; Fitoussi, A; Galli-Douani, D

1989-01-01

366

Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part I: Structure and Rupture of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa  

E-print Network

Tona Mine, South Africa V. HEESAKKERS,1,2 S. MURPHY,1,3 and Z. RECHES 1 Abstract--We analyze the structure of the Archaean Pretorius fault in TauTona mine, South Africa, as well as the rupture-zone that recently reactivated it. The analysis is part of the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM

Ze'ev, Reches

367

Earthquake Rupture at the Focal Depth of M=5.1 and M=3.7 Earthquakes in Gold Mines, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every earthquake generates a rupture zone that may propagate to the ground surface. Usually, the surface rupture is the tip of the much larger rupture zone that remains unseen and inaccessible in the subsurface. The relations between surface rupture and subsurface rupture are unknown as surface waves and soft sediments modify the rupture features. To overcome this difficulty, we analyze

O. Dor; Z. Reches; G. van Aswagen; K. Bosman

2001-01-01

368

Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

2013-01-01

369

Ruptured Popliteal Cyst Diagnosed by Ultrasound Before Evaluation for Deep Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Most popliteal cysts are asymptomatic. However, cysts may rupture, resulting in pain and swelling of the leg that could also arise from other diseases, including deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema, cellulitis, and tear of a muscle or tendon. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose a ruptured popliteal cyst based on only a patient's history and physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has been regarded as a diagnostic tool for ruptured popliteal cyst. Here, we describe a patient who was rapidly diagnosed as ruptured popliteal cyst by ultrasonography. Therefore, ultrasound could be used to distinguish a ruptured popliteal cyst from other diseases in patients with painful swollen legs before evaluation for deep vein thrombosis. PMID:25566485

Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

2014-01-01

370

Open re-rupture of the Achilles tendon after surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

The rate of re-rupture of Achilles tendon after surgical treatment were reported to 1.7–5.6% previously. Re-rupture of Achilles tendon generally occurs subcutaneously. We experienced two rare cases of the open re-ruptures of Achilles tendon with a transverse wound perpendicular to the primary surgical incision. Re-rupture occurred 4 and 13 weeks after surgical treatment. We suggest that open re-rupture correlates more closely with skin scaring and shortening. Another factor may be adhesion between the subcutaneous scar and the suture of the paratenon and Achilles tendon with post-operative immobilization. PMID:24765375

Hanada, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

2011-01-01

371

Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

2013-12-01

372

Dynamic rupture process of the great 1668 Anatolian earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian fault system (NAFS) gives us the well-preserved evidences of multi-segment earthquakes. During the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, surface ruptures extended along the Resadiye segment. The surface ruptures during the 1942 earthquake appeared on two segments, the eastern Niksar and the western Erbaa segments which are to the west of the Resadiye segment. On the other hand, paleoseismological evidences show that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake including the Resadiye, Niksar, and Erbaa segments (Kondo et al., 2009). The fault geometry, however, does not make us imagine a single multi-segment occurring. The distance along strike and step-over width between the Resadiye and Niksar segments is 17 and 11 km, respectively. This fault discontinuity is much larger than the previously-known threshold of a multi-segment rupture, 5 km, shown in observations of historical earthquakes (Matsuda, 1990; Wesnousky, 2006) and numerical studies (Harris and Day, 1999; Kase and Kuge, 2001). In this study, we construct dynamic rupture models for the North Anatolian earthquakes based on seismological data of the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes and the present stress condition, and then we investigate possibility of a single multi-segment earthquake in agreement with the paleoseismological data of the 1668 earthquake. A fault model is assumed, based on the surface traces, hypocenter distribution and source mechanisms of the 20th century earthquakes on the NAFS. Using the source mechanism of the 1939 earthquake (McKenzie, 1972) and the stress inversion results along the NAFS (Bellier et al., 1997; Fuenzalida et al., 1997), we adopt a regional stress field that is resolved onto all fault segments. We perform preliminary simulations to determine a hydrostatic stress condition and coefficient of friction producing surface slip distribution consistent with the observed surface slips during the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes (Barka, 1996; Emre et al., 2009; Kondo et al., 2009). We use a finite-difference method with a conventional grid formulated by Kase and Day (2006). Under the stress condition mentioned in the previous paragraph, a rupture initiating on the Erbaa segment propagates on the Niksar segment, but cannot jump across the 11-km-wide discontinuity between the Niksar and Resadiye segments. The result shows that the discontinuity acts as a geometrical barrier during ‘usual' earthquakes like ones in the 20th century earthquake sequence. In the Niksar segments, paleoslips of up to 8 m are observed as the 1668 earthquake. The paleoseismological data also show that the last earthquake before the 1668 earthquake was during the 6th century; thus, the interval between these was much longer than the 274 years between the 1942 and 1668 earthquakes. The 1668 earthquake following a long quiescent period had the capability for accumulating large strain. We thus assume larger values of stress drop for the Niksar and Erbaa segments, and simulate dynamic ruptures. When the stress drop is twice as large as in the 1942 earthquake, a rupture can jump across the 11-km-wide discontinuity and propagates onto the Resadiye segment. The maximum surface slip on the Niksar segment is 6.65 m. Although the simulated slip is less than the observed one, the rupture jump succeeds. The numerical result shows the possibility that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake, therefore, it suggests that the 11 km-width jump in the 1668 earthquake was caused by large stress drop releasing the vast accumulation of strain during the preceding long quiescence.

Kase, Yuko; Kondo, Hisao; Emre, Ömer

2010-05-01

373

Instabilities at frictional interfaces: Creep patches, nucleation, and rupture fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength and stability of frictional interfaces, ranging from tribological systems to earthquake faults, are intimately related to the underlying spatially extended dynamics. Here we provide a comprehensive theoretical account, both analytic and numeric, of spatiotemporal interfacial dynamics in a realistic rate-and-state friction model, featuring both velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening behaviors. Slowly extending, loading-rate-dependent creep patches undergo a linear instability at a critical nucleation size, which is nearly independent of interfacial history, initial stress conditions, and velocity-strengthening friction. Nonlinear propagating rupture fronts—the outcome of instability—depend sensitively on the stress state and velocity-strengthening friction. Rupture fronts span a wide range of propagation velocities and are related to steady-state-front solutions.

Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

2013-12-01

374

Bile peritonitis due to intra-hepatic bile duct rupture  

PubMed Central

Generalized biliary peritonitis is a serious intra-abdominal emergency. Most of them occur due to duodenal ulcer perforation and rapidly evolve into bacterial peritonitis due to contamination by gut organisms and food. In this situation, recognition of the pathology and its treatment is straightforward and is usually associated with a good outcome. There are a few unusual causes of biliary peritonitis, of which rupture of the biliary tree is one. We describe a rare case of biliary peritonitis due to rupture of an intra-hepatic biliary radical. Unusual causes of peritonitis do interrupt our daily routine emergency surgical experience. Rapid recognition of the presence of peritonitis, adequate resuscitation, recognition of operative findings, establishment of biliary anatomy, and performance of a meticulous surgical procedure resulted in a good outcome. PMID:16425375

Lochan, R; Joypaul, BV

2005-01-01

375

Septic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

Infectious aortitis has become a rare disease thanks to the widespread use of antibiotics. We report the case of a patient who, 15 days after initiation of antibiotics for bacteraemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), developed acute chest pain followed by haemodynamic instability. A tamponade due to a rupture into the pericardium of the ascending aorta at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque was diagnosed by an emergent chest contrasted computed tomography (CT). Intraoperatively, the septic nature of the rupture was suspected. All aortic atherosclerotic plaque samples grew MRSA. Postoperatively, the patient had an uneventful recovery after 12 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Transoesophageal echocardiography and chest CT were normal at 3 months after cessation of antibiotics. This case report permits the review of some characteristics of this disease, its physiopathology as well as the therapeutic implications. PMID:22728897

Maillet, Jean Michel; Palombi, Tonino; Sablayrolles, Jean-Louis; Bonnet, Nicolas

2012-01-01

376

Polyarteritis nodosa-induced pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysmal rupture.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic, necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries typically with multiorgan involvement. Most cases of PAN are idiopathic, although hepatitis B or C virus infections and hairy cell leukemia are important in the pathogenesis of some cases. PAN is characterized as segmental transmural inflammation of muscular arteries. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, a negative immunofluorescence test for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and whenever possible, biopsy conformation. Angiographic images may reveal microaneurysms affecting the renal, hepatic, or mesenteric vasculature. Aneurysmal formation and rupture are important complications that can be fatal. Treatment may warrant immunosuppression with steroids and cyclophosphamide. If left untreated, PAN can be fatal. To our knowledge, we report the second documented case of PAN-induced ruptured inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. PMID:25780330

Levin, Steven; Graber, John; Ehrenwald, Eduardo; Skeik, Nedaa

2015-03-01

377

[Spontaneous splenic rupture in the course of infectious mononucleosis].  

PubMed

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) in the course of infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Mortality rate is relatively high, therefore emergency splenectomy is a life-saving intervention. In case of undergoing urgent operation there is no possibility to initiate proper prophylaxis of overwhelming infection. The humoral and cellular immunologic response impairment is a reason for life-threatening complications of splenectomised person. Asplenic children should receive infection prophylaxis immediately post splenectomy. We report two cases of splenic rupture inpatients with IM. The prevention of infection was initiated in both children. The mainstays of prophylaxis are: immunization, chemoprophylaxis and education. Complex information concerning asplenia-related subjects should be provided for patients and their parents. PMID:17401185

Irga, Ninela; Mierzejewska, Marta; Balcerska, Anna

2006-01-01

378

Spontaneous rupture of uterine vein in twin pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

379

Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

380

Uterine rupture after the uterine fundal pressure maneuver.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To clarify the incidence of uterine fundal pressure at delivery and its effect on uterine rupture. Study design: A questionnaire was sent to 2518 institutions in Japan. We received a response from 1430. Results: Of reporting institutions, 89.4% used fundal pressure in at least some of their deliveries. Among the 347,771 women who delivered vaginally in this study, 38,973 (11.2%) were delivered with the assistance of fundal pressure. There were six cases of uterine rupture associated with uterine fundal pressure, with one case resulting in maternal death secondary to amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion: Since uterine fundal pressure may potentially cause serious injury to either the mother and/or neonates, the indications for application need to be clearly elucidated, and obstetric care providers also need comprehensive education and training. PMID:25389983

Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

2014-11-01

381

[Perioperative management of a ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm].  

PubMed

Congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are extremely rare in Spain. The lesion consists of a defect that allows the aortic media to separate from the annulus fibrosus of the aortic valve, causing it to dilate with arterial pressure. The natural course of the aneurysm involves the risk of complication due to bacterial endocarditis, with conduction blocks or myocardial ischemia. Rupture of the aneurysm, usually into a right chamber, causes a left-right shunt that leads to heart failure and death if untreated. We present the case of a previously asymptomatic 60-year-old woman who presented with a clinical picture that led to a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, and in whom there occurred a coincident rupture of a congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. We describe the anesthetic procedure and emphasize the importance of intraoperative echocardiography throughout the resection of the aneurysm. PMID:18401992

Peña, J J; Marqués, J I; Mateo, E; Llagunes, J; Aguar, F; de Andrés, J

2008-03-01

382

Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma  

PubMed Central

Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age) to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. PMID:25506201

Mansour, Ahmad M; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Hamam, Rola N; Maalouf, Fadi C

2014-01-01

383

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis  

PubMed Central

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-01-01

384

[Spontaneous rupture of renal leiomyosarcoma: report of a case].  

PubMed

A case of renal leiomyosarcoma ruptured spontaneously is reported. A 36-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of right flank pain. The urographic examination, including an excretory urography, renal CT-scan, renal angiography, and ultrasonography revealed a renal tumor with spontaneous rupture on the right side. A nephrectomy through the lumbal flank incision on the right side was performed on February 28, 1984, and histopathological diagnosis was renal leiomyosarcoma. Five courses of adjuvant chemotherapy, VCR, ADM and CPM, combined with maintenance immunochemotherapy using Tegafur and Krestin and with radiotherapy (3,000 rad) were performed post-operatively. The patient was followed for 18 months after operation as an outpatient with no evidence of local recurrence and metastasis. The 40 reported cases including our case with leiomyosarcoma in Japan is reviewed and some characteristics of this entry are discussed. PMID:3101446

Yoshikawa, M; Hayashi, Y; Sanma, S; Maruyama, Y; Hirao, Y; Okajima, E

1986-09-01

385

Reducing maternal mortality from ruptured uterus--the Sokoto initiative.  

PubMed

Uterine rupture is the most common cause of maternal mortality in our institution. Case fatality for the year 2001 was 47%. Health care including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is not free, hence, delays in receiving care could occur in patients with limited resources. The objectives of the study were to promote access to emergency obstetric care through a loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus and determine the success or otherwise of the scheme. The scheme was initiated in January 2002, with the sum of thirty eight Thousand Naira (about 300 US dollars) by consultant obstetricians in the department. Funds were released to the patient only after assessment of her financial capability to enable her get emergency surgical packs. All that was required was a promise to pay back the loan before discharge. Following resuscitation, surgery was performed by one of the consultants. Eighteen cases of ruptured uterus have been managed. Treatment was initiated within 30 minutes of admission. Admission-laparotomy interval averaged 3.5 hours (+/-1.2). There were two maternal deaths, giving a case fatality of 11% (2/ 18). The case fatality from a previous study from the same centre was 38% (16/42). There was a significant difference in case fatality between the two studies (P<0.05; confidence limits are-0.328 and -0.211). Of the seventeen patients that benefited from the scheme, 16 repaid the loan before discharge (94% loan recovery). Only one patient defaulted with five thousand Naira (40 US dollars). A loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus that enabled them receive emergency obstetric care reduced case fatality. Loan recovery was good. In our quest to reduce maternal mortality in low-income countries without health insurance policies, there might be a need to extend similar initiative to other obstetric emergencies. PMID:15565931

Ahmed, Y; Shehu, C E; Nwobodo, E I; Ekele, B A

2004-06-01

386

[Combined traumatic rupture of the bladder and ileum].  

PubMed

Intraperitoneal bladder rupture represents 2% of all abdominal lesions requiring surgical exploration. It has a poor prognosis due to the frequent associated lesions, particularly involving abdominal and retroperitoneal organs. An associated small bowel injury is rarely reported in the literature. The limited intestinal symptoms, the poor sensitivity of emergency imaging and the minor lesions detected at surgical exploration justify a systematic search for ileal lesions in this type of trauma, by an incision providing broad exposure of the entire abdominal cavity. PMID:15751424

Durand, Xavier; Chapuis, Olivier; Deligne, Emmanuel; Jancovici, René

2004-12-01

387

Myocardial infarction and rupture after bronchial artery embolization.  

PubMed

Bronchial artery embolization is a well-known treatment for hemoptysis. Adverse events of this procedure include multiple systemic embolism and infarction. Myocardial infarction has been recently reported during bronchial artery embolization, owing to the presence of a coronary-to-bronchial artery fistula. We report the management of an ischemic left ventricular free wall rupture caused by bronchial artery embolization in a patient with massive hemoptysis, bronchiectasis, and undetected coronary-to-bronchial artery anomalous connection. PMID:25742826

Massi, Francesco; Muretti, Mirko; Coradduzza, Enrico; Poddighe, Carlo; Terrosu, Pierfranco; Portoghese, Michele

2015-03-01

388

Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI) hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES) and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64). However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73) or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81) was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care. PMID:18005406

Tsay, Jen-Huoy; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Wang, Pen-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole

2007-01-01

389

Deformation across the rupture zone of the 1964 Alaska earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear array of 15 geodetic monuments was installed in 1993 across the rupture zone of the 1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw=9.2). The array extends from Middleton Island (at the edge of the continental shelf and 80 km from the Alaska-Aleutian trench) to north of Palmer, Alaska (380 km from the trench), in the approximate direction of Pacific-North American plate convergence

J. C. Savage; J. L. Svarc; W. H. Prescott; W. K. Gross

1998-01-01

390

Spontaneous rupture: a rare complication of hepatic hemangiomas.  

PubMed

Hepatic lesions are one of the possible visceral causes of spontaneous hemoperitoneum. Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations and are the most common benign tumours of the liver. Most cases are asymptomatic. Although they seldom rupture, it is important to diagnose them as their global mortality rate is high. An accurate diagnosis of a hemangioma as cause of a hemoperitoneum would result in correct clinical decision making and treatment. PMID:25597208

De Beul, P; Roels, P; Heirwegh, G; Janssen, A; Claikens, B

2014-01-01

391

Predictors of death in nonruptured and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study evaluated perioperative variables to predict death in nonruptured and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery.Methods: A consecutive review of all patients who underwent AAA surgery from January 1984 to December 1993 was carried out. Perioperative variables were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical models to predict mortality rates.Results: Four hundred seventy-eight patients with nonruptured AAAs and 157

Jerry C. Chen; Henry D. Hildebrand; Anthony J. Salvian; David C. Taylor; Sandy Strandberg; Terence M. Myckatyn; York N. Hsiang

1996-01-01

392

Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome. PMID:23264161

Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

2012-01-01

393

Role of myocardial revascularization in postinfarction ventricular septal rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture requires urgent closure. The role of systematic coronarography and coronary revascularization needs clarification.Methods. Fifty-four patients who underwent patch closure of postinfarction ventricular septal defect were reviewed. A coronarography had been systematically and myocardial revascularization selectively (when significant coronary artery stenosis existed) performed.Results. No patient died or deteriorated during coronarography. Twenty-six patients showed no coronary artery

René Prêtre; Qing Ye; Jurg Grünenfelder; Gregor Zund; Marko I Turina

2000-01-01

394

Bilateral Wünderlich Syndrome Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipomas  

PubMed Central

Wünderlich syndrome (WS) is a urological emergency characterized by retroperitoneal hemorrhage. In most cases, bleeding occurs from a renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and may be the first manifestation of the disease. We report a female patient with bilateral WS due to the metachronous rupture of renal AMLs. Because the patient was stable and the tumor was not malignant, treatment was conservative. Follow-up revealed the full recovery of kidney function and the resolution of the hematoma.

Sotošek, Stanislav; Marki?, Dean; Španjol, Josip; Krpina, Kristian; Kneževi?, Siniša; Mari?i?, Anton

2015-01-01

395

Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Inconel 702 tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seamless Inconel 702 tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1390 to 1575 F and internal helium pressures from 700 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 29 to 1561 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was about 70 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

Gumto, K. H.

1973-01-01

396

Creep and rupture of advanced ceramic fiber reinforcements  

SciTech Connect

For high temperature CMC to achieve technical and commercial success, ceramic fiber reinforcements should display high stiffness, high strength, and good retention of these properties well above 1000{degrees}C. Using recent data for fiber creep and rupture, this paper reviews the advances that have been made in understanding and improving the thermomechanical performance of multifilament and monofilament fibers with compositions based on alumina and SiC. Although basic and technical progress has been significant, research and developmental issues still remain.

Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); DiCarlo, J.A. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-12-01

397

Ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm: an unusual presentation of polyarteritis nodosa.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented with severe acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain and signs of intra-abdominal haemorrhage. CT and selective angiography revealed a ruptured right hepatic artery aneurysm and diffuse aneurysmatic disease involving most intra-abdominal organs, suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. Although treatment with high-dose steroids was initiated, the patient died of progressive bowel ischaemia. PMID:25833909

Wicherts, D A; Bruntink, M M; Demirkiran, A; van Santvoort, H C; van Lienden, K P; Ambarus, C A; Besselink, M G H; van Gulik, T M

2015-01-01

398

Rupture of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Behçet’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behçet’s disease is a systemic disease of unknown etiology with a chronic relapsing course, characterized by oral aphtous, genital ulcers, ocular lesions, and occasionally vasculitis. Major asymptomatic vascular complications should always be considered in patients with Behçet’s disease. We present the surgical treatment of two male Behçet’s patients of 41 and 30 years of age with ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic

Vedat Erentug; Nilgün Bozbuga; Suat Nail Ömeroglu; Hasan Ardal; Ercan Eren; Murat Güçlü Elevli; Füsun Güzelmeriç; Kaan Kirali; Esat Akinci; Cevat Yakut

2003-01-01

399

Abductor pollicis longus tendon rupture in De Quervain's disease.  

PubMed

De Quervain's disease is a stenosing tenovaginitis involving the first extensor compartment of the wrist. The similarity of its symptomatology to a number of other conditions and its controversial aetiology are only a few of the barriers which often delay its diagnosis and treatment. We report the first two cases in the literature of abductor pollicus longus tendon rupture in patients with De Quervain's disease who had been treated with conservative methods. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:16289720

Yuen, A; Coombs, C J

2006-02-01

400

Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)

2002-08-15

401

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: factors affecting mortality rates.  

PubMed

Outcome of 113 operations for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed to determine the contribution of perioperative events to mortality rates. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were examined with regard to their influence on early and late deaths. A mortality rate of 64% (72/113) was unrelated to age, gender, and preexistent medical conditions. Death within 48 hours occurred in 42 of 72 patients (58%). Preoperative status, including cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and acidosis influenced early deaths (less than 48 hours) but not late deaths. Early deaths were also influenced by severe operative hypotension and excessive transfusion requirements. Late deaths (greater than 48 hours) occurred in 30/72 cases (42%) at a mean of 24.6 +/- 22.9 days. Late death was related to postoperative organ system failure, specifically renal and respiratory failure, and the need for reoperation. The overall mortality rate was influenced by preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors. Postoperative renal failure was the strongest predictor of overall deaths. Survival after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as preoperative conditions. Late death, the greatest strain on resources, is independent of preoperative status. The thesis that some patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be denied operation to conserve resources is not supported by these data. Efforts to improve survival should focus on reducing intraoperative complications and improving management of postoperative organ failure. PMID:1960812

Harris, L M; Faggioli, G L; Fiedler, R; Curl, G R; Ricotta, J J

1991-12-01

402

Ruptured Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm in a Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys)  

PubMed Central

Mycotic aortic aneurysm is a local, irreversible dilatation of the aorta associated with destruction of the vessel wall by infection and is a grave clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. Rupture of aortic aneurysms can be spontaneous, idiopathic, or due to severe trauma, and the condition has been associated with bacterial and, rarely, fungal infections in humans and animals. Here, we describe a case of ruptured spontaneous aortic aneurysm associated with zygomycetic infection in a 21-y-old female sooty mangabey. The animal did not present with any significant clinical signs before being found dead. At necropsy, she was in good body condition, and the thoracic cavity had a large amount of clotted blood filling the left pleural space and surrounding the lung lobes. Near the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta was focally perforated (diameter, approximately 0.15 cm), and clotted blood adhered to the tunica adventitia. The aortic intima had multiple, firm, pale-yellow nodules (diameter, 0.25 to 0.5 cm). Histopathologically, these nodules consisted of severe multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation intermixed with necrosis, fibrin, and broad, infrequently septate, thin-walled fungal hyphae. Immunohistochemistry revealed fungal hyphae characteristic of Mucormycetes (formerly Zygomycetes), and PCR analysis identified the organism as Basidiobolus spp. Dissemination of the fungus beyond the aorta was not noted. Spontaneous aortic aneurysms have been described in nonhuman primates, but this is the first reported case of a ruptured spontaneous aortic aneurysm associated with entomophthoromycetic infection in a sooty mangabey. PMID:22330581

Sharma, Prachi; Cohen, Joyce K; Lockhart, Shawn R; Hurst, Steven F; Drew, Clifton P

2011-01-01

403

Numerical Simulation of Bleeding from Ruptured Vessels in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the projected increase of manned space activity in the forthcoming years, there will be a heightened risk of serious injury and/or need for surgical procedures resulting in significant blood loss. The bleeding process may be quite different in a microgravity environment compared with the terrestrial setting. Owing to the removal of normally dominant body forces, the mechanism by which the blood exits a ruptured vessel may be greatly influenced by surface tension. Consequently, blood may be ejected from a blood vessel in the form of droplets rather than a continuous leakage; stable domes of blood surrounding a wound may also be possible. The present study represents the first step towards a theoretical and computational model of the bleeding process in microgravity. A finite element-based numerical model (FIDAP 8.5) is developed for the problem of blood loss from a single ruptured vessel into a quiescent, miscible medium. Computations are carried out in two-dimensions and three-dimensions to investigate the rate of blood loss as a function of flow pulsatility, red blood cell concentration, rupture geometry, and vessel wall elasticity. Blood will be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with a concentration-dependent viscosity (Casson's model).

Hitt, Darren L.

2000-11-01

404

Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

2014-08-01

405

A simplified method for repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

Repair of distal biceps brachii tendon ruptures is recommended for active individuals desiring maximum return of elbow supination and flexion strength. A 2-incision method of repair has been most popular but carries a risk of radioulnar synostosis. In the past, repair through a single anterior incision required more dissection and risked injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. The authors present a simplified method for the repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures through a single anterior incision. The use of suture anchors provides secure fixation to the radius with minimal volar dissection. This method was used successfully in 16 patients, 8 acutely (<6 weeks) and 8 chronically, with excellent functional results. Patients who received acute repairs regained elbow strength and power; patients who received chronic repairs showed slight deficits of supination strength (16%) and flexion power (14%). Of 10 chronic ruptures treated, only 2 tendons could not be mobilized back to the radial tuberosity and had to be transferred to the brachialis. There were no failures and no complications of radioulnar synostosis or posterior interosseous nerve palsy. The single anterior incision approach in which suture anchors are used is recommended as an alternative to the traditional 2-incision method. PMID:10888168

Sotereanos, D G; Pierce, T D; Varitimidis, S E

2000-01-01

406

Kinematic earthquake rupture inversion in the frequency domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a frequency-based approach to earthquake slip inversion that requires no prior information on the rupture velocity or slip-rate functions. Because the inversion is linear and is performed separately at each frequency, it is computationally efficient and suited to imaging the finest resolvable spatial details of rupture. We demonstrate the approach on synthetic seismograms based on the Source Inversion Validation Exercise 1 (SIV1) of a crustal Mw 6.6 strike-slip earthquake recorded locally. A robust inversion approach is obtained by applying a combination of damping, smoothing and forcing zero slip at the edge of the fault model. This approach achieves reasonable data fits, overall agreement to the SIV1 model, including slip-rate functions of each subfault, from which its total slip, slip time history and rupture velocity can be extracted. We demonstrate the method's robustness by exploring the effects of noise, random timing errors, and fault geometry errors. The worst effects on the inversion are seen from errors in the assumed fault geometry.

Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Gerstoft, Peter

2014-11-01

407

Incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis after Achilles tendon rupture.  

PubMed

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality and is associated with many orthopedic procedures. Previous studies have reported highly variable DVT rates in patients with Achilles tendon rupture undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review for all patients who underwent Achilles tendon repair at our institution from January 2006 to February 2012. Patient data were collected from the electronic medical record system. A total of 115 patients were eligible for the present study. Of these patients, 27 (23.47%) with a surgically treated Achilles tendon rupture developed a symptomatic DVT either while waiting for, or after, surgical intervention, with approximately one third of these diagnosed before surgical intervention. Of the 27 patients with DVT, 3 had a proximal DVT and 24 had a distal DVT. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism. The DVT incidence was greater in the 2 older age groups (40 to 59 and 60 to 79 years) compared individually with the younger age group (20 to 39 years; p < .0026 and p < .0014, respectively). We have shown a high incidence of DVT after Achilles tendon rupture. We recommend a high level of suspicion for the signs and symptoms of DVT during the follow-up period. In addition, patient education and early mobilization should be advocated, especially for patients older than 40 years. Additional randomized controlled trials investigating any benefits to pharmaceutical DVT prophylaxis in this population are needed to establish evidence-based recommendations. PMID:23623625

Makhdom, Asim M; Cota, Adam; Saran, Neil; Chaytor, Ruth

2013-01-01

408

Rupture hardware minimization in pressurized water reactor piping  

SciTech Connect

For much of the high-energy piping in light reactor systems, fracture mechanics calculations can be used to assure pipe failure resistance, thus allowing the elimination of excessive rupture restraint hardware both inside and outside containment. These calculations use the concept of leak-before-break (LBB) and include part-through-wall flaw fatigue crack propagation, through-wall flaw detectable leakage, and through-wall flaw stability analyses. Performing these analyses not only reduces initial construction, future maintenance, and radiation exposure costs, but also improves the overall safety and integrity of the plant since much more is known about the piping and its capabilities than would be the case had the analyses not been performed. This paper presents the LBB methodology applied a Beaver Valley Power Station- Unit 2 (BVPS-2); the application for two specific lines, one inside containment (stainless steel) and the other outside containment (ferrutic steel), is shown in a generic sense using a simple parametric matrix. The overall results for BVPS-2 indicate that pipe rupture hardware is not necessary for stainless steel lines inside containment greater than or equal to 6-in. (152-mm) nominal pipe size that have passed a screening criteria designed to eliminate potential problem systems (such as the feedwater system). Similarly, some ferritic steel line as small as 3-in. (76-mm) diameter (outside containment) can qualify for pipe rupture hardware elemination.

Mukherjee, S.K.; Ski, J.J. (Duquesne Light Co., Beaver Valley Power Station, Shippingport, PA (US)); Chexal, V.; Norris, D.M. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (US)); Goldstein, N.A. Beaudoin, B.F.; Quinones, D.F.; Server, W.L. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (US))

1989-02-01

409

Flow and rupture of vesicles in narrow channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small lipid bilayer vesicles, also known as liposomes, are used for drug delivery systems in vasculature. Consequently how they deform and when they become unstable and rupture (lose their inner contents) under capillary flow is of great interest. In addition vesicles with a filling fraction of 0.6 can be considered as a simple mechanical model of red blood cells. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations with explicit solvent to study lipid bilayer vesicles in 3D capillary flow with filling fractions of 1.0 and 0.6. The shapes of the vesicles obtained in these simulations compare well to other experimental and theoretical studies. Using CGMD allows the study of rupture. This is in contrast to the majority of other approaches which model the bilayer as a purely elastic surface and only allow the investigation of deformation. We look at the stress profiles of these vesicles as measured by the area expansion per lipid along the membrane, and determine the location and pressure of rupture for a given confinement ratio (diameter of the vesicle divided by diameter of the channel). We also discuss the subsequent loss of inner fluid content.

Harman, Alison; Bertrand, Martin; Joos, Bela

2012-02-01

410

Altered loading in the injured knee after ACL rupture.  

PubMed

Articular loading is an important factor in the joint degenerative process for individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Evaluation of loading for a population that exhibits neuromuscular compensation for injury requires an approach which can incorporate individual muscle activation strategies in its estimation of muscle forces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knee joint contact forces for patients with ACL deficiency using an EMG-driven modeling approach to estimate muscle forces. Thirty athletes with acute, unilateral ACL rupture underwent gait analysis after resolving range of motion, effusion, pain, and obvious gait impairments. Electromyography was recorded bilaterally from 14 lower extremity muscles and input to a musculoskeletal model for estimation of muscle forces and joint contact forces. Gait mechanics were consistent with previous reports for individuals with ACL-deficiency. Our major finding was that joint loading was altered in the injured limb after acute ACL injury; patients walked with decreased contact force on their injured knee compared to their uninjured knee. Both medial and lateral compartment forces were reduced without a significant change in the distribution of tibiofemoral load between compartments. This is the first study to estimate medial and lateral compartment contact forces in patients with acute ACL rupture using an approach which is sensitive to individual muscle activation patterns. Further work is needed to determine whether this early decreased loading of the injured limb is involved in the development of osteoarthritis in these patients. PMID:23097309

Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2013-03-01

411

Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs.

Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M.

1997-02-01

412

Silicone breast implant rupture presenting as bilateral leg nodules.  

PubMed

Gross migration of silicone gel from ruptured breast implants is a rare event. It is associated with extravasation of gel into the breast parenchyma, and to distant locations such as the abdominal wall and inguinal areas. This silicone deposits present as subcutaneous nodules and cause a local reaction known as siliconoma. We evaluated a 56-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of painful, firm and ill-defined subcutaneous nodules on the medial aspect of the shins and ankles. Her medical history was notable for bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 30 years before presentation. Although there were no signs or symptoms on breast examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that both implants had ruptured. Histological examination of a punch biopsy from a nodule on the shin found lobular granulomatous panniculitis. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and was found to contain silicone. This is a rare case of gross migration of silicone to the shins, originating from ruptured breast implants. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of silicone migration to such a distant location. We discuss the common presentation of silicone migration and highlight the importance of awareness among dermatologists and plastic surgeons about this unusual occurrence. PMID:19438562

Sagi, L; Baum, S; Lyakhovitsky, A; Barzilai, A; Shpiro, D; Trau, H; Goldan, O; Winkler, E

2009-07-01

413

Long-term creep-rupture failure envelope of epoxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accelerated testing methodology based on the time-temperature superposition principle has been proposed in the literature for the long-term creep strength of polymer matrices and polymer composites. Also, it has been suggested that a standard master curve may be a feasible assumption to describe the creep behavior in both tension and compression modes. In the present research, strength master curves for an aerospace epoxy (8552) were generated for tension and compression, by shifting strength data measured at various temperatures. The shift function is obtained from superposition of creep-compliance curves obtained at different temperatures. A standard master curve was presented to describe the creep-rupture of the polymer under tension and compression. Moreover, long-term creep-rupture failure envelopes of the polymer were presented based on a two-part failure criterion for homogeneous and isotropic materials. Ultimately, the approach presented allows the prediction of creep-rupture failure envelopes for a time-dependent material based on tensile strengths measured at various temperatures, considering that the ratio between tensile and compressive strengths is known.

Melo, José Daniel D.; de Medeiros, Antonio M.

2014-02-01

414

Early and delayed rupture after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a 10-year multicenter registry  

PubMed Central

Objective Rupture after abdominal endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a function of graft maintenance of the seal and fixation. We describe our 10-year experience with rupture after EVAR. Methods From 2000 to 2010, 1736 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from 17 medical centers underwent EVAR in a large, regional integrated health care system. Preoperative demographic and clinical data of interest were collected and stored in our registry. We retrospectively identified patients with postoperative rupture, characterized as “early” and “delayed” rupture (?30 days and >30 days after the initial EVAR, respectively), and identified predictors associated with delayed rupture. Results The overall follow-up rate was 92%, and the median follow-up was 2.7 years (interquartile range, 1.2–4.4 years) in these 1736 EVAR patients. We identified 20 patients with ruptures; 70% were male, the mean age was 79 years, and mean AAA size at the initial EVAR was 6.3 cm. Six patients underwent initial EVAR for rupture (n = 2) or symptomatic presentation (n = 4). Of the 20 post-EVAR ruptures, 25% (five of 20) were early, all occurring within 2 days after the initial EVAR. Of these five patients, four had intraoperative adverse events leading directly to rupture, with one type I and one type III endoleak. Of the five early ruptures, four patients underwent endovascular repair and one received repair with open surgery, resulting in two perioperative deaths. Among the remaining 15 patients, the median time from initial EVAR to rupture was 31.1 months (interquartile range, 13.8–57.3 months). Most of these delayed ruptures (10 of 15) were preceded by AAA sac increases, including three patients with known endoleaks who underwent reintervention. At the time of delayed rupture, nine of 15 patients had new endoleaks. Among all 20 patients, six patients did not undergo repair (all delayed patients) and died, nine underwent repeated EVAR, and five had open repair. For patients who underwent repair for delayed rupture, mortality at 30 days and 1 year were 44.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified age 80 to 89 (hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–9.4; P =.03), and symptomatic or ruptured initial indication for EVAR (hazard ratio, 7.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2–24.8; P < .01) as significant predictors of delayed rupture. Conclusions Rupture after EVAR is a rare but devastating event, and mortality after repair exceeds 60% at 1 year. Most delayed cases showed late AAA expansion, thereby implicating late loss of seal and increased endoleaks as the cause of rupture in these patients and mandating vigilant surveillance. PMID:24957409

Candell, Leah; Tucker, Lue-Yen; Goodney, Philip; Walker, Joy; Okuhn, Steven; Hill, Bradley; Chang, Robert

2014-01-01

415

Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elaz?? and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karl?ova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with our results. Results were compared with those of similar size earthquakes around the world and a new empirical relationship was proposed between seismic moment and rupture area. We expect our findings provide usefull information to resolving rupture mechanisms and triggering of the events in Eastern Anatoion Region. Key Words: Rupture Process, Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

2012-04-01

416

Carotid Atheroma Rupture Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-rupture Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability,\\u000a finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics\\u000a on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to\\u000a assess the rupture potential for any

Joseph R. Leach; Vitaliy L. Rayz; Bruno Soares; Max Wintermark; Mohammad R. K. Mofrad; David Saloner

2010-01-01

417

Shallow Dynamic Overshoot and Energetic Deep Rupture in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong spatial variation of rupture characteristics in the moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake controlled both the strength of shaking and the size of the tsunami that followed. Finite-source imaging reveals that the rupture consisted of a small initial phase, deep rupture for up to 40 seconds, extensive shallow rupture at 60 to 70 seconds, and continuing deep rupture

Satoshi Ide; Annemarie Baltay; Gregory C. Beroza

2011-01-01

418

Blood flow characteristics in a terminal basilar tip aneurysm prior to its fatal rupture  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The development and validation of methods to stratify the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms is highly desired since current treatment risks can exceed the natural risk of rupture. Because unruptured aneurysms are typically treated before they rupture, it is very difficult to connect the proposed risk indices to the rupture of an individual aneurysm. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the hemodynamic environment of a saccular aneurysm of the terminal morphology sub-type that was imaged just prior to its rupture and to test whether the hemodynamic characteristics would designate this particular aneurysm as at high risk. Methods A patient-specific computational fluid dynamics model was constructed from 3D rotational angiography images acquired just hours before the aneurysm ruptured. A pulsatile flow calculation was performed and hemodynamic characteristics previously connected to rupture were analyzed. Results It was found that the aneurysm had a concentrated inflow stream, small impingement region, complex intra-aneurysmal flow structure, asymmetric flow split from the parent vessel to the aneurysm and daughter branches, and high levels of aneurysmal wall shear stress near the impaction zone. Conclusions The hemodynamics characteristics observed in this aneurysm right before its rupture are consistent with previous studies correlating aneurysm rupture and hemodynamic patterns in saccular and terminal aneurysms. This study supports the notion that hemodynamic information may be used to help stratify the rupture risk of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:20150312

Sforza, D.M.; Putman, C.M.; Scrivano, E.; Lylyk, P.; Cebral, J.R.

2010-01-01

419

Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults. Natural examples seem consistent with the simulations we present.

Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

2002-12-01

420

Evidence for surface rupture in 1868 on the Hayward fault in north Oakland and major rupturing in prehistoric earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

WGCEP90 estimated the Hayward fault to have a high probability (0.45 in 30 yr) of producing a future M7 Bay Area earthquake. This was based on a generic recurrence time and an unverified segmentation model, because there were few direct observations for the southern fault and none for the northern Hayward fault. To better constrain recurrence and segmentation of the northern Hayward fault, we trenched in north Oakland. Unexpectedly, we observed evidence of surface rupture probably from the M7 1868 earthquake. This extends the limit of that surface rupture 13 km north of the segmentation boundary used in the WGCEP90 model and forces serious re-evaluation of the current two-segment paradigm. Although we found that major prehistoric ruptures have occurred here, we could not radiocarbon date them. However, the last major prehistoric event appears correlative with a recently recognized event 13 km to the north dated AD 1640-1776. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lienkaemper, J.J.; Williams, P.L.

1999-01-01

421

Progression of spontaneous in-plane shear faults from sub-Rayleigh to compressional wave rupture speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate numerically the passage of spontaneous, dynamic in-plane shear ruptures from initiation to their final rupture speed, using very fine grids. By carrying out more than 120 simulations, we identify two different mechanisms controlling supershear transition. For relatively weaker faults, the rupture speed always passes smoothly and continuously through the range of speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds (the formerly considered forbidden zone of rupture speeds). This, however, occurs in a very short time, before the ruptures reach the compressional wave speed. The very short time spent in this range of speeds may explain why a jump over these speeds was seen in some earlier numerical and experimental studies and confirms that this speed range is an unstable range, as predicted analytically for steady state, singular cracks. On the other hand, for relatively stronger faults, we find that a daughter rupture is initiated by the main (mother) rupture, ahead of it. The mother rupture continues to propagate at sub-Rayleigh speed and eventually merges with the daughter rupture, whose speed jumps over the Rayleigh to shear wave speed range. We find that this daughter rupture is essentially a "pseudorupture," in that the two sides of the fault are already separated, but the rupture has negligible slip and slip velocity. After the mother rupture merges with it, the slip, the slip velocity, and the rupture speed become dominated by those of the mother rupture. The results are independent of grid sizes and of methods used to nucleate the initial rupture.

Liu, Chao; Bizzarri, Andrea; Das, Shamita

2014-11-01

422

How Did the Two Faults Rupture during the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 11, 2011, the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred in southeast of Fukushima prefecture, northeast Japan. This event is thought to be induced by the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0). Toda and Tsutsumi (2012) found two surface ruptures on the Itozawa and the Yunodake faults. The hypocenter determined by JMA is located west of the Itozawa fault and it is thought the Ynodake fault ruptured after the Itozawa fault did. Previous studies (Hikima, 2012; JMA, 2012; Shiba and Noguchi, 2012) estimated the source rupture process using strong motion data with two fault models (the Itozawa and the Yunodake faults). They used different fault models, rupture starting points of the Yunodake fault, and rupture delays of the Yunodake fault. They got different slip distributions on the Yunodake fault. In this study we firstly estimate the source rupture process using strong motion data and two fault models based on the source fault model inferred from InSAR information by Fukushima et al. (2013). We test 108 combinations of the rupture starting point and rupture delay of the Yunodake fault for the kinematic waveform inversion and get the best set of parameters. Then, we calculate the temporal ?CFF by the obtained spatio-temporal slip model to know whether the Itozawa fault rupture triggered the Yunodake fault rupture. The inversion method is the multiple time window linear source inversion (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We try nine different rupture starting points, in strike direction north, middle and south side and in dip direction shallow, middle and deep side, and twelve cases of the rupture delay, 3.0~8.5s. The synthetic and observed waveforms fitting is best when the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault is north deep side and the rupture delay is 5.0s. The large slip is found in northeastern shallow part on the Itozawa fault and around the rupture starting point and shallow part on the Yunodake fault. They match the surface displacement distribution. We then evaluate the effect of the Itozawa fault to the Yunodake fault rupture. Hikima (2012) calculated static ?CFF using his final slip model on the Itozawa fault and showed a positive large area on the Yunodake fault including his rupture starting point when he assumed the apparent friction coefficient was 0.8. We calculate temporal ?CFF while Hikima (2012) calculated static ?CFF. That is because in our result the Yunodake fault rupture starts during the Itozawa fault rupture and it is important to calculate temporal ?CFF. We calculate temporal stress change in a homogeneous half-space medium using 3D-FDM (GMS, Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The rupture process we use is our temporal slip model on the Itozawa fault. The temporal ?CFF is calculated with the apparent friction coefficient 0.8. We find there is more than 1.5 MPa positive peak of ?CFF on and around our rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 5.0~7.0s after the starting of the Itozawa fault rupture, and there is no significant increase before 5.0s. This result supports the Itozawa fault rupture changes stresses on the Yunodake fault and the Yunodake fault starts to rupture at northern deep point at 5.0s after the Itozawa fault ruptured. Acknowledgements: We thank the NIED, Japan for providing data and GMS tool and JMA for providing data.

Tanaka, M.; Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

2013-12-01

423

Rupture speed dependence on initial stress profiles: Insights from glacier and laboratory stick-slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow slip events are now well-established in fault and glacier systems, though the processes controlling slow rupture remain poorly understood. The Whillans Ice Plain provides a window into these processes through bi-daily stick-slip seismic events that displace an ice mass over 100 km long with a variety of rupture speeds observed at a single location. We compare the glacier events with laboratory experiments that have analogous loading conditions. Both systems exhibit average rupture velocities that increase systematically with the pre-rupture stresses, with local rupture velocities exhibiting large variability that correlates well with local interfacial stresses. The slip events in both cases are not time-predictable, but clearly slip-predictable. Local pre-stress may control rupture behavior in a range of frictional failure events, including earthquakes.

Walter, Jacob I.; Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay; Brodsky, Emily E.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Grace Barcheck, C.; Carter, Sasha P.

2015-02-01

424

Systematic Underestimation of Earthquake Magnitudes from Large Intracontinental Reverse Faults: Historical Ruptures Break Across Segment Boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because most large-magnitude earthquakes along reverse faults have such irregular and complicated rupture patterns, reverse-fault segments defined on the basis of geometry alone may not be very useful for estimating sizes of future seismic sources. Most modern large ruptures of historical earthquakes generated by intracontinental reverse faults have involved geometrically complex rupture patterns. Ruptures across surficial discontinuities and complexities such as stepovers and cross-faults are common. Specifically, segment boundaries defined on the basis of discontinuities in surficial fault traces, pronounced changes in the geomorphology along strike, or the intersection of active faults commonly have not proven to be major impediments to rupture. Assuming that the seismic rupture will initiate and terminate at adjacent major geometric irregularities will commonly lead to underestimation of magnitudes of future large earthquakes.

Rubin, C. M.

1996-01-01

425

Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

2015-01-01

426

Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures: a case-report of a soccer player  

PubMed Central

Background Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. Case presentation A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. Conclusion From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play. PMID:23693119

2013-01-01

427

Acute Simultaneous Ruptures of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon  

PubMed Central

Acute simultaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon is a rare injury. We present a case report of a 32-year-old male patient with ruptured ACL and ipsilateral patellar tendon rupture sustained while playing baseball. Surgery was performed on the patellar tendon and the ACL simultaneously. The clinical and radiological outcomes of the treatment were successful. We present this case with a review of the literatures. PMID:24639949

Lee, Gwang Chul; Park, Sung-Hae

2014-01-01

428

Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-rupture degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress rupture study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.

Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

2007-01-01

429

[Screening of risk groups for discovering intracranial aneurysms before rupture].  

PubMed

In development of intracranial aneurysms contribute genetic factors together with smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology studies suggest that as many as 5% of people harbour a cerebral aneurysm by age 75. Rupture of cerebral aneurysm is the most frequent cause of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (up to 80%.) Annual incidence of SAH is 10-14/100 000, but only 15-20% of aneurysms will rupture, and that will happen probably between 40-60 years. The morbidity and mortality of aneurismal subarachnoid (SAH) continues to be high. It is not possible to predict who has aneurysm and is it going to bleed or not, but it is possible to reveal high risk groups (polycystic kidney disease, Ehlers-Danlos sy, Marphan sy, family history of cerebral aneurysms, suspect de novo aneurysm formation in patients with prior history of cerebral aneurysm). Reviewing data from literature and reporting cases from each group with high risk, that have been screened and aneurysms discovered, authors wish to focus interest on this matter and propose screening program for these groups of patients. The mortality and morbidity in cases treated before rupture is significantly lower than after SAH, so screening programs could save many lives. According to our preliminara data, mostly based on control angiographies after 8-10 zears in patients previouslz operated for intracranial aneurysmas, from 15 angipgraphies 4 revealed new aneurysms (26% in 10 years period) with total number of 6 de novo formed aneurysms, which is not valid due to small number of patients but strongly suggests the importancy of screening program for risk groups. PMID:18792572

Vujoti?, Lj B; Raki?, M Lj; Radulovi?, D V; Slavik, E E; Danilovi?, L R; Nestorovi?, B D; Rasuli?, L G; Jovanovi?, V T

2008-01-01

430

Investigation of Stress Rupture Tested Neutron Irradiated Tantalum Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of metals with high-energy particles produces nano-scale defects that act as obstacles to dislocation glide. This paper presents the effects of low-level neutron radiation on the stress rupture and microstructural properties of two tantalum alloys, Ta-10%W and Ta-8%W-2%Hf (T-111), which have been used to encapsulate radioactive fuel for space Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Ta-10%W and T-111 test specimens were exposed to a neutron fluence level (1.2×1015nvt) at temperatures less than <0.2 Tm, which is equivalent to the cumulative fluence associated with the 30-year mission life of a RPS. This fluence level results in an atomic displacement damage of approximately 3.0×10-7 dpa in both alloys. The atomic displacement damage produces an approximate two-order of magnitude increase in the stress rupture time, and a two-order of magnitude reduction in steady state creep rate. These observations are statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Transmission electron microscopy of rupture specimens reveals that the interaction of the irradiation produced defects with ao/2<111> screw dislocations results in a five-fold increase in dislocation density and a pronouncement of the ordering of dislocations into mosaic patterns of cellular or subgranular arrangements. The re