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Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion.

Schoen, Jessica C.; Boysen, Megan M.; Warren, Chase R.; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram



Case of unusual presentation of fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery presented as a pontine infarct and 2 days later as a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of the same aneurysm. Design: Case report. Setting: Tertiary-care hospital. Background: Fusiform aneurysm of cerebral vessels is a rare pathology that presents with ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or mass effect.

Sophia R. Sharfstein; Elizabeth Wu



Fusiform aneurysms of the lenticulostriate artery.  


Lenticulostriate artery aneurysms are rare, can be difficult to diagnoze, and when they rupture they are often associated with deep intraparenchymal hemorrhages. In particular, fusiform, dissecting aneurysms of a distal lenticulostriate artery are extremely rare. Typically, they are usually associated with underlying systemic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, moyamoya disease, and substance abuse. Given their usual small size and location, these aneurysms may be difficult to detect with angiography and can be challenging to treat with either endovascular or microsurgical techniques. We provide background information, review the existing treatment experiences reported in the literature, and present a discussion regarding the optimal management using an illustrative clinical vignette. Parent artery obliteration can be a safe and effective treatment in these rare aneurysms. PMID:24156904

Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Walcott, Brian P; Dunn, Ian F; Thiex, Ruth; Frerichs, Kai; Narang, Sanjeet; Friedlander, Robert M



Vertebrobasilar ischaemia presenting as recurrent isolated vertigo.  


Chronic recurrent isolated vertigo is an uncommon manifestation of vertebrobasilar ischaemia. We report a 43-year-old female with 12-month history of recurrent attacks of isolated vertigo who presented with acute pontine infarctions. Clinical examination and vestibular function testing showed bilateral vestibular hypofunction affecting the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals and right saccule. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated acute bilateral pontine infarcts and significant vertebrobasilar stenoses. The findings of recurrent isolated vertigo and bilateral vestibular hypofunction should not prevent a search for vertebrobasilar ischaemia, particularly in the presence of vascular risk factors. PMID:21492069

Lee, Will; Chen, Luke; Waterston, John



Association of cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm with ipsilateral vertebrobasilar aneurysm in two children: a segmental entity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  A combination of cervical and intradural aneurysm in children in the absence of systemic disorders has previously not been\\u000a reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  We report two boys with an identical combination of fusiform cervical internal carotid aneurysm and ipsilaterally located\\u000a vertebrobasilar aneurysm. They had no history of trauma, they did not display any personal or familial signs of systemic disease,\\u000a and the

S. Holmin; A. Ozanne; W. Y. Zhao; H. Alvarez; T. Krings; P. Lasjaunias



Stenting for vertebrobasilar dissection: a possible treatment option for nonhemorrhagic vertebrobasilar dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It has been reported that stent placement may improve compromised blood flow resulting from vertebrobasilar dissection. In\\u000a this study the technical feasibility, safety, as well as short-term outcome of stent placement for the treatment of nonhemorrhagic\\u000a vertebrobasilar dissection was retrospectively investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten patients (eight men, two women; age range 36 to 45 years) with nonhemorrhagic vertebrobasilar dissection were treated\\u000a by stenting.

Yong Sam Shin; Ho Sung Kim; Sun Yong Kim



Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients' outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

Kamper, Lars, E-mail:; Meyn, Hannes [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Nordmeyer, Simone [St. Josef-Hospital Oberhausen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Germany); Kempkes, Udo; Piroth, Werner [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Isenmann, Stefan [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Neurology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Haage, Patrick [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany)



Interesting basis of vertebrobasilar arterial territory  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrobasilar arterial territory nourishes one-quarter of human brain. It constitutes some vital and strategic parts of the central nervous system. Methods A number of keywords (vertebral, basilar, artery, and territory) were searched in MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed) as well as Google, ProQuest, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct online databases. Only articles containing all keywords were included. We also reviewed archives of libraries in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran) for all anatomy, embryology, neurology, and neuroscience books and journals about vertebrobasilar arterial territories. Results The vertebrobasilar arterial (VA) system has a high incidence of variations, anomalies, and persistent fetal vessels. Two important anatomic facts explain why VA origin lesions seldom cause chronic hemodynamically significant low flow to the vertebrobasilar system. First, the VAs are paired vessels that unite to form a single basilar artery. Second, the extracranial VA gives off numerous muscular and other branches as it ascends in the neck. Thus, in the VA system, there is much more potential for development of adequate collateral circulation. Even when there is bilateral occlusion of the VAs at their origins, patients do not often develop posterior circulation infarcts. Conclusion VA origin disease is more benign than ICA origin disease from hemodynamic aspect. This important point could make influence in therapeutic interventional decisions in asymptomatic VA origin stenosis.

Ghandehari, Kosar



Local intraarterial fibrinolysis in acute vertebrobasilar occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local intraarterial fibrinolytic therapy (LIF) in patients with acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (AVBO) is a rational and if successful a life saving treatment. The recent progress in this field is determined by the use of microcatheters for superselective basilar artery catheterisation and a “short time, highdose” regimen using 750.000 IU Urokinase in not more than two h. Two out of 7

H. Zeumer; H.-J. Freitag; U. Grzyska; H.-P. Neunzig



Differential Expression of Pine and Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme Genes in Fusiform Rust Galls  

PubMed Central

Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme is the causative agent of fusiform rust disease of southern pines in the United States. This disease is characterized by the formation of woody branch and stem galls. Differential display was used to identify pine genes whose expression is altered by C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme infection and to identify C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme genes that are expressed in fusiform rust galls. Six pine cDNAs that appeared to be differentially expressed in galled and healthy stems and 13 C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cDNAs expressed in galled tissues were identified. A probe that hybridizes specifically to C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme 18S rRNA was used to estimate that 14% of the total RNA in fusiform rust galls was from C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. This finding was used to calibrate gene expression levels in galls when comparing them to expression levels in uninfected pines or in isolated C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cultures. According to Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, all six of the pine clones were expressed at lower levels in galls than in healthy tissues. Seven of the nine C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme clones that were assayed were expressed at higher levels in galls than in axenic culture. A number of the cDNAs encode proteins that are similar to those that play roles in plant development, plant defense, or fungal stress responses.

Warren, Jaimie M.; Covert, Sarah F.



Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in 16 patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD). Five patients had compressive cranial nerve deficits and 11 patients presented with transient or permanent ischemic deficits related to the vertebrobasilar system. VBD did not present with distinct clinical findings and no clear correlation between basilar artery ectasia and the presence of

Franz T. Aichner; Stephan R. Felber; Günther G. Birbamer; Andrea Posch



Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.



Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.



Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented.

Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio



Vertebrobasilar ischemia after cervical spine manipulation: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe most serious accidents after cervical spine manipulation are vertebrobasilar ischemia. Their incidence is underestimated. Their risk of apparition is lower if the contraindications are respected and if they are realised according to suitable practice.

D. Tinel; E. Bliznakova; C. Juhel; P. Gallien; R. Brissot



Tortuous vertebrobasilar system: A cause of cranial nerve signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation of the vertebrobasilar system into the cerebellopontine angle may cause abnormalities of the cranial nerves. The diagnosis may be suspected at pneumoencephalography or with posterior fossa pantopaque studies and be confirmed by vertebral angiography.

C. W. Kerber; M. t. Margolis; T. H. Newton



Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar arteries as a cause of hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar artery is a condition in which the vertebral/basilar artery is elongated, distended and tortuous. It is usually asymptomatic. It may present with compressive or ischemic symptoms. Hydrocephalus as a complication of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with dolichoectasia of the basilar artery causing compression of the third ventricular outflow and, thus, presenting with noncommunicating hydrocephalus.

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Dange, Nitin; Kukreja, Sanjay



Endovascular Management of Fusiform Superior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms: A Series of Three Cases with Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Distal superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms are rare. Fusiform aneurysms of SCA are rarer and more challenging to treat. Parent artery occlusion by endovascular coiling is the treatment option for these cases. Presence of good collateral circulation and paucity of perforators from S1 and S2 segments makes this a feasible option. From 2007 to 2010, we treated three patients (two men and one woman between the ages of 42 to 64 years) with distal fusiform SCA aneurysms using endovascular coiling. All the patients presented with symptoms of rupture and were treated in the acute phase. Informed and written high-risk consent was given by all patients prior to the procedure. Successful angiographic and clinical outcome was achieved in all three patients. Endovascular treatment of fusiform SCA aneurysms with coils is a safe and feasible option in the management of this rare entity.

Alurkar, Anand; Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha P.; Nayak, Suresh; Oak, Sagar



Magnetic resonance imaging of vertebrobasilar ectasia in trigeminal neuralgia.  


Vertebrobasilar ectasia is a rare cause of typical trigeminal neualgia. In a recently published large series only thirty-one (2%) of 1404 consecutive patients with vascularly determined neuralgia were found to have vertebrobasilar compression. We present three patients with trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar ectasia, who were evaluated with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI studies provided accurate information on the anatomical location and course of the ectatic vessel in the cerebellopontine angle and the caused mass effect on the brainstem. With gadolinium-enhancement vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was demonstrated clearly. Surgery confirmed compression of the fifth nerve by an ectatic and tortuous vertebrobasilar artery in two cases. Following microvascular decompression neither patient experienced further pain. The third patient was treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, as he developed occlusive hydrocephalus caused by the vertebrobasilar dolicho-ectasia. MRI is useful in the evaluation of trigeminal neuralgia as it excludes other aetiologies such as tumour or arteriovenous malformation, but also demonstrates cranial nerve compression by ectatic vertebral arteries. PMID:8980732

Kirsch, E; Hausmann, O; Kaim, A; Gratzl, O; Steinbrich, W; Radü, E W



Vascular geometry of vertebrobasilar tree with and without aneurysm.  


Aim To examine a possible relationship between the variable vascular geometry of vertebrobasilar joint angle and basilar bifurcation angle as well as the diameters of these blood vessels. Methods The study included 60 adult patients, of both sexes, who were divided into two groups. One group (30) consisted of patients without aneurysm of vertebrobasilar tree, and another group (30) of patients with aneurysm. The patients were examined using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) of head and neck. Results In the group without aneurysm of vertebrobasilar tree, in 14 (46.6%) patients diameters of the right and the left vertebral artery were approximately the same. The average value of the angle of junctions of vertebral arteries was 65.43°, and the average angle of basilar bifurcation was around 94.53°. In the group with aneurysm of vertebrobasilar tree, in 12 (40%) patients diameters of the right and the left vertebral artery were also approximately the same. The average angle of junction of vertebral arteries was 68.46ş, and the average angle of basilar bifurcation was 121.93ş. Conclusion Anatomic variations of the vertebrobasilar joint angle and basilar bifurcation angle, as well as the diameters of these blood vessels, are some of the factors in the increase of the incidence of aneurysm in this anatomic area. Key words: vertebral artery, basilar artery, anatomy. PMID:25082236

Efendi?, Alma; Isakovi?, Eldar; Deli?, Jasmin; Mehinovi?, Anel; Hrusti?, Asmir



Transcranial Doppler validation of hemodynamic vertebrobasilar insufficiency diagnosis.  


Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be useful in the diagnosis and validation of surgical treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). A case is reported in which TCD confirmed the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and validated the indication of surgery by detecting a bidirectional flow in a stenotic and compressed vertebral artery. In the postoperative period and at late follow-up TCD demonstrated a restored antegrade flow, as a consequence of a well functioning revascularization. Surgical indication of VBI is rare and TCD can be proposed as part of routine patients' study before a surgical decision is taken. PMID:9177624

Illuminati, G; Caliň, F G; Bertagni, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V



Ruptured eardrum  


Tympanic membrane perforation; Eardrum - ruptured or perforated; Perforated eardrum ... Buttaravoli P, Leffler SM. Perforated tympanic membrane (ruptured eardrum). ... Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 37. Kerschner JE. Otitis ...


[Recurrence of a giant fusiform aneurysm after neck clipping: case report].  


The patient was a 71-year-old female. On December 20, 1995, she suddenly developed a severe headache with vomiting and was transferred to our hospital. On admission, her conciousness level was 1-2 on the Japan Coma Scale, but there was no neurological deficit except for right oculomotor palsy. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage which had permeated the right lateral ventricle. On cerebral angiography, a giant fusiform aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery was recognized. During the emergency operation, neither neck clipping nor carotid reconstruction was possible because of the tight adhesion of the aneurysm to the peripheral tissue. On account of this, proximal clipping of the carotid artery with external carotid-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with saphenous vein graft was selected. This patient had had an episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage owing to rupture of the right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm ten years earlier. At that time, the aneurysmal neck was clipped with a slight residual neck and she left the hospital on foot. Five days later, when the aneurysm was found to be completely thrombosed on CT scan, antiplatelet therapy was started. Although low density areas which corresponded to the regions fed by the right anterior choroidal artery were presented, re-rupture did not occur. Follow-up angiography showed that the aneurysm was completely thrombosed and that the right middle cerebral and the anterior cerebral artery blood was circulated via the vein graft. Among recurrent cases of aneurysm after neck clipping, it is unusual for a giant fusiform aneurysm to be recognized. The growth may have been caused by sclerotic change of the arterial wall. Oculomotor palsy may have delayed the detection of the recurrence of the aneurysm. When residual neck is presented on follow-up angiography, the next angiography should be carried out within at least three years. In this case, antiplatelet therapy was effective to prevent thromboembolism from the aneurysm. PMID:8934889

Iwamuro, Y; Miyake, H; Ito, T; Kumai, J; Kuroda, T; Sugino, T



[Studies on the chemical components from Sargassum fusiform].  


Three compounds have been isolated from Sargassum fusiform collected from nanao island. Based on the spectral data and elemental analysis, they were identified as 2,4-dihydroxy-2,6-trimethyl-delta 1,alpha-cyclohexaneacetic-r-lactone, saringosterol and cedrol. PMID:11668740

Xu, S; Cen, Y; Cai, L; Li, Y; Xu, S



Face processing without awareness in the right fusiform gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated brain activity evoked by faces which were not consciously perceived by subjects. Subdural electrophysiological recordings and functional neuroimaging studies have each demonstrated face-specific processing in the fusiform gyrus (FFG) of humans. Using pattern masks, a stimulus can be presented but not consciously perceived, and thus can be used to assay obligatory or automatic processes. Here, using event-related functional

James P. Morris; Kevin A. Pelphrey; Gregory McCarthy



Face-Specific Processing in the Human Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of faces is sometimes regarded as a specialized task involving discrete brain regions. In an attempt to identi$ face-specific cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation evoked by faces presented in a continuously changing montage of common objects or in a similar montage of nonobjects. Bilateral regions of the posterior fusiform gyrus were activated

Gregory McCarthy; Aina Puce; John C. Gore; Truett Allison



Hemodynamic Phenomena in Fusiform Aneurysms - I: Steady Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure and flow distributions are reported at different steady flows for four latex fusiform aneurysm models. The accuracy of results by pitot-static techniques is examined in terms of experimental evidence and theoretical considerations. Results indicate that pressure distributions are associated with the Reynolds number, the degree of wall divergence and the degree of dilation of the sac, and that these

Michael Kai-Ming Tam; Julius Melbin; David H. Knight



Hemodynamic Phenomena in Fusiform Aneurysms-II: Pulsatile Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure and flow distributions are reported at different pulsatile flows for four latex fusiform aneurysm models. The accuracy of results by Pitot-static techniques is examined in terms of experimental evidence and theoretical considerations. Pressure distributions within the aneurysm are associated with the Reynolds number, the degree of wall divergence, and the degree of sac dilation, and these parameters are interactive.

Michael Kai-Ming Tam; Julius Melbin; David H. Knight



Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar compression.  


Thirty-one (2%) of 1404 consecutive patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia who underwent microvascular decompression between 1972 and 1993 were found to have vascular compression by the vertebral artery (VA) or the basilar artery (BA). Compared to the remaining 1373 patients, this subgroup was older (mean age 62 vs. 55 years, p < 0.001), was predominantly male (68% vs. 39%, p < 0.002), demonstrated left-sided predominance (65% vs. 39%, p < 0.002), was more likely to be hypertensive (65% vs. 18%, p < 0.001), and was more likely to have ipsilateral hemifacial spasm (16% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001). The trigeminal nerve was compressed by the VA in 18 cases (the VA alone in three and the VA plus other vessels in 15), the BA in 12 cases (the BA alone in four and the BA plus other vessels in eight), and the vertebrobasilar junction in one case. Twenty-nine of the 31 patients underwent vascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve, one had a complete trigeminal root section, and one underwent partial root section with vascular decompression of the remaining nerve. All 31 patients were pain-free, off medication immediately after surgery, and this pain-free, medication-free status was maintained at 1 year after surgery in 96% of cases, at 3 years in 92%, and at 10 years in 86%, based on life-table analysis. Minor trigeminal hypesthesia/hypalgesia was present preoperatively in 52%. New or worsened minor hypesthesia/hypalgesia developed in 41% of patients, while transient diplopia as well as hearing loss developed in 23% and 13% in the overall series, respectively. No patient developed major trigeminal sensory loss or masseter weakness after vascular decompression alone. There was no operative mortality. Vascular decompression is an effective treatment for patients with trigeminal neuralgia who have vertebrobasilar compression of the trigeminal nerve. Patients should be warned that decompression of a tortuous vertebrobasilar system carries a higher risk of mild trigeminal dysfunction, diplopia, and hearing loss than standard microvascular decompression. PMID:8207508

Linskey, M E; Jho, H D; Jannetta, P J



Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze.

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdogan



Processing of facial emotion in the human fusiform gyrus.  


Electrophysiological and fMRI-based investigations of the ventral temporal cortex of primates provide strong support for regional specialization for the processing of faces. These responses are most frequently found in or near the fusiform gyrus, but there is substantial variability in their anatomical location and response properties. An outstanding question is the extent to which ventral temporal cortex participates in processing dynamic, expressive aspects of faces, a function usually attributed to regions near the superior temporal cortex. Here, we investigated these issues through intracranial recordings from eight human surgical patients. We compared several different aspects of face processing (static and dynamic faces; happy, neutral, and fearful expressions) with power in the high-gamma band (70-150 Hz) from a spectral analysis. Detailed mapping of the response characteristics as a function of anatomical location was conducted in relation to the gyral and sulcal pattern on each patient's brain. The results document responses with high responsiveness for static or dynamic faces, often showing abrupt changes in response properties between spatially close recording sites and idiosyncratic across different subjects. Notably, strong responses to dynamic facial expressions can be found in the fusiform gyrus, just as can responses to static faces. The findings suggest a more complex, fragmented architecture of ventral temporal cortex around the fusiform gyrus, one that includes focal regions of cortex that appear relatively specialized for either static or dynamic aspects of faces. PMID:22185494

Kawasaki, Hiroto; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Kovach, Christopher K; Nourski, Kirill V; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Adolphs, Ralph



Cuneus and fusiform cortices thickness is reduced in trigeminal neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain disorders are presumed to induce changes in brain grey and white matters. Few studies have focused CNS alterations in trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods The aim of this study was to explore changes in white matter microstructure in TN subjects using diffusion tensor images (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS); and cortical thickness changes with surface based morphometry. Twenty-four patients with classical TN (37-67 y-o) and 24 healthy controls, matched for age and sex, were included in the study. Results Comparing patients with controls, no diffusivity abnormalities of brain white matter were detected. However, a significant reduction in cortical thickness was observed at the left cuneus and left fusiform cortex in the patients group. The thickness of the fusiform cortex correlated negatively with the carbamazepine dose (p?=?0.023). Conclusions Since the cuneus and the fusiform gyrus have been related to the multisensory integration area and cognitive processing, as well as the retrieval of shock perception conveyed by A? fibers, our results support the role of these areas in TN pathogenesis. Whether such changes occurs as an epiphenomenon secondary to daily stimulation or represent a structural predisposition to TN in the light of peripheral vascular compression is a matter of future studies.



Processing of Facial Emotion in the Human Fusiform Gyrus  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological and fMRI-based investigations of the ventral temporal cortex of primates provide strong support for regional specialization for the processing of faces. These responses are most frequently found in or near the fusiform gyrus, but there is substantial variability in their anatomical location and response properties. An outstanding question is the extent to which ventral temporal cortex participates in processing dynamic, expressive aspects of faces, a function usually attributed to regions near the superior temporal cortex. Here, we investigated these issues through intracranial recordings from eight human surgical patients. We compared several different aspects of face processing (static and dynamic faces; happy, neutral, and fearful expressions) with power in the high-gamma band (70–150 Hz) from a spectral analysis. Detailed mapping of the response characteristics as a function of anatomical location was conducted in relation to the gyral and sulcal pattern on each patient’s brain. The results document responses with high responsiveness for static or dynamic faces, often showing abrupt changes in response properties between spatially close recording sites and idiosyncratic across different subjects. Notably, strong responses to dynamic facial expressions can be found in the fusiform gyrus, just as can responses to static faces. The findings suggest a more complex, fragmented architecture of ventral temporal cortex around the fusiform gyrus, one that includes focal regions of cortex that appear relatively specialized for either static or dynamic aspects of faces.

Kawasaki, Hiroto; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Kovach, Christopher K.; Nourski, Kirill V.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A.; Adolphs, Ralph



Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Associated with Vertebrobasilar Artery  

PubMed Central

Objective Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is considered as a reversible pathophysiological condition mainly induced by continuous vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) at the cerebellopontine angle. As an offending vessel, vertebrobasilar artery tends to compress much more heavily than others. The authors analyzed HFS caused by vertebrobasilar artery and described the relationships between microsurgical findings and clinical courses. Methods Out of 1,798 cases treated with microvascular decompression (MVD) from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2004, the causative vessels were either vertebral artery or basilar artery in 87 patients. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, computed tomography (CT) or brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 3-dimentional short range MR technique was performed and CT was checked immediately or 2-3 days after anesthetic recovery. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, the compression patterns of the vessels at the time of surgery and treatment outcomes. Results There were 47 were male and 32 female patients. HFS developed on the left side in 52 cases and on the right side in 27. The mean age of onset was 52.3 years (range 19-60) and the mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years. Many patients (39 cases; 49.1%) had past history of hypertension. HFS caused only by the vertebral artery was 8 cases although most of the other cases were caused by vertebral artery (VA) in combination with its branching arteries. Most frequently, the VA and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were the simultaneous causative blood vessels comprising 32 cases (40.5%), and in 27 cases (34.2%) the VA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were the offenders. Facial symptoms disappeared in 61 cases (77.2%) immediately after the operation and 68 cases (86.1%) showed good outcome after 6 months. Surgical outcome just after the operation was poor in whom the perforators arose from the offending vessels concurrently (p<0.05). Conclusion In case where the vertebral artery is a cause of HFS, commonly branching arteries associated with main arterial compression on facial REZ requires more definite treatment for proper decompression because of its relatively poor results compared to the condition caused by other vascular compressive origins.

Kim, Joo Pyung; Choi, Seok Keun; Rhee, Bong Arm; Lim, Young Jin



Mid-fusiform Activation during Object Discrimination Reflects the Process of Differentiating Structural Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored constraints on mid-fusiform activation during object discrimination. In three experiments, participants performed a matching task on simple line configurations, nameable objects, three dimensional (3-D) shapes, and colors. Significant bilateral mid-fusiform activation emerged when participants matched objects and 3-D shapes, as compared to when they matched two-dimensional (2-D) line configurations and colors, indicating that the mid-fusiform is

Xun Liu; Nicholas A. Steinmetz; Alison B. Farley; Charles D. Smith; Jane E. Joseph



Treatment of a Sequential Giant Fusiform Aneurysm of the Basilar Trunk  

PubMed Central

We report an exceptional case of a de novo giant fusiform aneurysm of the basilar trunk, which developed shortly after the therapeutic occlusion of the right internal carotid artery for a fusiform carotid aneurysm. It would appear to be appropriate to call this entity a sequential giant fusiform aneurysm. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular occlusion of the giant basilar trunk aneurysm following bypass surgery.

Kang, Hyun-Seung; Oh, Chang-Wan; Byun, Hong Sik; Han, Dae Hee



[Treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency with flunarizine (author's transl)].  


Vertigo, buzzing in the ear and other brain stem symptoms are often complained of in connection with disturbed blood supply in elderly patients. These can be objectified by means of an electronystagmography (ENG). In vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI), a large number of central pathological ENG findings are determinable in the sense of a general deviation of the parameters. In a pilot study using clinical and apparative otoneurological methods, we systematically examined the labyrinth-depressive effect of a new substance, flunarizine, a further development of cinnarizine. 20 patients (14 men and 6 women, average age 59.8 years) with the cardinal symptom "vertigo" and one or more further symptoms of VBI were examined over a period of 8 weeks. In all cases, the dose was 20 mg/d. An otoneurological examination and questioning were carried out before starting the therapy, after 4 and 8 weeks. Symptoms such as vertigo, otoneurological and vegetative symptoms, vision disorders, other cerebral nerve failures, etc., were recorded and scaled. The objective examination methods at the assessment intervals were ENG, EEG and Doppler sonograph. In 17 of the 20 patients examined, the symptoms of VBI improved considerably, which was objectified by simultaneous normalisation of the ENG findings. 6 patients described their condition after treatment as very good, 9 as good and 2 as satisfactory. Flunarizine proved to be an effective and applicable drug in vertigo of vascular origin in elderly patients. PMID:7192120

Hofferberth, B



Vertebrobasilar occlusion presenting as sudden isolated bilateral sensorineural hearing loss: case report.  


Isolated bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia, primarily due to occlusion of the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries or their branch, the internal auditory artery. We reported on uncommon case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss without typical neurological symptoms resulting from vertebrobasilar ischemia. We performed the available examinations, including otoscopy, laboratory tests, and pure tone audiogram, however we were not able to identify the cause of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance image showed the cerebellar infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. Brain magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral vertebral and basilar artery occlusion. We suggest vertebrobasilar ischemia as a cause of sudden isolated deafness. PMID:24167804

Kim, Eunja; Son, Min-Ki; Kang, Chang-Ki; Lee, Yeong-Bae



Surgical aspects of fusiform and saccular extracranial carotid artery aneurysms.  


The purpose of this paper is to analyse surgical aspects of aneurysms of the distal extracranial internal carotid artery. Nine cases of extracranial carotid artery aneurysm are reported. Five were fusiform, located at the carotid bifurcation, and four were saccular, confined to the internal carotid artery. An end-to-end plication technique and Dacron patch angioplasty were employed for all fusiform aneurysms. In three saccular lesions, resection and 4-mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft interposition were carried out. In one case with a high lesion, ligation of the carotid artery was performed. Ligation resulted in severe postoperative stroke and fatal outcome. One patient with a saccular lesion developed a transient ischaemic attack after the operation. In other patients no central neurological deficit was produced by the surgery itself. Transient cranial nerve damage occurred in four patients (two hypoglossal nerve: two superior laryngeal nerve). As demonstrated by these cases, synthetic material may be used in restoration of the carotid artery. It is concluded that, according to type, location of the aneurysm and adequacy of contralateral cerebral blood flow, selective management is necessary. PMID:9212206

Miksi?, K; Flis, V; Kosir, G; Pavlovic, M; Tetickovic, E



Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy


The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A region in the lateral aspect of the fusiform gyrus (FG) is more engaged by human faces than any other category of image. It has come to be known as the ' fusiform face area' (FFA). The origin and extent of this specialization is currently a topic of great interest and debate. This is of special relevance to autism, because

Robert T. Schultz; David J. Grelotti; Ami Klin; Jamie Kleinman; Christiaan Van der Gaag; R. Marois; P. Skudlarski



Integrated Approach Toward Reducing Losses from Fusiform Rust in Merchantable Slash and Loblolly Pine Plantations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the selective thinning of trees will rust galls as a means of reducing losses to the fusiform rust (Cronarium quercuum(Berk.) Miyabe ex Shiral f. sp. fusiforme) disease in merchantable slash (Pinus ellio...

R. P. Belanger T. Miller S. J. Zarnoch S. W. Fraedrich J. F. Godbee



Cerebral infarction in both carotid and vertebrobasilar territories associated with a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with severe dilated cardiomyopathy.  


A persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a relatively rare vascular anomaly of a persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis. A 76-year-old man with severe dilated cardiomyopathy suddenly lost consciousness. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed extensive infarction in the carotid and vertebrobasilar territories. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a PPHA and occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and vertebrobasilar artery. Cardioembolic infarction associated with a PPHA should be recognized as a possible cause of multiple infarctions in both the carotid and vertebrobasilar distributions in the absence of stenotic ICA lesions. PMID:22959108

Kawano, Hiroyuki; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Yonehara, Toshiro



Percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting in acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke. Report of two cases.  


Summary: Reports of cerebral transluminal angioplasty and stenting in patients with vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke are scanty. Herein we report on the use of "monorail" coronary balloon angioplasty and stent balloon mounted catheters in two patients with acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke, focussing on the differences and possible advantages of the "monorail" technique in comparison with the "over-the-wire" technique. In both patients, the clinical picture was characterized by progressive brainstem symptoms followed by acute loss of consciousness related to an atherothrombotic occlusion and subocclusion of the dominant intracranial vertebral artery, respectively. In one patient, superselective thrombolytic therapy and balloon angioplasty resulted in a dissection flap at the vertebrobasilar junction. The latter was treated by successful deployment of a coronary stent. In the other patient, the subocclusive lesion was directly treated by angioplasty and stenting without thrombolytic therapy. The clinical outcome was poor for one patient ("locked in" syndrome) while the other had a complete clinical recovery. In acute atherothrombotic vertebrobasilar stroke transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting may be successfully performed allowing vessel recanalization. PMID:20594522

Nistri, M; Mangiafico, S; Cellerini, M; Villa, G; Mennonna, P; Ammannati, F; Giordano, G P



Doppler Ultrasonography of the Vertebrobasilar Circulation in Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still unclear and is most probably diverse. Objective: To determine the relationship between vertebrobasilar circulation and hearing in patients with SSNHL treated with pentoxifylline. Design: Case-control study of 32 consecutive patients with SSNHL. Methods: Patients with onset of SSNHL within 72 hours were treated with pentoxifylline infusions for 10 days.

Marko Grgi?; Vlado Petric; Marija Pastorci? Grgi?; Vida Demarin; Boris Pegan



Vertebrobasilar dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective study of 29 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed initial diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome in 29 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to non-traumatic vertebrobasilar artery dissection diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2003. The dissections occurred in the vertebral artery in 19 patients, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in two patients, the basilar artery in four patients, and in the vertebral artery

B Ramgren; M Cronqvist; B Romner; L Brandt; S Holtĺs; E-M Larsson



Usefulness of Grasping a Guiding Catheter with a Loop-Snare Wire for Stent Placement into the Vertebrobasilar Artery  

SciTech Connect

In cases in which the subclavian artery is severely tortuous or branches with an extremely angulated origin, stent placement in the vertebrobasilar artery on the approach from the femoral artery is often technically difficult. We report two cases in which a stent placement procedure for the vertebrobasilar artery was successfully performed by grasping a guiding catheter with a loop-snare wire. This technique is useful for tortuous arteries or arteries branching with an extremely angulated origin.

Yoneda, Kenji, E-mail:; Matsui, Osamu; Sanada, Junichiro; Kusanagi, Miho [Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Kida, Shinya [Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan)



Intermixed structure of voxels with different hemispheric characteristics in the fusiform face area.  


The fusiform face area, a high-level visual area, is pivotal in processing facial information. This area receives inputs from the left and right visual fields unlike the primary visual area, which only receives inputs from its contralateral visual field. Response of the fusiform face area to ipsilateral stimulation depends on the signals crossing over at the corpus callosum. We investigated the distribution of voxel-wise activation to determine whether ipsilateral-dominant voxels exist in the fusiform face area using high spatial resolution functional MRI at 7 T. We further examined the possible functional differences between ipsilateral-dominant and contralateral-dominant voxels. By unilateral visual field stimulation, we detected ipsilateral-dominant voxels in the right fusiform face area. Their distribution was spatially heterogeneous. We tested upright and inverted facial stimulation confined to unilateral visual fields and found that these ipsilateral-dominant voxels had a different functional nature from contralateral-dominant voxels. PMID:23222657

Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Choi, Sang-Han; Kim, Nambeom; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee; Ogawa, Seiji



Priming for letters and pseudoletters in mid-fusiform cortex: examining letter selectivity and case invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of research indicates a critical role for the left mid-fusiform cortex in reading, however, the extent to which\\u000a this area is dedicated exclusively to the processing of words and letters has been debated. Two questions regarding left mid-fusiform\\u000a function are critical to this debate: (1) Are letters stored preferentially compared to visually equivalent non-letters (letter\\u000a selectivity)? (2)

E. Darcy Burgund; Yi Guo; Elyse L. Aurbach



Altered fusiform connectivity during processing of fearful faces in social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with hyper-reactivity in limbic brain regions like the amygdala, both during symptom provocation and emotional face processing tasks. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we sought to examine brain regions implicated in emotional face processing, and the connectivity between them, in patients with SAD (n=14) compared with healthy controls (n=12). We furthermore aimed to relate brain reactivity and connectivity to self-reported social anxiety symptom severity. SAD patients exhibited hyper-reactivity in the bilateral fusiform gyrus in response to fearful faces, as well as greater connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and decreased connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Within the SAD group, social anxiety severity correlated positively with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, amygdala-fusiform connectivity and connectivity between the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus (STS). These findings point to a pivotal role for the fusiform gyrus in SAD neuropathology, and further suggest that altered amygdala-fusiform and amygdala-STS connectivity could underlie previous findings of aberrant socio-emotional information processing in this anxiety disorder.

Frick, A; Howner, K; Fischer, H; Kristiansson, M; Furmark, T



Orthographic transparency modulates the functional asymmetry in the fusiform cortex: An artificial language training study  

PubMed Central

The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained subjects to read the same artificial script either as an alphabetic (i.e., transparent orthography) or a logographic (i.e., nontransparent orthography) language. Consistent with our previous results, both types of phonological training enhanced activations in the left fusiform gyrus. More interestingly, the laterality in the fusiform gyrus (especially the posterior region) was modulated by the orthographic transparency of the artificial script (more left-lateralized activation after alphabetic training than after logographic training). These results provide an alternative account (i.e., orthographic transparency) for the laterality difference between Chinese and alphabetic languages, and may have important implications for the role of the fusiform in reading.

MEI, Leilei; XUE, Gui; LU, Zhong-Lin; HE, Qinghua; ZHANG, Mingxia; XUE, Feng; CHEN, Chuansheng; DONG, Qi



The fusiform response to faces: explicit versus implicit processing of emotion.  


Regions of the fusiform gyrus (FG) respond preferentially to faces over other classes of visual stimuli. It remains unclear whether emotional face information modulates FG activity. In the present study, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was obtained from fifteen healthy adults who viewed emotionally expressive faces and made button responses based upon emotion (explicit condition) or age (implicit condition). Dipole source modeling produced source waveforms for left and right primary visual and left and right fusiform areas. Stronger left FG activity (M170) to fearful than happy or neutral faces was observed only in the explicit task, suggesting that directed attention to the emotional content of faces facilitates observation of M170 valence modulation. A strong association between M170 FG activity and reaction times in the explicit task provided additional evidence for a role of the fusiform gyrus in processing emotional information. PMID:21932258

Monroe, Justin F; Griffin, Mark; Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Roberts, Timothy P L; Christopher Edgar, J



Hemodynamic Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar System Analyzed Using MRI-Based Models  

PubMed Central

The vertebrobasilar system (VBS) is unique in human anatomy in that two arteries merge into a single vessel, and it is especially important because it supplies the posterior circulation of the brain. Atherosclerosis develops in this region, and atherosclerotic plaques in the vertebrobasilar confluence can progress with catastrophic consequences, including artery occlusion. Quantitative assessments of the flow characteristics in the VBS could elucidate the factors that influence flow patterns in this confluence, and deviations from normal patterns might then be used to predict locations to monitor for potential pathological changes, to detect early signs of disease, and to evaluate treatment options and efficacy. In this study, high-field MRI was used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the hemodynamics of subject-specific confluence models (n?=?5) and to identify different geometrical classes of vertebrobasilar systems (n?=?12) of healthy adult subjects. The curvature of the vessels and their mutual orientation significantly affected flow parameters in the VBS. The basilar artery geometry strongly influenced both skewing of the velocity profiles and the wall shear stress distributions in the VBS. All five subjects modeled possessed varying degrees of vertebral asymmetry, and helical flow was observed in four cases, suggesting that factors other than vertebral asymmetry influence mixing of the vertebral artery flow contributions. These preliminary studies verify that quantitative, MR imaging techniques in conjunction with subject-specific CFD models of healthy adult subjects may be used to characterize VBS hemodynamics and to predict flow features that have been related to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis in large arteries. This work represents an important first step towards applying this approach to study disease initiation and progression in the VBS.

Wake-Buck, Amanda K.; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.



Deposition of fusiform crystals without apparent diurnal rhythm at the growing edge of septa of the coral Galaxea fascicularis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies suggest a diurnal periodicity in the deposition of fusiform crystals by scleractinian corals. In order to check whether this is universally true in the Scleractinia, the surface structure of skeletons of Galaxea fascicularis (L.), collected at 3 h intervals over 1 day was observed with a scanning electron microscope. Fusiform crystals 0.3 3 ?m wide and 0.5 5 ?m long were found on the growing edges of septa of polyps collected at different times of day. There was no apparent diurnal change in the mean diameter of fusiform crystals. The size distributions of these crystals were almost the same by day (1200 h) and at night (2400 h). Small fusiform crystals which appeared to have been newly deposited were observed on septa collected both during the day and at night. The present study suggests that fusiform crystals are deposited continuously with no diurnal rhythm in G. fascicularis.

Hidaka, Michio



Incidence of Fusiform Rust Infection on Loblolly Pine Related to Tip Moth Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium que...

H. R. Powers D. M. Stone



Clinical Results of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Atherosclerotic Stenoses and Occlusions  

PubMed Central

Summary Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebrobasilar stenosis and occlusion were treated by PTA or stenting. In 11 of 18 cases, only PTA was performed and in seven of 18 cases, we used stents. The mean stenosis before and after PTA/stenting was 82.8% and 22.3%, respectively. In 11 cases of PTA only, the stenotic rate decreased from 81.8% to 29.6%, while 85.0% of the stenotic rate remarkably reduced to 6.0% in seven cases of stenting. The 30 days morbidity and 30 days mortality rate were 5.5% and 5.5%, respectively. There was only one haemorrhagic complication (cerebellar haemorrhage) in cases of stenting, and no ischemic events during or after the procedures. Restenosis (more than 50% stenosis) occurred in four of 18 cases(22.2%) during mean follow-up period of 12 months. Two patients with VA occlusion before treatment, developed restenosis and reocclusion. Complete total occlusion seems to be a high-risk lesion and strict follow-up is required. In this study, PTA/stenting for intracranial vertebrobasilar artery stenosis or occlusion is an effective treatment, but strict indications may be required because procedure-related 30 days morbidity rate was 5.5% in addition to unclear natural history.

Tsuura, M.; Terada, T.; Masuo, O.; Tsumoto, T.; Yamaga, H.; Itakura, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Hyoutani, G.; Hayashi, S.



Treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency--associated vertigo with a fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate.  


Thirty-seven patients suffering from vertigo associated with vertebrobasilar insufficiency participated in our prospective, single-center, double-blind, comparative study. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with placebo; betahistine (12 mg betahistine dimesylate, one tablet three times daily); or the fixed combination of 20 mg cinnarizine and 40 mg dimenhydrinate (one tablet three times daily) for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the decrease of the mean vertigo score (S(M)), which was based on the patients' assessments of 12 individual vertigo symptoms after 4 weeks of treatment. Patients treated with the fixed combination showed significantly greater reductions of S(M) as compared to patients receiving placebo (p < .001) or the reference therapy betahistine (p < .01). The vestibulospinal parameter lateral sway (Unterberger's test) improved to a significantly greater extent in patients taking the fixed combination as compared to those receiving placebo (p < .001). No serious adverse event was reported in any therapy group. The tolerability of the fixed combination was judged as very good or good by 91% (betahistine, 73%; placebo, 82%). In conclusion, the fixed combination proved to be statistically more effective than the common antivertiginous drug betahistine in reducing vertebrobasilar insufficiency-associated vertigo symptoms. PMID:18616088

Otto, Volker; Fischer, Bernhard; Schwarz, Mario; Baumann, Wolfgang; Preibisch-Effenberger, Rudolf



Acoustic over-exposure triggers burst firing in dorsal cochlear nucleus fusiform cells  

PubMed Central

Acoustic over-exposure (AOE) triggers deafness in animals and humans and provokes auditory nerve degeneration. Weeks after exposure there is an increase in the cellular excitability within the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and this is considered as a possible neural correlate of tinnitus. The origin of this DCN hyperactivity phenomenon is still unknown but it is associated with neurons lying within the fusiform cell layer. Here we investigated changes of excitability within identified fusiform cells following AOE. Wistar rats were exposed to a loud (110 dB SPL) single tone (14.8 kHz) for 4 h. Auditory brainstem response recordings performed 3–4 days after AOE showed that the hearing thresholds were significantly elevated by about 20–30 dB SPL for frequencies above 15 kHz. Control fusiform cells fired with a regular firing pattern as assessed by the coefficient of variation of the inter-spike interval distribution of 0.19 ± 0.11 (n = 5). Three to four days after AOE, 40% of fusiform cells exhibited irregular bursting discharge patterns (coefficient of variation of the inter-spike interval distribution of 1.8 ± 0.6, n = 5; p < 0.05). Additionally the maximal firing following step current injections was reduced in these cells (from 83 ± 11 Hz, n = 5 in unexposed condition to 43 ± 6 Hz, n = 5 after AOE) and this was accompanied by an increased firing gain (from 0.09 ± 0.01 Hz/pA, n = 5 in unexposed condition to 0.56 ± 0.25 Hz/pA, n = 5 after AOE). Current and voltage clamp recordings suggest that the presence of bursts in fusiform cells is related to a down regulation of high voltage activated potassium currents. In conclusion we showed that AOE triggers deafness at early stages and this is correlated with profound changes in the firing pattern and frequency of the DCN major output fusiform cells. The changes here described could represent the initial network imbalance prior to the emergence of tinnitus.

Pilati, Nadia; Large, Charles; Forsythe, Ian D.; Hamann, Martine



[Calcium blockers in the therapy of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Results of animal experiments and clinical studies].  


Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a clinical syndrome which includes different transient brain stem symptoms. In addition to anamnesis and clinical study electronystagmography (ENG) is regarded as the most important method for testing the labyrinthine and brain stem system. Typical findings, not only in patients with VBI, but also in animal experiments (occlusion of one vertebral artery) are an increase in nystagmus frequency and decrease in nystagmus amplitude. The present study concerns two calcium antagonists: flunarizine and nimodipine. During tests on patients the caloric and the rotatory nystagmus and during animal experiments the rotatory nystagmus was investigated. Patient tests as well as animal experiments showed, that flunarizine and nimodipine have a depressant influence on the pathologically increased nystagmus frequency. With both substances there was also a trend to normalization of nystagmus amplitude as well as an improvement of clinical symptoms. PMID:6383990

Hofferberth, B



Preliminary studies on the chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of acidic polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme *  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S. fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 were isolated by the column of DEAE (2-diethylaminoethanol)-Sepharose Fast Flow, with their molecular weights of 51.4 and 30.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). They were preliminarily characterized using chemical analysis in combination of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and found to contain large amounts of uronic acids and ?-glycosidical linkages. The antioxidant activities of these two SFPS fractions were evaluated using superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the antioxidant ability of SFPS-2 was higher than that of SFPS-1, probably correlating with the molecular weight and uronic acid content.

Zhou, Jing; Hu, Nan; Wu, Ya-lin; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Sun, Cui-rong



Effects of low-spatial frequency components of fearful faces on fusiform cortex activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotive faces elicit neural responses even when they are not consciously perceived. We used faces hybridized from spatial frequency-filtered individual stimuli to study processing of facial emotion. Employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show enhanced fusiform cortex responses to hybrid faces containing fearful expressions when such emotional cues are present in the low-spatial frequency (LSF) range. Critically, this

Joel S. Winston; Patrik Vuilleumier; Raymond J. Dolan



Elevated Fusiform Cell Activity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of Chinchillas with Psychophysical Evidence of Tinnitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinchillas with psychophysical evidence of chronic tinnitus were shown to have significantly elevated spontaneous activity and stimulus-evoked responses in putative fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nuclei (DCN). Chinchillas were psychophysi- cally trained and tested before and after exposure to a trau- matic unilateral 80 dB (sound pressure level) 4 kHz tone. Before exposure, two groups were matched in terms

T. J. Brozoski; C. A. Bauer; D. M. Caspary



The fusiform face area subserves face perception, not generic within-category identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the fusiform face area (FFA), a face-selective region in human extrastriate cortex, is a matter of active debate. Here we measured the correlation between FFA activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral outcomes in perceptual tasks to determine the role of the FFA in the detection and within-category identification of faces and objects. Our

Nicholas Knouf; Nancy Kanwisher; Kalanit Grill-Spector



Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme  

PubMed Central

A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters.

Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng



Robust and Task-Independent Spatial Profile of the Visual Word Form Activation in Fusiform Cortex  

PubMed Central

Written language represents a special category of visual information. There is strong evidence for the existence of a cortical region in ventral occipitotemporal cortex for processing the visual form of written words. However, due to inconsistent findings obtained with different tasks, the level of specialization and selectivity of this so called visual word form area (VWFA) remains debated. In this study, we examined category selectivity for Chinese characters, a non-alphabetic script, in native Chinese readers. In contrast to traditional approaches of examining response levels in a restricted predefined region of interest (ROI), a detailed distribution of the BOLD signal across the mid-fusiform cortical surface and the spatial patterns of responses to Chinese characters were obtained. Results show that a region tuned for Chinese characters could be consistently found in the lateral part of the left fusiform gyrus in Chinese readers, and this spatial pattern of selectivity for written words was not influenced by top-down tasks such as phonological or semantic modulations. These results provide strong support for the robust spatial coding of category selective response in the mid-fusiform cortex, and demonstrate the utility of the spatial distribution analysis as a more meaningful approach to examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.

Bai, Jian'e; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Haicheng; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu



Learning affective values for faces is expressed in amygdala and fusiform gyrus  

PubMed Central

To monitor the environment for social threat humans must build affective evaluations of others. These evaluations are malleable and to a high degree shaped by responses engendered by specific social encounters. The precise neuronal mechanism by which these evaluations are constructed is poorly understood. We tested a hypothesis that conjoint activity in amygdala and fusiform gyrus would correlate with acquisition of social stimulus value. We tested this using a reinforcement learning algorithm, Q-learning, that assigned values to faces as a function of a history of pairing, or not pairing, with aversive shocks. Behaviourally, we observed a correlation between conditioning induced changes in skin conductance response (SCR) and subjective ratings for likeability of faces. Activity in both amygdala and fusiform gyrus (FG) correlated with the output of the reinforcement learning algorithm parameterized by these ratings. In amygdala, this effect was greater for averted than direct gaze faces. Furthermore, learning-related activity change in these regions correlated with SCR and subjective ratings. We conclude that amygdala and fusiform encode affective value in a manner that closely approximates a standard computational solution to learning.

Kalisch, Raffael; Pessiglione, Mathias; Singer, Tania; Dolan, Raymond J.



The orthography-specific functions of the left fusiform gyrus: Evidence of modality and category specificity  

PubMed Central

We report on an investigation of the cognitive functions of an individual with a resection of the left fusiform gyrus. This individual and a group of control participants underwent testing to examine the question of whether or not there are neural substrates within the left fusiform gyrus that are dedicated to orthographic processing. We evaluated the modality specificity (written vs. spoken language) and the category specificity (written language vs. other visual categories) of this individual’s impairments. The results clearly reveal deficits affecting lexical processes in both reading and spelling. Specifically, we find disruption of normal, rapid access to meaning from print in reading and of accurate retrieval of the spellings of words from their meaning in writing. These deficits stand in striking contrast with intact processing of spoken language and categories of visual stimuli such as line drawings of objects and faces. The modality and category specificity of the deficits provide clear evidence of neural substrates within the left mid-fusiform gyrus that are specialized and necessary for normal orthographic processing.

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Rapp, Brenda



Multivoxel Patterns in Fusiform Face Area Differentiate Faces by Sex and Race  

PubMed Central

Although prior research suggests that fusiform gyrus represents the sex and race of faces, it remains unclear whether fusiform face area (FFA)–the portion of fusiform gyrus that is functionally-defined by its preferential response to faces–contains such representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate whether FFA represents faces by sex and race. Participants were scanned while they categorized the sex and race of unfamiliar Black men, Black women, White men, and White women. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that multivoxel patterns in FFA–but not other face-selective brain regions, other category-selective brain regions, or early visual cortex–differentiated faces by sex and race. Specifically, patterns of voxel-based responses were more similar between individuals of the same sex than between men and women, and between individuals of the same race than between Black and White individuals. By showing that FFA represents the sex and race of faces, this research contributes to our emerging understanding of how the human brain perceives individuals from two fundamental social categories.

Contreras, Juan Manuel; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Mitchell, Jason P.



Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Cd˛? biosorption by the brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.  


A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng



Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts (RICDC) is a rare phenomenon. The mechanism of rupture, pathophysiology of fat in the\\u000a ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, possible complications, and proper management of such conditions are proposed on the basis\\u000a of a review of the literature and experience with two cases of ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts (One was in the pineal\\u000a region, while another

K. El-Bahy; A. Kotb; A. Galal; A. EL-Hakim



Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  


Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R



Right fusiform response patterns reflect visual object identity rather than semantic similarity.  


We previously reported the neuropsychological consequences of a lesion confined to the middle and posterior part of the right fusiform gyrus (case JA) causing a partial loss of knowledge of visual attributes of concrete entities in the absence of category-selectivity (animate versus inanimate). We interpreted this in the context of a two-step model that distinguishes structural description knowledge from associative-semantic processing and implicated the lesioned area in the former process. To test this hypothesis in the intact brain, multi-voxel pattern analysis was used in a series of event-related fMRI studies in a total of 46 healthy subjects. We predicted that activity patterns in this region would be determined by the identity of rather than the conceptual similarity between concrete entities. In a prior behavioral experiment features were generated for each entity by more than 1000 subjects. Based on a hierarchical clustering analysis the entities were organised into 3 semantic clusters (musical instruments, vehicles, tools). Entities were presented as words or pictures. With foveal presentation of pictures, cosine similarity between fMRI response patterns in right fusiform cortex appeared to reflect both the identity of and the semantic similarity between the entities. No such effects were found for words in this region. The effect of object identity was invariant for location, scaling, orientation axis and color (grayscale versus color). It also persisted for different exemplars referring to a same concrete entity. The apparent semantic similarity effect however was not invariant. This study provides further support for a neurobiological distinction between structural description knowledge and processing of semantic relationships and confirms the role of right mid-posterior fusiform cortex in the former process, in accordance with previous lesion evidence. PMID:23811413

Bruffaerts, Rose; Dupont, Patrick; De Grauwe, Sophie; Peeters, Ronald; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Vandenberghe, Rik



A combined approach to treatment of the dissecting middle cerebral artery fusiform aneurysm. A case report.  


Summary: A fusiform aneurysm in the terminal M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) segment was treated by a construction of a high-flow arterial extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Due to severe bypass vasospasms, local vasodilating agents together with percutaneous angioplasty and stent implantation were applied, but failed due to subsequent bypass occlusion. To remedy this complication a new bypass was created from a segment of the saphenous vein, followed by MCA aneurysm embolization and parent artery occlusion. One year after the surgery, the venous bypass remains patent and the aneurysm occluded, with the patient fully active, without any neurological sequelae. PMID:20465920

Hrbác, T; Drábek, P; Klement, P; Procházka, V



A Combined Approach to Treatment of the Dissecting Middle Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Summary A fusiform aneurysm in the terminal M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) segment was treated by a construction of a high-flow arterial extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Due to severe bypass vasospasms, local vasodilating agents together with percutaneous angioplasty and stent implantation were applied, but failed due to subsequent bypass occlusion. To remedy this complication a new bypass was created from a segment of the saphenous vein, followed by MCA aneurysm embolization and parent artery occlusion. One year after the surgery, the venous bypass remains patent and the aneurysm occluded, with the patient fully active, without any neurological sequelae.

Hrbac, T.; Drabek, P.; Klement, P.; Prochazka, V.



Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described.

Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.



Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIntracranial dermoid cysts are rare congenital neoplasms that are believed to arise from ectopic cell rests incorporated in the closing neural tube. The rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a relatively rare event that typically occurs spontaneously. In the past it was believed that rupture is always fatal, a hypothesis that is not supported by more recently reported cases.

Ruediger Stendel; Terttu Aulikki Pietilä; Kerstin Lehmann; Ralf Kurth; Olaf Suess; Mario Brock



The Contribution of the Left Mid-fusiform Cortical Thickness to Chinese and English Reading in a Large Chinese Sample  

PubMed Central

Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a critical role in reading. However, there is very limited research relating this region’s anatomical structure to reading performance either in native or second language. Using structural MRI and three reading tasks (Chinese characters, English words, and alphabetic pseudowords) and a non-reading task (visual-auditory learning), this study investigated the contributions of the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness to reading in a large sample of 226 Chinese subjects. Results showed that cortical thickness in the left mid-fusiform gyrus was positively correlated with performance on all three reading tasks but not with the performance on the non-reading task. Our findings provide structural evidence for the left mid-fusiform cortex as the “gateway” region for reading Chinese and English. The absence of the association between the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness and non-reading performance implied the specific role of this area in reading skills, not in general language skills.

Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jin; Chen, Chuansheng; Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi



Evaluation of vertebrobasilar artery changes in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  


The aim of this study was to investigate vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) lesions in elderly patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) by magnetic resonance angiography. VBA lesions in patients older than 65 years of age with BPPV were prospectively investigated by magnetic resonance angiography. Vascular risk factors, blood vessel changes, and vertigo severity were recorded. Age-matched individuals without BPPV were included in the control group. Of 126 patients screened for this study, 104 were included. Relevant comorbidities included diabetes (12 patients), hypertension (23 patients), and dyslipidemia (20 patients). Findings included left or right vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion (22 patients, 21.2%), VA tortuosity (25 patients, 24.0%), VA dominance (20 patients, 19.2%), basilar artery (BA) stenosis or occlusion (nine patients, 8.6%), and BA tortuosity (12 patients, 11.5%). These abnormal vessels differed between BPPV patients and the control group (all P<0.05). The severity of Vertigo did not differ between the abnormal VA and abnormal BA groups (P>0.05), but did differ between the normal group and the abnormal VA or BA group (P<0.05). Vertigo severity correlated with VA stenosis or occlusion, VA dominance, and unilateral or bilateral VA tortuosity. VBA tortuosity and VA dominance were common in BPPV patients and may contribute toward BPPV. PMID:23903461

Zhang, Daopei; Zhang, Shuling; Zhang, Hongtao; Xu, Yuming; Fu, Shengqi; Yu, Meng; Ji, Peng



The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception.  


Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found an area in the fusiform gyrus in 12 of the 15 subjects tested that was significantly more active when the subjects viewed faces than when they viewed assorted common objects. This face activation was used to define a specific region of interest individually for each subject, within which several new tests of face specificity were run. In each of five subjects tested, the predefined candidate "face area" also responded significantly more strongly to passive viewing of (1) intact than scrambled two-tone faces, (2) full front-view face photos than front-view photos of houses, and (in a different set of five subjects) (3) three-quarter-view face photos (with hair concealed) than photos of human hands; it also responded more strongly during (4) a consecutive matching task performed on three-quarter-view faces versus hands. Our technique of running multiple tests applied to the same region defined functionally within individual subjects provides a solution to two common problems in functional imaging: (1) the requirement to correct for multiple statistical comparisons and (2) the inevitable ambiguity in the interpretation of any study in which only two or three conditions are compared. Our data allow us to reject alternative accounts of the function of the fusiform face area (area "FF") that appeal to visual attention, subordinate-level classification, or general processing of any animate or human forms, demonstrating that this region is selectively involved in the perception of faces. PMID:9151747

Kanwisher, N; McDermott, J; Chun, M M



Preliminary studies on the chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of acidic polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme.  


In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S. fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 were isolated by the column of DEAE (2-diethylaminoethanol)-Sepharose Fast Flow, with their molecular weights of 51.4 and 30.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). They were preliminarily characterized using chemical analysis in combination of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and found to contain large amounts of uronic acids and beta-glycosidical linkages. The antioxidant activities of these two SFPS fractions were evaluated using superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the antioxidant ability of SFPS-2 was higher than that of SFPS-1, probably correlating with the molecular weight and uronic acid content. PMID:18763305

Zhou, Jing; Hu, Nan; Wu, Ya-lin; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Sun, Cui-rong



Effects of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides on antioxidant activities and intestinal functions in mice.  


Sargassum fusiforme is a kind of brown algae that has been widely consumed not only as food, but also as herbal medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities and intestinal functions of polysaccharides extracted from S. fusiforme (SFP) in normal and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice. The experiment was performed on six groups of ICR mice, which treated with cyclophosphamide (CY, 200 mg/kg) or different dosages of SFP for 14 days. The results showed that administration of SFP was able to overcome the immunosuppression, and significantly increased the spleen index and antioxidant activities in mice (P<0.05). It also remarkably improved the numbers of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and goblet cells in immunosuppressed mice (P<0.05). For normal mice, SFP increased both thymus index and intestinal function parameters such as villus length/crypt depth ratio and intestinal IELs and goblet cells (P<0.05). The results suggested that SFP, possessing pronounced antioxidant activities, may play an important role in the improvement of intestinal function in mice. This might be one of the possible mechanisms of SFP for the immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23567289

Wang, Wei; Lu, Jia-Bin; Wang, Cai; Wang, Cai-Sheng; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Cai-Yan; Qian, Guo-Ying



Hemispheric asymmetry in the fusiform gyrus distinguishes Homo sapiens from chimpanzees.  


While the neural basis for linguistic communication has been linked to brain structural asymmetries found only in humans (wider connective spacing is found between the minicolumns of neurons in the left hemisphere language areas), it is unknown if the opposite microanatomical asymmetry exists in the fusiform gyrus which typically supports a right hemisphere bias for face processing. Unlike language, face processing is an ability shared with chimpanzees and, as Darwin observed, the widespread use of facial expressions in animal communication suggests a biological basis. We tested the principle that minicolumn asymmetry follows typical functional dominance in humans, and tested its evolutionary continuity, by measuring minicolumn width, neuronal size and density in the mid-fusiform cortex in 14 humans and 14 chimpanzees. We found that microanatomical asymmetry distinguishes humans from chimpanzees although the direction of asymmetry is the same as in language areas-the right hemisphere contained narrower minicolumns and smaller pyramidal neurons, as in auditory language areas. Uniformly narrow minicolumns in chimpanzees and in the human right hemisphere are consistent with mechanistic predictions supporting the apparent bias towards holistic face processing. Wider minicolumns and larger neurons in the human left hemisphere may be consistent with a language function such as word-form processing. Microanatomical asymmetry in the neocortex therefore provides a correlate of hemispheric specialisation. PMID:23108793

Chance, Steven A; Sawyer, Eva K; Clover, Linda M; Wicinski, Bridget; Hof, Patrick R; Crow, Timothy J



[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].  


Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751

Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras



Partial Rotator Cuff Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Partial rotator cuff ruptures are not rare and occur mainly in the supraspinatus tendon and may extend to that of infraspinatus,\\u000a but rarely to the tendon of subscapularis. Isolated lesions in the tendons of infraspinatus, teres minor or subscapularis\\u000a are rare. Partial ruptures usually occur before the sixth decade of life and can be a cause of unexplained pain in

Antonio Cartucho


Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

Li Jian, E-mail:; Zhao Zhenwei, E-mail:; Gao Guodong, E-mail:; Deng Jianping [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Team of Neurovascular Angioplasty, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology and Neurosurgery (China); Yu Jia [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurology (China); Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology (China)



Impaired Face Discrimination in Acquired Prosopagnosia Is Associated with Abnormal Response to Individual Faces in the Right Middle Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The middle fusiform gyrus (MFG) and the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) are activated by both detection and identification of faces. Paradoxically, patients with acquired prosopagnosia following lesions to either of these regions in the right hemisphere cannot identify faces, but can still detect faces. Here we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during face processing in a patient presenting

Christine Schiltz; Bettina Sorger; Roberto Caldara; Fatima Ahmed; Eugene Mayer; Rainer Goebel; Bruno Rossion



Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.  


A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended. PMID:24119627

Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki



The Evaluation of Vertebrobasilar Artery System in Neuro-Behçet and Behçet Disease using Magnetic Resonance Angiography.  


The aim of this study is the evaluation of the vertebrobasilar artery system in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. For this aim; 20 adults with clinically diagnosed Behcet's disease, 20 adults with Neuro-Behçet's disease, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). During MRA, diameters of left vertebral artery (LVA), right vertebral artery (RVA), basilar artery (BA), and proximal segment (P1) of posterior cerebral artery between origin and junction with the posterior communicating artery were measured. In all groups, LVA was dominant than RVA (P?vertebrobasilar artery system should be examined in patients with Behçet's and Neuro-Behçet's disease. Anat Rec, 297:1302-1305, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24737739

Kose, Evren; Kamisli, Suat; Dogan, Metin; Tasolar, Sevgi; Kahraman, Ay?egül; Oztanir, Mustafa Namik; Sener, Serpil



Incomplete Cesarean Scar Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine rupture at the site of a previous cesarean scar is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of pregnancy, which is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation A 30-year old woman at 24th week of gestation and complaint of pain, contractions and spotting was admitted in Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran. She had a past medical history of an EP and a cesarean section delivery, respectively 4 and 2 years before hospitalization. Herniation of an amniotic membrane into the maternal bladder was found on ultrasound examination. Conclusion Risk factors of cesarean scar rupture should be considered in women undergoing subsequent pregnancies as they need extra care. Ultrasonography can be used to evaluate women with previous cesarean section to assess the risks of scar rupture during subsequent pregnancies.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz



[Indirect traumatic diaphragmatic rupture].  


Between 1969 and 1988 51 polytraumatized patients were treated for rupture of the diaphragm due to blunt trauma. In 39 cases the lesion was in the left hemidiaphragm, in 11 cases on the right side and in one case on both sides. Clinical investigation and posterior-anterior chest X-ray were the most important diagnostic procedures. A high percentage of ruptures was only detected intraoperatively during acute laparotomy/thoracotomy. Early or delayed surgery had no influence on the survival of patients. The prognosis depends on the severity of associated injuries, which are the main causes of death in these patients. PMID:1858376

Holzberger, P; Königsrainer, A; Tauscher, T; Müller, L; Thöni, H



Splenic abscess rupture postappendicectomy  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of splenic abscess rupture postappendicectomy. Splenic abscess is rare with a reported incidence of 0.05%–0.7%. It is extremely unusual for a splenic abscess to result in splenic rupture. Contiguous spread, in this case from postappendix perforation, can cause splenic abscess formation. Postemergency splenectomy, the patient required admission to intensive therapy unit for 5 days but made a good postoperative recovery. This case is important to report as this is a rare postoperative complication of generalised peritonitis and this case highlights that astute diagnosis and management of the deteriorating surgical patient and rapid mobilisation of theatre are lifesaving.

Patel, Roshani; Pai, Aakash; Al-Shoek, Ihsan; Evans, Charles; Gordon, Andrew



Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography and risk of stroke and death: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective: There are only limited epidemiological studies evaluating the association between vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) and outcomes. This study was designed to elucidate the outcome and prognosis of adults diagnosed with VBD by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and to ascertain if these outcomes were independent of known vascular risk factors. Methods: A cohort study was designed to compare VBD cases identified retrospectively from a computerised database of MRA reports with age and sex matched controls evaluated after a 4–7 year period, and 1440 MRA reports were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were age ?18 years and a radiological diagnosis of VBD. Patients were excluded if there was haemodynamically significant stenosis or occlusion of the posterior circulation. Data were obtained by medical record review and telephone questionnaires. The primary outcome measure was transient or fixed posterior circulation dysfunction (PCD), with a secondary outcome measure of all cause mortality. Results: Sixty four VBD cases were obtained, and 19 cases (30%) were excluded due to refusal and/or insufficient follow up data. From the same computerised database, 45 controls were selected by consecutive sampling. The mean age at follow up was 73.4 years for VBD cases and 73.1 years for controls, with a median follow up period of 64 months. VBD was associated with fixed/transient PCD (p = 0.0001; estimated adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 20.6 and confidence interval (CI) of 4.4 to 95.3), and with all cause mortality (OR = 3.6 CI 1.3 to10.3); (p = 0.018). VBD cases had 36% mortality, with 50% occurring within 34 months of the initial diagnosis. The VBD cumulative survival curve was statistically different from the controls (p = 0.012 by Mantel-Cox log rank test). Conclusions: This study suggests that VBD may be an independent risk factor for stroke. VBD cases had an increased likelihood for PCD, all cause mortality, and reduced cumulative survival independent of other vascular risk factors in this cohort. Larger population based prospective studies are required to verify these results.

Ubogu, E; Zaidat, O



Premature Rupture of Membranes  

PubMed Central

The management of premature rupture of the amniotic membranes before 37 weeks gestation remains controversial. The authors of this article outline the risks involved for the fetus, define the various terms related, and discuss the antepartum and intrapartum management of such an event and offer a protocol that they have developed.

Akierman, Albert; Iwanicki, Stanislaw



Dolichoectasia of the circle of Willis arteries and fusiform aneurysm of basilar artery - case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Dolichoectasia of intracranial arteries is a rare arteriopathy characterized by elongation and widening of the arteries and disturbance of the laminar blood flow. It involves mostly vertebral and basilar arteries. In advanced cases, formation of a fusiform aneurysm is possible. Case Report: A sixty-four-year-old female with hypertension was admitted to the hospital with severe non-systemic vertigo and dysarthria, which had lasted for a couple of weeks. Imaging of the brain revealed dolichoectasia of arteries of the circle of Willis coexisting with a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery. Conclusions: Intracranial arterial dolichoectasia may be asymptomatic for a long time. However, in many cases it leads to neurological symptoms associated with haemodynamic disturbance (due to unstable wall clots) and mass effect caused by the widened vessel.

Baran, Boguslawa; Kornafel, Olga; Guzinski, Maciej; Sasiadek, Marek



Structure and biological activities of an alginate from Sargassum fusiforme, and its sulfated derivative.  


An alginate fraction, 04S2P, was isolated from the brown seaweed Sargassum fusiforme and was structurally characterized by the ratio (M/G) of ?-d-mannuronic acid residues (M) to ?-l-guluronic acid residues (G) via (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. When compared to commercial alginate (Alg) and alginates from other brown algae, 04S2P has a higher M/G ratio of 9.0:1.0 as determined by a modified high-performance liquid chromatography method after pre-column derivatization with PMP. Furthermore, the sulfated polysaccharides 04S2P-S and Alg-S were prepared by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. Both C-2 and/or C-3 of M and G residues of 04S2P-S were substituted by sulfate groups, with C-3 of M residues preferentially substituted. Their effects on tube formation of HMEC-1 cells were examined, and the results indicated that the sulfated Alg, Alg-S, exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic effect on HMEC-1 cells. The anti-tumor activity of native and sulfated alginates was tested on five different tumor cell lines. Alg-S demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects on the Bel7402, SMMC7721, and HT-29 cell lines, whereas 04S2P-S showed a distinct anti-tumor effect only on the Bel7402 cell line. PMID:24877643

Cong, Qifei; Xiao, Fei; Liao, Wenfeng; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan



Structural investigation and immunological activity of a heteropolysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme.  


A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the brown alga, Sargassum fusiforme. The heteropolysaccharide was estimated to have a molecular weight of 11kDa and showed [?]D(20) -62.2420 (c 0.05, H2O). SFPS65-B comprised galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, and galacturonic acid at a ratio of 3.04:1:1.15:2.82:6.51. Its structural features were investigated using composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-Q-TOF MS spectroscopy. Results showed that SFPS65-B contained the backbone of ?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Hexp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Fucp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?. The sulfated unit and terminal fucose residues were attached onto the backbone through the O-2 of some galactose residues. Results also showed that SFPS65-B had a good effect on thymus and spleen indices at a dose of 100mg/kg upon immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. PMID:24685576

Hu, Pei; Xue, Rui; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Jiang, Jian; Huang, Chenggang



Why is the Fusiform Face Area recruited for novel categories of expertise?: A neurocomputational investigation  

PubMed Central

What is the role of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Is it specific to face processing, or is it a visual expertise area? The expertise hypothesis is appealing due to a number of studies showing that the FFA is activated by pictures of objects within the subject’s domain of expertise (e.g., cars for car experts, birds for birders, etc.), and that activation of the FFA increases as new expertise is acquired in the lab. However, it is incumbent upon the proponents of the expertise hypothesis to explain how it is that an area that is initially specialized for faces becomes recruited for new classes of stimuli. We dub this the “visual expertise mystery.” One suggested answer to this mystery is that the FFA is used simply because it is a fine discrimination area, but this account has historically lacked a mechanism describing exactly how the FFA would be recruited for novel domains of expertise. In this study, we show that a neurocomputational model trained to perform subordinate-level discrimination within a visually homogeneous class develops transformations that magnify differences between similar objects, in marked contrast to networks trained to simply categorize the objects. This magnification generalizes to novel classes, leading to faster learning of new discriminations. We suggest this is why the FFA is recruited for new expertise. The model predicts that individual FFA neurons will have highly variable responses to stimuli within expertise domains.

Joyce, Carrie A.; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.



Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area  

PubMed Central

It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex.

Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A.; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun



Endovascular Stenting for Restenosis of the Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Artery After Balloon Angioplasty: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) has been used in the treatment of critical stenosis of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA). PTA of the intracranial VBA carries the risk of fatal complications such as arterial dissection or acute occlusion as well as postoperative restenosis. The estimated risk of periprocedural complications and restenosis were approximately 20% and 27%. The use of recently developed stents could prevent these problems of PTA. We present two cases of restenosis of the intracranial VBA after PTA which stenoses were successfully retreated with endovascular stenting using flexible coronary stents without any complications. Neither restenosis nor other recurrent symptoms were observed during the 4- and 6-month follow-up period. Reviewing the literature of 33 cases and our 2 cases, the overall complication rates related to stenting and restenosis were 5.6% and 7.8%. Endovascular stenting for the treatment of intracranial VBA can reduce the risk of arterial dissection and restenosis.

Kiyosue, Hiro, E-mail:; Okahara, Mika [Department of Radiology, Nagatomi Neurosurgical Hospital, Oita Medical University, 3-2, Omichi-machi (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori; Nagatomi, Hirofumi [Neurosurgery, Nagatomi Neurosurgical Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Natsuki [Shinbeppu Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Japan); Mori, Hiromu [Oita Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Distal biceps tendon rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a rupture of the distal tendon of biceps brachii in a 42-year-old athlete. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the injury. Early surgical repair was performed by reinsertion of the tendon on the radial tuberosity according to modified Boyd-Anderson technique. Indomethacin was administered prophylactically. No complications were noted. At the latest follow-up, the patient had full elbow range of

Olga D. Savvidou; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos; Andreas F. Mavrogenis; Antonios A. Partsinevelos; Evangelos J. Karadimas; Demetrios S. Korres



Electron Tomography of Fusiform Vesicles and Their Organization in Urothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The formation of fusiform vesicles (FVs) is one of the most distinctive features in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. FVs represent compartments for intracellular transport of urothelial plaques, which modulate the surface area of the superficial urothelial (umbrella) cells during the distension-contraction cycle. We have analysed the three-dimensional (3D) structure of FVs and their organization in umbrella cells of mouse urinary bladders. Compared to chemical fixation, high pressure freezing gave a new insight into the ultrastructure of urothelial cells. Electron tomography on serial sections revealed that mature FVs had a shape of flattened discs, with a diameter of up to 1.2 µm. The lumen between the two opposing asymmetrically thickened membranes was very narrow, ranging from 5 nm to 10 nm. Freeze-fracturing and immunolabelling confirmed that FVs contain two opposing urothelial plaques connected by a hinge region that made an omega shaped curvature. In the central cytoplasm, 4–15 FVs were often organized into stacks. In the subapical cytoplasm, FVs were mainly organized as individual vesicles. Distension-contraction cycles did not affect the shape of mature FVs; however, their orientation changed from parallel in distended to perpendicular in contracted bladder with respect to the apical plasma membrane. In the intermediate cells, shorter and more dilated immature FVs were present. The salient outcome from this research is the first comprehensive, high resolution 3D view of the ultrastructure of FVs and how they are organized differently depending on their location in the cytoplasm of umbrella cells. The shape of mature FVs and their organization into tightly packed stacks makes them a perfect storage compartment, which transports large amounts of urothelial plaques while occupying a small volume of umbrella cell cytoplasm.

Hudoklin, Samo; Jezernik, Kristijan; Neumuller, Josef; Pavelka, Margit; Romih, Rok



Face-Specific Resting Functional Connectivity between the Fusiform Gyrus and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus  

PubMed Central

Faces activate specific brain regions in fMRI, including the fusiform gyrus (FG) and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). The fact that the FG and pSTS are frequently co-activated suggests that they may interact synergistically in a distributed face processing network. Alternatively, the functions implemented by these regions may be encapsulated from each other. It has proven difficult to evaluate these two accounts during visual processing of face stimuli. However, if the FG and pSTS interact during face processing, the substrate for such interactions may be apparent in a correlation of the BOLD timeseries from these two regions during periods of rest when no faces are present. To examine face-specific resting correlations, we developed a new partial functional connectivity approach in which we removed variance from the FG that was shared with other category-selective and control regions. The remaining face-specific FG resting variance was then used to predict resting signals throughout the brain. In two experiments, we observed face-specific resting functional connectivity between FG and pSTS, and importantly, these correlations overlapped precisely with the face-specific pSTS region obtained from independent localizer runs. Additional region-of-interest and pattern analyses confirmed that the FG–pSTS resting correlations were face-specific. These findings support a model in which face processing is distributed among a finite number of connected, but nevertheless face-specialized regions. The discovery of category-specific interactions in the absence of visual input suggests that resting networks may provide a latent foundation for task processing.

Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Norman-Haignere, Samuel V.; McCarthy, Gregory



[Achilles tendon rupture].  


The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233

Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H



Blood vessel rupture by cavitation  

PubMed Central

Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture.

Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.



Predicting rupture arrests, rupture jumps and cascading earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastation inflicted by recent earthquakes demonstrates the danger of under-predicting the size of earthquakes. Unfortunately, earthquakes may rupture fault-sections larger than previously observed, making it essential to develop predictive rupture models. We present numerical models based on earthquake physics and fault zone data, that determine whether a rupture on a segmented fault could cascade and grow into a devastating, multisegment earthquake. We demonstrate that weakened (damaged) fault zones and bi-material interfaces promote rupture propagation and greatly increase the risk of cascading ruptures and triggered seismicity. This result provides a feasible explanation for the outstanding observation of a very large (10 km) rupture jump documented in theMW7.8 2001 Kunlun, China earthquake. However, enhanced inter-seismic deformation and energy dissipation at fault tips suppress rupture propagation and may turn even small discontinuities into effective earthquake barriers. By assessing fault stability, identifying rupture barriers and foreseeing multisegment earthquakes, we provide a tool to improve earthquake prediction and hazard analysis.

Finzi, Y.; Langer, S.



[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms].  


Eighty two aortic replacements of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms have been performed during the last 6 years. There were 72 male and 10 female patients, and the average age was 71.33 years. Hemorrhagic shock on the admission was observed in 45 patients, and 13 have been operated urgently without any diagnostic procedures. The transperitoneal approach have been used for the operation. Two aorto duodenal and one aorto caval fistulas, have been found. Only exploration (three patients died immediately after laparotomy and 6 after cross clamping) has been done in 9 cases, and the aortic replacement in 70 cases (27 with tubular, and 43 with bifurcated graft). In 3 cases and axillobifemoral bypass had to be done. During the operation eleven patients died, and 30 in postoperative period, during the period between one and 40 days. Total intrahospital mortality rate was 50%, compared with 3.5% for 250 electively operated patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms in same period. In postoperative period the most important cause of death was multiple organs failures. Statistically significant greater mortality rate (p > 0.01%) was found in cases of late operative treatment, hemorrhagic shock, intra-operational bleeding, ruptured front wall, suprarenal cross clamping and in patients older than 75 year. In complicated cases such as juxtarenal aneurysm, 3 sutures parachute technique for proximal anastomosis, a temporary transection of the left renal vein, and intraaortal balloon occlusive catheter for proximal bleeding control are recommended. PMID:10951761

Lotina, S I; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Stojanov, P L; Velimirovi?, D B; Djuki?, P L; Cinara, I S; Vojnovi?, B M; Savi?, D V


Ruptured Abdominal AorticAneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most urgent surgical conditions with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment. Patients and Methods: This study included 229 subsequent patients (83% males, 17% females, age 67.0 ± 7.5 years) with a ruptured abdominal aortic

Miroslav Markovi?; Lazar Davidovi?; Živan Maksimovi?; Dušan Kosti?; Ilijas ?inara; Slobodan Cvetkovi?; Radomir Sindjelic; Petar M. Seferovi?; Arsen D. Risti?



Plantar Fascia Ruptures in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To educate sports medicine practitioners as to length of time for an athlete to return to activity after sustaining a rupture of the plantar fascia.Methods: Athletic patients sustaining plantar fascia ruptures and subsequent treatment were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings, although radiographic studies were done. Patients were treated for 2 to 3 weeks with a below-knee or

Amol Saxena; Brian Fullem



Consequential rupture of gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the earlier part of the year 2003, various pipeline ruptures were caused by sabotage activities in the southern part of Pakistan. The event being presented in this paper was fascinating because a pipe, which was blasted with the help of explosives, subsequently caused another pipe (buried 20ft away) to rupture through slow and gradual consequential erosion. On 8 April

F. Hasan; J. Iqbal



Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  


In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten



Calcifications of Vertebrobasilar Arteries on CT: Detailed Distribution and Relation to Risk Factors in 245 Ischemic Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Intracranial atherosclerosis is responsible for a substantial proportion of strokes worldwide but its detailed morphology in the vertebrobasilar arteries (VBA) is unknown. Subject and Methods. Cases with ischemic strokes were retrospectively sought from the hospital database. Native CT scans were assessed for vessel area and intracranial artery calcifications (ICACs) in VBA. The calcifications were classified as focal (FCs), crescent, and circular. Results. 245 patients (mean age: 77.1 ± 10.2 years, 57.6% females) had visible ICACs. Calcifications were found in 75.9%, 63.3%, and 17.1% in the left vertebral artery (LVA), the right vertebral artery (RVA), and the basilar artery (BA), respectively. FCs were present in 91.0%, 90.3%, and 100.0%; crescents in 30.3%, 29.0%, and 7.1%, and circulars in 6.4%, 4.8%, and 0.0% of the RVA, LVA, and BA, respectively. FCs in dorsolateral quadrant were least prevalent in both vertebral arteries (VAs): 46 (29.8%) and 46 (27.4%) for RVA and LVA, respectively. Risk factors associated with vertical dispersion of ICACs were male gender (OR?:?2.69, 1.38–5.28) and diabetes (OR?:?2.28, 1.04–4.99). Conclusions. FCs in VAs are least prevalent in dorsolateral quadrants. The vertical dispersion of ICACs seems to be associated with the male gender and diabetes.

Magdic, Jozef; Hojs-Fabjan, Tanja



[The relationship of brainstem auditory evoked potential to cerebral blood flow volume in with vertebrobasilar transient ischemic vertigo].  


This study was aimed at the relationship of brain-stem auditory evoked potential(BAEP) with cerebral blood flow(CBF) volume and vascular pathological changes in patients with vertebro-basilar transient ischemic vertigo (VBTIV). 65 patients were examined by magnetic resonance angiography(MRA), transcranial Dopplar(TCD) and BAEP; 26 controls were examined by MRA and TCD. In the patient group, MRA showed that vascular pathological changes were obvious in 50 patients, and obscure or absent in 15 patients. The CBF volume [112.3-278.9 ml/min (2s)] of control group was higher than that (48.0-262.0 ml/min) of the patients group (t = 2.43, P < 0.01) in which 15 patients had low CBF volume and 50 patients had normal CBF volume. The BAEP of 47(72.3%) patients was abnormal. Out of 15 patients with low CBF volume, 14(93.3%) had abnormal BAEP, but out of 50 patients with normal CBF volume, only 33(66%) patients had abnormal BAED (chi 2 = 4.34, P < 0.05). In the 50 patients with obscure obvious vascular pathological changes, 40(80%) patients had abnormal BAEP, but in the 15 patients with obscure or without the changes, only 7(43.3%) patients had abnormal BAEP (chi 2 = 4.86, P < 0.05). These results suggested that there might be a close relationship of BAEP with CBF volume and vascular pathological changes. PMID:12501621

Tang, K; Chen, R; Cal, R; Zhou, J; Huang, J; Long, W; Mo, Z



Behavior of the Edible Seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to Copper Pollution: Short-Term Acclimation and Long-Term Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms.

Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng



Functional characterization and differential coactivation patterns of two cytoarchitectonic visual areas on the human posterior fusiform gyrus.  


The ventral stream of the human extrastriate visual cortex shows a considerable functional heterogeneity from early visual processing (posterior) to higher, domain-specific processing (anterior). The fusiform gyrus hosts several of those "high-level" functional areas. We recently found a subdivision of the posterior fusiform gyrus on the microstructural level, that is, two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas, FG1 and FG2 (Caspers et al., Brain Structure & Function, 2013). To gain a first insight in the function of these two areas, here we studied their behavioral involvement and coactivation patterns by means of meta-analytic connectivity modeling based on the BrainMap database (, using probabilistic maps of these areas as seed regions. The coactivation patterns of the areas support the concept of a common involvement in a core network subserving different cognitive tasks, that is, object recognition, visual language perception, or visual attention. In addition, the analysis supports the previous cytoarchitectonic parcellation, indicating that FG1 appears as a transitional area between early and higher visual cortex and FG2 as a higher-order one. The latter area is furthermore lateralized, as it shows strong relations to the visual language processing system in the left hemisphere, while its right side is stronger associated with face selective regions. These findings indicate that functional lateralization of area FG2 relies on a different pattern of connectivity rather than side-specific cytoarchitectonic features. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2754-2767, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24038902

Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B



A Case of Prosopometamorphopsia Restricted to the Nose and Mouth with Right Medial Temporooccipital Lobe Infarction that Included the Fusiform Face Area  

PubMed Central

Background Metamorphopsia includes a broad spectrum of visual perceptual distortions, such as alteration of perceived object size or, rarely, altered perception of faces, termed prosopometamorphopsia. Case Report This report describes a patient who complained of metamorphopsia restricted to the center of the face, particularly the lower part of the face (nose and mouth), following infarction of the right medial temporooccipital lobe that included the fusiform face area. Conclusions The fusiform face area is commonly believed to be a face-selective cortical region dedicated to the visual analysis of face stimuli. We speculate that any injury to this brain area could bring about prosopometamorphopsia involving whole or unilateral face perception, or very rarely, as in our case, distortion restricted to the central area of the face. Furthermore, there could be topographical correspondences between facial structures and the fusiform face area.

Hwang, Jung Yun; Cho, Eun Kyoung; Han, Jeong Ho; Lee, Seon Hwa; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kim, Doo Eung



The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces  

PubMed Central

Faces are among the most important visual stimuli we perceive, informing us not only about a person's identity, but also about their mood, sex, age and direction of gaze. The ability to extract this information within a fraction of a second of viewing a face is important for normal social interactions and has probably played a critical role in the survival of our primate ancestors. Considerable evidence from behavioural, neuropsychological and neurophysiological investigations supports the hypothesis that humans have specialized cognitive and neural mechanisms dedicated to the perception of faces (the face-specificity hypothesis). Here, we review the literature on a region of the human brain that appears to play a key role in face perception, known as the fusiform face area (FFA). Section 1 outlines the theoretical background for much of this work. The face-specificity hypothesis falls squarely on one side of a longstanding debate in the fields of cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience concerning the extent to which the mind/brain is composed of: (i) special-purpose (‘domain-specific’) mechanisms, each dedicated to processing a specific kind of information (e.g. faces, according to the face-specificity hypothesis), versus (ii) general-purpose (‘domain-general’) mechanisms, each capable of operating on any kind of information. Face perception has long served both as one of the prime candidates of a domain-specific process and as a key target for attack by proponents of domain-general theories of brain and mind. Section 2 briefly reviews the prior literature on face perception from behaviour and neurophysiology. This work supports the face-specificity hypothesis and argues against its domain-general alternatives (the individuation hypothesis, the expertise hypothesis and others). Section 3 outlines the more recent evidence on this debate from brain imaging, focusing particularly on the FFA. We review the evidence that the FFA is selectively engaged in face perception, by addressing (and rebutting) five of the most widely discussed alternatives to this hypothesis. In §4, we consider recent findings that are beginning to provide clues into the computations conducted in the FFA and the nature of the representations the FFA extracts from faces. We argue that the FFA is engaged both in detecting faces and in extracting the necessary perceptual information to recognize them, and that the properties of the FFA mirror previously identified behavioural signatures of face-specific processing (e.g. the face-inversion effect). Section 5 asks how the computations and representations in the FFA differ from those occurring in other nearby regions of cortex that respond strongly to faces and objects. The evidence indicates clear functional dissociations between these regions, demonstrating that the FFA shows not only functional specificity but also area specificity. We end by speculating in §6 on some of the broader questions raised by current research on the FFA, including the developmental origins of this region and the question of whether faces are unique versus whether similarly specialized mechanisms also exist for other domains of high-level perception and cognition.

Kanwisher, Nancy; Yovel, Galit



The ruptured PIP breast implant.  


Public concern erupted about the safety of Poly Implant Prothčse (PIP) breast implants when it was revealed in 2011 that they contained an inferior, unlicensed industrial-grade silicone associated with a high rate of rupture. There followed national guidance for UK clinicians, which led to a considerable increase in referrals of asymptomatic women for breast implant assessment. In this review we discuss possible approaches to screening the PIP cohort and the salient characteristics of a ruptured implant. PMID:23622796

Helyar, V; Burke, C; McWilliams, S



Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in fermented seaweed by-product groups were much higher than in non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, IgG concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than in control group (p<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that by-product dietary supplementation of BS, SF, FBS, and FSF in poultry may provide positive effects of growth performance and immune response.

Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.



Influence of stent-assisted angioplasty on cognitive function and affective disorder in elderly patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to investigate cognitive function and affective disorder in elderly patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis (SVAS) after stent-assisted angioplasty (SAA) and to explore the potential mechanism. Material/Methods The study subjects were 26 elderly SVAS patients who were non-responsive to pharmacotherapy and received SAA (study group) and 30 patients receiving intracoronary stent implantation (control group). Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), and Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA) were used. Results The total MoCA score, scores of line connection, copying cube, drawing clock, and delayed recall increased significantly in the study group after surgery (P<0.05, P<0.01). In addition, the MoCA score increased over time and the total MoCA score at 12 months was markedly higher than that at 1 month (P<0.05). The scores of HAMD and HAMA decreased dramatically after surgery compared with before surgery in these patients (P<0.01). A comparison at the corresponding period was performed between study group and control group, and it was found that the differences in total MoCA scores and scores of line connection, copying cube, drawing clock, and delayed recall before surgery and at 1 month after surgery were significant (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions SAA may improve the visuospatial/executive abilities and delayed recall, as well as the depression and anxiety in patients with SVAS. Larger and controlled trails are needed to investigate the effect of SAA on cognition and affection in these patients.

Yan, Yongxing; Liang, Lizhen; Yuan, Yanrong; Chen, Tao; Shen, Yonghui; Zhong, Changyang



Differential neuronal responses to the self and others in the extrastriate body area and the fusiform body area.  


The extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fusiform body area (FBA) are selectively activated by viewing human bodies. However, the role of these functionally defined brain areas in self-other discrimination is still unresolved. Thirty-one females were presented with 16 pictures of their own body and another body in a bikini and with scrambled images while fMRI was performed. Moreover, standardized stimulus material was used in order to localize the EBA and FBA. Region-of-interest analysis showed an enhanced BOLD response to the self-images relative to the non-self-images in the right EBA and FBA. The right EBA and FBA are activated differently by viewing oneself and others and might thus play a role in visual self-other discrimination. PMID:20805543

Vocks, Silja; Busch, Martin; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Schulte, Dietmar; Herpertz, Stephan; Suchan, Boris



Combined surgical and endovascular management of a giant fusiform PCA aneurysm in a pediatric patient. A case report.  


Treatment of intracranial giant aneurysms presents is challenging. In the case of pediatric giant aneurysm, more challenges arise. We describe our experience with a 17-year-old pediatric patient who presented with severe headache. She was diagnosed as having a giant fusiform aneurysm at the right P1-P2-Pcom junction. The aneurysm was treated with superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and subsequent coil embolization of the aneurysm with parent artery occlusion. The patient had an excellent outcome at one-year follow-up. Our case suggests a combined approach of surgical and endovascular management may yield a better outcome than surgery or endovascular management alone in the treatment of pediatric giant aneurysm. PMID:23693047

Shin, S H; Choi, I S; Thomas, K; David, C A



Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.



High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance  

PubMed Central

The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177–1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670–674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm2 on the right and 50 mm2 on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Gauthier, Isabel



Spontaneous Rupture of the Esophagus  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus remains a medical and surgical challenge. Its diagnosis is often missed or delayed resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, and controversy exists as to the mode of therapy for the cases seen later than 12 hours after rupture. During the last seven years, nine patients were treated at Grady Memorial Hospital. Four patients, “early group,” were operated upon within 12 hours from the onset of their symptoms and five, “late group,” were operated upon between 20-76 hours (average 41) after rupture. All four patients in the “early group” had primary repair of the rupture and two had, in addition, fundoplication. From the two patients with primary repair alone, one developed postoperative leakage at the esophageal suture line, which closed spontaneously; whereas, in the two patients with fundoplication, no leakage occurred. Three of the four patients recovered and one died from renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastric perforation. In the “late group” one patient had T-tube drainage of the esophagus and died. Two had primary repair alone with one death and the other two had primary repair with fundoplication 20 and 76 hours postrupture and both recovered. The two deaths in the “late group” were due to leakage at the site of the rupture. This study suggests that even in patients diagnosed late as having rupture of the esophagus, primary repair can be implemented with reasonable success. Good mediastinal, pleural and gastric drainage, high levels of appropriate antibiotics, and provision of good nourishment are of paramount importance for the successful management of these desperately ill patients. ImagesFig. 2A.FIG. 2B.FIG. 2C.Fig. 2D.

Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Harlaftis, Nickolaos



Delayed tracheal rupture following thyroidectomy.  


Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed, low-risk procedure. Tracheal perforation during thyroidectomy is rare, and delayed rupture of the trachea rarer still. We present the case of a patient who underwent total thyroidectomy secondary to Grave's disease who, on postoperative day 7, developed massive subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress. Surgical exploration revealed a rupture of the anterolateral tracheal wall at the level of the first tracheal ring. The defect was repaired primarily and the patient recovered uneventfully. The risk factors for and the management of this rare complication are discussed. PMID:18487029

Damrose, Edward J; Damrose, John F



Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes.

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut



Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin) confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic) rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

Oryan, Ahmad; Davari, Aida; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Daneshbod, Yahya



Spontaneous rupture of a varicocoele.  


We present the case of a young male with an acute scrotal haematoma due to spontaneous rupture of a spermatic cord varicocoele confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. After failure of conservative management, surgical exploration was performed with successful evacuation of the scrotal haematoma. PMID:20441071

Chin, W N; Cadogan, M; Wan, R; Harrison, L



Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

Richter, R.



46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...



Conservative treatment for postintubation tracheobronchial rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Postintubation tracheobronchial rupture is usually responsible for unstable intraoperative or postoperative conditions, and its management is discussed. We insist on conservative treatment as a viable alternative after late diagnosis of postintubation tracheobronchial rupture.Methods. We conducted a retrospective study including 14 consecutive patients treated between April 1981 and July 1998.Results. Twelve tracheobronchial ruptures occurred after intubation for general surgery and

Jacques Jougon; Michel Ballester; Emmanuel Choukroun; Jean Dubrez; Gilles Reboul; Jean-François Velly



Detection of a major gene for resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine by genomic mapping.  

PubMed Central

Genomic mapping has been used to identify a region of the host genome that determines resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine where no discrete, simply inherited resistance factors had been previously found by conventional genetic analysis over four decades. A resistance locus, behaving as a single dominant gene, was mapped by association with genetic markers, even though the disease phenotype deviated from the expected Mendelian ratio. The complexity of forest pathosystems and the limitations of genetic analysis, based solely on phenotype, had led to an assumption that effective long-term disease resistance in trees should be polygenic. However, our data show that effective long-term resistance can be obtained from a single qualitative resistance gene, despite the presence of virulence in the pathogen population. Therefore, disease resistance in this endemic coevolved forest pathosystem is not exclusively polygenic. Genomic mapping now provides a powerful tool for characterizing the genetic basis of host pathogen interactions in forest trees and other undomesticated, organisms, where conventional genetic analysis often is limited or not feasible. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Wilcox, P L; Amerson, H V; Kuhlman, E G; Liu, B H; O'Malley, D M; Sederoff, R R



Activity in the fusiform face area supports expert perception in radiologists and does not depend upon holistic processing of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Training in radiology dramatically changes observers' ability to process images, but the neural bases of this visual expertise remain unexplored. Prior imaging work has suggested that the fusiform face area (FFA), normally selectively responsive to faces, becomes responsive to images in observers' area of expertise. The FFA has been hypothesized to be important for "holistic" processing that integrates information across the entire image. Here, we report a cross-sectional study of radiologists that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in first-year radiology residents, fourth-year radiology residents, and practicing radiologists as they detected abnormalities in chest radiographs. Across subjects, activity in the FFA correlated with visual expertise, measured as behavioral performance during scanning. To test whether processing in the FFA was holistic, we measured its responses both to intact radiographs and radiographs that had been divided into 25 square pieces whose locations were scrambled. Activity in the FFA was equal in magnitude for intact and scrambled images, and responses to both kinds of stimuli correlated reliably with expertise. These results suggest that the FFA is one of the cortical regions that provides the basis of expertise in radiology, but that its contribution is not holistic processing of images.

Engel, Stephen A.; Harley, Erin M.; Pope, Whitney B.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; Mazziotta, John C.; Enzmann, Dieter



Traumatic rupture of horseshoe kidney.  


We present the case of a 25-year-old male who came to the emergency room for pain and abdominal distension following trauma to the mesogastrium. A CT scan was performed, revealing a voluminous retroperitoneal hematoma with laceration of both inferior renal poles with regard to rupture of the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney. The patient presented anemization and increased pain, requiring selective embolization by means of arteriography of a branch of the right renal artery and placement of a double J stent due to urinary extravasation in the lower left kidney pole. Following 1 year of monitoring, the patient has maintained normal renal function. Renal affection in blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, occurring in 7% of previously pathological kidneys. The traumatic rupture of horseshoe kidney is facilitated by its particular anatomical characteristics, constituting an infrequent entity, knowledge of which is necessary to achieve conservative management that renders it possible to preserve renal function. PMID:21934278

Molina Escudero, R; Cancho Gil, M J; Husillos Alonso, A; Lledó García, E; Herranz Amo, F; Ogaya Piniés, G; Ramón Botella, E; Simó, G; Navas Martínez, M C; Hernández Fernández, C



Splenic rupture following endoscopic polypectomy.  


A 70-year-old man presented with two medium-sized colon polyps at the office of a gastroenterologist. After endoscopic polypectomy in a hospital, the patient was admitted to another hospital because of collapse and increasing abdominal pain. CT scan revealed hematoperitoneum and splenic subcapsular hematoma. Laparotomy with splenectomy was performed because of extended splenic rupture. The postoperative course was unremarkable except late wound dehiscence. PMID:20352593

Wiedmann, M W; Kater, F; Böhm, B



Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.  

PubMed Central

The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures.

Kaalund, S; Lass, P; H?gsaa, B; N?hr, M



Molecular dynamics of interface rupture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.



CT of blunt diaphragmatic rupture.  


The diagnosis of blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) is difficult and often missed, leaving many patients with this traumatic injury at risk for life-threatening complications. The potential diagnostic pitfalls are numerous and include anatomic variants and congenital and acquired abnormalities. Chest radiography, despite its known limitations, may still be helpful in the early assessment of severe thoracoabdominal trauma and for detecting initially overlooked BDR or late complications of BDR. However, since the development of helical and multidetector scanners, computed tomography (CT) has become the reference standard; thus, knowledge of the CT signs suggestive of BDR is important for recognition of this injury pattern. A large number of CT signs of BDR have been described elsewhere, many of them individually, but the use of various appellations for the same sign can make previously published reports confusing. The systematic description and classification of CT signs provided in this article may help clarify matters and provide clues for diagnosing BDR. The authors describe 19 distinct CT signs grouped in three categories: direct signs of rupture, indirect signs that are consequences of rupture, and signs that are of uncertain origin. Since no single CT sign can be considered a marker leading to a correct diagnosis in every case of BDR, accurate diagnosis depends on the analysis of all signs present. PMID:22411944

Desir, Amandine; Ghaye, Benoît



Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders  


... Dehydration and swallowing problems (sometimes leading to the placement of tubes in the stomach for artificial feeding) ... MJ. Vascular Diseases of the Nervous System. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. ...


Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography  

PubMed Central

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan



Fusiform gyrus responses to neutral and emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorders: a high density ERP study.  


Face processing is a neural mechanism that allows understanding social information and cues conveyed by faces, whose dysfunction has been postulated to underlie some of the behavioral impairments characterizing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A special region of the cortex, the fusiform gyrus (FG), is believed to be the specific area for processing face features and emotions. However, behavioral, fMRI and ERP studies addressed to investigate the role of FG dysfunction in ASD have led to conflicting results. Using a high-density EEG system, we recorded the face-sensitive ERP to neutral and emotional (happiness and fearful) faces, as a measure of early activity of the FG, in children with high functioning ASD. By controlling a number of experimental and clinical variables that could have biased previous research--such as gaze direction, attention to tasks, stimulus appearance and clinical profiles--we aimed to assess the effective role of the FG in the face emotion processing deficit hypothesized in ASD. No significant differences in early face-sensitive ERP components were found between ASD and neurotypical children. However, a systematic latency delay and amplitude reduction of all early potentials were observed in the ASD group, regardless of the stimulus, although more evident for emotions. Therefore, we can assume a diffuse dysfunction of neural mechanisms and networks in driving and integrating social information conveyed by faces, in particular when emotions are involved, rather than a specific impairment of the FG-related face processing circuit. Nevertheless, there is need of further investigation. PMID:23124137

Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico; Federico, Rosario R; Campatelli, Giulia; Muratori, Filippo



Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.  


Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan



Pre-stimulus pattern of activity in the fusiform face area predicts face percepts during binocular rivalry.  


Visual input is ambiguous, yet conscious experience is unambiguous. In binocular rivalry the two eyes receive conflicting images, but only one of them is consciously perceived at a time. Here we search for the neural sites of the competitive interactions underlying this phenomenon by testing whether neural pattern activity occurring before stimulus presentation can predict the initial dominant percept in binocular rivalry and, if so, where in the brain such predictive activity is found. Subjects were scanned while viewing an image of a face in one eye and an image of a house in the other eye with anaglyph glasses. The rivalrous stimulus was presented briefly for each trial, and the subject indicated which of the two images he or she preferentially perceived. Our results show that BOLD fMRI multivariate pattern activity in the fusiform face area (FFA) before the stimulus is presented predicts which of the two images will be dominant, suggesting that higher extrastriate areas, such as the FFA, are not only correlated with, but may also be involved in determining the initial dominant percept in binocular rivalry. Furthermore, by examining pattern activity before and after trial onset, we found that pre-trial activity in the FFA for the rivalrous face trials is no more similar to the post-trial activity for the non-rivalrous face trials than to that for the non-rivalrous house trials, indicating a dissociation between neural pattern information, which predicts a given state of awareness, and mean responses, which reflect the state of awareness ultimately achieved. PMID:21952195

Hsieh, P-J; Colas, J T; Kanwisher, N G



Spontaneous Rupture of a Functioning Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and it can be classified as either a functional or nonfunctional tumor. Affected patients usually present with abdominal pain or with symptoms related to the mass effect or hormonal activity of the tumor. Several cases of spontaneously ruptured nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported, but no case of a spontaneous rupture of functioning adrenocortical carcinoma has been described. We report a functioning adrenocortical carcinoma that spontaneously ruptured during a work-up.

Chung, Jin Ook; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Chung, Dong Jin



Multidisciplinary management of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dramatic presentation of the disease. Most published studies are\\u000a from Asian centers, and North American experience is limited. This study was under-taken to review the experience of ruptured\\u000a HCC at a North American multidisciplinary unit. Thirty pa-tients presenting with ruptured HCC at a tertiary care center from\\u000a 1985 to 2004 were studied

Andrzej K. Buczkowski; Peter T. W. Kim; Stephen G. Ho; David F. Schaeffer; Sung I. Lee; David A. Owen; Alan H. Weiss; Stephen W. Chung; Charles H. Scudamore



Acute achilles tendon rupture in athletes.  


The incidence of AT rupture has increased in recent decades. AT ruptures frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. Ruptures also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT ruptures, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo



Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



Tendon Ruptures Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

In five patients, tendon ruptures occurred in association with corticosteroid therapy, either systemic or local infiltration. The chronic nature of the pain in all of these patients suggests that what we often call tendinitis may in fact be early or partial ruptures of tendons. Patients who receive local infiltration of corticosteroids should perhaps be advised of the risk of a ruptured tendon. In addition, particularly when the Achilles tendon is involved, immobilization should be utilized initially for a presumed tendinitis or early rupture, to protect the tendon from further injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Halpern, Alan A.; Horowitz, Bruce G.; Nagel, Donald A.



Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of water-soluble polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.  


Sargassum fusiforme (hijiki) is the well-known edible algae, whose polysaccharides have been proved to possess interesting bioactivities like antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. A facile and sensitive method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method of pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) has been established for the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides in S. fusiforme. Monosaccharides have been converted into PMP-labelled derivatives with aqueous ammonia as a catalyst at 70 °C for 30 min. The optimisation of the pre-column derivatization process was studied. The LODs of the monosaccharides were in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 nmol. PMP-labelled mixture of monosaccharides has been well separated by a reverse-phase HPLC and detected by on-line ESI-MS method under optimised conditions. The mobile phase of elution system was chosen as acetonitrile (solvent A) and 20mM aqueous ammonium acetate (solvent B) (pH 3.0) with Zorbax XDB-C18 column at 30 °C for the separation of the monosaccharide derivatives. Identification of the monosaccharides composition was carried out by analysis with mass spectral behaviour and chromatography characteristics of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelled monosaccharides. All PMP-labelled derivatives display high chemical stabilities, whose regular MS fragmentation is specific for reducing labelled sugars. The result showed that the S. fusiforme polysaccharide consisted of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, fucose and glucuronic acid or galacturonic acid, or both uronic acids. PMID:24128572

Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Jiajia; Yu, Ying; Wu, Bin



Papillary muscle rupture after blunt chest trauma.  


We report a case of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture in a 22-year-old man who had blunt chest trauma caused by a car accident. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation caused by the rupture. He successfully underwent emergency mitral valve replacement and was discharged 9 days after the surgical correction. PMID:16581491

Cordovil, Adriana; Fischer, Claudio H; Rodrigues, Ana Clara T; Lira Filho, Edgar B; Vieira, Marcelo L C; Cury, Alexandre F; Naccarato, Gustavo A F; Valente, Carmen; Brandăo, Carlos M; Pommerantzeff, Pablo M; Morhy, Samira S



Rupture of the uterus: A changing picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty nine cases of rupture of the gravid uterus occurring over a period of 15 years with 77,133 deliveries, were analysed. The overall incidence of ruptured uteri was 1 per 866 deliveries. The patients were devided into two groups, those with a scarred uterus (47) and those with an unscarred uterus (42). Distinct differences in terms of parity, age, aetiology

J. V. Van der Merwe; W. U. A. M. Ombelet



Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography  

PubMed Central

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-month-old infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient's bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

Lee, Kyong Ok; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Suk Young



Rupture of wetting films caused by nanobubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that nanometer sized bubbles, attached at a hydrophobic silica surface, can cause rupture of aqueous wetting films due to the so-called nucleation mechanism. But the knowledge of the existence of such nanobubbles does not give an answer to how the subprocesses of this rupture mechanism operate. The aim of this paper is to describe the

K. W. Stöckelhuber; Boryan Radoev; Andreas Wenger; Hans Joachim Schulze



Spontaneous Rupture Processes on a Bending Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulated spontaneous rupture processes on vertical bending faults, using a 3-D finite-difference method. Since shear and normal stresses on the fault depend upon its angle to the principal stresses, rupture velocity and slip ahead of a bending point vary with strike change. Moreover, slip on a bending fault is less than one on a flat fault, since a bending

Y. Kase; S. M. Day



Rupture Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The rupture model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different rupture criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In

D. J. Andrews



Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe



Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

Xu, Chong



Patterns of brain reorganization subsequent to left fusiform damage: fMRI evidence from visual processing of words and pseudowords, faces and objects  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the neural reorganization that takes place subsequent to lesions that affect orthographic processing (reading and/or spelling). We report on an fMRI investigation of an individual with a left mid-fusiform resection that affected both reading and spelling (Tsapkini & Rapp, 2010). To investigate possible patterns of functional reorganization, we compared the behavioral and neural activation patterns of this individual with those of a group of control participants for the tasks of silent reading of words and pseudowords and the passive viewing of faces and objects, all tasks that typically recruit the inferior temporal lobes. This comparison was carried out with methods that included a novel application of Mahalanobis distance statistics, and revealed: (1) normal behavioral and neural responses for face and object processing, (2) evidence of neural reorganization bilaterally in the posterior fusiform that supported normal performance in pseudoword reading and which contributed to word reading (3) evidence of abnormal recruitment of the bilateral anterior temporal lobes indicating compensatory (albeit insufficient) recruitment of mechanisms for circumventing the word reading deficit.

Tsapkini, Kyrana; Vindiola, Manuel; Rapp, Brenda



Association between an aplastic basilar artery, unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and multiple aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery.  


Basilar artery (BA) aplasia when unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is exceedingly rare. The association of BA aplasia with two aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) has not been previously reported. This 40-year-old man presented in a state of drowsiness and responded to simple commands only after being coaxed. He had complete left cranial third nerve palsy, right hemiparesis, and persisting signs of meningeal irritation. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. An angiogram revealed BA aplasia. The right PCoA followed a sinuous course with multiple loops and provided the dominant supply to the posterior circulation. This vessel harbored two aneurysms, one at the origin of the PCoA from the internal carotid artery and the other at the looping segment just proximal to the brainstem. The left PCoA was extremely thin. The pterional transsylvian approach was used to clip the two aneurysms on the PCoA. The hemodynamic changes produced by the BA aplasia may have produced alterations in the cerebral vasculature leading to aneurysm formation and consequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:15137614

Behari, Sanjay; Krishna, Himanshu; Kumar, Marakani V Kiran; Sawlani, Vijay; Phadke, Rajendra V; Jain, Vijendra K



Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma.  


The gallbladder is a relatively well-protected organ; consequently its rupture following blunt abdominal injury is rare and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated gallbladder rupture is extremely rare. We report a healthy Nigerian adult male who sustained isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury from riding a motor cycle (Okada). A high index of suspicion with positive bile aspirate might lead to early diagnosis. Open cholecystectomy is a safe option of treatment in a resource poor centre especially in delayed presentation and has a good outcome. PMID:23771471

Gali, B M; Ali, N; Bakari, A A; Suleiman, I E



Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.



Surgical treatment of distal biceps rupture.  


Rupture of the distal biceps tendon accounts for 10% of all biceps brachii ruptures. Injuries typically occur in the dominant elbow of men aged 40 to 49 years during eccentric contraction of the biceps. Degenerative changes, decreased vascularity, and tendon impingement may precede rupture. Although nonsurgical management is an option, healthy, active persons with distal biceps tendon ruptures benefit from early surgical repair, gaining improved strength in forearm supination and, to a lesser degree, elbow flexion. Biomechanical studies have tested the strength and displacement of various repairs; the suspensory cortical button technique exhibits maximum peak load to failure in vitro, and suture anchor and interosseous screw techniques yield the least displacement. Surgical complications include sensory and motor neurapraxia, infection, and heterotopic ossification. Current trends in postoperative rehabilitation include an early return to motion and to activities of daily living. PMID:20190104

Sutton, Karen M; Dodds, Seth D; Ahmad, Christopher S; Sethi, Paul M



Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several ord...

W. L. Daugherty R. F. Miller D. S. Cramer



Rupture of intracranial aneurysm during angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of rupture of intracranial aneurysm during angiography is presented. Carotid angiograms showed extravasation of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms are briefly discussed.

Shiro Waga; Akinori Kondo; Kozo Moritake; Hajime Handa



Plantaris rupture: why is it important?  


Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its rupture cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is rupture of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris rupture confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested ruptured plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486

Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas



Spontaneous splenic rupture in typhoid fever.  

PubMed Central

Three cases of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi infection presenting as spontaneous splenic rupture are presented. One patient died and two recovered completely. This is a previously unreported presentation of typhoid fever.

Ali, G.; Kamili, M. A.; Rashid, S.; Mansoor, A.; Lone, B. A.; Allaqaband, G. Q.



Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.

Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail:; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)



Duodenal rupture following trauma in a child.  


We present a case of delayed presentation of a traumatic duodenal rupture in a 15-year-old boy. He presented 12 hours after falling six feet and sustaining blunt trauma to his anterior abdominal wall. On arrival in the Emergency Department he was shocked and peritonitic. After initial resuscitation he was stable and transferred to computed tomography where free retroperitoneal air and duodenal rupture was found. He was transferred to theatre where he underwent laparotomy and successful repair of the rupture. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged nine days later. Duodenal rupture is a rare but serious complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis is difficult but missed diagnosis and delayed presentation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A high index for suspicion must be kept when dealing with blunt abdominal trauma to ensure this is not missed. PMID:21680305

McWhirter, Derek



Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NRC Staff's review of three domestic pressurized water reactor steam generator tube rupture events has shown that no significant offsite doses or systems performance inadequacies have occurred. The plant operators and systems successfully avoided dire...

L. B. Marsh



Management of traumatic aortic rupture.  


A traumatic thoracic aortic injury is a severe and life-threatening clinical entity. Although largely fatal; if untreated, these injuries are amenable to surgical repair if appropriately diagnosed. Therefore, early triage of this condition is critically important. Unfortunately, aortic injuries rarely occur in isolation, and there has been no good cutoff value to help select the appropriate surgical strategy. Algorithms for the both diagnosis and treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injury have undergone changes in recent years. There have been several case reports, retrospective series and registry data describing the treatment of patients with traumatic thoracic aortic rupture using endovascular treatment. Endovascular treatment is a less-invasive management option for polytraumatized patients. Because it is less invasive, without the need for thoracotomy or the use of heparin, endovascular repair can be performed even in acutely injured patients, without the risk of destabilizing pulmonary, head or abdominal traumatic lesions. Long-term follow-up especially in young patients is necessary after endovascular treatment. PMID:23338596

Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Ikuo; Asari, Yasushi



Thin-film rupture for large slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rupture of thin liquid films on hydrophobic substrates, assuming large slip at the liquid-solid interface, is studied\\u000a using a recently developed strong slip lubrication model, it is shown that the rupture passes through up to three self-similar regimes with different dominant balances\\u000a and different scaling exponents. For one of these regimes the similarity is of second kind, and the

D. Peschka; A. Münch; B. Niethammer



Left Ventricular Rupture Post Mitral Valve Replacement  

PubMed Central

Prevention is better than cure best applies here. As per many authors, posterior leaflet chordae preservation prevent Left ventricular rupture (LVR) and preserve LV geometry. We are presenting here 5 types of left ventricular rupture (LVR) post Mitral valve replacement (MVR) with different methods to repair with the advantages and disadvantages of each. The mortality rate is still very high despite the advances in cardiac surgery. Many therapeutic approaches have been adopted. Yet, none is ideal.

Sersar, Sameh I.; Jamjoom, Ahmed A.



Splenic artery aneurysm rupture in pregnancy.  


Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the commonest visceral artery aneurysm. It is diagnosed more frequently in younger women, with up to 95% presenting during pregnancy. Rupture is associated with a disproportionately high maternal and fetal mortality. We performed a literature search on the patient and SAA characteristics, clinical presentations, management and outcome of this serious complication. There were 32 patients in total with a mean age of 27.9 years (range 20-38). The mean SAA size was 2.25 cm (range 0.5-4 cm) and from the available data half of the ruptured SAA were 2 cm or less. Only one case (3.1%) was discovered incidentally, whilst the rest (96.9%) were found following rupture. The majority ruptured spontaneously. Most (62%) of the patients underwent SAA ligation and splenectomy. The maternal death rate was 21.9% (n=7), and fetal death rate was 15.6% (n=5). Most cases are not diagnosed until surgery following rupture. Ruptured SAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pregnant patient with severe and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:19596508

Ha, Jennifer Fong; Phillips, Michael; Faulkner, Kingsley



Spontaneous rupture of spleen masquerading as acute pancreatitis.  


Splenic rupture most commonly follows blunt abdominal trauma. Nontraumatic rupture of the spleen is rare. Nontraumatic rupture of the spleen has been described in a variety of pathologic conditions, which include neoplastic, infectious, and hematologic diseases affecting the spleen. Spontaneous rupture of nondiseased spleen is extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of spleen in a chronic alcoholic clinically simulating acute pancreatitis. PMID:24268850

Debnath, Jyotindu; Sonkar, Samrat; Sharma, Vivek; Chatterjee, Samar; Srivastava, Vikash; Khanna, Shiv Pankaj



Recurrent uterine rupture after hysterescopic resection of the uterine septum  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Uterine rupture after hysteroscopic septum resection is a rare complication, and its frequency is reported to be approximately 1–2.7%. Uterine perforation and monopolar resection during hysteroscopy are well-known risk factors for subsequent uterine rupture during pregnancy. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of recurrent uterine ruptures during consecutive pregnancies in a patient who had undergone hysteroscopic septum resection for recurrent pregnancy loss. DISCUSSION Recurrent uterine rupture due to hysteroscopic septum resection in pregnancy is a very rare condition. In the present case we noted that the first two uterine ruptures resulted from uterine contractions; however, the third rupture occurred spontaneously and earlier in gestation. As each uterine rupture occurred earlier than the rupture in the previous gestation, a history of uterine rupture during pregnancy should raise provider suspicion about the possibility of earlier uterine rupture recurrence. CONCLUSION Uterine rupture may occur in pregnancies after hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum. However, if a patient has a history of uterine rupture during previous pregnancies, the risk of uterine rupture may increase for earlier gestational ages in subsequent pregnancies. The patient must be informed about both the risks of uterine rupture during pregnancy after hysteroscopic septum resection and that recurrent ruptures may occur at earlier gestational weeks than during previous pregnancies.

Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Y?ld?r?m, Nuri; Akdemir, Ali; Yucebilgin, Sait



Direct, High-flow Bypass for a Pediatric Giant, Fusiform Aneurysm of the Inferior Division of M2: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

In this case report, we describe the first reported case of treating a 7-year-old male patient who has a giant, fusiform aneurysm confined to the inferior M2 segment by means of a saphenous vein graft. Given the lack of good endovascular management options for this particular scenario, craniotomy was recommended and an end-to-side ECA-ICA anastomosis was carried out with technical details of the surgery outlined in the manuscript. The patient did not sustain any major postoperative complications. The graft remained patent upon completion of the surgery and at the time of last follow-up, 9 months post-surgery. This case serves as an illustrative example of the need for high-flow bypass for a select few patients even as endovascular technology continues to improve.

Alamanda, Vignesh K.; Tomycz, Luke; Velez, Dennis; Singer, Robert J.



Rupture dynamics of a geometrically complex fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the propagation of a two dimensional antiplane rupture along a complex geometrical fault containing a series of kinks of different angles and intervals between the kinks. Numerical solutions are obtained using the spectral element methods developed by Vilotte, Ampuero and Komatisch. We model both periodically kinked and simple versions of randomly kinked faults. We compare our simulations with the results obtained for rupture propagation along flat faults. We find that geometrically complex differ substantially from flat faults. First, complex faults emit high frequency radiation of ?-2 type every time they encounter geometrical discontinuities, this produces a strong damping of rupture propagation. Second, the average rupture speed along the overall direction of the fault is substantially reduced and, depending on the nature of the geometrical discontinuities, ruptures may be easily stopped. Energy release rates computed assuming that the fault is flat increase as the fault becomes increasingly complex. The stress field around the fault may be described as a corridor of strongly variable stress with patches of stress increase and decrease even if the slip on the fault is continuous. Contrary to flat faults, earthquake propagation leaves behind a complex final state of stress. Our model confirms the experimental findings of many authors who worked on high speed mode I fracture.

Madariaga, R. I.; Ampuero, J.



[Successful repair of combined ventricular septal rupture and free wall rupture (double rupture); report of a case].  


We report a case of successful surgical repair of combined ventricular septal perforation and blowout free wall cardiac rupture(double rupture) after acute myocardial infarction. The patient was a 59-year old man, who suffered an extensive acute anterior myocardial infarction. Although emergent coronary angiogram and coronary intervention was performed, he collapsed in a state of electro-mechanical dissociation in the catheterization laboratory. He was resuscitated by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support system (PCPS) and transferred to the operation theater. Infarction exclusion using bovine pericardial patch was performed. He was weaned from PCPS on day 5 after surgery and discharged hospital on day 65 with good health. PMID:23381365

Takazawa, Ippei; Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Misawa, Yoshio



[A surgically treated case with a ruptured bacterial aneurysm of the middle cerebral arterial bifurcation following occlusion].  


A 56-year-old woman with aortic regurgitation (AR) developd a high fever on April 25th, 2003, followed by the sudden onset of left hemiparesis and dysarthria on May 10th, 2003. MRI and MRA showed cerebral infarction due to occlusion of the right proximal portion of the middle cerebral artery. Streptococcus was isolated from arterial blood culture at the time of admission and cardiac examination such as echocardiography revealed active infective endocarditis. Cerebral angiography on the 31st day after the onset of symptoms demonstrated a fusiform-shaped aneurysm at the occluded M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery. Despite administration of antibiotics, a small subcortical hematoma was observed in the right temporal lobe surrounding the aneurysm on the 35th day. The direct surgery of aneurysmal trapping and resection was subsequently performed to prevent rebleeding. The sylvian fissure and perianeurysmal area were strongly adherent to granulation tissue and blood clot. After exposing the aneurysm, the dilated portion of the vessel was successfully trapped and resected. Other than residual left hemiparesis, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination confirmed bacterial aneurysm due to bacterial embolization originating from infective endocarditis (IE). We report a rare case having a ruptured bacterial aneurysm of the middle cerebral arterial bifurcation requiring surgery following occlusion due to bacterial embolization after sepsis and meningitis due to infective endocarditis. PMID:15287488

Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Nakayama, Kenji; Orito, Kimihiko; Ikeda, Ayami; Arakawa, Masahiro; Shigemori, Minoru



[Ruptured aneurysm at the anomalous arterial wall of the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery: a case report].  


Distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA)aneurysms are rare, so its pathogenesis and treatment remain controversial. Here, we report the unique pathogenesis of a ruptured aneurysm in this area that was based on anomalous components as well as partial dissection of the arterial wall. A 61-year-old woman presented to our hospital with sudden headache and nausea. On admission, neurological examination revealed slight consciousness disturbance. Computed tomography(CT)of the head showed a clotted subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)that was dominant in the right cerebellopontine and prepontine cistern. Three-dimensional CT angiography detected an irregular fusiform aneurysm 4.5×3.2mm in size in the distal portion of the AICA. The patient underwent trapping without distal vascular reconstruction by the lateral suboccipital approach. After surgery, she experienced right hearing disturbance and ipsilateral facial palsy that were considered to be caused by vasogenic edema at the cerebellar peduncle that resulted from the initial SAH damage. Pathology revealed an aneurysmal wall with anomalous components and arterial dissection in the arterial wall. To our knowledge, only one article has reported the histological findings of a distal AICA aneurysm. Based on the pathology of this case, these findings may suggest a useful treatment strategy for this rare aneurysm. PMID:24388939

Hikichi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Moroi, Junta; Miyata, Hajime



Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Osteoarthritis Progression  

PubMed Central

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL rupture, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL rupture and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction. There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations.

Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David



Delayed diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture.  


We report a case of late presentation of traumatic rupture of the diaphragm discovered incidentally on chest radiography (CXR) during an annual medical checkup. A 60-year-old man suffered severe blunt trauma from heavy steel frames collapsing against his back, resulting in pelvic and femoral fractures as well as pulmonary contusions. The patient recovered, but 10 months later CXR performed for lung cancer surveillance during an annual medical checkup revealed a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed with reduction of the intestine and primary closure of the diaphragmatic defect. The patient recovered uneventfully. This report serves as a useful reminder that a medical history of severe blunt trauma should provoke a high index of suspicion for diaphragmatic rupture during annual medical surveillance. PMID:19779793

Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Iwai, Naomichi; Kohno, Hiromasa; Okada, Nao; Yoshioka, Tomoki; Ebana, Hiroki



Rupture Dynamics of Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent megathrust earthquakes, we have begun a systematic investigation of the influence of depth-dependent frictional properties, slab geometry and fault dip angle, and strength of the accretionary prism on rupture propagation. A particular focus is on identifying the conditions under which rupture reaches the trench, as this maximizes seafloor uplift and the resulting tsunami. We tackle this problem with fully dynamic two-dimensional simulations, using a high order finite difference method with coordinate transforms to handle the complex geometry. The fault obeys rate-and-state friction and the off-fault material response includes continuum Drucker-Prager plasticity that is activated at sufficiently high stress levels. We directly account for variations in material properties across curved crust and mantle layers, since waveguide effects are an essential part of the rupture process in this geometry. For shallowly dipping faults, free surface effects are particularly pronounced. Wave reflections from the seafloor transiently decrease normal stress on the fault surface, thereby reducing its strength. We have found that this effect can be sufficient to permit rupture all the way to the trench axis, even if the upper portion of the fault is velocity-strengthening and thus incapable of unstable frictional sliding. Additionally, current thinking appears to assume that this upper part of the fault will rupture only if it is locked during the interseismic period, thereby resulting in strain accumulation in the surrounding material. Our preliminary models instead suggest that this part of the fault can still slip coseismically, even with negligible prestress. We are now exploring how robust this tentative conclusion is, as it would have significant implications for predictions of rupture extent based on observational estimates of the extent of fault locking during the interseismic period.

Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.



[Interventricular septum rupture following blunt chest trauma].  


Interventricular septum rupture following blunt chest trauma is a rare cardiac injury that sometimes is difficult to diagnose. It has a high mortality rate, especially when in cases of hemodynamic instability requiring early surgical repair. We report the case of an 18-year old man who suffered blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and hemorrhagic shock who required emergency abdominal surgery on three occasions. He was diagnosed of traumatic rupture of interventricular septum that had not been detected in the initial echocardiography, but was suspected after the right heart catheterism. Urgent cardiac surgery was performed 72 hours later because of hemodynamic instability. PMID:19232209

Gandía-Martínez, Francisco; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Martínez-Gil, Ińigo; Campo-Prieto, Alberto; Parra-Morais, Laura; Citores-González, Rafael



Spontaneous rupture of a recurrent hepatic cystadenoma  

PubMed Central

Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumor of the middle aged woman that usually arises in the liver or occasionally in the extrahepatic bile ducts. It has a strong potential for recurrence and for malignant transformation. The lack of specific clinical and biological features hinders diagnosis before surgery. The spontaneous rupture of a hepatobiliary cystadnoma is a very rare and potentially life-threatening complication, with only two reported cases in the English literature. We report a case with spontaneous rupture of a recurrent hepatobiliary cystadenoma in a 32 year-old woman.

Elfadili, Hakim; Majbar, Anass; Zouaidia, Fouad; Elamrani, Naoufal; Sabbah, Farid; Raiss, Mohamed; Mahassini, Najat; Hrora, Abdelmalek; Ahallat, Mohamed



Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.  

PubMed Central

Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures.

Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe



Amnion rupture sequence in previable fetuses.  


Amnion rupture sequence is considered an uncommon, sporadic condition among liveborn infants. We have examined 1,010 previable fetuses (9-20 weeks developmental age) to determine the incidence and nature of amnion rupture sequence at this stage of development. We found 18 affected fetuses (15 spontaneous and 3 induced abortions) with the incidence of 1:56. Eleven fetuses had limb constrictions and amputations only; 7 fetuses also had nonlimb involvement, including disruptions of the craniofacial region mimicking encephalocele, unusual facial clefts, and abdominal defects. In 6 pregnancies, constrictions of the umbilical cord by amniotic bands were the cause of fetal intrauterine death. PMID:3223500

Kalousek, D K; Bamforth, S




SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

P. Macheret



Engineering evaluation of ruptured strainer in Building 309.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the consequences of the ruptured steam strainer and is divided into two sections. Section 1 evaluates the engineering aspects of the ruptured steam strainer, investigates the events that culminated in the damage and considers factor...

J. N. Papenfuss



Small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma.  


Fourteen men with traumatic rupture of the small gut are analysed. Seven had alcohol intoxication. The diagnosis was made pre-operatively in eight. Ileal ruptures were the commonest, (11 of 14). Two patients died. PMID:263364

Minja, B M; Mahalu, W; Hiza, P R



Asymptomatic rupture of the uterus: a case report.  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the gravid uterus is a serious obstetric emergency that threatens maternal and fetal life. In certain cases the classic clinical picture may be absent. Most asymptomatic ruptures are in the lower segment and of minor extent or are really dehiscences of scars. This paper presents a case of massive spontaneous rupture involving the entire corpus diagnosed at elective postpartum sterilization. This unusual event stimulated a review of the causes and clinical presentations of uterine rupture. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Alper, M. M.; Dudley, D. K.



D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc  

SciTech Connect

The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab



Postintubation Tracheal Ruptures - A case report -  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial ruptures (TBR) rarely complicate surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Seemingly uneventful intubations can result in injury to the trachea, which often manifests as hemoptysis and subcutaneous emphysema. We present 2 patients with postintubation TBR who were treated surgically and discuss considerations in the management of this potentially lethal injury.

Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong-Bum; Kuh, Ja-Hong; Jo, Jung-Ku; Park, Hyun Kyu



Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...



Electrocardiographic changes produced by interventricular septal rupture.  

PubMed Central

The electrocardiogram was recorded during spontaneous rupture of the interventricular septum in a patient after myocardial infarction. The electrocardiographic abnormalities included an increase in the sinus rate, elevation of the ST segment, decrease in Q wave size, and increase in the height and width of the P wave.

Kerr, F; Haywood, L J



Lower head creep-rupture sensitivity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents, structural materials in the reactor vessel can relocate downward and form debris regions above the lower head. In this paper a one-dimensional model is presented that considers melt progression in the debris as well as the thermal and mechanical response of the head. Only creep rupture of the lower head is considered; however, other

S. S. Dosanjh; M. Pilch



Cardiac Rupture Complicating Cerebral Intraarterial Thrombolytic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early intraarterial thrombolytic therapy is recognized as a valuable treatment option in the setting of acute stroke. Cardiac rupture is a catastrophic complication of myocardial infarc- tion. The risk of this complication has been shown to increase with late coronary thrombo- lytic therapy (more than 7 hours after onset of myocardial infarction) (1) and has also been reported as a

R. B. Singh; D. A. Graeb; A. Fung; P. Teal


Traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery  

PubMed Central

The case report of a patient who sustained a traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery in a motor vehicle accident is presented. The preoperative diagnosis, surgical approach, postoperative management, and indications for angiography in traumatic lesions of the thoracic aorta and great vessels are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. Images

Girdwood, Robert W.; Holden, Michael P.; Ionescu, Marian I.



What Is an Earthquake?: Rupture Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault ruptures from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.


Posterior compartment syndrome following ruptured Baker's cyst.  


A 35 year old man presented with the sudden onset of left leg pain and swelling. Empirical anticoagulation for presumed deep vein thrombophlebitis was followed by acute worsening of symptoms. On further evaluation the patient was found to have a ruptured Baker's cyst and an acute posterior compartment syndrome. PMID:2256746

Petros, D P; Hanley, J F; Gilbreath, P; Toon, R D



Delayed presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture.  


We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who suffered a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR). Because TDR is frequently missed on initial presentation, a delay between trauma and diagnosis can present a unique diagnostic dilemma for the emergency physician. Important historical clues and physical examination findings are the keys to making this diagnosis. PMID:18486412

Walchalk, Lisa R; Stanfield, Stephen C



Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon.  


The simultaneous, complete rupture of both quadriceps tendons is a rare event. Only 30 previous cases have been reported and the majority have had well-documented predisposing factors, such as chronic renal failure, gout, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes and obesity. We report a case which presented without any predisposing cause, and review the literature to date. PMID:2692688

Ribbans, W J; Angus, P D



TMI2 lower head creep rupture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against rupture of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat




The ruptured Achilles tendon: a current overview from biology of rupture to treatment.  


The Achilles tendon (AT) is the most frequently ruptured tendon in the human body yet the aetiology remains poorly understood. Despite the extensively published literature, controversy still surrounds the optimum treatment of complete rupture. Both non-operative management and percutaneous repair are attractive alternatives to open surgery, which carries the highest complication and cost profile. However, the lack of a universally accepted scoring system has limited any evaluation of treatment options. A typical UK district general hospital treats approximately 3 cases of AT rupture a month. It is therefore important for orthopaedic surgeons to correctly diagnose and treat these injuries with respect to the best current evidence-based practice. In this review article, we discuss the relevant pathophysiology and diagnosis of the ruptured AT and summarize the current evidence for treatment. PMID:23546858

Thevendran, G; Sarraf, K M; Patel, N K; Sadri, A; Rosenfeld, P



Rupture and dewetting of water films on solid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to observe rupture and dewetting of water films, 0.5–2mm thick, on solid surfaces. The effects of surface roughness, wettability, protrusions on surfaces, and air entrapment between films and surfaces were studied. Film thickness measurements were made and film rupture and surface dewetting photographed. Experiments showed that liquid films ruptured first along the highest edges of

Neil Mulji; Sanjeev Chandra



Photo-piezometric study of supershear rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine acoustic emission acquisition and high speed photography in order to characterize the radiation from spontaneous dynamic rupture propagation on laboratory faults in a transparent, hard resin slab. A number of previous photographic experiments document fracture propagation at supershear velocity and the radiation of a mach cone wavefront. Supershear rupture propagation has been also inferred in several large natural earthquakes. However, failure to observe any strong shock wave in the natural events has fired a debate on the amplitude and attenuation expected for the mach wavefront. Here we attempt to characterize the mach front experimentally. In our spontaneously nucleating laboratory faults, transducers detect the wavefield both close and at a distance from the fault, allowing to characterize the amplitude and the decay of (1) mach wavefronts radiated from the supershear fractures and (2) diffractions emitted by stop-and-go jerks in fracture propagation. In the relatively low frequency range, piezoelectric transducers behave essentially like accelerometers. In the high frequency range, the passage of the rupture front (both sub- and supershear) strongly dominates the acoustic emission in the immediate vicinity of the fault, as expected from the theoretically predicted strain fields in 1/?r close to the fracture tip. Thus simple piezoelectric transducers can be used both to track the passage of the rupture front and as miniature accelerometers. By correlating the fracture photographic sequences to the piezograms recorded at some distance from the fault, we find that the signature of the mach wavefront is visible but not dominant. Our interpretation is that the supershear rupture front is weakely coherent in events, as in our case, where fracture is spontaneously nucleated.

Nielsen, S. B.; Schubnel, A. J.; Taddeucci, J.; Vinciguerra, S.; Rao, S.



Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide activates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) and induces cytokine production via Toll-like receptors.  


This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of macrophage activation by the Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (SFPS). As a result, SFPS significantly enhanced cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) productions in peritoneal macrophages, and stimulated macrophages to produce the cytokines and NO through the induction of their genes expression. The pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with special antibodies [Toll-like receptors (TLRs) antibody] significantly blocked SFPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and NO production. Furthermore, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific inhibitor of NF-?B, effectively suppressed SFPS-induced TNF-? and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) secretion in peritoneal macrophages, indicating that SFPS stimulated macrophages to produce cytokines through the NF-?B pathway and the result was further confirmed by the experiment of Western blotting (WB) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Taken together, these results suggest that SFPS-mediated induction of cytokines and NO production in macrophages is mediated, at least in part, by TLRs/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24708959

Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Guoqing; Fan, Sairong; Bian, Manman; Ma, Huijun; Lu, Jianxin; Jin, Liqin



Microgenomic analysis reveals cell type-specific gene expression patterns between ray and fusiform initials within the cambial meristem of Populus.  


The vascular cambium is the meristem in trees that produce wood. This meristem consists of two types of neighbouring initials: fusiform cambial cells (FCCs), which give rise to the axial cell system (i.e. fibres and vessel elements), and ray cambial cells (RCCs), which give rise to rays. There is little molecular information on the mechanisms whereby the differing characteristics of these neighbouring cells are maintained. A microgenomic approach was adopted in which the transcriptomes of FCCs and RCCs dissected out from the cambial meristem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoďdes var. Boelare) were analysed, and a transcriptional database for these two cell types established. Photosynthesis genes were overrepresented in RCCs, providing molecular support for the presence of photosynthetic systems in rays. Genes that putatively encode transporters (vesicle, lipid and metal ion transporters and aquaporins) in RCCs were also identified. In addition, many cell wall-related genes showed cell type-specific expression patterns. Notably, genes involved in pectin metabolism and xyloglucan metabolism were overrepresented in RCCs and FCCs, respectively. The results demonstrate the use of microgenomics to reveal differences in biological processes in neighbouring meristematic cells, and to identify key genes involved in these processes. PMID:18631289

Goué, Nadia; Lesage-Descauses, Marie-Claude; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Magel, Elisabeth; Label, Philippe; Sundberg, Björn



Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.  


Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. PMID:22807338

Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M



A review on delayed presentation of diaphragmatic rupture.  


Diaphragmatic rupture is a life-threatening condition. Diaphragmatic injuries are quite uncommon and often result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Diaphragmatic ruptures are usually associated with abdominal trauma however, it can occur in isolation. Acute traumatic rupture of the diaphragm may go unnoticed and there is often a delay between the injury and the diagnosis. A comprehensive literature search was performed using the terms "delayed presentation of post traumatic diaphragmatic rupture" and "delayed diaphragmatic rupture". The diagnostic and management challenges encountered are discussed, together with strategies for dealing with them. We have focussed on mechanism of injury, duration, presentation and site of injury, visceral herniation, investigations and different approaches for repair. We intend to stress on the importance of delay in presentation of diaphragmatic rupture and to provide a review on the available investigations and treatment methods. The enclosed case report also emphasizes on the delayed presentation, diagnostic challenges and the advantages of laparoscopic repair of delayed diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:19698091

Rashid, Farhan; Chakrabarty, Mallicka M; Singh, Rajeev; Iftikhar, Syed Y



Premature rupture of the membranes: neonatal consequences.  


Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), membrane rupture before the onset of labor, occurs in 2% to 18% of pregnancies. The time from PROM to delivery (latency) is usually less than 48 hours in term pregnancy. Therefore, the risks of PROM at term are related to fetal distress, prolapsed cord, abruptio placenta, and rarely, infection. Preterm PROM (pPROM), PROM before 37 weeks' gestation, accounts for 20% to 40% of PROM, and the incidence is doubled in multiple gestations. The latency period in pPROM is inversely related to the gestational age thereby increasing the risks of oligohydramnios and infection in very premature infants and their mothers. Because pPROM is associated with 30% to 40% of premature births, pPROM is also responsible for the neonatal problems resulting from prematurity. This review examines the impact of PROM on the neonate including fetal distress, prematurity, infection, pulmonary hypoplasia, and restriction deformations. PMID:8912991

Merenstein, G B; Weisman, L E



Fracture of the penis with urethral rupture.  


We report a rare case of penile fracture with incomplete urethral rupture in a 25 years old male who sustained the injury during sexual intercourse. He presented with a tense haematoma on the ventral aspect of the penile shaft, associated with urethral bleeding. Per urethral catheterization was possible though it was painful. Exploration and repair of the penile fracture and urethra were performed within 16 hrs. The patient made an uneventful recovery with good erectile and voiding function. This case illustrates the value of early surgical repair of the fracture in order to prevent complications. The true incidence of penile fracture is not known even in the Western countries because it is under reported or hidden for social embracement and even it is reported to physicians it remains undiagnosed or mismanaged. Very rarely it is associated with urethral rupture. PMID:18285737

Roy, Mk; Matin, Ma; Alam, Mm; Suruzzaman, M; Rahman, Mm



Spontaneous splenic rupture in Plasmodium vivax malaria.  


Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic rupture, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic rupture due to the infection, which requires attention. PMID:25025027

Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo; Lee, Sung Bae



Spontaneous splenic rupture in Plasmodium vivax malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic rupture, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic rupture due to the infection, which requires attention.

Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo



[Traumatic rupture of a horseshoe kidney].  


One-third to one-half of all patients with horseshoe kidney are asymptomatic and the condition is found incidentally. This congenital renal anomaly has shown as a predisponent condition for renal injury in blunt abdominal trauma, but often the degree of injury has a nonoperative therapy. Horseshoe kidney rupture is an exceptional pathology that require a complete diagnostic study to make an adequate management when surgical therapy is indicated. We present a fifteen-year-old male with previously unsuspected horseshoe kidney that suffered an atypical right upper-pole and mesorrenal kidney rupture after low-velocity-impact blunt abdominal trauma. A correct presurgical diagnose let a deferred surgical approach with right lower pole and horseshoe renal isthmus preservation. The trauma conditions, an excesive clinic manifestation, a clinical investigation about known congenital simultaneous anomallies and typical radiological signs, can suggest this infrequent patology. Computed tomography provides the best radiological information. PMID:16838618

Pascual Samaniego, M; Bravo Fernández, I; Ruiz Serrano, M; Ramos Martín, J A; Lázaro Méndez, J; García González, A



Isolated right diaphragmatic rupture following blunt trauma.  


Blunt diaphragmatic injuries are usually caused by blunt trauma or penetrating injuries. The diagnosis may be delayed or missed because of the confusing clinical and radiographic findings and the presence of multiple associated injuries. We report the case of an isolated right diaphragm rupture in a 56-year-old man who sustained blunt thoracic trauma after car accident 2 weeks before presentation. No other injuries were detected, and he was subjected to laparotomy. Diaphragmatic rupture is perceived as an emergency entity. The late appearance of such an injury, without other accompanying injuries, is rare and should be in mind by clinicians treating trauma patients who have a delayed presentation after the injury. PMID:22083696

Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Kouritas, Vasileios K; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Spyridakis, Michalis; Efthimiou, Matheos



Computational model of retinal photocoagulation and rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In patterned scanning laser photocoagulation, shorter duration (< 20 ms) pulses help reduce thermal damage beyond the photoreceptor layer, decrease treatment time and minimize pain. However, safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of rupture threshold power to that of light coagulation) decreases for shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of thermal damage in the retina, and maximize the therapeutic window, we developed a computational model of retinal photocoagulation and rupture. Model parameters were adjusted to match measured thresholds of vaporization, coagulation, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) damage. Computed lesion width agreed with histological measurements in a wide range of pulse durations and power. Application of ring-shaped beam profile was predicted to double the therapeutic window width for exposures in the range of 1 - 10 ms.

Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel



Ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often a devastating condition and a significant cause of worldwide morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Because the percentage of senior citizens is increasing in many countries and because of the increased incidence\\u000a of SAH in elderly patients, ruptured intracranial aneurysm is an increasingly frequent pathology in western countries. Twenty\\u000a years ago, older people were considered to have

Jacques Sedat; Mustapha Dib; David Rasendrarijao; Denys Fontaine; Michel Lonjon; Philippe Paquis



Effects of Apparent Supersonic Ruptures for Strike-slip Rupture: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic rupture could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear rupture, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state rupture simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic rupture, i.e., the deep rupture is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear rupture could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip ruptures on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.

Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.



Multidisciplinary management of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma.  


Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dramatic presentation of the disease. Most published studies are from Asian centers, and North American experience is limited. This study was undertaken to review the experience of ruptured HCC at a North American multidisciplinary unit. Thirty patients presenting with ruptured HCC at a tertiary care center from 1985 to 2004 were studied retrospectively and analyzed according to the demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome in four treatment groups: emergency resection, delayed resection (resection after angiographic embolization), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), and conservative management. Ten, 10, 7, and 3 patients underwent emergency resection, delayed resection, TAE, and conservative treatment, respectively. The mean age of all patients was 57 years, and the mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh score was 7 +/- 2. Cirrhosis was present in 57% of the patients. Seventy percent of tumors were greater than 5 cm in diameter, and 68% of patients had multiple tumors. There was a trend toward higher 30-day mortality in the emergency resection group than in the delayed resection group. One-year survival was significantly better in the delayed resection group. In selected patients, the multidisciplinary approach of angiographic embolization and delayed resection affords better short-term survival than emergency resection. PMID:16504883

Buczkowski, Andrzej K; Kim, Peter T W; Ho, Stephen G; Schaeffer, David F; Lee, Sung I; Owen, David A; Weiss, Alan H; Chung, Stephen W; Scudamore, Charles H



Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a rupture to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and rupture was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (rupture) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.

Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel



Estrogen protects against intracranial aneurysm rupture in ovariectomized mice.  


Clinical observations suggest that postmenopausal women have a higher incidence of aneurysmal rupture than premenopausal women. We hypothesize that a relative deficiency in estrogen may increase the risks of aneurysmal growth and subarachnoid hemorrhage in postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor subtype agonists on the development of aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. We used an intracranial aneurysm mouse model that recapitulates the key features of human intracranial aneurysms, including spontaneous rupture. Ten- to 12-week-old ovariectomized female mice received treatment with estrogen, nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist, estrogen receptor-? agonist, or estrogen receptor-? agonist starting 6 days after aneurysm induction so that the treatments affected the development of aneurysmal rupture without affecting aneurysmal formation. Estrogen significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and rupture rates in ovariectomized mice. Nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist abolished the protective effect of estrogen. Although estrogen receptor-? agonist did not affect the incidence of ruptured aneurysms or rupture rates, estrogen receptor-? agonist prevented aneurysmal rupture without affecting the formation of aneurysms. The protective role of estrogen receptor-? agonist was abolished by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We showed that estrogen prevented aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. The protective effect of estrogen seemed to occur through the activation of estrogen receptor-?, a predominant subtype of estrogen receptor in human intracranial aneurysms and cerebral arteries. PMID:24732889

Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Shikata, Fumiaki; Pena Silva, Ricardo A; Kitazato, Keiko T; Hasan, David M; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki



Morphological Differences between Ruptured and Unruptured Basilar Bifurcation Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background?Aspect ratio (AP), daughter artery ratio (DA), and lateral angle ratio (LA) have been reported in middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms to correlate with rupture status. Objective?To study the differences in AP, DA, LA, and aneurysm orientation between ruptured and unruptured basilar bifurcation aneurysms. Methods?Three-dimensional (3D) angiograms of patients with basilar bifurcation aneurysms were analyzed for AP, DA, and LA. Aneurysm projection was classified as type A if the long axis of aneurysm was along basilar artery and type-B if otherwise. Results?Thirty-one ruptured and 17 unruptured aneurysms were analyzed. The APs were significantly different (p?=?0.008), 2.63?±?1.1 for ruptured aneurysms and 1.7?±?0.55 for unruptured aneurysms. AP???1.9 correlated with rupture status with 68% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Type-A configuration was significantly associated with ruptured aneurysms with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.9. LAs were 0.9?±?0.4 and 1.4?±?0.8 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, respectively, and the difference tended to be significant (p?=?0.56). DAs were 1.25?±?0.22 and 1.21?±?0.19 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms without any statistical difference. Conclusion?AP?>?1.9, type-A configuration, and lower LA is associated with ruptured basilar bifurcation aneurysms. DA did not differ between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms

Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil



Early coagulopathy in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.  


Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with a high mortality despite surgical management. Earlier reports indicate that a major cause of immediate intraoperative death in patients with ruptured AAA is related to hemorrhage due to coagulopathy. Acidosis is, besides hypothermia and hemodilution, a possible cause of coagulopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of coagulopathy and acidosis preoperatively in patients with ruptured AAA in relation to the clinical outcome with special regard to the influence of shock. For this purpose, 95 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for AAA (43 ruptured with shock, 12 ruptured without shock, and 40 nonruptured) were included. Coagulopathy was defined as prothrombin time (international normalized ratio [INR]) ?1.5 and acidosis was defined as base deficit ?6 mmol/L. Mortality and postoperative complications were recorded. The present study shows a state of acidosis at the start of surgery in 30 of 55 patients with ruptured AAA. However, only in 7 of 55 patients with ruptured AAA a state of preoperative coagulopathy was demonstrated. Furthermore, in our patients with shock due to ruptured AAA only 2 of 12 deaths were due to coagulopathy and bleeding. Indeed, our results show a relatively high incidence of thrombosis-related causes of death in patients with ruptured AAA, indicating a relation to an activated coagulation in these patients. These findings indicate that modern emergency management of ruptured AAA has improved in the attempt to prevent fatal coagulopathy. PMID:21733939

Fransson, Maria; Rydningen, Hans; Henriksson, Anders E



The Role of Gamma-Band Activity in the Representation of Faces: Reduced Activity in the Fusiform Face Area in Congenital Prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes an impairment in face processing that is presumably present from birth. The neuronal correlates of this dysfunction are still under debate. In the current paper, we investigate high-frequent oscillatory activity in response to faces in persons with CP. Such neuronal activity is thought to reflect higher-level representations for faces. Methodology Source localization of induced Gamma-Band Responses (iGBR) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to establish the origin of oscillatory activity in response to famous and unknown faces which were presented in upright and inverted orientation. Persons suffering from congenital prosopagnosia (CP) were compared to matched controls. Principal Findings Corroborating earlier research, both groups revealed amplified iGBR in response to upright compared to inverted faces predominately in a time interval between 170 and 330 ms and in a frequency range from 50–100 Hz. Oscillatory activity upon known faces was smaller in comparison to unknown faces, suggesting a “sharpening” effect reflecting more efficient processing for familiar stimuli. These effects were seen in a wide cortical network encompassing temporal and parietal areas involved in the disambiguation of homogenous stimuli such as faces, and in the retrieval of semantic information. Importantly, participants suffering from CP displayed a strongly reduced iGBR in the left fusiform area compared to control participants. Conclusions In sum, these data stress the crucial role of oscillatory activity for face representation and demonstrate the involvement of a distributed occipito-temporo-parietal network in generating iGBR. This study also provides the first evidence that persons suffering from an agnosia actually display reduced gamma band activity. Finally, the results argue strongly against the view that oscillatory activity is a mere epiphenomenon brought fourth by rapid eye-movements (micro saccades).

Dobel, Christian; Junghofer, Markus; Gruber, Thomas



The Energy Budget of Earthquake Rupture: a View From Spontaneous Rupture Modeling and Finite-Source Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a common and frustrating experience of many dynamic modelers to initiate spontaneous rupture calculations that subsequently abort before rupturing to the desired earthquake size [Nielsen and Olsen, 2000; Oglesby and Day, 2002]. Source parameters in such dynamic source models are strongly correlated, but stress drop is the main factor affecting the distribution of the other dynamic rupture parameters. Additionally, the position of the hypocenter exerts a strong influence on the dynamic properties of the earthquake, and certain hypocenter positions are not plausible as those would not lead to spontaneous rupture propagation. To further investigate this last statement, we analyze the energy budget during earthquake rupture using spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations and finite-source rupture models. In describing the energy budget during earthquake rupture, we follow Favreau and Archuleta [2003]. Each point on the fault contributes to the radiated seismic energy Ers = Eel - Efr - Erx, where Eel denotes the elasto-static energy and Efr the fracture energy. In this study we neglect for simplicity the relaxation work Erx spent during the stopping of the earthquake. A rupture can be characterized by locally negative seismic energy density values, but its integral over the fault plane must be positive. The fundamental condition for rupture growth is therefore that the integral of Ers on the rupture area remains always positive during rupture propagation. Based on a simple energy budget calculation, we focus on identifying those target slip/stress distribution in dynamic rupture modeling that for a given hypocenter location fail to rupture spontaneously. Additionally, we study the energy budget of finite-source rupture models by analyzing the integrated seismic energy for the inferred slip maps using also hypocenter positions other than the network location. These results indicate how rupture was promoted for the true hypocenter while randomized hypocenters may not have been able to sustain a large earthquake. Our approach helped us both to speed up the computation of successful spontaneous rupture models, as well as to construct dynamically consistent rupture models for strong motion prediction.

Mai, P.; Guatteri, M.



[Traumatic rupture of the anterior urethra. Apropos of 18 cases].  


The authors report a retrospective series of 18 cases of rupture of the anterior urethra, with a mean age of 25 years (range: 10 to 45 years). The mechanism of the lesion was trauma by falling onto the perineum (12 cases), road accident (4 cases) and sexual intercourse (2 cases). Urine drainage was ensured by suprapubic catheter (15 cases) or urethral catheter (1 case). The two cases of rupture of the urethra associated with lesions of the corpora cavernosa required urgent surgical repair. In the other cases, simple urine drainage was sufficient to treat partial ruptures of the urethra (11 cases) with only one case of urethral structure. However, end-to-end urethrorraphy was performed in the 4 patients with total rupture of the urethra, with early failure in 3 cases, attributed to delayed surgery. Finally, the course of urethral rupture associated with rupture of the corpora, cavernosa was favourable in terms of both micturition and sexual function. PMID:9480639

Trifa, M; Njeh, M; Bahloul, A; Jemal, S; Mhiri, M N



Emergency percutaneous treatment of arterial iliac axis ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency percutaneous treatment of ruptures\\u000a of the iliac axis. In 5 years, we observed 13 patients (mean age, 62.1 years), 11 with rupture of the external iliac artery\\u000a and two with rupture of the common iliac artery (six traumatic and seven iatrogenic). All patients were treated with stent\\u000a grafts.

Domenico Laganŕ; Gianpaolo Carrafiello; Monica Mangini; Andrea Giorgianni; Domenico Lumia; Salvatore Cuffari; Carlo Fugazzola



Indocyanine green angiographic features of traumatic choroidal ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To investigate the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic findings of healed traumatic choroidal ruptures.Methods Three eyes of two patients with choroidal ruptures underwent both fluorescein angiography and ICG angiography with a digital high-resolution system.Results Fundus examination showed healed choroidal ruptures in all three eyes. Two of the eyes had old macular scars and one eye had a recent choroidal neovascular

Ahmet Akman; Sibel Kadayifcilar; Sibel Oto; Pinar Aydin



Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.  


We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus. PMID:24456452

Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K



Partial rupture of the quadriceps muscle in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The quadriceps femoris muscle ruptures usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial rupture of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle rupture. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father

Gokhan Aydemir; Selami Cakmak; Secil Aydinoz



Experimental observation of ruptures propagating on heterogeneous interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental observations of a propagating rupture interacting with one or several mechanical heterogeneities. We developed a friction laboratory experiment where a soft elastic solid slides past a rigid flat plate. The system is coupled to an original medical imaging technique, ultrasound speckle interferometry, that allows observing the rupture dynamics along the interface as well as the emitted elastic shear wavefield into the solid body. We compare the dynamics of propagating rupture for an homogeneous flat interface and for three cases of heterogeneous sliding surfaces: 1) an interface with a single point-like barrier made of a small rock pebble, 2) an interface with a single linear barrier that joins the edges of the faults in a direction perpendicular to slip 3) an interface with multiple barriers disposed on half of its surface area, creating an heterogeneous zone. We obtain experimental observations of dynamic effects that have been predicted by numerical dynamic rupture simulations and provide experimental observations of the following phenomena: a barrier can stop or delay the rupture propagation; a linear single barrier can change the rupture velocity, increasing or decreasing it; we observe transition from subshear to supershear propagation due to the linear barrier; a large heterogeneous area slows down the rupture propagation. We observe a strong variability of the rupture dynamics occurring for identical frictional conditions, that we impute to memory effects caused by the heterogeneity of the stress field due to both the loading conditions and the remaining stress field due to previous rupture events. These experiments therefore confirm previously reported numerical simulations of ruptures along heterogeneous interfaces. When comparing with natural observations or earthquake ruptures, our data provide some phenomenological insights to explain the complexity of the rupture history inferred from the pattern of seismic radiations.

Campillo, M.; Latour, S.; Voisin, C.; Catheline, S.; Renard, F.; Larose, E. F.



Delayed diagnosis of a right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic rupture.  


Right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic rupture in childhood is a very rare injury. Diaphragmatic rupture often manifests itself later, after an organ progressively herniates into the pleural cavity. When the patient is tubed, the ventilation pressure does not allow herniation of an organ, which occurs when the patient is ex-tubed. We present a patient with a delayed diagnose of right sided diaphragmatic rupture with a complicated post-operation state. PMID:24765402

Ku?era, Alexandr; Rygl, Michal; Snajdauf, Ji?í; Kavalcová, Lucie; Petr?, Ond?ej; Ritschelová, Vlasta; Kyn?l, Martin



Capturing Continental Rupture Processes in Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate rupture. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at rupture, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate rupture? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.

Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay



Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA. Methods In a prospective case–control study 199 consecutive patients with SIA (103 females and 96 males, mean age: 43.2 years) received a semistructured face to face interview focusing on past headaches. All were admitted to hospital mostly because of rupture (177) or for unruptured aneurysm (22). In parallel we interviewed 194 blood donors (86 females, 108 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Aneurysms were diagnosed by conventional cerebral angiography. Results During the year before rupture, 124 (62.3%) had one or more types of headache. These headaches included: migraine without aura (MO): 78 (39.2%), migraine with aura (MA): 2 (1%), probable migraine (PM): 4 (2%), tension-type headache (TTH): 39 (19.6%), cluster headache (CH): 2 (1%), posttraumatic headaches (PH): 2 (1%). 1-year prevalence of headaches in controls was 32.5% (63 patients out of 194), they included: TTH: 45 (23.1%), MO: 17(8.8%), PH: 1(0.5%). Only the prevalence of MO was significantly higher in patients with SIA (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.8-11.9, p?



Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical ruptures in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.

Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.



Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.  


Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling



Late sucessful treatment of splenic rupture in a haemophilic boy.  

PubMed Central

The recognition of traumatic splenic rupture in an 11-year-old severely affected haemophilic boy was delayed for over five weeks. Splenectomy was carried out successfully after the demonstration of splenic rupture by an isotope spleen scan. Splenic rupture is difficult to differentiate from more simple causes of retroperitoneal haematomata in haemophiliacs when there is no massive acute peritoneal bleeding, but it may be identified with isotopic spleen scans so long as the possibility of rupture is borne in mind. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4

Gibson, B; Wright, F W; Rizza, C R; Dudley, N E



Spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture: case report and literature review.  


Spontaneous diaphragm rupture is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm rupture is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm rupture with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:23464778

Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh



Subcutaneous Peroneus Longus Tendon Rupture Associated with OS Peroneum Fracture  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon rupture associated with os peroneum fracture. Three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful to understand this disorder. We treated the patient with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the ruptured peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus. Key points In order to understand a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon rupture associated with os peroneum fracture, three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful. The patient was treated with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the ruptured peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus.

Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Kokubu, Takeshi; Makino, Takeshi; Nagura, Issei; Maeda, Toshihisa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Okuno, Hiroaki; Yamagiwa, Tokuyoshi; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi



What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-Rupture Analogies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault rupture accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of rupture propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault rupture. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault rupture, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.


Potential mechanism of annulus rupture during transcatheter aortic valve implantation.  


Although annulus rupture is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the incidence and mechanism of this complication remain unclear. Out of 387 consecutive TAVI cases in our institution, the incidence of annulus rupture was 1.0% (4/387). The first two patients died because of hemodynamic collapse due to tamponade on day 0. Both surviving patients had undergone preprocedural multidetector computed tomography which revealed large calcifications in the epicardial fat part of the aortic annulus. In both cases, annulus rupture occurred after deployment of a balloon expandable valve suggesting that mechanical compression of this "vulnerable area" by calcification may cause annulus rupture. PMID:22718400

Hayashida, Kentaro; Bouvier, Erik; Lefčvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard; Romano, Mauro; Garot, Philippe; Farge, Arnaud; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Cormier, Bertrand



Delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with intrapericardial herniation.  


Thoracic and abdominal blunt traumas are the major causes of diaphragmatic rupture. These ruptures may be recognized at the time of the initial trauma, but are diagnosed months or even years later during the workup for related symptoms. We present herein a patient who suffered from abdominal pain and dyspnea years after a motor vehicle accident. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diaphragmatic rupture with intrapericardial herniation of intraabdominal organs. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis. In this report, we describe our management of this unusual diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:21258833

Cipe, G; Genç, V; Uzun, C; Atasoy, C; Erkek, B



The Repetition of Large-Earthquake Ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events.

Sieh, Kerry



TMI-2 lower head creep rupture analysis  

SciTech Connect

The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against rupture of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep rupture analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.

Thinnes, G.L.



[Aneurysmal rupture complicating aortitis: A case report].  


Tropical aortitis is a rare and poorly described aortic disease, sometimes confounded with Takayasu's disease, mainly in people from Africa. In this case report, the panaortic aneurysmal disease in a young woman from Haiti, first diagnosed after a work-up on renovascular hypertension, would appear to approach this particular arterial disease with no clinical, radiological or biological argument for an infectious etiology. The initially suspected diagnosis of Takayasu's disease had to be rethought because of the presence of several saccular aneurysms extending from the aortic arch to the infrarenal aorta, rarely described in Takayasu's aortitis. Expert opinions from vascular surgeons and clinicians tagged this aortic disease as similar to tropical aortitis which remained asymptomatic for more than a decade. Hypertension was managed with successful balloon angioplasty of the left renal artery stenosis and anti-hypertensive combination therapy. Surgical management of the extended aortic aneurysms was not proposed because of the stability and asymptomatic nature of the aneurysmal disease and the high risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. More than ten years after diagnosis, the course was marked with inaugural and sudden-onset chest pain concomitant with contained rupture of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. This case report underlines the persistent risk of aneurysmal rupture and the importance of an anatomopathological study for the diagnosis of complex aortic disease. PMID:24637031

Yannoutsos, A; Mercier, O; Messas, E; Safar, M E; Blacher, J



[Spontaneous splenic rupture in acute malaria tropica].  


A 44-year-old man developed bouts of fever (up to 40 degrees C) seven days after returning from a holiday in Kenya. Malaria prophylaxis with chloroquine had been correctly undertaken. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin were raised (493 U/l and 3.55 mg/dl, respectively). Blood smear revealed the ring forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Thereupon the patient was given mefloquine in decreasing doses (750/500/250 mg) at intervals of 8 hours. The following night he had a circulatory collapse and complained of pain on pressure, especially in the left upper abdomen. Abdominal sonography showed a slightly enlarged spherical spleen with an echo-poor band and fluid collection in the rectovesicular pouch, indicating rupture of the spleen. A splenectomy was performed. Subsequently the number of malaria organisms in the blood smear gradually fell and signs of haemolysis disappeared. Splenic rupture is a very rare complication of acute malaria. It is presumably caused by marked stasis in the splenic sinuses with deformed parasite-containing red blood cells. PMID:1597109

Falk, S; Protz, H; Köbrich, U; Stutte, H J



Acute Achilles tendon rupture in badminton players.  


All patients with badminton-related acute Achilles tendon ruptures registered during 1990 to 1994 at the University Hospital of Umeĺ were retrospectively followed up using a questionnaire. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 years), 27 men and 4 women, were included. Thirty patients (97%) described themselves as recreational players or beginners. The majority of the injuries (29 of 31, 94%) happened at the middle or end of the planned game. Previous local symptoms had been noticed by five patients (16%). Long-term results showed that patients treated with surgery had a significantly shorter sick leave absence than patients treated without surgery (50 versus 75 days). There was no obvious selection favoring any treatment modality. None of the surgically treated patients had reruptures, but two reruptures occurred in the nonsurgically treated group. There seemed to be fewer remaining symptoms and a higher sports activity level after the injury in the surgically treated group. Our results indicate that local muscle fatigue may interfere with strength and coordination. Preventive measures such as specific treatment of minor injuries and adequate training of strength, endurance, and coordination are important. Our findings also indicate that surgical treatment and careful postoperative rehabilitation is of great importance among badminton players of any age or sports level with Achilles tendon rupture. PMID:9617415

Fahlström, M; Björnstig, U; Lorentzon, R



Rupture of the myocardium. Occurrence and risk factors.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of myocardial rupture was studied in a well defined unselected population of patients with acute myocardial infarction, and the group of patients who died of rupture of the heart were compared with two control groups. Of a total of 3960 patients, 1746 (44%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction. Rupture was defined solely on the basis of the presence of a pathological passage through part of the myocardium, either the free wall of the left ventricle or the septum, found at necropsy or during operation. Two controls were selected for each patient and matched for age and sex, one (control group A) with acute myocardial infarction having died in hospital but not of rupture (non-rupture cardiac death) and one (control group B) with acute myocardial infarction having survived the hospital stay. Necropsy was performed in 75% of all fatal cases with acute myocardial infarction. The total hospital mortality was 19%, the highest mortality being among women over 70 years (29%). Ruptures (n = 56) were found in 17% of the hospital deaths, or 3.2% of all cases of acute myocardial infarction. Women aged less than 70 had the highest incidence of rupture, 42% of deaths being due to rupture. The mean age for patients with rupture and controls was 70.5 years. The median time after admission to death was approximately 50 hours for patients and control group A. Thirty per cent of the patients with rupture occurred within 24 hours of the initial symptoms occurring. Angina and previous acute myocardial infarction were more common among control group A. Patients with rupture and control group B were mostly relatively free of previous cardiovascular or other diseases (chronic angina pectoris ( > 2 months) and previous myocardial infarction). Sustained hypertension during admission to the coronary care unit was more common in patients than in control group A. Hypotension and shock were more common among control group A. Most (79%) of the patients who subsequently ruptured did not receive any corticosteroids at all during the hospital stay. Severe heart failure and antiarrhythmic treatment were more uncommon among patients than among control group A. Patients with rupture received analgesics approximately three times a day throughout their stay. Control group B received analgesics mostly during the first 24 hours. Thus female patients, patients with first infarcts, and patients with sustained chest pain should be investigated for the possibility of rupture. As many as one third (32%) of ruptures may be subacute, and therefore time is available for diagnosis and surgery.

Dellborg, M; Held, P; Swedberg, K; Vedin, A



Rupture velocity inferred from near-field differential ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of the rupture propagation is a fundamental source parameter that strongly affects ground motion. It is commonly assessed from kinematic inversion of strong-motion or teleseismic data, sometimes combined with InSar and/or GPS data. The obtained rupture velocity remains inevitably affected by uncertainties, mainly due to imperfect knowledge of the earth structure and tradeoffs between different source parameters. In this study we show how the analysis of differential ground-motion may help constraining the rupture velocity, without a priori information about the earth velocity structure. Our analysis is based on synthetic ground-motion simulations (0-2 Hz) for vertical strike-slip earthquakes propagating unilaterally at a fixed rupture velocity in a homogeneous elastic medium covered with a 1 km-thick low velocity layer (shear wave velocity equal to 1 km/s). We show that when the rupture reaches the bottom of the shallow layer, the phase velocity of transverse waves measured in the forward rupture direction up to a few rupture lengths is equal to the rupture velocity, for a large range of frequencies. The comparison with the phase velocity obtained for a point source then enables to retrieve the value of the rupture velocity. The phase velocity is simply computed from the ratio between the ground velocity and the shear strain or the rotation about a vertical axis. This study points out the utility of setting up dense arrays at the vicinity of major faults to retrieve rupture features such as the rupture velocity.

Causse, Mathieu; Cornou, Cécile; Bécasse, Julie; Bouchon, Michel



How is a stick slip rupture initiated?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic rupture started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic rupture initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain amount of time; it does not seem a smooth transition process from the acceleration to the seismic rupture as proposed in Ohnaka and Shen (1999, JGR). In contrast, under low normal stress case (LB04-003, 2.7MPa), there were no visible nucleation phases but a sequence of foreshocks was observed, which was not dominant in LB04-005. The foreshock slip area was typically around 10cm long. Again, we could not see any visible correlation between the location and preceding time of foreshocks and that of seismic rupture initiation. By looking at the fault surface topography that was recorded as photograph images before and after the experiment, in the nucleation zone, grooves are not developed, while outside the nucleation area, grooves are well developed. Grooves are caused by the creation of gouge particles during the sliding. It could be interesting to note that outside the groove, the sliding surface looks very smooth and shiny, indicating that this area was polished but did not create gouge particles. Therefore, we might speculate that this shiny fault area is responsible for the initiation phase and when the stress state becomes critical, seismic rupture starts around one of the grooves. And in LB04-003, the shiny area might not support the shear stress so that the foreshock releases the strain around the grooves.

Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.



Resting-state fMRI reveals functional connectivity between face-selective perirhinal cortex and the fusiform face area related to face inversion.  


Studies examining the neural correlates of face perception and recognition in humans have revealed multiple brain regions that appear to play a specialized role in face processing. These include an anterior portion of perirhinal cortex (PrC) that appears to be homologous to the face-selective 'anterior face patch' recently reported in non-human primates. Electrical stimulation studies in the macaque indicate that the anterior face patch is strongly connected with other face-selective patches of cortex, even in the absence of face stimuli. The intrinsic functional connectivity of face-selective PrC and other regions of the face-processing network in humans are currently less well understood. Here, we examined resting-state fMRI connectivity across five face-selective regions in the right hemisphere that were identified with separate functional localizer scans: the PrC, amygdala (Amg), superior temporal sulcus, fusiform face area (FFA), and occipital face area. A partial correlation technique, controlling for fluctuations in occipitotemporal cortex that were not face specific, revealed connectivity between the PrC and the FFA, as well as the Amg. When examining the 'unique' connectivity of PrC within this face processing network, we found that the connectivity between the PrC and the FFA as well as that between the PrC and the Amg persisted even after controlling for potential mediating effects of other face-selective regions. Lastly, we examined the behavioral relevance of PrC connectivity by examining inter-individual differences in resting-state fluctuations in relation to differences in behavioral performance for a forced-choice recognition memory task that involved judgments on upright and inverted faces. This analysis revealed a significant correlation between the increased accuracy for upright faces (i.e., the face inversion effect) and the strength of connectivity between the PrC and the FFA. Together, these findings point to a high degree of functional integration of face-selective aspects of PrC in the face processing network with notable behavioral relevance. PMID:24531049

O'Neil, Edward B; Hutchison, R Matthew; McLean, D Adam; Köhler, Stefan



Posttraumatic free intraperitoneal rupture of liver cystic echinococcosis: a case series and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA serious complication of cystic echinococcus (CE) is the rupture of the cysts. Free intra-abdominal rupture occurs in approximately 3.2% of all cases. Posttraumatic rupture of liver CE is very rare.

Gurkan Ozturk; Bulent Aydinli; M. Ilhan Yildirgan; Mahmut Basoglu; S. Selcuk Atamanalp; K. Yalcin Polat; Fatih Alper; Bulent Guvendi; M. Nuran Akcay; Durkaya Oren



Endovascular repair of spontaneous or traumatic iliac vein rupture.  


Spontaneous rupture of the iliac vein and rupture resulting from blunt trauma are both very unusual. Herein one case of each are reported and were managed by emergent endovascular repair with use of covered stents. Favorable outcomes were achieved in both cases. PMID:15297589

Zieber, Steven R; Mustert, Bryan R; Knox, Michael F; Fedeson, Brian C



Liposome rupture and contents release over coplanar microelectrode arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of vesicles to electroporation and rupture by externally applied electric fields, combined with the ability of dielectrophoresis and\\/or AC electroosmosis to manipulate suspended vesicles over micropatterned electrodes suggests new techniques to electrically trigger localized chemical reactions at predetermined positions in microfluidic devices. The electric field conditions needed to rupture giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were determined as a function

Jit Kang Lim; Hao Zhou; Robert D. Tilton



Traumatic rupture of the aortic isthmus: An emergency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to explore the hypotheses that: (1) patients with traumatic rupture of the aortic isthmus (TRA) who have not exsanguinated into the pleural cavity upon hospital presentation are unilikely to develop rupture of the hematoma during the time necessary to investigate all injuries and attend to those of more immediate danger; and (2) appropriate medical

James W. Pate; Timothy C. Fabian; William Walker



Comparing Two Methods of Identifying Alliance Rupture Events.  


This study compared two methods of detecting ruptures in therapy sessions, a procedure based on a self-report measure, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an observational Rupture Resolution Rating System (3RS). We anticipated that the 3RS would detect more ruptures than the WAI. We examined the longitudinal data of 38 patient-therapist dyads in a cognitive-behavioral therapy condition. The sample included cases that did not complete treatment (dropped cases) as well as good-outcome and poor-outcome cases. At the end of each session, patients completed the WAI self-report questionnaire. Six judges were trained to observe and detect the occurrence of ruptures, and then rated 201 videotaped sessions. Longitudinal statistical models were applied to the data retrieved from the WAI questionnaires completed by patients. We found discrepancies in the ability of the two methods to detect rupture events with the observational 3RS detecting more ruptures than the WAI. Thus, the use of observational systems for the detection of alliance ruptures is crucial for effectively assessing the quality of the therapeutic alliance over the course of treatment. Furthermore, observational systems proven to detect ruptures can be used to improve clinical practice and training of new clinicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23668940

Coutinho, Joana; Ribeiro, Eugénia; Sousa, Inęs; Safran, Jeremy D



Delayed rupture of renal artery after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty  

SciTech Connect

Two cases are reported in which rupture of the renal artery occurred many hours after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Delayed rupture can be recognized by the angiographic appearance and by the presence of persistent flank pain. The typical angiographic finding is a poorly defined zone of contrast medium at the site of perforation.

Puijlaert, C.B.A.J.; Mali, W.P.; Rosenbusch, G.; van Straalen, A.M.; Klinge, J.; Feldberg, M.A.M.



Tracheal rupture in a cat: Diagnosis by computed tomography  

PubMed Central

A cat was presented with a history of worsening generalized subcutaneous emphysema following dental prophylaxis. Tentative diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made. The location and extent of the tear was confirmed with the help of computed tomography. This is the 1st computed tomographic description of tracheal rupture in the veterinary literature.

Bhandal, Jitender; Kuzma, Alan



Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration  

PubMed Central

Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1

Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.



Spontaneous splenic rupture caused by Babesia microti infection.  


Babesiosis has not been previously associated with spontaneous splenic rupture. We describe an otherwise healthy 61-year-old man with symptomatic babesiosis whose spleen ruptured during hospitalization. Although this complication is rare, practitioners who commonly treat patients with babesiosis should be aware of its potential occurrence. PMID:18419430

Kuwayama, David P; Briones, Renato J



Traumatic rupture of right hemidiaphragm in a child.  


Acute right-sided diaphragmatic ruptures are rare in children. We report a case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic rupture in a child that was managed by delayed repair. The clinical presentation and importance of making an accurate diagnosis and confirmation of any associated visceral injury before definitive surgery is highlighted. PMID:17160782

Antao, B; Lansdale, N; Shawis, R



Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine rupture rates in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine rupture rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine rupture rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models

Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn



Prevalence of silicone breast implant rupture among Danish women.  


The durability of silicone gel-filled breast implants is of concern, but there are few epidemiological studies on this issue. To date, most of the relevant findings are derived from studies of explantation, which suffer from bias by including women with symptoms or concerns about their implants. As part of a long-term magnetic resonance imaging study of the incidence of rupture, this study involved 271 women with 533 cosmetic breast implants who were randomly selected from among women who underwent cosmetic breast implantation from 1973 through 1997 at one public and three private plastic-surgery clinics in Denmark. The prevalence of rupture was determined from the first magnetic resonance screening. The images were evaluated by four independent readers, using a standardized, validated form. The outcomes under study were rupture, possible rupture, and intact implant. Ruptures were categorized as intracapsular or extracapsular. Overall, 26 percent of implants in 36 percent of the women examined were found to be ruptured, and an additional 6 percent were possibly ruptured. Of the ruptured implants, 22 percent were extracapsular. In multiple regression analyses, age of implant was significantly associated with rupture among second- and third-generation implants, with a 12-fold increased prevalence odds ratio for rupture of implants that were between 16 and 20 years of age, compared with implants between 3 and 5 years of age. Surgitek implants (Medical Engineering Corporation, Racine, Wis.) had a significantly increased prevalence odds ratio of 2.6 for rupture, compared with the reference implants. No significant association was found with the position (subglandular or submuscular) or the type of implant (single- or double-lumen). Extracapsular ruptures were significantly associated with a history of closed capsulotomy (p = 0.001). In the future, the authors plan to examine the women in their cohort with a second magnetic resonance imaging scan to establish the incidence of rupture, a parameter unknown to date in the literature, and to further characterize those factors associated with the actual risk of rupture. PMID:11547138

Hölmich, L R; Kjřller, K; Vejborg, I; Conrad, C; Sletting, S; McLaughlin, J K; Fryzek, J; Breiting, V; Jřrgensen, A; Olsen, J H



Do All Large Strike-slip Earthquakes Have Supershear Ruptures?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the rupture speeds of earthquakes is of broad interesting for earthquake research because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes. Also rupture speed is a key observation for understanding the controlling stresses and friction during an earthquake, yet the speed and its variations are usually difficult to determine. Using only far-field seismic waveforms, which is the only data available for many large earthquakes, there are problems for estimating the rupture speed with standard waveform inversions, due to trade-off between the rupture speed and the slip location. Here we applied a back projection method to estimate the rupture speeds of Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes since 2001 which could be analyzed using Hi-net in Japan. We found that all events had very fast average rupture speeds of 3.0-6.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally rupture with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s. Considering the depth-dependent shear-wave velocity, the average propagation speeds for all of the strike-slip events are closer to or greater than the shear wave velocity (Figure 1). For large strike-slip events, transition from subshear to supershear usually occurs within distances of 15 to 30 km from the initiation, which is probably the reason for the scarcity of observed supershear earthquakes for smaller magnitudes. Earthquakes with supershear ruptures can cause more damage than events with subshear ruptures because of the concentration of energy in the forward direction of the rupture. Numerical modeling shows strong focusing and other effects of energy at the rupture front which can intensify the ground motions. A recent example is the April 13, 2010 Qinghai, China earthquake (Mw 6.9), where a moderate-size event caused extensive damage in the Yushu region at the southeastern end of the fault. Careful evaluation of long and straight strike-slip faults should be emphasized for predicting strong ground motions due to supershear rupture. a: Average rupture speeds for Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes. For comparison, dip-slip earthquakes are also shown. The blue dashed line presents the S wave velocity model of PREM for comparison. b: Rupture velocities are shown as ratio to the local S wave velocity, as a function of depth.

Wang, D.; Mori, J. J.; Koketsu, K.



Contained Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the free wall of the left ventricle occurs in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts and accounts for approximately 20% of the total mortality of patients with myocardial infractions. Relatively few cases are diagnosed before death. Several distinct clinical forms of ventricular free wall rupture have been identified. Sudden rupture with massive hemorrhage into the pericardium is the most common form; in a third of the cases, the course is subacute with slow and sometimes repetitive hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms generally occur as a consequence of left ventricular free wall rupture covered by a portion of pericardium, in contrast to a true aneurysm, which is formed of myocardial tissue. Here, we report a case of contained left ventricular free wall rupture following myocardial infarction.

Shiyovich, Arthur; Nesher, Lior



Delayed hepatothorax due to right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic rupture.  


We present a 48-year-old man with delayed hepatothorax due to right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. An initial chest radiograph showed no specific signs except elevation of the right diaphragmatic border. The diagnosis was confirmed by coronal reformatted helical computed tomography (CT) imaging, which revealed intrathoracic displacement of the liver. A follow-up chest radiograph revealed gradual elevation of the right diaphragmatic border, suggesting worsening of the diaphragmatic rupture and progression of hepatothorax, resulting in severe atelectasis of the right lung. Therefore, surgical repair of the diaphragmatic rupture was performed. Impaction of the liver through the diaphragmatic ruptured region was observed. Chest radiographic examination after the operation revealed a more normal position of the right diaphragmatic border and resolution of the right lung atelectasis. The problems associated with the diagnosis and operative treatment of hepatothorax with right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures are discussed in the light of this case report. PMID:18018610

Igai, Hitoshi; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Kumagai, Kazumi; Yamashita, Susumu; Kawakita, Kenya; Kuroda, Yasuhiro



Rupture of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and ruptured de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the rupture of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm.

Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon



Poroelastic Bimaterial Effects in Rupture Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mismatch of elastic properties across a fault induces normal stress changes during spatially nonuniform slip. Recently, Rudnicki and Rice (2006) showed that similar effects follow from a mismatch of poroelastic properties (e.g., permeability) within fluid-saturated damage fringes along the fault walls; those induce changes in pore pressure on the slip plane and hence changes in effective normal stress during slip. The sign of both changes can be either positive or negative, and they need not agree. Both signs reverse when the rupture propagates in the opposite direction, introducing asymmetry into the rupture process. We model a poroelastic fault zone cut by a planar fault separating regions of potentially different poroelastic properties. Slip compresses one side of the fault while dilating the opposite side. The resulting undrained pore pressure change is of opposite sign across the fault, and pore fluid diffuses to ensure continuity of pore pressure and fluid flux across the fault. Pore pressure on the fault decreases if the compressive side is less permeable (all other quantities being equal) and vice-versa. The poroelastic properties are measured over the hydraulic diffusion length, generally of order a few millimeters in well-sheared fault core cataclasite for a slip duration of a few seconds. (Poroelastic effects are essentially negligible on that time scale at greater distances from the fault because of vastly smaller pore pressure gradients; the material responds there like a classical elastic solid with moduli based on undrained poroelastic response.) Steady sliding of two half-spaces (neglecting shear heating) with identical elastic properties but a mismatch in poroelastic properties is unstable to perturbations for all non-zero values of the friction coefficient and Skempton's coefficient. The growth rate is proportional to the wavenumber of the perturbation, rendering this problem ill-posed in a manner similar to that for elastic mismatch. When both elastic and poroelastic properties are discontinuous across the fault, sliding is unstable for arbitrarily small friction coefficients if the elastic mismatch permits the existence of a generalized Rayleigh wave. When the poroelastic effect opposes the elastic bimaterial effect, there exists a critical parameter set at which the effects precisely balance and sliding is neutrally stable. The propagation direction of the unstable mode reverses across this critical state. For a large elastic mismatch, the generalized Rayleigh wave goes out of existence and sliding is stabilized for friction coefficients less than some critical value; this value is altered by the poroelastic response. This stability analysis is augmented by calculations of spontaneous ruptures on slip-weakening faults across which elastic and poroelastic properties may be discontinuous. Prakash-Clifton regularization permits convergent solutions in the otherwise ill-posed regime. The numerical method is validated by comparison to analytical solutions for the rupture of a line asperity between dissimilar elastic solids in frictionless contact (Harris and Day, 1997) and for a self-similar crack between identical elastic solids but with a mismatch in poroelastic properties.

Dunham, E. M.; Rice, J. R.



Ruptured Rathke cleft cyst mimicking pituitary apoplexy.  


Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign cystic lesions of the sellar and suprasellar region that are asymptomatic in most cases. Occasionally, compression of the optic pathway and hypothalamo-pituitary structures may cause clinical symptoms, such as headaches, visual deficits and endocrinopathies. Acute presentation caused by hemorrhage into an RCC have been described in the literature, and the term "Rathke cleft cyst apoplexy" has been coined. We present the case of a 32-year-old man with acute onset of meningitis-type symptoms and imaging findings resembling hemorrhagic pituitary tumor apoplexy. In retrospect, clinical symptoms, intraoperative appearance, and histologic examination were compatible with the diagnosis of nonhemorrhagic rupture of an RCC. Thus, the clinical presentation of "Rathke cleft cyst apoplexy" is not necessarily caused by hemorrhage. PMID:23696292

Neidert, Marian Christoph; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Leske, Henning; Möller-Goede, Diane; Pangalu, Athina; Schmid, Christoph; Bernays, René-Ludwig



Disorganisation: a model for 'early amnion rupture'?  


The hypothesis of an intrinsic defect of germ plasma put forward by Streeter to explain the abnormalities observed in 'amniotic bands sequence' (ABS) was not supported by Torpin, who suggested that the bands derived from early amnion rupture, with formation of mesodermal strings and naked chorion, which then constricted or adhered to fetal parts. Recently, several authors have recorded and discussed possible mechanisms for 'non-band related' malformations in patients with otherwise typical limb constrictions and amputations. The mouse mutant disorganisation (Ds) is a semidominant with 72% of heterozygotes manifesting abnormalities, which include cranioschisis, limb duplications and deficiencies, gastro/thoracoschisis, and papillae protruding from other parts of the body. We report similar abnormalities including papillae in five fetuses and one newborn with ABS and, based on these observations and published reports, we suggest that a human homologue for Ds may be the cause of at least some examples of ABS. PMID:2746613

Donnai, D; Winter, R M



The untreated anterior cruciate ligament rupture.  


Forty-nine patients (52 knees) with untreated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures were evaluated an average of 14 years after injury. The results were compared with those of a ten-year follow-up study on the same patients. Eighty-six percent of the knees had one or both menisci removed. There had been little change in symptoms, except that the incidence of giving way had decreased. The incidence of anterior laxity and rotary instability continued to be high. Seventy-five percent of the patients continued to participate in strenuous sports. The incidence of degenerative changes on roentgenograms had increased, with one-third of the knees demonstrating joint space narrowing or unequivocal evidence of osteoarthritis. Development of degenerative changes was associated with varus deformity, meniscectomy, and relatively heavy body weight. PMID:6821986

McDaniel, W J; Dameron, T B



Marked pathological changes proximal and distal to the site of rupture in acute Achilles tendon ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features of the macroscopically intact portion of the Achilles\\u000a tendon in patients undergoing surgery for an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon. Tendon samples were harvested from 29 individuals\\u000a (21 men, 8 women; mean age: 46 ± 12) who underwent repair of an Achilles tendon tear tear, and from 11 male patients who

Nicola MaffulliUmile; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Gayle D. Maffulli; Carla Rabitti; Anil Khanna; Vincenzo Denaro



Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture: associated injuries and outcome.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective case note analysis was performed on all patients treated for traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR) at a major teaching hospital between January 1990 and August 1998. Patients were identified from the prospectively maintained UK Trauma and Research Network Database. Of the 480 cases of torso trauma admitted during the study period, 16 (3.3%) had TDR. Blunt trauma accounted for 13 (81%) of the injuries. A radiological pre-operative diagnosis was made in 10 (62.5%) patients. Seven of these were made on initial chest radiography, two on ultrasound scan and one on computed tomography. All patients underwent a midline laparotomy and TDR was subsequently diagnosed at operation in 6 patients. The left hemidiaphragm was ruptured in 14 (87.5%) patients and there was visceral herniation in 8 (50%). Twelve patients with blunt trauma had associated abdominal and extra-abdominal injuries, but only one of the three patients with penetrating trauma had other injuries. The median Injury Severity Score (range) was 21 (9-50). The median time (range) spent on the intensive care unit was 2 days (0-35 days). Pulmonary complications occurred in 7 (44%) patients. Two (12.5%) patients died from associated head injuries. TDR results from blunt and penetrating torso trauma, is uncommon, rarely occurs in isolation and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion makes early diagnosis more likely as initial physical and radiological signs may be lacking. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 (A) Figure 3 (B)

Simpson, J.; Lobo, D. N.; Shah, A. B.; Rowlands, B. J.



Creep and rupture of an ods alloy with high stress rupture ductility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by ?' precipitates, was studied at 760 °C and 1093 °C. At both temperatures the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional ?' strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

McAlarney, Mona E.; Arons, Richard M.; Howson, Tim E.; Tien, John K.; Baranow, Sanford



Role of Fault Branches in Earthquake Rupture Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the main fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work [Poliakov et al., 2002, Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004] emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming rupture velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the rupture would follow the branch or continue on the main fault or both, through simulations which did not let a rupture on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called "infinite" branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with rupture being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic rupture front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate ruptures on adjacent fault segments [Harris and Day, 1983, Harris et al., 2001,Fliss et al., 2004, among others]. We thus anticipate interaction between the rupture on the main fault and the branched one at two stages, namely, when the rupture is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general rupture termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the main fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases that whereas an infinite branch would have allowed (or stopped) rupture propagation on the main fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the main fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion records. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when rupture is terminated on a branch.

Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Olives, M.; Rice, J. R.



Role of fault branches in earthquake rupture dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the main fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work (Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004) emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming rupture velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the rupture would follow the branch or continue on the main fault or both, through simulations which did not let a rupture on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called `infinite' branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with rupture being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic rupture front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate or terminate ruptures on adjacent fault segments (Harris et al., 1991; Harris and Day, 1993, 1999; Harris et al., 2002; Fliss et al., 2005, among others). We thus anticipate interaction between the rupture on the main fault and the branched one at two stages, when the rupture is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general rupture termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the main fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases, that whereas an infinite' branch would have allowed (or stopped) rupture propagation on the main fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the main fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion record. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when rupture is terminated on a branch.

Bhat, Harsha S.; Olives, Marion; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.



Liposome rupture and contents release over coplanar microelectrode arrays.  


The vulnerability of vesicles to electroporation and rupture by externally applied electric fields, combined with the ability of dielectrophoresis and/or AC electroosmosis to manipulate suspended vesicles over micropatterned electrodes suggests new techniques to electrically trigger localized chemical reactions at predetermined positions in microfluidic devices. The electric field conditions needed to rupture giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were determined as a function of vesicle size in a simple coplanar microelectrode array geometry. Rupture results were interpreted in terms of the spatially varying electric field strength, calculated via the Poisson equation and accounting for frequency effects on electrode impedance, and the experimentally measured vesicle elevation. The vesicle transmembrane voltage scales linearly with the applied electric field strength according to the Schwan theory of electroporation, so that larger vesicles are usually more prone to electric field induced rupture than smaller ones in the uniform electric fields that are typically employed to cause electroporation and rupture. Yet, in the coplanar microelectrode arrangement, larger vesicles preferentially reside at larger elevations where the local field strengths are weaker. As a result, there is a sensitive range of vesicle radii that are most prone to electric field induced rupture over a micropatterned electrode array that leaves the largest vesicles resistant to rupture. PMID:19136117

Lim, Jit Kang; Zhou, Hao; Tilton, Robert D



Effect of Time-dependent Rupture on Tsunami Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic rupture. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent rupture behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion rupture on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor rupture by performing a parametric study of varying speed and rupture direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-rupture state to a post-rupture final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.

Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.



Solving for Earthquake Rupture Rates on a Complex Fault Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from an inverse method that solves for the long-term rate of all ruptures on the major mapped faults in California. This method is being developed for the 3rd Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3). Building on the work of Andrews and Schwerer (2000), we solve for the rates of ruptures that are consistent with a) slip-rate constraints, b) paleoseismic event rates, and optional constraints such as c) a-priori rupture rate estimates, d) smoothness constraints, and e) constraints on the magnitude distribution. These constraints are linear, and allow us to formulate the system of equations as a matrix equation. Multiple solutions to the inverse problem are then sampled via a simulated annealing algorithm, which is important in terms of characterizing epistemic uncertainties. Using this inversion methodology, the ruptures themselves (or more specifically, the portions of the faults involved in each rupture) must be specified a priori. This requires generating simple rules to describe which faults or fault segments can rupture together in a single earthquake. We discuss possible criteria and their effect on the size of the solution space and the characteristics of the solution.

Page, M. T.; Field, E. H.



Gastric rupture in horses: 50 cases (1979-1987).  


A computer-based search was conducted of medical and necropsy records of horses admitted to the teaching hospital from Jan 1, 1979, to Dec 31, 1987, to obtain the records of all horses admitted to the hospital for colic and subsequently found to have gastric rupture. Fifty cases of gastric rupture were found. The records were reviewed to obtain data regarding peritoneal fluid analysis. Cell counts of these samples were often erroneous because debris and clumps of bacteria were counted when most WBC were lysed. A cross-sectional study of gastric rupture cases versus all other colic cases regarding season of admission revealed that there was no association between season and the occurrence of gastric rupture. There was also no increased risk associated with age, gender, breed, and the occurrence of gastric rupture. One hundred colic cases, matched with the gastric rupture cases by year of admission, were randomly selected via a table of random numbers. A questionnaire regarding age, breed, gender, use of the horse, housing, diet, water source, deworming schedule, and medical history was completed from the medical records and phone conversations with the horse owners. The results indicated that horses on a diet of grass hay or grass/alfalfa hay only or those that drank water from a bucket, stream, or pond were at increased risk for having gastric rupture. In contrast, horses fed grain had a reduced risk. PMID:2298661

Kiper, M L; Traub-Dargatz, J; Curtis, C R



Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films.  


Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal. PMID:20535206

Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A



Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin



Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in the First Trimester: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uterine rupture is one of the most feared obstetric complications affecting the pregnant woman and fetus. Most of the cases have various risk factors and mainly occur during the second or third trimester. However, spontaneous uterine rupture during the first trimester is extremely rare. We experienced a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a 36-yr-old multiparous woman without definite risk factors. The initial impression was a hemoperitoneum of an unknown origin with normal early pregnancy. Intensive surgical method would be needed for accurate diagnosis and immediate management in bad situation by hemoperitoneum even though a patient was early pregnancy.

Ryu, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-In; Park, Moon-Il



Minimum Energy Path to Membrane Pore Formation and Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated rupture may be an important factor for the low rupture strains observed in lipid membranes.

Ting, Christina L.; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang



Minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture.  


We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated rupture may be an important factor for the low rupture strains observed in lipid membranes. PMID:21599415

Ting, Christina L; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang



Best approach for the repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures  

PubMed Central

The preferred treatment of distal biceps tendon ruptures is by operative repair. However, the best approach for repair (single vs double incision) is still subject of debate. Grewal and colleagues recently presented the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating two different surgical approaches for the repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures. Despite the fact that this article currently presents the highest level of evidence for the surgical repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures, we have some comments on the study that might be interesting to discuss. We think that some of the results and conclusions presented in this study need to be interpreted in the light of these comments.

Kodde, Izaak F; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Eygendaal, Denise



Endovascular occlusion of a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm.  


Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common of the peripheral aneurysms. Rupture is a rare complication of these aneurysms. Here we present a case of a ruptured popliteal aneurysm in a patient with severe joint disease and immobility due to rheumatoid arthritis. The condition was treated endovascularly with an Amplatzer arterial occlusion device. The aneurysm was successfully thrombosed without inducing critical limb ischemia, as the distal popliteal was chronically occluded. Ligation of peripheral aneurysms is an infrequent treatment without simultaneous bypass graft placement. Endovascular occlusion of ruptured popliteal aneurysms should be considered a valid therapeutic strategy where exclusion bypass is not required due to distal arterial occlusion. PMID:20356867

Smith, R J Paul; Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Winterbottom, Andrew P; Cooper, David G; Hayes, Paul D; Boyle, Jonathan R



Splenic rupture associated with primary CMV infection, AMSAN, and IVIG.  


Splenic rupture is a rare complication of primary cytomegalovirus infection, but has not been reported after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin or in the setting of the Guillain-Barré syndrome and its many variants, which often lead to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. There is strong evidence that intravenous immunoglobulin causes sequestration of erythrocytes in the spleen and extravascular hemolytic anemia. This may result in a two-hit scenario that clinicians should be aware of, where a patient who is at risk for splenic rupture due to primary cytomegalovirus infection receives intravenous immunoglobulin as treatment for the cytomegalovirus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome, further increasing their risk of rupture. PMID:24856574

de Havenon, Adam; Davis, Gary; Hoesch, Robert



Subretinal neovascularization following ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm: case report.  


A 51-year-old black woman was referred to our Retina Clinic for evaluation of loss of vision in her left eye. She was previously diagnosed with a ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurism (RAM) in the same eye. The ophthalmoscopic examination of the affected eye disclosed a subretinal lesion with some hemorrhage and exudation in the same area previously diagnosed with ruptured RAM. Fluorescein angiography revealed a gradually hyperfluorescent net of vessels located in the subfoveal region, consistent with the diagnosis of subretinal neovascular membrane. In this paper we stress the possibility of subretinal neovascularization following a ruptured RAM, even as a rare event. PMID:17906769

Vianna, Raul N G; Kassuga, Augusto; Onofre, Gabriela; Ecard, Virginia; Burnier, Miguel N



The rupture of a single liquid aluminium alloy film.  


The present study is based on the idea of understanding the rupture of films in metal foams by studying free standing metallic films as a model system. Liquid dynamics, the velocity of the rupturing material as well as the behaviour of ceramic particles inside the melt were analysed optically ex situ and by synchrotron X-ray radiography in situ. It was found that the resistance of films to rupture is mainly based on the interaction between solid particles and an immobile oxide skin, the formation of which depends on the oxygen content of the surrounding atmosphere and the presence of magnesium. PMID:24854899

Heim, K; García-Moreno, F; Vinod Kumar, G S; Rack, A; Banhart, J



Spontaneous choledochal cyst rupture in pregnancy with concomitant chronic pancreatitis.  


Choledochal cysts are rare cystic transformations of the biliary tree that are increasingly diagnosed in adult patients. We report here a case of spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst in a pregnant young lady with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:23238690

Pal, Sandip; Simon, Ebby George; Koshy, Anoop K; Ramakrishna, B S; Raju, Ravish S; Vyas, Fredrick L; Joseph, Philip; Sitaram, V; Eapen, Anu



Some Observations Regarding the Statistical Determination of Stress Rupture Minimums.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations concerning the statistical evaluation of creep data are presented. Methods currently employed in the determination of stress rupture minimum values can result in conflicting and necessarily invalid results. Anomalous behavior is principally a...

P. P. Pizzo



Spontaneous Rupture of the Spleen Masquerading as a Pulmonary Infection  

PubMed Central

Atraumatic rupture of a normal spleen represents a rare clinical phenomenon. We report on an atypical presentation of a spontaneous splenic rupture in a 44-year-old previously healthy Greek male admitted to the emergency department due to left-sided pleuritic thoracic pain in the course of a pneumonia diagnosed 2 days before. During his stay, pain extended to the epigastric region. Abdominal examination revealed generalized tenderness. We presume that coughing secondary to respiratory infection was the main factor that precipitated splenic rupture. Despite the rarity of the condition physicians have to consider the diagnosis of spontaneous nontraumatic splenic rupture when they encounter healthy patients with nonspecific lower thoracic or abdominal pain. Prompt diagnosis is essential for a better outcome.

Kastanakis, Miltiades; Karona, Paraskevi; Fragiadakis, Giorgios; Kokkinos, Ioannis; Bobolakis, Emmanouil



Subacute cardiac rupture complicating myocardial infarction. A case report.  


The authors have focused this study on the emergence of subacute ventricular free wall rupture in a seventy-six-year-old patient admitted to hospital for inferior acute myocardial infarction. After six days he showed clinical signs of bradycardia and hypotension evolving to electromechanical dissociation. Given an adequate pharmacologic therapy, the patient was submitted to echocardiography, which was believed to be consistent with myocardial rupture, showing a moderate to large pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis of 150 mL of bloody fluid resulted in a further improvement in his hemodynamics. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with repair of the myocardial rupture through a large diaphragmatic infarction by a Dacron polyester fiber graft and pacemaker placement. In conclusion the authors confirm the relevant role of clinical data such as persistent chest pain and hemodynamic instability and the value of echocardiography in identifying subacute myocardial free wall rupture after an episode of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:8595015

Rosato, G; Santomauro, M; Stanco, G; Petillo, F; Sauro, R; Chiariello, M; Spampinato, N; Rotiroti, D



Rupture of the Distal Tendon of the Biceps Brachii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively un- common clinical entity. Typically, patients are middle-aged males who experience a sudden forced extension against an actively con- tracting biceps muscle. Patients usually describe a \\



An unusual presentation of ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Ruptured abdominal aorta aneursym Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: After surgery the patient was discharged without sequelae Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most frightening and potentially life threatening complication of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Patients present with atypical symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, or shock. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with gradually increasing left flank pain for 4–5 days. Her laboratory, radiologic, and physical examination revealed no significant pathology, so she was discharged, but 3 days later she was readmitted because her symptoms returned. Further research revealed a ruptured AAA and the patient was hospitalized for surgical intervention. Conclusions: Emergency physicians should keep in mind that AAA and its rupture can present with a wide range of symptoms that appear to be simple.

Durdu, Tamer; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Ulgen, Sultan; Demir, Ali; Y?lmaz, Muhittin Serkan; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Hakbilir, Oktay



An unusual case of cardiac tamponade: ruptured subaortic diverticulum.  


Cardiac diverticula are rare congenital anomalies found as outpouchings from various chambers of the heart. We present a case of a diverticulum arising from the membranous septum with free rupture into the pericardial space and tamponade. PMID:20345853

Salemi, Arash; Lee, Ben; Ivascu, Natalia; Webber, Geoffrey; Paul, Subroto



Onyx Embolization of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Associated with Behçet's Disease.  


Introduction. Intracranial aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease (BD) are a rare occurrence. They are fragile, thin-walled pseudoaneurysms, which have high tendency to rupture and present a therapeutic challenge. Case Presentation. We report a 26-year-old male with BD presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Additionally, two unruptured aneurysms were identified. He underwent endovascular embolization using Onyx with successful obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm. Medical therapy resulted in regression of one and resolution of the other aneurysms. Conclusion. We describe the first report of the application of Onyx for obliteration of ruptured cerebral aneurysm in BD as a feasible and safe therapeutic option for patients who are not candidates for other techniques. PMID:24224110

Kurdi, Maher; Baeesa, Saleh; Bin-Mahfoodh, Mohammed; Kurdi, Khalil



Diaphragm Rupture Effects on an Expanding Flow in a Tube.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundamental problem of diaphragm rupture was studied experimentally to determine the effects on an expanding flow in an evacuated tube. Effects on the expanding flow field included general degradation of the free stream state and flow properties, esta...

L. A. Walchli



I & E regular metal ruptures No. 2, 3, and 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document consists of three photographs of ruptured fuel elements. The position, date charged, date failed, exposure, power, lot and failure type are given for tube 3655-KE, tube 4153-KE, and tube 3849-KE. (GHH)




Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach.




Repair of Achilles tendon ruptures with Dacron vascular graft.  


A technique has been developed for the repair of Achilles tendon ruptures that allows for early mobilization of the patient. A Dacron vascular graft is woven from distal to proximal and across the site of the rupture in a Bunnell-type fashion. The patients are immobilized in a short-leg cast for two weeks and are then fitted for a posterior fiberglass splint. Seven patients with acute ruptures who were treated with repair with the Dacron graft were followed for a period ranging from ten to 38 months. They were allowed to return to their normal level of activity approximately five months after surgery. There have been no reruptures. This technique also holds particular promise for the late reconstruction of an Achilles tendon rupture as well as for the treatment of partial tears in the severely degenerated tendon. PMID:2970358

Lieberman, J R; Lozman, J; Czajka, J; Dougherty, J



Mesoscopic Random Lattice Models of Rupture in Rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an earlier work, Marder illustrated how rupture in rubber differs from conventional fracture. Dissipation and toughening of the back edges of ruptures are critical for the propagation of stable ruptures. In this earlier work, mesoscopic models were arrived at by approximating the Mooney-Rivlin theory of rubber by a finite difference scheme on a triangular lattice. From this perspective, qualitatively the lattice sites are considered to be crosslinkers and the bonds are polymers. We extend this work by considering the crosslinkers to be randomly distributed throughout the material rather than being ordered. For both random and ordered lattices, without rupture, there are many different ways to construct free energy functionals that reproduce the continuum theory. However, not all of the constructions are numerically stable. We explore the physical consequences of the disorder and the physical interpretations of the observed numerical instabilities.

Reynolds, David; Marder, Michael



Outcome of ruptured uterus at University Teaching Hospital Aleppo, Syria.  


A 10-year review of ruptured gravid uterus at the University Teaching Hospital, Aleppo, Syria showed an incidence of one ruptured uterus in 565 deliveries. This is an average figure compared with published studies but is still high compared with developed countries. Sixty-four per cent of the cases of ruptured uterus had no antenatal care. It is no surprise therefore that maternal and fetal mortality was highest amongst the unbooked labouring women. In survivors the morbidity was also higher. Ruptured uterus is therefore a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Syria. The overall hospital maternal and perinatal mortalities for the period under review were 4.3% and 2.6% respectively. The main risk factor identified is scarring from previous caesarean sections. Other risk factors are discussed. PMID:15512134

Bakour, S; Nassif, B; Nwosu, E C



Determination of closure disk rupture parameters  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of decoupling strain rate from burn rate effects for tests designed to characterize closure disks is discussed. A method for simulating the high rates of pressure increase to which closure disks are subjected and which does not employ pyrotechnic material as a means of pressurization is presented. It consists of slowly pressurizing both sides of a closure disk to a high pressure and then rapidly releasing the pressure from one side of the disk. Means of rapidly releasing gas from the downstream side of the closure disk and measuring the pressure differential across the closure disk are discussed in detail. Rates of pressure decrease as high as 335,000,000 psi/sec downstream from the closure disk have been attained. Baseline disks slotted by wire EDM failed at an average pressure differential of 10,150 psi. Disks slotted by chemical etching exhibited a higher burst pressure differential and greater variability. Glass-ceramic closure disks had the lowest average burst pressure and highest variability. An increase in the diameter of a closure disk was found to lower the pressure differential required to rupture the disk. Burst pressure was found to increase linearly with the thickness of the web in the slot. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Merten, C.W.; Robinson, M.A. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Evans, N.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))



Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure of the rupture extent and dimensions, but not necessarily the strike. We found that using standard earthquake catalogs, such as the National Earthquake Information Center catalog, we can constrain the rupture extent, rupture direction, and in many cases the type of faulting, of the mainshock with the aftershocks that occur within the first hour after the mainshock. However, this data may not be currently available in near real-time. Since our results show that these early aftershock locations may be used to estimate first order rupture parameters for large global earthquakes, the near real-time availability of these data would be useful for fast earthquake damage assessment.

Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.



Atraumatic splenic rupture secondary to chronic HIV infection.  


As patients infected with HIV live longer due to effective anti-retroviral therapy, new disease manifestations are becoming apparent. We describe the case of a 59-year-old patient who presented to our unit with atraumatic splenic rupture secondary to chronic HIV infection. Given the high mortality associated with atraumatic splenic rupture, we believe it should be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-positive patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. PMID:23970617

Martin, Thomas C S; Martin, Natasha K; Naresh, Kikkeri N; Nelson, Mark



Earthquake Recurrence and Rupture Dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last

Senthil Kumar; Steven G. Wesnousky; Thomas K. Rockwell; Daniel Ragona; Vikram C. Thakur; Gordon G. Seitz



Patellar Tendon Ruptures in National Football League Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, ruptures of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes.Hypothesis: Professional football players with isolated rupture of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport.Study Design: Case series; Level of

Martin Boublik; Theodore Schlegel; Ryan Koonce; James Genuario; Charles Lind; David Hamming



Surgical management and treatment of a traumatic right atrial rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have treated three patients with blunt traumatic right atrial rupture, all of whom survived after an emergent cardiac repair\\u000a without cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiac tamponade was seen in two of the three cases on ultrasonographic cardiography (UCG).\\u000a The site of rupture was the right atrial appendage in two cases and the superior vena cava-right atrial (SVC-RA) junction\\u000a in one case.

Takeshi Hakuba; Naoki Minato; Toshinori Minematsu; Keiji Kamohara



Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI.

Chatra, Priyank S



Bifurcation of rupture path by linear and cubic damping force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifurcation of rupture path is studied for the effect of linear and cubic damping. Momentum equation with Rayleigh factor was transformed into ordinary differential form. Bernoulli differential equation was obtained and solved by the separation of variables. Analytical or exact solutions yielded the bifurcation was visible at imaginary part when the wave was non dispersive. For the dispersive wave, bifurcation of rupture path was invisible.

Dennis L. C., C.; Chew X., Y.; Lee Y., C.



Spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare presentation of dengue fever.  


Spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (DF). We report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. Subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for DF. Early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:24678156

Mukhopadhyay, Mainak; Chatterjee, Nandini; Maity, Pranab; Patar, Kartik



Softball injury causing haemoperitoneum due to ruptured Meckel's mesodiverticular band.  


A 16-year-old male sustained an intra-abdominal haemorrhage after diving for last base during a softball game. At laparotomy a ruptured patent mesodiverticular band supplying a large Meckel's diverticulum was found. Traumatic rupture of a mesodiverticular band leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage is a rare event, and has never been reported as a single injury or in the context of a sport's injury. PMID:22016169

Woodfield, Julie; Barnett, Mark; Shapkov, Peter



Delayed rupture of abdominal aortic false aneurysm following blunt trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta resulting in pseudoaneurysm formation is very rare. Such a pseudoaneurysm may rupture\\u000a at any time, usually with fatal outcome. We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a clinically unsuspected ruptured abdominal\\u000a aorta pseudoaneurysm, which had probably formed 3 years earlier, and emphasize the CT features.

G. Gayer; A. Bass



Paraplegia due to Spinal Epidermoid Cyst Rupture at Asthma Attack  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidermoid cyst is less than 1% of the entire spinal cord tumor and a rare tumor. It is a slowly proliferating benign tumor and can be a result of either congenital or acquired factors. In particular, reports of acute paraplegia due to spinal epidermoid cyst rupture are very rare. Since authors experienced paraplegia resulting from congenital spinal epidermoid cyst rupture during an asthma attack, it is reported with a review of literature.

Kim, Kweon Young; Kang, Jung Hun; Choi, Dae Woo; Lee, Min Hong



Association of Hemodynamic Characteristics and Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Hemodynamic factors are thought to play an important role in the initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. This report describes a study of the associations between qualitative intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics and the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Methods 210 consecutive aneurysms were analyzed using patient-specific CFD simulations under pulsatile flow conditions. The aneurysms were classified into categories depending on the complexity and stability of the flow pattern, size of the impingement region, and inflow concentration by two blinded observers. A statistical analysis was then performed with respect to history of previous rupture. Inter-observer variability analysis was performed. Results Ruptured aneurysms were more likely to have complex flow patterns (83%, p<0.001), stable flow patterns (75%, p=0.0018), 66% concentrated inflow (66%, p=<0.0001), and small impingement regions (76%, p=0.0006) compared to unruptured aneurysms. Inter-observer variability analyses indicate that all the classifications performed are in very good agreement, i.e. well within the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions A qualitative hemodynamic analysis of cerebral aneurysms using image based patient-specific geometries has shown that concentrated inflow jets, small impingement regions, complex flow patterns, and unstable flow patterns are correlated with a clinical history of prior aneurysm rupture. These qualitative measures provide a starting point for more sophisticated quantitative analysis aimed at assigning aneurysm risk of future rupture. These analyses highlight the potential for CFD to play an important role in the clinical determination of aneurysm risks.

Cebral, Juan R.; Mut, Fernando; Weir, Jane; Putman, Christopher M.



Hypocenter locations in finite-source rupture models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use a database of more than 80 finite-source rupture models for more than 50 earthquakes (Mw, 4.1-8.1) with different faulting styles occurring in both tectonic and subduction environments to analyze the location of the hypocenter within the fault and to consider the correlation between hypocenter location and regions of large slip. Rupture in strike-slip and crustal dip-slip earthquakes tends to nucleate in the deeper sections of the fault; subduction earthquakes do not show this tendency. Ratios of the hypocentral slip to either the average or the maximum slip show that rupture can nucleate at locations with any level of relative displacement. Rupture nucleates in regions of very large slip (D ??? 2/3 Dmax,) in only 16% of the events, in regions of large slip (1/3 Dmax < D < 2/3 Dmax,) in 35% of the events, and in regions of low slip (D ??? 1/3 Dmax) in 48% of the events. These percentages significantly exceed the percentages of fault area with very large (???7%) and large (???28%) slip. Ruptures that nucleate in regions of low slip, however, tend to nucleate close to regions of large slip and encounter a zone of very large slip within half the total rupture length. Applying several statistical tests we conclude that hypocenters are not randomly located on a fault but are located either within or close to regions of large slip.

Mai, P. M.; Spudich, P.; Boatwright, J.



Congenital aortic valve disease with rupture of mitral chordae tendineae.  

PubMed Central

A new clinical entity is described in which free aortic regurgitation from congenital aortic valve disease caused rupture of the chordae to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve in 7 men aged 45 to 63 years (mean 52 years); 2 of the patients also had rupture of chordae to the posterior leaflet. Comparing these patients with those with ruptured mitral chordae in association with rheumatic heart disease and patients with spontaneous chordal rupture, differences were evident. No patient had a history of rheumatic fever and none had active infection. The typical clinical presentation was of acute mitral regurgitation into a small left atrium, with severe pulmonary oedema which was often resistant to medical treatment. The cause of chordal rupture in these patients was in part the result of progressive left ventricular dilatation, of direct trauma to the anterior cusp of the mitral valve, and possibly of a genetic factor. The anatomical features of both aortic and mitral valves are described, and in 3 histology of the mitral valve was available; 2 had myxomatous degeneration similar to that seen in patients with spontaneous chordal rupture, and in 1 there was degeneration of collagen tissue. All patients were treated surgically but the mortality was high (5 out of 7,70%). Early operation with replacement of the aortic and mitral valves is recommended if this high mortality is to be reduced. Images

Joseph, S; Emanuel, R; Sturridge, M; Olsen, E



CT of Globe Rupture: Analysis and Frequency of Findings.  


OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate the CT characteristics of globe rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The medical records of patients seen in the emergency department with blunt, penetrating, or explosive orbit injury were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 75 patients (76 injured globes) were included (56 males and 19 females; average age, 45.1 years; age range, 5-95 years). CT examinations were reviewed by two experienced radiologists without knowledge of ophthalmologic findings, original orbital CT images, or surgical outcomes. RESULTS. Of the 76 globe injuries, 33 (43%) were ruptured and 43 (57%) were nonruptured. There were significant differences between the ruptured and nonruptured globes with respect to intraocular hemorrhage, lens dislocation and destruction, an intraocular foreign body, intraocular gas, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and globe deformity and wall irregularity (p < 0.05). There was good interrater agreement between the two radiologists (kappa value range, 0.63-0.96). The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of CT for the detection of globe rupture based on readings by two radiologists were 76%, 85%, 80%, 82%, and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSION. Although CT is extremely useful in the evaluation of ocular trauma, it should not be solely relied on for the diagnosis of globe rupture because of the potentially catastrophic consequences of an undiagnosed injury. A difference in ACD can be diagnostic of globe rupture. PMID:24758666

Yuan, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Cheng, Hui-Cheng; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Tai-Chi



The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

Houston, H.; Vidale, J. E.



Carotid Atheroma Rupture Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-rupture Imaging  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability, finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to assess the rupture potential for any particular lesion, allowing better stratification of patients into the most appropriate treatments. Due to a sparsity of in vivo plaque rupture data, the relationship between various mechanical descriptors such as stresses or strains and rupture vulnerability is incompletely known, and the patient-specific utility of biomechanical analyses is unclear. In this article, we present a comparison between carotid atheroma rupture observed in vivo and the plaque stress distribution from fluid–structure interaction analysis based on pre-rupture medical imaging. The effects of image resolution are explored and the calculated stress fields are shown to vary by as much as 50% with sub-pixel geometric uncertainty. Within these bounds, we find a region of pronounced elevation in stress within the fibrous plaque layer of the lesion with a location and extent corresponding to that of the observed site of plaque rupture.

Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Soares, Bruno; Wintermark, Max; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Saloner, David



Management of infected carotid artery rupture.  


Carotid artery rupture (CAR) is a life-threatening complication of head and neck cancer, and infection complicates its management. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with the treatment of infected CAR and to summarize the existing literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients treated in our department from 2000 to 2011 and re-analyzed cases reported in the literature during the same time period. We analyzed etiology, anatomic location, treatment, and rates of recurrent hemorrhage for each case. A total of 46 episodes of infected CAR occurred in the four patients in our own records and 27 patients described in the literature. Twenty-eight patients suffered from various head and neck cancers and underwent surgical resection, and 27 of them subsequently received radiotherapy or radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (the 28th patient died before radiotherapy due to severe blood loss). The most common site of bleeding was the common carotid artery (33/46, 71.7 %). Seventeen cases (17/45, 37.8 %) were treated with surgical ligation, 20 (44.4 %) with stent placement, and 7 (15.6 %) with embolization. Surgical ligation had a lower rate of recurrent bleeding (2/17, 11.8 %) than stent placement (12/20, 60.0 %) when used for the treatment of infected CAR (P = 0.037, Chi squared test). Our results suggest that surgical ligation is an effective option in the management of infected CAR and may be the best choice to prevent recurrent hemorrhage. The complication rates, however, may be high when the common carotid or the internal carotid arteries are ligated. PMID:23990062

Liu, Jie; Zeng, Quan; Huang, Jiang-Ju; Hu, Guo-Hua



STS-93 SSME Nozzle Tube Rupture Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-93 was launched on July 23, 1999. There was an anomaly at the end of the launch in that the main engines shut down 0.16 second early because sensors detected a low level of oxidizer in the LOX tank (actually the duct from the tank to the vehicle). This resulted in a cutoff velocity for the vehicle that was 16 ft/sec low. It should have been 25872 ft/sec. The OMS engines were subsequently used to achieve the proper orbit. An investigation was immediately initiated into the cause of this LOX tank low level cutoff. It was noticed during the launch that the turbine temperatures for Main Engine 3 (E2019) were approximately 100 F higher than the preflight prediction. Linear Engine Model matching of the data indicated that a nozzle leak best fit the data. Post launch review of the data showed, that at approximately five seconds into the start, numerous parameters indicated small anomalous shifts. These shifts were all consistent with a rupture of nozzle tubes. Post launch review of the films showed that just after Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ignition and just prior to liftoff a streak is seen in the exhaust plume of E2019. Just after liftoff the streak can be seen emanating from the nozzle wall. This photo confirmed that a leak was coming from the nozzle tubes. Based on the photo, the axial location of the leak was estimated to be 28 in. from the aft end of the nozzle and in line with nozzle coolant feed line #1. The streak continued to be visible during the launch.

Romine, W. Dennis



Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 ruptured), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/ruptured). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the rupture status, identifying 84.21 % of the ruptured aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as ruptured) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm rupture status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, ruptured IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.

Trylesinski, Gabriel


Dynamic rupture at the beginning of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M 9.0) is characterized by a shallow huge slip more than 40 m, which produced the devastating tsunami. For modeling this earthquake, the stress accumulation and the kinematic rupture process should be understood. Here I focus on the kinematics of this earthquake in the early stage. A couple of studies already came out. Chu et al. (2011) found that the first 4 s of the rupture is equivalent to an Mw 4.9 thrust event. Uchide et al. (AGU, 2011) reported the source process in the first 20 s in detail by the multiscale slip inversion analysis (Uchide and Ide, 2007). Their result implies that rupture propagated eastward until 8 s, and after that the rupture propagated westward. The peak slip rate is around 1 m/s, which implies the dynamic rupture. Hi-net (borehole high-sensitivity seismic network) and KiK-net (borehole strong-motion network) data in Tohoku area shows that the velocity amplitude increases stepwise around 4 s and 16 s. In the first 1 s, the velocity amplitude of the M9 event is comparable to that of nearby M4 events (Mw 4.3 - 4.9). I perform a multiscale slip inversion analysis to focus on the first 10 and 20 s. The multiscale source model is composed of three scales: Scale 1 (smallest) for first 10 s; Scale 2 for first 20 s; and Scale 3 (largest) for the entire source process. The temporal and spatial intervals of grids to discretize the slip-rate distribution history on the fault are 3 km and 1 s for Scale 1, 5 km and 2 s for Scale 2, and 25 km and 10 s for Scale 3. Hi-net data are used for Scales 1 and 2, and KiK-net and F-net strong-motion data are used for Scale 3. Green's functions for Scales 1 and 2 are empirical ones using the observed waveforms of an Mw 4.9 earthquake which occurred at 21:00 on March 9, 2011 (UTC). Those for Scale 3 are calculated assuming a 1D velocity structure. The complex rupture process at the beginning of the Tohoku earthquake is obtained. From the beginning, the peak slip rate is around or more than 1 m/s, which implies dynamic rupture. In the first 14 s, a rupture propagated mainly toward north, and since then, the rupture propagation direction was changed to westward or downward. The change of the rupture propagation direction occurred at the slip area of the M 7.3 foreshock (March 9, 2011) (Ohta et al., 2012). It is probable that, since the stress in the rupture area of the M 7.3 foreshock was already released, the rupture of the mainshock could not propagate north any more. And the prestress on the west was enough high, therefore the rupture changed the propagation direction. Such detailed study on the initial rupture process helps us understand how the M 9 earthquake was initiated. Acknowledgement I used seismic data from Hi-net, KiK-net, and F-net of NIED, and JMA earthquake catalog.

Uchide, T.



Is There Any Correlation Between Objective Anal Testing, Rupture Grade, and Bowel Symptoms After Primary Repair of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Rupture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the grade of anal sphincter rupture, anal sphincter defect, manometry variables, and anal incontinence. METHODS: A total of 132 females with first-time obstetric sphincter rupture were evaluated by transanal ultrasound, manometry, and scoring of bowel symptoms five months after delivery. RESULTS: Anal sphincter rupture and transanal ultrasound grade

Mohammad Nazir; Erik Carlsen; Anne Flem Jacobsen; Britt-Ingjerd Nesheim



Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.



Downdip landward limit of Cascadia great earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

paper examines the constraints to the downdip landward limit of rupture for the Cascadia great earthquakes off western North America. This limit is a primary control for ground motion hazard at near-coastal cities. The studies also provide information on the physical controls of subduction thrust rupture globally. The constraints are (1) "locked/transition" zones from geodetic deformation (GPS, repeated leveling, tide gauges); (2) rupture zone from paleoseismic coastal marsh subsidence, "paleogeodesy"; (3) temperature on the thrust for the seismic-aseismic transition; (4) change in thrust seismic reflection character downdip from thin seismic to thick ductile; (5) fore-arc mantle corner aseismic serpentinite and talc overlying the thrust; (6) updip limit of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) slow slip; (7) rupture area associations with shelf-slope basins; (8) depth limit for small events on the thrust; and (9) landward limit of earthquakes on the Nootka transform fault zone. The most reliable constraints for the limit of large rupture displacement, >10 m, are generally just offshore in agreement with thermal control for this hot subduction zone, but well-offshore central Oregon and near the coast of northern Washington. The limit for 1-2 m rupture that can still provide strong shaking is less well estimated 25-50 km farther landward. The fore-arc mantle corner and the updip extent of ETS slow slip are significantly landward from the other constraints. Surprisingly, there is a downdip gap between the best other estimates for the great earthquake rupture zone and the ETS slow slip. In this gap, plate convergence may occur as continuous slow creep.

Hyndman, R. D.



Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh



Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.



Dynamically Consistent Source Time Functions to Invert Kinematic Rupture Histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we aim to understand the importance of adopting source time functions (STF) compatible with earthquake dynamics to image the kinematic rupture history on a finite fault. We consider different slip velocity STFs: a boxcar, a modified cosine function and the regularized Yoffe function (Tinti et al., 2005). The latter is consistent with dynamic 'pulse-like' propagation of earthquake ruptures and makes feasible the dynamic interpretation of kinematic slip models. First, considering an array of stations distributed around the source, we compute synthetic waveforms in the frequency band 0-2 Hz commonly used in kinematic inversion. We find that the computed ground motions depend on the choice of the STF, especially at stations located near the source (within about 10 km from the fault). This suggests that the STF may have an important role when used to retrieve kinematic source models by means of waveform inversion. To this purpose we use a two-stages global search algorithm to invert strong motions to recover the rupture history of the earthquake on a finite fault (Piatanesi et al., 2006). This technique performs a statistical analysis of the model ensemble and computes a weighted mean model and its standard deviation, allowing extraction of the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and giving an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. We present several synthetic tests and an application to the 2000 western Tottori, Japan, earthquake (M_w 6.6). We find that the choice of the STF affects the inverted rupture model, especially the peak slip velocity and rise time, which are important when kinematic rupture models are used to infer dynamic parameters, such as the slip weakening distance and the dynamic stress drop. We use the inverted rupture histories as boundary conditions in pseudo-dynamic rupture modeling to compute the traction evolutions on the fault plane; we find that relevant dynamic parameters of the rupture process definitely depend on the STF used in the inverse procedure to retrieve the kinematic models.

Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Tinti, E.; Cocco, M.



Near-Source Shaking and Dynamic Rupture in Plastic Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent well recorded earthquakes show a high degree of complexity at the source level that severely affects the resulting ground motion in near and far-field seismic data. In our study, we focus on investigating source-dominated near-field ground motion features from numerical dynamic rupture simulations in an elasto-visco-plastic bulk. Our aim is to contribute to a more direct connection from theoretical and computational results to field and seismological observations. Previous work showed that a diversity of rupture styles emerges from simulations on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with rapid velocity-weakening at high slip rate. For instance, growing pulses lead to re-activation of slip due to gradual stress build-up near the hypocenter, as inferred in some source studies of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Moreover, off-fault energy dissipation implied physical limits on extreme ground motion by limiting peak slip rate and rupture velocity. We investigate characteristic features in near-field strong ground motion generated by dynamic in-plane rupture simulations. We present effects of plasticity on source process signatures, off-fault damage patterns and ground shaking. Independent of rupture style, asymmetric damage patterns across the fault are produced that contribute to the total seismic moment, and even dominantly at high angles between the fault and the maximum principal background stress. The off-fault plastic strain fields induced by transitions between rupture styles reveal characteristic signatures of the mechanical source processes during the transition. Comparing different rupture styles in elastic and elasto-visco-plastic media to identify signatures of off-fault plasticity, we find varying degrees of alteration of near-field radiation due to plastic energy dissipation. Subshear pulses suffer more peak particle velocity reduction due to plasticity than cracks. Supershear ruptures are affected even more. The occurrence of multiple rupture fronts affect seismic potency release rate, amplitude spectra, peak particle velocity distributions and near-field seismograms. Our simulations enable us to trace features of source processes in synthetic seismograms, for example exhibiting a re-activation of slip. Such physical models may provide starting points for future investigations of field properties of earthquake source mechanisms and natural fault conditions. In the long-term, our findings may be helpful for seismic hazard analysis and the improvement of seismic source models.

Gabriel, A.; Mai, P. M.; Dalguer, L. A.; Ampuero, J. P.



Dynamic rupture scenarios for strong ground motion prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous rupture models provide physically reasonable rupture processes under presumed fault geometry and stress field. We propose that dynamic rupture models based on geological or geomorphological data are used as earthquake scenarios for strong ground motion prediction. We apply our method to possible sources of earthquake occurring on the Uemachi fault systems. The Uemachi fault system runs just underneath the western part of Osaka plain, extends about 45 km, and dips 60 degrees to the east. We model the fault geometry from the surface traces and the shape of the Osaka basin-floor. The stress condition is presumed based on slip distributions on the fault. Spatially varied cumulative slip distribution along the strike of the Uemachi fault system was obtained by reflection surveys, borehole data, etc. The borehole data at a site along the fault showed that the vertical slip on the earth's surface due to the last event was between 1.6 to 2.4 m (Sugiyama et al., 2003). Combining these data, we presume an prototype of the slip distribution along strike. The slip distribution along dip is modeled through simulations of spontaneous ruptures under vertically depth-dependent stress conditions to realize spontaneously stopping rupture near the bottom of the seismogeneic zone. Onto this large-scale heterogeneous slip distribution model, we add fractal heterogeneities in small-scale created from different random numbers. These slip distributions are converted to the distributions of static stress drop. For each stress drop model, some hypocenter locations are assumed. We calculate dynamic rupture processes by the finite-difference method (Kase, 2010), assuming the slip-weakening friction law. Rupture area and rupture time on each point depend on stress model and hypocenter location. Based on these rupture scenarios, we simulate lower frequency components of ground motion by the finite-difference method (Pitarka, 1999) excluding the shallow sediment above the engineering basement. Higher frequency components are computed by the stochastic Green's function method (Onishi and Horike, 2000). Effects of the shallow alluvium layers are calculated by 1D multi-reflection theory considering nonlinear effect by equivalent linear technique using a computer code DYNEQ (Yoshida and Suetomi, 1996).

Kase, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.



Earthquake early warning and the physics of earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great debates in seismology today revolves around the question of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow predetermined at the start of the rupture. If earthquakes are self-similar there is theoretically no way to determine the magnitude of an event until the rupture has completely terminated, while if it is deterministic the magnitude should be immediately discernible. Recent advances in Earthquake Early Warning methodologies provide new insight into the fundamental physics of earthquake rupture and highlight the importance of understanding the answer to this question. Observations of the amplitude and frequency content of early P-wave arrivals suggest that some information about the final size of an earthquake is already present within a few seconds of the initiation of rupture, in agreement with a host of other observations that show a degree of scaling between large and small earthquakes. While this suggests that earthquakes are deterministic, there is likewise a large body of work, both observational and model-based, that indicates that this is not true and earthquakes are self-similar. This work documents the process of calibrating and testing the ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning methodology in northern California on the Northern California and Berkeley Digital Seismic Networks. In the process the work adds to the body of observations which show a dependency on event magnitude of P-wave frequency content and amplitude. These observations are corroborated with a new set of independent observations of kinematic slip distributions. These new observations indicate that the early slip on a fault also scales with magnitude and suggest again that earthquakes are not entirely self-similar cascading events. In an effort to assign a physical mechanism to the observations of scaling, both in P-waves and in kinematic slip inversions, a hypothetical model is tested wherein the intensity of the early rupture imparts more or less energy to the rupture front and affects the likelihood of the rupture continuing or dying out in the face of unfavorable conditions further along the fault plane. The results of testing this hypothesis are somewhat equivocal, but they are suggestive of the likely truth, that earthquakes exhibit aspects of both deterministic and cascading rupture to some degree. Understanding the details of the interplay between these two aspects is crucial to the successful application of Earthquake Early Warning systems, especially in rare large earthquakes for which there is little empirical data on the performance of these systems.

Wurman, Gilead


Dynamic Rupture Process of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for the prediction of strong ground motion and for understanding the physics of earthquake processes. This research investigates the characteristics of dynamic source rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake by using a 3D finite difference method with variable grid spacing. A new algorithm is proposed to deal with a non-planar fault model. This approach does not require aligning the fault plane to the finite-difference grid for implementation of FDM and provide a method to deal with a more realistically irregular geometry fault model. We apply this approach to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake with a curved fault surface and rebuild the dynamic source rupture process for this larger earthquake. Our results show that for the Chi-Chi earthquake, the behaviors of the most of the subfaults followed a slip-weakening friction law during rupture. And the distributions of the dynamic source parameters estimated from the kinematic results are quite heterogeneous. For the dynamic rupture process, this study reveals the rupture propagation jumping phenomenon which is difficult to be simulated in kinematic modeling. That is when the propagation front encountered a zone with a high strength excess, the rupture would pause to accumulate more energy to break it. Meanwhile, if there are low strength excess zones around the barrier, the propagation front would jump over the barrier to break the low strength excess zones and leave the high strength barrier unbroken. Such phenomenon of the high strength excess barriers intend to delay the propagation front can be seen clearly in the dynamic model. Using a thick fault zone model, the dynamic model discovers that the slip on the hanging-wall side is larger than that on the food-wall side and the northern parts have the longer source duration that the southern parts and these northern parts have an extreme large slip. Based on the dynamic source rupture model, the strong ground motions near the fault surface breaks are simulated in frequency range of 0.05 to 0.5 Hz. In general, the synthetic velocity waveforms agree well with the observed records for most stations. The dynamic source model successfully simulates the distinctive velocity pulse for the stations in the forward rupture direction. Also our dynamic source model successfully reproduced the waveforms as well as the distinctive velocity pulses for the station nearby or on the fault surface breaks. These results demonstrate that our dynamic source model can reproduce the main features of long period ground motions; hence, lead us to a better understanding on the source rupture process of the Chi-Chi earthquake.

Zhang, W.; Iwata, T.; Irikura, K.; Pitarka, A.; Sekiguchi, H.



Stress-rupture behavior of small diameter polycrystalline alumina fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous length polycrystalline alumina fibers are candidates as reinforcement in high temperature composite materials. Interest therefore exists in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, obtaining possible insights into underlying mechanisms, and understanding fiber performance under long term use. Results are reported on the time-temperature dependent strength behavior of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Below 1000 C and 100 hours, Nextel 610 with the smaller grain size had a greater fast fracture and rupture strength than Fiber FP. The time exponents for stress-rupture of these fibers were found to decrease from approximately 13 at 900 C to below 3 near 1050 C, suggesting a transition from slow crack growth to creep rupture as the controlling fracture mechanism. For both fiber types, an effective activation energy of 690 kJ/mol was measured for rupture. This allowed stress-rupture predictions to be made for extended times at use temperatures below 1000 C.

Yun, Hee Mann; Goldsby, Jon C.; Dicarlo, James A.



Creep rupture of a tropical wood polymer composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood polymer composite (WPC) specimens were produced by impregnating a tropical wood with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and subsequently polymerised by gamma irradiation. Beam specimens of varying weight percentages of polymer were then subjected to three-point-bend creep rupture test under a constant load condition. Results indicated that the impregnation of MMA and subsequent polymerisation by irradiation to form WPC significantly increased the creep rupture resistance of the wood. Two models, namely, a three element non-linear mechanical model derived from an energy failure criterion and a power law model derived from a damage parameter concept, modelled adequately the creep rupture time of the WPC. The energy criterion model was useful because the equation parameters such as elastic modulus, anelastic modulus and resilience of WPC show a general trend of increase with the amount of polymer impregnated into the wood, and also it could predict the upper stress limit where the specimens rupture immediately on application of load and the lower stress limit where the specimens sustain the load indefinitely. Results indicated that the equation parameters increase significantly in the first 20 or 30% polymer loading in agreement with previous work. An interfacial interaction between the polymer and the wood cell wall was used to account for the behaviour of the increase in the creep rupture resistance.

Teoh, S. H.; Chia, L. H. L.; Boey, F. Y. C.


Rupture and dewetting of water films on solid surfaces.  


An experimental study was conducted to observe rupture and dewetting of water films, 0.5-2mm thick, on solid surfaces. The effects of surface roughness, wettability, protrusions on surfaces, and air entrapment between films and surfaces were studied. Film thickness measurements were made and film rupture and surface dewetting photographed. Experiments showed that liquid films ruptured first along the highest edges of test surfaces. Placing a protrusion on the surface had no effect-the liquid film continued to rupture along the edges. A thermodynamic model was developed to show that protrusions lower the surface energy of the system and promote wetting. Increasing surface roughness therefore increases film stability by resisting rupture and dewetting. Water films could be punctured by introducing an air bubble that burst and created a hole. The hole would close if the film was thick and the solid-liquid contact angle was either small or large; the hole would grow larger if the film was thin and the contact angle was in the mid-range (?80°). An analytical model that calculates the difference between the surface energies of the two states can be used to predict whether a hole would lead to surface dewetting or not. PMID:20817200

Mulji, Neil; Chandra, Sanjeev



Creep Rupture Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep rupture properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep rupture tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep rupture strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep rupture tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h rupture strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.

Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki


Creep rupture testing of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon fiber is becoming more prevalent in everyday life. As such, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of, not solely general mechanical properties, but of long-term material behavior. Creep rupture testing of carbon fiber is very difficult due to high strength and low strain to rupture properties. Past efforts have included testing upon strands, single tows and overwrapped pressure vessels. In this study, 1 inch wide, [0°/90°]s laminated composite specimens were constructed from fabric supplied by T.D. Williamson Inc. Specimen fabrication methods and gripping techniques were investigated and a method was developed to collect long term creep rupture behavior data. An Instron 1321 servo-hydraulic material testing machine was used to execute static strength and short term creep rupture tests. A hanging dead-weight apparatus was designed to perform long-term creep rupture testing. The testing apparatus, specimens, and specimen grips functioned well. Collected data exhibited a power law distribution and therefore, a linear trend upon a log strength-log time plot. Statistical analysis indicated the material exhibited slow degradation behavior, similar to previous studies, and could maintain a 50 year carrying capacity at 62% of static strength, approximately 45.7 ksi.

Burton, Kathryn Anne


Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.

Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Goncalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar



Spontaneous Atraumatic Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture in the Nonrheumatoid Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is a well-described phenomenon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mechanisms of EPL tendon rupture in the nonrheumatoid population have also been described and include traumatic rupture, repetitive motion strain, and steroid injection into the tendon. Methods: The operative records for patients undergoing extensor pollicis longus reconstruction by the senior author were reviewed. Patients with a history of trauma to the wrist or inflammatory arthropathy were excluded. Results: We identified 3 patients who presented with spontaneous EPL tendon rupture. These patients reported no risk factors (as listed earlier) or inciting event. All 3 patients had some exposure to local steroids but this exposure was not at the site of subsequent tendon rupture. All patients were operatively repaired and went on to full recovery of EPL function. Discussion: In patients with sudden loss of extension of the thumb interphalangeal joint, a thorough history of steroid exposure including local steroid exposure remote to the affected EPL tendon may be relevant.

Rada, Erin M.; Shridharani, Sachin M.; Lifchez, Scott D.



Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren



Placenta percreta and uterine rupture at 16 weeks.  


Placenta percreta is a complication of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy due to placenta percreta is rare. We report a case of this life-threatening complication occurring at the sixteenth week of gestation. The patient presented with signs of shock, acute abdomen, and evidence of hemoperitoneum. The pregnancy was viable with a normal ultrasound appearance that created some confusion and there was a dilemma in the diagnosis of this case. Various obstetric and surgical causes were taken into consideration. The patient was taken to the operating room immediately for exploratory laparotomy. She was found to have fundal uterine rupture, which was managed by uterine repair. This patient had prior cesarean section and dilatation and curettage; factors well known to predispose for placenta percreta. Here, we emphasize the importance of a fast decision and surgical intervention to save a patient's life in cases of uterine rupture. PMID:23860897

Neyazi, Salwa M



Ruptured uterus in pregnancy: a Canadian hospital's experience.  

PubMed Central

Between 1966 and 1985, 15 cases of complete rupture of the uterus in pregnancy were identified among 52,854 deliveries at Foothills Provincial General Hospital, Calgary, for an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 deliveries. Previous cesarean section (in seven patients) was not the only predisposing factor: a history of dilatation and curettage (in two patients) or laparoscopy (in one) were also implicated. Long, obstructed labour did not appear to be a factor. Rupture also occurred in patients at low risk. The most frequent immediate complication was hypotension, in five patients. The rupture site was repaired in 11 of the patients; the other 4 underwent hysterectomy. Close surveillance and prompt intervention are the keys to good fetal and maternal outcome.

Fedorkow, D M; Nimrod, C A; Taylor, P J



Paralabral rupture of the proximal biceps tendon from light weightlifting.  


Rupture of the long head of the biceps is usually seen in older adults, in conjunction with rotator cuff tears or tenosynovitis secondary to chronic subacromial impingement; it is rarely seen as a result of trauma. We present the case of a young active patient who denied prodromal symptoms but ruptured the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHB) while performing 25-pound biceps curls. Upon examination, the patient was noted to have a readily apparent biceps defect and decreased strength. He was brought to the operating room, where open subpectoral tenodesis of the LHB was performed. At the 6-week follow-up evaluation, the patient had regained full range of motion. By 6 months, he had regained his previous strength. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a LHB rupture in a young healthy man with no prodromal symptoms. PMID:19149346

Miller, Kyle E; Solomon, Daniel J



The osmotic rupture hypothesis of intracellular freezing injury.  

PubMed Central

A hypothesis of the nature of intracellular ice formation is proposed in which the osmotically driven water efflux that occurs in cells during freezing (caused by the increased osmotic pressure of the extracellular solution in the presence of ice) is viewed as the agent responsible for producing a rupture of the plasma membrane, thus allowing extracellular ice to propagate into the cytoplasm. This hypothesis is developed into a mathematical framework and the forces that are present during freezing are compared to the forces which are required to rupture membranes in circumstances unrelated to low temperatures. The theory is then applied to systems which have been previously studied to test implications of the theory on the nature of intracellular ice formation. The pressure that develops during freezing due to water flux is found to be sufficient to cause a rupture of the plasma membrane and the theory gives an accurate description of the phenomenology of intracellular ice formation.

Muldrew, K; McGann, L E



Endovascular repair of a ruptured giant popliteal artery aneurysm.  


This report presents the first reported case of an endovascular repair of a ruptured giant popliteal artery aneurysm. The patient, an 86-year-old man, presented emergently with a free rupture of a 7-cm left popliteal artery aneurysm and a large hematoma in his left thigh of approximately 20 cm in diameter. The patient was considered to be at high risk for open surgery and therefore underwent endovascular repair of his ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm using two 8 mm x 15 mm Viabahn endografts. At one month follow-up, the large hematoma in the left thigh had completely resolved, the patient was ambulating without pain or difficulty and had palpable pedal pulses on physical examination. One year following the procedure, the endografts remained patent without endoleak. PMID:19965786

Rits, Yevgeniy; Erben, Young; Ricotta, Joseph J



Late calcification and rupture: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting.  


A 10-year old boy who had undergone a ventriculoperitoneal (V/P) shunt because of hydrocephalus at 10 days of age was doing well until 20 days ago, when he began to experience headache and seizures. CT scan revealed dilated lateral ventricles and calcification at the shunt site. X-rays showed an unusual calcification pattern around the shunt tube and rupture of the tube between the mastoid bone and clavicle. The patient underwent surgery and the shunt was changed completely. The ventricles became small in the follow-up. Even though V/P shunts may induce fibrous tissue formation and calcification around the tube, there are a few cases of shunt rupture and calcification of shunts in the literature. Possible mechanisms of the rupture and calcification are discussed in this paper. PMID:23208915

Kural, Cahit; Kirik, Alparslan; Pusat, Serhat; Senturk, Tolga; Izci, Yusuf



Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Stress Rupture Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar(TradeMark) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm (40-in.) diameter Kevlar(TradeMark) COPV was tested to failure (burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.



Dynamic Rupture Segmentation Along The Nankai Trough, Southwest Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southwest Japan, large devastating earthquakes (Mw>8) occurred along the Nankai subduction zone every 100-200 years (e.g. Ando, 1975, Tectonophys.; Ishibashi, 2004, Ann. Geophys.). Historical records revealed the segmented nature of the 600 km long seismogenic zone, producing Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes to occur separately or jointly at each cycle. The intersegment zone which separates Nankai and Tonankai source areas, near the Kii Peninsula, should have some special physical properties. In this study, we investigate the dynamic linkage of the coseismic slips on the Nankai and Tonankai segments, by modeling the spontaneous rupture propagation on the subduction interface. To conduct a reliable modeling, the parameters’ lateral variations along the place interface are introduced by combining several geophysical observation data sets. First, we use a large-scale 3D geometry for the plate interface, inferred from seismicity; we also integrate the slip deficit distribution (Hashimoto et al., 2009, SSJ meeting) obtained by inversion of GPS data, to constrain the distribution of stress drop on the interface. This distribution is not uniform, and explains the 1st order asperities of the subduction zone: Hyuga, Nankai, Tonankai and Tokai areas appear clearly as loaded regions. In addition, a constitutive friction law is required to link fault slip and stress release. We compiled regional geophysical information relevant to the segmentation, to infer the distribution of the frictional parameters at seismogenic depths. We focused on areas where the rupture is known to have stopped. The barriers seem to be related to upper plate structure (Wells et al. 2003, JGR, Rosenau and Oncken 2009, JGR). Uplifted areas show common characteristics: end of seismogenic segments, underplating in the wedge, and higher density of the upper old wedge (granitic intrusions). Following above review, we introduced 3 barrier regions delimiting 2 asperity regions (Nankai and Tonankai). Inside the barrier, the fracture energy changes in regional scale, via a change of the critical slip distance scaling. The strength remains uniform along the interface. Asperities are produced by the initial stress distribution inferred from slip deficit. Using this model setting, we computed a few different spontaneous rupture scenarios, by changing only the location of rupture initiation. Remarkably, we could reproduce the segmentation of the rupture, as observed during the 1940’s sequence, provided that the rupture initiates close to the Kii peninsula barrier area. However, if the rupture initiate far from the Kii peninsula, close to Tokai or west of Muroto cape for instance, the rupture is more likely to break the full plate interface in a single rupture event, consistently with what has been observed in the past. The rupture segmentation appears to be a consequence of the friction properties off-Kii Peninsula, as well as the rupture initiation position. This work provides a reliable way to enlighten the conditional segmentation process, as a consequence of the earthquake dynamic rupture.

Hok, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Hashimoto, C.



Surface rupture of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and comparison with other strike-slip ruptures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On 3 November 2002, an M7.9 earthquake produced 340 km of surface rupture on the Denali and two related faults in Alaska. The rupture proceeded from west to east and began with a 40-km-long break on a previously unknown thrust fault. Estimates of surface slip on this thrust are 3-6 m. Next came the principal surface break along ???218 km of the Denali fault. Right-lateral offsets averaged around 5 m and increased eastward to a maximum of nearly 9 m. The fault also ruptured beneath the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which withstood almost 6 m of lateral offset. Finally, slip turned southeastward onto the Totschunda fault. Right-lateral offsets are up to 3 m, and the surface rupture is about 76 km long. This three-part rupture ranks among the longest strike-slip events of the past two centuries. The earthquake is typical when compared to other large earthquakes on major intracontinental strike-slip faults. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Haeussler, P. J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Dawson, T. E.; Stenner, H. D.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Cinti, F.; Montone, P.; Sherrod, B.; Craw, P.



Frequency-Dependent Rupture Processes for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake is characterized by frequency-dependent rupture process [e.g., Ide et al., 2011; Wang and Mori, 2011; Yao et al., 2011]. For understanding rupture dynamics of this earthquake, it is extremely important to investigate wave-based source inversions for various frequency bands. The above frequency-dependent characteristics have been derived from teleseismic analyses. This study challenges to infer frequency-dependent rupture processes from strong motion waveforms of K-NET and KiK-net stations. The observations suggested three or more S-wave phases, and ground velocities at several near-source stations showed different arrivals of their long- and short-period components. We performed complex source spectral inversions with frequency-dependent phase weighting developed by Miyake et al. [2002]. The technique idealizes both the coherent and stochastic summation of waveforms using empirical Green's functions. Due to the limitation of signal-to-noise ratio of the empirical Green's functions, the analyzed frequency bands were set within 0.05-10 Hz. We assumed a fault plane with 480 km in length by 180 km in width with a single time window for rupture following Koketsu et al. [2011] and Asano and Iwata [2012]. The inversion revealed source ruptures expanding from the hypocenter, and generated sharp slip-velocity intensities at the down-dip edge. In addition to test the effects of empirical/hybrid Green's functions and with/without rupture front constraints on the inverted solutions, we will discuss distributions of slip-velocity intensity and a progression of wave generation with increasing frequency.

Miyake, H.



Hybrid Simulation of Dynamic Rupture and Seismic Wave Propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a hybrid method for flexible and efficient modeling of the entire earthquake process, from dynamic rupture propagation to the radiation in a hetero- geneous three-dimensional medium. The dynamic rupture propagation is computed using the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), and the wave propagation out- side the fault is carried out by a fourth-order finite-difference method (FDM). Thus, our method combines the flexibility of the BIEM to compute spontaneous rupture propagation on non-planar or multi-segmented fault geometries using a wide range of friction laws with the efficiency of the FDM to compute wave propagation in arbitrar- ily heterogeneous crustal models. The method has several important applications. The effects of fault segmentation and curvature on dynamic rupture propagation and its dynamic radiation can be analyzed in detail. The presence of any significant signature in ground motion patterns from dynamic effects for rupture propagation on non-planar fault geometries can be used to develop guidelines to improve future kinematic (prescribed) simulations. In addition, the statistics of recurrent ruptures on multiple, arbitrarily-shaped fault systems can be computed and used to increase our knowledge of earthquake occurrence. Here, we present details of the implementation of the hybrid method and the interface between the BIEM and FDM. We also show preliminary results for hybrid simulations of the 1992 M7.3 Landers, California, and the 1999 M7.4 Izmit, Turkey, earthquakes. Both earthquakes were associated with complex fault geometry on vertical fault sys- tem in the simulations. For the two events, we compute the ground motion for different fault geometry models and compare synthetic seismograms to strong motion data.

Aochi, H.; Olsen, K. B.; Fukuyama, E.; Madariaga, R.


3D Simulations of Dynamic Rupture on Rough Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural faults during their evolution stages manifest varying degrees of geometric complexities over a broad range of scales spanning from larger-scale features such as branching and segmentation to smaller-scale features such as topographic variations on the slip surface. At a microscopic scale, surface roughness affects the frictional properties through its role in the distribution and evolution of contact areas of the sliding surface. At a larger scale, the geometric irregularities of the fault affects the inter-seismic and post-seismic static stress distribution that is responsible for earthquake nucleation. Our study, however, focuses on the fundamental role that surface roughness plays in the dynamic processes of earthquake rupture propagation and resultant ground motion using numerical simulations of 3D dynamic rupture. As have been shown in several previous 2D numerical studies, dynamic ruptures propagating along rough fault surface can excite high-frequency radiation as they accelerate and decelerate from interaction with geometric irregularities. Also perturbation of local dynamic stress due to roughness contributes to the heterogeneous distributions of slip rate and slip over the entire fault. With the goal of producing more realistic physics-based dynamic ground motion, we perform 3D numerical simulations of dynamic rupture along faults with self-similar roughness distribution of wavelength scales spanning three orders of magnitude (10^2 -10^5 m). We examine the influence of fault roughness characteristics (shortest wavelength and amplitude-to-wavelength ratio) on the rupture behavior, the resultant ground motion pattern and the final slip pattern. The fault is governed by a rate-and-state friction with strongly velocity-weakening feature and the inelastic yielding of off-fault bulk material is subject to Drucker-Prager viscoplasticity. Initial investigations clearly indicate that the amount of high-frequency radiation generated and rupture properties are heavily influenced by the roughness properties. Detailed analyses of our simulation results will be presented at the conference.

Shi, Z.; Day, S. M.



Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

Ritter, C. O., E-mail: [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Steger, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of General, Visceral, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany)



Ruptured Valsalva Sinus Aneurysm to Pericardium Simulated Aortic Root Dissection  

PubMed Central

Ruptured valsalva sinus aneurysm to pericardium is a rare condition. Here, we described a case presented with tamponade. Initially, hemopericardium was partially drained and then, imaging evaluations were done. Transesophageal echocardiography showed limited dissection of aortic sinus and CT angiography of the ascending aorta showed deformed dilated right coronary sinus. Besides, surgery showed that windsock tract of the right coronary sinus had ruptured into the pericardium with avulsed right coronary aortic cusp. This case indicated a rare cause of cardiac tamponade and insufficiency of imaging modalities for making an accurate diagnosis.

Davarpasand, Tahereh; Hosseinsabet, Ali; Abassi, Kumars; Arzhan, Sorya



Endovascular management of ruptured infected popliteal artery aneurysm.  


Infected popliteal aneurysm is a rare high-risk condition that can present as an emergency with acute rupture and sepsis. Management of acute ischemia in the presence of local and systemic sepsis is challenging. Open surgery is not always possible and carries a high risk of morbidity and death. An endovascular approach has been advocated in infected aneurysms elsewhere in the body, with good short-term and medium-term outcomes encouraging such approach in the popliteal artery. We report a case of successful endovascular treatment of an infected ruptured popliteal aneurysm with favorable outcome after 2-year follow-up and a related review of the literature. PMID:21958567

Bani-Hani, Mohamed G; Elnahas, Lamiaa; Plant, Graham R; Ward, Anthony; Moawad, Magdy



Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm with retrograde approach.  


A three-year-old girl with multiple heart malformations admitted to the pediatric cardiology unit because of excessive sweating and fatigue. Abnormal color Doppler flow was detected into the right atrium from the dilated coronary sinus on the echocardiographic examination, and ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) was diagnosed. Although in most such cases, an antegrade transcatheter approach has been used, a retrograde approach can be used as a cost-effective treatment modality in those cases with selective high-risk surgery. In this report, we present a patient with ruptured SVA, which was closed via Amplatzer vascular plug-4 by retrograde approach. PMID:24769826

Narin, Nazmi; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Baykan, Ali; Uzüm, Kaz?m



Rupture Process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake initiated slowly, with small slip and a slow rupture speed for the first 40 to 60 seconds. Then the rupture expanded at a speed of about 2.5 kilometers per second toward the north northwest, extending 1200 to 1300 kilometers along the Andaman trough. Peak displacements reached ~15 meters along a 600-kilometer segment of the plate boundary offshore of northwestern Sumatra and the southern Nicobar islands. Slip was less in the northern 400 to 500 kilometers of the aftershock zone, and at least some slip in that region may have occurred on a time scale beyond the seismic band.

Ammon, Charles J.; Ji, Chen; Thio, Hong-Kie; Robinson, David; Ni, Sidao; Hjorleifsdottir, Vala; Kanamori, Hiroo; Lay, Thorne; Das, Shamita; Helmberger, Don; Ichinose, Gene; Polet, Jascha; Wald, David



Traumatic Rupture of the Superior Oblique Muscle Tendon  

PubMed Central

Traumatic rupture of the superior oblique muscle is rare. We report a case of a 54-year-old man injured by the metal hook of a hanger, resulting in a rupture of the superior oblique muscle tendon. He complained of torsional diplopia when in the primary position. The distal margin of the superior oblique muscle was reattached to sclera 5 and 9 mm apart from the medial insertion of the superior rectus muscle. One week after the operation, torsional diplopia disappeared. However, a 4-prism diopter ipsilateral hypertropia was observed. Three months later, hypertropia gradually increased to 20 prism dioptors and the second operation was done to correct vertical diplopia.

Chung, Hye Jin; Baek, Ji Won



Traumatic rupture of the superior oblique muscle tendon.  


Traumatic rupture of the superior oblique muscle is rare. We report a case of a 54-year-old man injured by the metal hook of a hanger, resulting in a rupture of the superior oblique muscle tendon. He complained of torsional diplopia when in the primary position. The distal margin of the superior oblique muscle was reattached to sclera 5 and 9 mm apart from the medial insertion of the superior rectus muscle. One week after the operation, torsional diplopia disappeared. However, a 4-prism diopter ipsilateral hypertropia was observed. Three months later, hypertropia gradually increased to 20 prism dioptors and the second operation was done to correct vertical diplopia. PMID:24882961

Chung, Hye Jin; Baek, Ji Won; Lee, Young Chun



Isolated rupture of the popliteus with posterior tibial nerve palsy.  


We report the case of a 59-year-old man with severe knee pain and inability to flex his toes or invert his plantar flexed foot after an external rotation injury to his knee. MRI showed rupture of the popliteus with a haematoma compressing the neurovascular bundle in the proximal calf, and electromyography demonstrated signs of an axonotmesis of the posterior tibial nerve. There was progressive nerve recovery over 24 weeks. Isolated rupture of the popliteus should be considered in any patient with an acute haemarthrosis, lateral tenderness and a stable knee, especially after an external rotation injury. PMID:1447239

Geissler, W B; Corso, S R; Caspari, R B



Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and geometry input for dynamic rupture propagation in terms of rupture path and dynamics. On the other hand, it will provide the opportunity to compare slow earthquake akin events developing in quasi-static geodynamic model to fully dynamic ruptures in terms of coseismic displacements and stress changes. Gabriel, A.-A. (2012), J.-P. Ampuero, L. A. Dalguer, and P. M. Mai, The transition of dynamic rupture modes in elastic media, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B9), 01480227. Gerya, T., and D. Yuen (2007), Robust characteristics method for modelling multiphase visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical problems, Phys. Earth Planet In., 163(1-4), 83-105. Pelties, C. (2012), J. De la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. B. Brietzke, and M. Käser Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture, Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B2), B02309. van Dinther, Y. (2013a), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, F. Corbi, F. Funiciello, and P.M. Mai, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models, J. Geophys. Res., 118(4), 1502-1525. van Dinther, Y. (2013b), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, P.M. Mai, G. Morra, and D. Giardini, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6183-6202.

Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona



Spontaneous rupture of ulnar nerve due to neglected cubital tunnel syndrome associated with rheumatoid arthritis.  


A case of spontaneous rupture of the ulnar nerve due to neglected cubital tunnel syndrome associated with rheumatoid arthritis is reported. Earlier decompression and anterior transposition in this patient may have prevented nerve rupture. PMID:17762458

Kalaci, Aydiner; Aslan, Bahadir; Yanat, Ahmet Nedim



Transcatheter closure of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm rupture in a young patient  

PubMed Central

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm rupture is a rare cardiac anomaly and demands prompt treatment. We present a case of a young patient who underwent transcatheter closure due to a ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm.

Sat?lm?s, Seckin; Bozbeyoglu, Emrah; Y?ld?r?mturk, Ozlem; Y?ld?r?m, Ayd?n



Silent rupture of unscarred uterus: an unusual presentation at second trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of unscarred uterus during the second trimester is rare. A case of ruptured uterus in a multiparous woman is presented.\\u000a To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case in the English literature of uterine rupture during second trimester\\u000a termination of pregnancy using ethacridine lactate. This case is also rare as uterine rupture is presented with an insidious

Neena Malhotra; Charu Chanana



Near-Source Ground Motions from Simulations of Sustained Intersonic and Supersonic Fault Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the long-period near-source ground motions from simu- lations of M 7.4 events on a strike-slip fault using kinematic ruptures with rupture speeds that range from subshear speeds through intersonic speeds to supersonic speeds. The strong along-strike shear-wave directivity present in scenarios with sub- shear rupture speeds disappears in the scenarios with ruptures propagating faster than the shear-wave speed.

Brad T. Aagaard; Thomas H. Heaton



Contralateral Cruciate Survival in Dogs with Unilateral Non-Contact Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNon-contact cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR) is an important cause of lameness in client-owned dogs and typically occurs without obvious injury. There is a high incidence of bilateral rupture at presentation or subsequent contralateral rupture in affected dogs. Although stifle synovitis increases risk of contralateral CrCLR, relatively little is known about risk factors for subsequent contralateral rupture, or whether therapeutic

Peter Muir; Zeev Schwartz; Sarah Malek; Abigail Kreines; Sady Y. Cabrera; Nicole J. Buote; Jason A. Bleedorn; Susan L. Schaefer; Gerianne Holzman; Zhengling Hao; Alejandro Lucia



Computational fluid dynamics simulation of an anterior communicating artery ruptured during angiography.  


We present a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the hemodynamic environment of an anterior communicating artery that spontaneously ruptured immediately following three-dimensional rotational angiography. Subsequent digital subtraction angiography allowed for the localization of the point of rupture within the aneurysm dome. CFD analysis demonstrated a concentrated jet that impinged directly at the site of rupture. Peak systolic pressure and wall shear stress were both maximal near the rupture location. PMID:23493342

Hodis, Simona; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Kallmes, David F; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan



Quantitative relations between earthquake source properties from dynamic rupture simulations incorporating off-fault plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High stress concentrations at earthquake rupture fronts may generate inelastic off-fault response around the rupture tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Accounting for off-fault plasticity in earthquake rupture simulations imposes physical limits on extreme ground motion as plastic dissipation limits the rupture speed and peak slip rate of pulses. We present physics-based relations between earthquake source parameters derived from analytic considerations and from a consistent set of 2D dynamic rupture models that incorporate severe velocity-weakening friction and off-fault plasticity assuming homogeneous initial conditions. Specifically, we deduce a non-linear relation between the peak slip velocity and rupture speed, which holds for sub- and super-shear, crack- and pulse-like ruptures. We find that these relations are statistically consistent with the correlation of peak slip rate and rupture speed in 3D dynamic rupture models under linear slip weakening friction and highly heterogeneous initial stress. Furthermore the closeness to failure (CF) parameter introduced by Templeton and Rice (2008) is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for slow ruptures, whereas rupture speeds larger than ~80% S-wave speed have a more complicated dependence on stress orientation and the relative strength of the fault. These relations, combined with the limits on rupture speed imposed by off-fault plasticity, may encapsulate a major influence of plastic deformation on near-field ground motions. Our study captures fundamental processes governing dynamic rupture propagation coupled to self-similar off-fault energy dissipation. Thus, our results may be a suitable starting point to develop new pseudo-dynamic source parametrizations for source inversion and ground motion prediction that account for off-fault plasticity. We will report on the suitability of these relations in the presence of other sources of rupture complexity, e.g. coalescing rupture fronts.

Gabriel, Alice; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Dalguer, Luis A.; Mai, P. Martin



Analysis of steam generator tube rupture transients with single failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit is engaged in the collection and evaluation of light water reactor operating experience as well as analyses for the risk study of the pressurized water reactor (PWR). Within these activities, thermohydraulic calculations have been performed to show the influence of different boundary conditions and disturbances on the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) transients. The analyses of




PWR steamline break analysis assuming concurrent steam generator tube rupture  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented for a steamline break analysis for a typical, two-loop, 2560 MW(t) pressurized water reactor. The calculations were performed using the IRT reactor system transient analysis code. Included are the analyses of steamline break transients assuming concurrent steam generator tube rupture (up to 30 steam generator tubes). Graphical and tabular results are presented.

Shier, W.G.; Levine, M.M.



Progressive visual loss following rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst.  


A 51-year-old man with several months of headache and progressive visual decline was found to have bilateral optic disc pallor with significant impairment of visual acuity. Despite a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation, the cause of visual loss could not be elucidated. MRI of the brain revealed a lesion in the left anterior Sylvian fissure as well as disseminated foci of subarachnoid fat consistent with a diagnosis of a ruptured dermoid cyst. The decision for open surgical resection was chosen to minimize the risk of cyst re-rupture and further visual or neurologic decline. The diagnosis of dermoid cyst was confirmed at the time of surgery. Vasospasm-induced ischemia of the optic nerves, optic chiasm or bilateral optic tracts secondary to the inflammatory reaction following cyst rupture is the most likely mechanism of visual loss in this patient. To the authors' knowledge, this report represents the first reported case of visual loss secondary to rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst not related to mass effect of the tumor on the optic apparatus, visual pathways or visual cortex. PMID:23896550

Skovrlj, Branko; Mascitelli, Justin R; Steinberger, Jeremy M; Weiss, Nirit



Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes.  


We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

Nablo, Brian J; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E; Robertson, Joseph W F; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M; Kasianowicz, John J



Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.



Magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose breast implant rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a method to discover an implant rupture in patients with breast augmentation or reconstruction. From January 1997 to February 1998, 20 breast implants in 12 patients (mean age 52.5 years) were removed surgically. Indications included local pain after reconstructive breast surgery (n=5

V. Wedler; C. Meuli-Simmen; R. Kubik-Huch; W. Künzi; V. Meyer



Massive acute haemoperitoneum and shock from a ruptured ovarian varix  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old woman presented with shock and severe abdominal pain. Abdominal CT scanning demonstrated massive ascites, which was highly suggestive of haemoperitoneum. Diagnostic paracentesis confirmed haemoperitoneum. Urgent operative treatment with ligation of a ruptured ovarian varix successfully controlled the bleeding. She eventually made a full recovery.

Takehara, Nobuharu; Takashimizu, Ikkei; Yazawa, Kazuyuki



Theory of time-dependent rupture in the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture mechanics is used to develop a theory of earthquake mechanism which includes the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth. The following phenomena are predicted: slow earthquakes, multiple events, delayed multiple events (doublets), postseismic rupture growth and afterslip, foreshocks, and aftershocks. The theory predicts a nucleation stage prior to an earthquake, and suggests a physical mechanism by which one earthquake may 'trigger' another.

Das, S.; Scholz, C. H.



A 3D Mimetic Finite Difference Method for Rupture Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a method for solving earthquake rupture dynamics problems on structured curvilinear meshes. The advantage of a curvilinear mesh over a rectangular mesh is that it can accommodate free-surface topography as well as non-planar fault geometry. The advantages of using a structured mesh over an unstructured mesh (as used in many finite element methods) is simplicity and computational

G. Ely; J. Minster; S. Day



Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization  

SciTech Connect

This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

Ham, J.E.



Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: Achilles tendon rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achilles tendon rupture is a relatively uncommon occurrence in a general ED population. The history can be subtle, and physical findings may not be clear-cut. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these injuries, however, is important to improved clinical outcome. The emergency physician needs to remain vigilant for this diagnosis to avoid this orthopedic pitfall. This review article examines the clinical

Jacob Ufberg; Richard A. Harrigan; Thomas Cruz; Andrew D. Perron



Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.



Repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten athletes with distal biceps tendon ruptures that had been anatomically repaired with a double-incision technique were reviewed to determine their functional recovery. All of the patients were men, with an average age of 40 years (range, 25 to 49). Eight of the 10 patients were weight lifters or body builders, and 7 had participated on a competitive level at

Donald F. DAlessandro; Clarence L. Shields; James E. Tibone; Robert W. Chandler



Acute peritoneal dialysis following ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute renal failure is common after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Early dialysis has recently been advocated to reduce the mortality associated with multiorgan failure, but hemodialysis (HD) is not well-tolerated in critically ill patients because of hemodynamic instability and risk of bleeding from anticoagulation therapy. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has the advantage in that it causes minimal cardiopulmonary

Homayon Hajarizadeh; Michael J. Rohrer; John B. Herrmann; Bruce S. Cutler



Pediatric appendicitis rupture rate: disparities despite universal health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeSignificant socioeconomic disparities have been observed in the rates of perforated appendicitis among children in private health care. We seek to explore if, in the Canadian system of public, universal health care access, pediatric appendicitis rupture rates are an indicator of health disparities.

Ioana Bratu; Patricia J. Martens; William D. Leslie; Natalia Dik; Dan Chateau; Alan Katz



Emergency percutaneous treatment of arterial iliac axis ruptures.  


The objective of this paper is to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency percutaneous treatment of ruptures of the iliac axis. In 5 years, we observed 13 patients (mean age, 62.1 years), 11 with rupture of the external iliac artery and two with rupture of the common iliac artery (six traumatic and seven iatrogenic). All patients were treated with stent grafts. A follow-up was performed with a color Doppler ultrasound at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months during the first year and then yearly. Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. During a mean follow-up of 22.3 months, one stent-graft occlusion and one infection of a retroperitoneal hematoma occurred. The primary patency rate is 92.3%. Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for iliac axis ruptures because it can provide a fast and definitive exclusion of bleeding with a patency rate comparable to surgery and less major morbidity and mortality. PMID:17453260

Laganŕ, Domenico; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Mangini, Monica; Giorgianni, Andrea; Lumia, Domenico; Cuffari, Salvatore; Fugazzola, Carlo




EPA Science Inventory

A development program was performed successfully to develop and test a prototype system for temporarily stopping the flow of hazardous materials spilling on land or underwater from ruptured or damaged containers. The prototype system is portable, integrated, and field-operable by...


A Universal Nucleation Mechanism for Solvent Cast Polymer Film Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the intrinsic stress in solvent cast polymer coatings plays a key role in the nucleation of holes in the film. Nucleation is important because it is meanwhile clear that heterogeneous nucleation is the only relevant rupture mechanism for the technologically relevant thickness regime well above 100 nm. The most striking feature is that in contrast to

Daniel Podzimek; Annemarie Saier; Ralf Seemann; Karin Jacobs; Stephan Herminghaus



New finding in the radiographic diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a new radiographic sign of rupture of the Achilles tendon system. It is a fracture, with separation through an osteophyte at the insertion of this tendon. Previously reported signs are also discussed as well as the present case report.

Newmark, H.; Mellon, W.S. Jr.; Malhotra, A.K.; Olken, S.M.; Halls, J.




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent statistical surveys into the causes of automobile Fatalities have shown that traumatic rupture of the aorta followed by immediate exsanguination is responsible for a significant percentage of traffic deaths in the United States. The object of this investigation is to understand a possible mechanism for this failure. A mathematical analysis is presented of the motion of blood in a




Correlation of the Stress to Rupture Data of Incoloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on the application of a phenomenological approach for correlating the stress-to-rupture date of Incoloys which is in part based on the load relaxation behavior of the same material. An effective strain rate was calculated from the liter...

H. Wilson H. Suzuki C. Y. Li



Diagnosis of splenic rupture in malignant lymphoma using radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The case of a 59-year-old woman with malignant lymphoma who was investigated for fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain is presented. A combined spleen/lung scan showed marked medial displacement of an enlarged spleen and a gallium scan showed increased splenic uptake consistent with lymphomatous infiltration. The diagnosis of prior splenic rupture with subphrenic hematoma was confirmed at laparotomy.

Wallace, J.C.



Characterization of earthquake rupture characteristics using hydroacoustic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroacoustic signals (T-waves) generated by the 2004 Great Sumatra earthquake were recorded by a network of 5 small hydroacoustic arrays located in the Indian Ocean at distances of 2800 to 7000 km from the epicenter. The array configurations allow for accurate determination of the receiver to source azimuth given coherent arrivals. Analysis of a series of short time windows within the T-wave coda shows that the receiver to source azimuth varies smoothly as a function of time, suggesting a non-stationary T-wave source. The data indicate that the rupture proceeded in two distinct phases; initially it progressed northwest at approximately 2.4 km/s along the Sunda trench. At 600km from the epicenter the rupture slowed to approximately 1.5 km/s. However, T-waves generated by small earthquakes are also generated over a wide range of azimuths, reflecting seismic to acoustic over a broad expanse of the seafloor. Although the azimuthal variations for the great Sumatra event are shown to be inconsistent with a small-scale source, it is difficult in general to distinguish between azimuthal variations associated with the physics of T-wave excitation and those associated with an extended rupture zone. A method of determining rupture length based on the apparent motion of the T-wave source location is presented here and applied to several events, including the Great Sumatra earthquake of Dec 26, 2004 and the magnitude 8.6 event of March 28, 2005.

de Groot-Hedlin, C.



Effect of Heating Method on Stress-Rupture Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of radiant(furnace), resistance(electric current), burner(hot gas stream), and a combination of resistance and burner heating on intermediate time (100 to 300 hr) stress-rupture life and reduction of area was evaluated. All heating methods were...

P. T. Bizon F. D. Calfo



Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

Zoutendyk, John A.



Comportement mécanique et rupture de milieux granulaires cohésifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modelling of mechanical behaviour and rupture of cohesive granular media is carried out on a model medium made of aluminium cylinders and cohesive bonds playing the role of cohesion points. The mechanical behaviour of the cohesion point is studied under different loading situations (compression, traction, shearing, torque). The results are introduced into a code, which is based on a

Jean-Yves Delenne; Jean-Claude Bénet



The rupture process of the 2002 Alaska earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2002 Alaska earthquake (Mw=7.9) is one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes in recent history. Seismic waveforms recorded at teleseismic distances show evidence for a complex rupture history, with substantial high-frequency energy. We have carried out preliminary inversions of teleseismic body and surface waves to model the slip distribution and time-history of this event. The earthquake can be divied into two parts, an initial thrusting event followed by a strike-slip part. Although the P waves for the initial thrust event are very prominent, the contribution of the thrust mechanism accounts for about 30% of the total moment release. The main slip distribution on the strike-slip fault in our model starts more than 100 km east-south-east of the epicenter, and extends over a length of more than 200 km. The slip distribution shows a strong heterogeneity, with maximum slip of 12 meters, and is consistent with the observed fault offsets. From the body waves, we find that the rise-times are generally short, and the rupture velocity on the order of 3.5 km/sec, or even more. In the light of recent observations on anomalous rupture propagation during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, we are currently investigating the possible occurrence of high rupture velocities during this earthquake, or the triggering of the strike-slip segment by P waves arriving from the hypocenter.

Thio, H. K.



Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie




Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual rupture process is described. It consists of the sudden ; appearance of internal cracks in bonded rubber cylinders at a well-defined and ; comparatively small tensile load. The cracks occur in all the vulcanizates ; examined, and in particularly weak rubbers are found to cause failure. Their ; appearance may also lead to marked cbanges in the load-deflection

A. N. Gent; P. B. Lindley



Endovascular obliteration of a ruptured right gastric artery aneurysm.  


Aneurysms of the right gastric artery are extremely rare lesions. They constitute less than 0.001% of reported visceral artery aneurysms. A unique case of a ruptured right gastric artery aneurysm is presented. Angiographic diagnosis and endovascular treatment by right gastric artery embolization proved safe and efficacious, resulting in complete obliteration of the aneurysm with no adverse sequelae. PMID:16971878

Lagoudianakis, E E; Filis, K A; Tsekouras, D K; Genetzakis, M; Archontovassilis, F; Pattas, M; Papadima, A; Manouras, A



Fast numerical simulation for full bore rupture of pressurized pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient numerical simulation (CNGS-MOC), based on the method of characteristics for simulating full bore rupture of long pipelines containing two-phase hydrocarbons, was developed. The use of curved characteristics, in conjunction with a compound nested grid system, as well as a fast mathematical algorithm, lead to a significant reduction of CPU time, while improving accuracy. The model is validated extensively

Haroun Mahgerefteh; Pratik Saha; Ioannis G. Economou



Pipeline supports save pipelines from flood-induced ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the worst nightmares for a pipeline operating company is washing out of soil and fill around the pipeline during heavy rains and floods. When this happens, spans of the pipeline are unsupported and can rupture from the induced stresses after the water recedes. This paper reviews some of the washouts during the floods of 1993 on a pipeline




Mechanics of shear rupture applied to earthquake zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of shear slippage and rupture in rock masses are reviewed. The essential ideas in fracture mechanics are summarized emphasizing the interpretation and relation among the fracture parameters in shear cracks. The slip-weakening model is described. The general formulation of the problem of nonuniform slip distribution in a continuum is covered.

Li, Victor C.



Quality of care for ruptured uterus in Sagamu, Nigeria.  


A retrospective study was conducted at a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess the quality of emergency care provided to women managed for a ruptured uterus over an 11-year period. There were 76 cases of ruptured uterus and 4,770 deliveries (1.6%) during the period. Ten women died from a ruptured uterus, giving a case fatality rate of 13.2%. The mean admission-assessment interval by a senior clinician was 48.4 min. The mean decision-laparotomy interval was 6.9 h. Deviations from management protocol were noted in 66 women (86.8%) and underlying reasons were classified as patient-orientated (59.2%), medical personnel (13.2%) and administrative (22.4%) problems. Among women who died, there were more administrative problems, intraoperative and total blood losses were significantly more and preoperative haematocrit was significantly less compared with survivors. The poor quality of care for ruptured uterus in this centre is attributable to patients' financial limitations, which is compounded by administrative problems, particularly those regarding inefficient blood transfusion services. This study demonstrates the urgent need for implementation of a national health insurance scheme at this centre and reiterates the feasibility of employing detailed enquiry of peripartal circumstances to identify specific problems underlying major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:20373929

Oladapo, O T; Durojaiye, B O



Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x

Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.



Variable Rupture Mode at Subduction Zones Around the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enormity of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, in comparison with 19th- and 20th-century earthquakes in its rupture area, serves as a reminder that a subduction zone may produce earthquakes larger than those in recorded in the past. Historical record and paleoseismological data show that variability in rupture mode is characteristic of some subduction zones. Infrequent, gigantic earthquakes predominate in geologic records, while historic data tell of more frequent, smaller earthquakes. This implies that along the Cascadia subduction zone, great (M > 8) earthquake can occur more frequently than estimated from paleoseismological record. Like the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the giant 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) was unusually large. Historical predecessors of the 1960 earthquake occurred in 1837, 1737, and 1575. However, midway along the 1960 rupture, only the 1575 event produced geologic records of subsidence and tsunami as obvious as those of 1960. The 1837 and 1737 ruptures were probably small, at least at this latitude (Cisternas et al., 2005). Along the Nankai trough of southwest Japan, recurrence of semi-regular earthquakes has been documented in the 1300 years' written history, with an indication of some variability. The easternmost Suruga trough was ruptured in 1854 but not in 1944, leaving a seismic gap for the anticipated Tokai earthquake. The 1707 earthquake ruptured both Nankai and Tokai sources that ruptured separately in 1854 and in 1944 and 1946. The 1605 earthquake seems to be an unusual tsunami earthquake. Near Tokyo, along the Sagami trough, historical records and marine terraces show two types of large earthquakes (1923 type and 1703 type; Shishikura, 2003); their average recurrence intervals are estimated geologically as several hundred years and a few thousand years, respectively. Earthquakes larger than Mw 8.2 can happen along the southern Kuril trench even though they are unknown from the 200-year written history of Hokkaido. Plate-boundary earthquakes close to M 8, at intervals of 100 years or less, had been considered characteristic in this subduction zone. The 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (M 8.0), for instance, was preceded by similar earthquakes, from slightly different source areas, in 1952 and 1843. However, tsunami deposits show that unusually large tsunamis repeated at intervals averaging about 500 yr, with the most recent event in the 17th century (Hirakawa et al., 2000; Nanayama et al., 2003). The inferred inundation area is much wider than those typical earthquakes, and is best explained by earthquakes that broke more than one of the historical segments. Only these multi-segment earthquakes triggered deep postseismic creep that produced decimeters of coastal uplift (Sawai et al., 2004).

Satake, K.



A Theory of Liquid Surface Rupture by a Uniform Electric Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface distortion and rupture permits field emission from liquid surfaces at field strengths less than those effective for equally smooth solid surfaces. An approximate mathematical theory of the rupture of a plane liquid surface in a uniform electric field has been developed. The relation between initial distortion, rupture time, and field strength has been calculated for fields large compared to

Lewi Tonks



Maternal Death After Uterine Rupture in an Unscarred Uterus: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency encountered infrequently in the Emergency Department. Emergency Physicians must consider this diagnosis when presented with a pregnant patient in shock with abdominal pain. We present the case of a multigravid woman who had a spontaneous uterine rupture after induction with oxytocin, followed by a discussion of uterine rupture with special emphasis on

Banu Dane; Cem Dane



Spontaneous rupture of a cystic mediastinal teratoma complicated by superior vena cava syndrome.  


Spontaneous rupture of cystic mediastinal teratomas is rare but may cause serious complications. Here we report an unusual case of a cystic teratoma, which ruptured into the mediastinal and pleural cavities resulting in superior vena cava syndrome, acute mediastinitis, and pleural effusion. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment of ruptured mediastinal teratomas are essential to preventing life-threatening complications. PMID:24484811

Liu, Chia-Hsin; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hong-Hau; Cheng, Yeung-Lung; Chen, Chien-Wen



Effect of multiaxial stresses on the high-temperature behavior and rupture of advanced alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution and effect of multiaxial stress states on the high temperature deformation and rupture behavior of materials with non-uniform microstructures has been investigated. Through a detailed description of the role that multiaxial stresses play on damage evolution and rupture, the abundant existing data for uniaxial rupture can be used to more successfully design for the life of high temperature

Nancy Louise Johnson



The Use of Oil in Arc Rupture With Special Reference to System Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of the rupturing ability of oil circuit breakers to system stability problems is discussed, and conclusions are drawn as to the effectiveness with which the oil must be used in arc rupture if the requirements of stability are to be met. Past attempts to improve the rupturing performance of oil circuit breakers are reviewed and the results of

B. P. Baker; H. M. Wilcox



Acute Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon in a Collegiate Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rare incidences of combined ruptures of the ACL and patellar tendon, either the patellar tendon ruptures or the associated ACL tear is often initially missed. Even when recognized, there is no established treatment regimen. We report a case of an intercollegiate football player with a combined rupture of the ACL and patellar tendon that was successfully treated by primary

Lydia A. Futch; William P. Garth; Greg J. Folsom; William K. Ogard



Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.

Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.



Rupture failure and mechanical strength of the electrode wire used in wire EDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the application of wire EDM, wire rupture is very troublesome and impedes further increase of cutting speed. Instead of the spark characteristics or the temperature distribution, the rupture mechanism and the mechanical strength of the wire are the focus of this investigation. Wire rupture is a mechanical failure in essence, although the process heat has significant influence on the

Y. F. Luo



Perioperative Anaesthesiological Management and Outcome of the Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a critical emergency that is almost always fatal without rapid surgical intervention. Emergency operations in the course of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) present a major challenge to the surgeon as well as to the anaesthesiologist. A total of 50–60% of AAAs rupture within 5 years. The larger the aneurysm, the more

W. Plöchl; M. Zimpfer



Two unusual case histories of brittle ruptures in fossil fuel boiler tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common causes of brittle rupture in boiler tubes, such as hydrogen damage, corrosion, fatigue, and creep rupture, have often been presented in the corrosion literature. Because ruptures by such modes are anticipated, appropriate remedial measures can be taken. However, when all anticipated problems have been addressed, the only problems remaining are those which are unanticipated. Examples of such unanticipated




Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.  


Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene. PMID:24834440

Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke



Large Scale Dynamic Rupture Modeling with Realistic Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate dynamic rupture on the Southern San Andreas Fault using curved fault geometry, true topography, and the SCEC Velocity Model version 4. The simulation follows the earthquake scenario of the TeraShake 2 simulation, and is similar in computational scale. However, it is a significant advance over the latter, which neglected both topography and the effects of nonplanar fault geometry on the source dynamics. The nonplanar effects are clearly evident in restraining and releasing bends of the fault where we see reduced and enhanced slip respectively. The method uses a "mimetic" approach to model spontaneous rupture on a fault within a 3D isotropic anelastic solid, wherein the equations of motion are approximated with a second order Support-Operator method on a logically rectangular mesh. Grid cells are not required to be parallelepipeds, however, so that non-rectangular meshes can be supported to model complex regions. The rheology on the fault surface is modeled through a slip-weakening, frictional, internal boundary condition. The algorithms have been validated against known analytical solutions (e.g., Kostrov) and previously validated numerical solutions for spontaneous rupture. This validation effort is conducted in the context of the SCEC Dynamic Rupture model validation effort led by R. Harris and R. Archuleta. Absorbing boundaries at the model edges are handled using the perfectly matched layers method (PML) (Olsen & Marcinkovich, 2003). The Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is written in Fortran 95 with parallelization implemented in MPI. Good scaling is achieved on 512 processors (the maximum available) on the SDSC TeraGrid cluster. For 200 meter grid spacing in Southern California, the model consists of 1.8e9 sample points, and requires 250Gb of memory and 50 hours to run. The SCECVM has also been parallelized with MPI, reducing velocity model extraction to a small fraction of the overall problem run time.

Ely, G.; Minster, B.; Day, S.



Arthroscopic treatment of ruptures of the rotator cuff.  


566 patients with shoulder disease were treated at the Clinic of Orthopaedics at the University Hospital Olomouc. Of these, 181 were operated for ruptures of the rotator cuff (RC). They were categorised according to the Gschwend classification, age and gender(1). Laterality of the operated limb was also evaluated. Patients with ruptures larger than 4 cm were treated by open operation. 84 shoulders with ruptures classified as Gschwend I, II and IIIa -52 males and 32 females-were treated arthroscopically. The age of the operated patients ranged from 40-60 years. In both genders, the right shoulder was more often affected. Two operating techniques were used: 1) Transosseal refixation of the RC muscle tendons, using RC MITEK anchor implants, 2) "End to end" sutures, without implants(2-4). Operating time was reduced to 30-40 min. The operating results were evaluated according to the UCLA criteria- University of California Shoulder Rating Score(2). 45 patients achieved excellent results (53 %), 35 patients had good results (42 %), and 4 patients (5 %) obtained satisfactory results. None of the patients obtained poor results- a score of less than 20 was poor. Patients felt comfortable following the operation and none had any post-operational complications. The author is convinced, along with others, that arthroscopic suturing of RC ruptures classified I-IIIa allows for rupture treatment that in the past had to be treated by open technique(2-5). The deltoid muscle is not affected by arthroscopy. There is normalisation of the patient's movement, pain, force, and rotational stability is comparable to the healthy limb. Treatment time is reduced to a minimum and the patient may soon return to normal daily life. PMID:16601771

Holibka, Radomír; Kalina, Radim; Pach, Miroslav; R?zicková, Katherine



Response Of Building Structures To Scaled Laboratory Earthquake Ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a unique framework to study the response of building structures to earthquakes using a laboratory earthquake setup. Specifically, we are interested in assessing the damage done to near-fault structures by sub-Rayleigh and supershear earthquake ruptures. The laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and coworkers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005a, 2005b; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007) is deployed. Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) particle velocity ``ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. A key element for the applicability of this study is a proper scaling relationship between laboratory and natural earthquakes. We use the 2002 Denali earthquake ground motion recorded at Pump Station 10 as a benchmark to develop a scaling relationship between laboratory data and natural earthquakes. This scaling relationship then enables us to examine hypothetical rupture scenarios on the Denali fault. Previous work (Mello et al. 2010) has demonstrated unique ground motion signatures associated with supershear earthquake ruptures, specifically the leading shear Mach front characterized by a dominant fault parallel component followed by a trailing Rayleigh disturbance with a dominant fault normal component. Using a finite element code, FRAME3D, developed by Krishnan et al. 2009, we present a three-dimensional analyses of buildings subjected to scaled particle velocity records derived from laboratory data. We examine the cumulative effect of the shear Mach field and the trailing Rayleigh disturbance on hypothetical structures. We also quantify the damage on such structures as a function of increased fault normal distance subject to the attenuation properties of sub-Rayleigh and supershear velocity fields.

Mello, M.; Bhat, H.; Krishnan, S.; Rosakis, A.; Kanamori, H.



Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary) pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. Case presentation A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation. Conclusion Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.



Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian



Risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformation rupture during pregnancy and puerperium  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether the risk of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is increased during pregnancy and puerperium. Methods: Participants included 979 female patients with intracranial AVM admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 1960 and 2010. Two neurosurgery residents reviewed medical records for each case. Of them, 393 patients with ruptured AVM between 18 and 40 years of age were used for case-crossover analysis. Number of children born and clinical information during pregnancy and puerperium were retrieved to identify whether AVM rupture occurred during this period. Results: Of the 979 women, 797 hemorrhages occurred during 25,578 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 3.11%. The annual AVM hemorrhage rate in patients aged 18 to 40 years (n = 579) was 2.78%, lower than the rate in other age groups (odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.86, p < 0.05). Of the 393 patients with rupture of AVM aged 18 to 40 years, 12 hemorrhages occurred in 12 patients over 452 pregnancies, yielding a hemorrhage rate of 2.65% per pregnancy or 3.32% per year. Among the remaining 381 patients, 441 hemorrhages occurred during 10,627 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 4.14%. The odds ratio for rupture of AVM during pregnancy and puerperium, compared with the control period, was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.61–0.82). Conclusions: No increased risk of hemorrhage was found in patients with cerebral AVM during pregnancy and the puerperium. We therefore would not advise against pregnancy in women with intracranial AVM.

Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuan-li; Teo, Mario; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Cao, Yong; Ye, Xun; Kang, Shuai



Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.