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Sample records for ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform

  1. Treatment of a Ruptured Vertebrobasilar Fusiform Aneurysm Using Pipeline Embolization Device

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lee A.; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options of ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms (VFA) are limited and often carry significant mortality and morbidity. We report the use of Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) to successfully treat a patient with a ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm (VFA) who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 73 year-old man with a history of cardiac stent placement seven days earlier presented with Hunt-Hess II SAH. He was taking aspirin and clopidogrel. Computed tomography angiogram revealed a large vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm. Microsurgical treatment options are technically challenging and carry high risk. He underwent endovascular treatment of the ruptured VFA using overlapping PEDs. Five PEDs were placed in a telescoping fashion to reconstruct the affected portions of the left vertebral and basilar arteries. An additional 2-mm blister aneurysm in the right vertebral artery was also discovered during the conventional cerebral angiography and was treated with one additional PED. The patient remained neurologically intact after the procedure. He was continued on aspirin and clopidogrel. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at three months demonstrated patency of the stents without any evidence of ischemic change. Follow-up conventional cerebral angiogram at six months demonstrated thrombosis of the VFA and reconstruction of the vertebrobasilar system. The patient remained clinically well. An endovascular approach using PEDs can be a safe and effective treatment option for ruptured VFA in selected cases. PMID:23593603

  2. Treatment of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms with Pipeline embolization device

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama; Storey, Christopher; Kalakoti, Piyush; Deep Thakur, Jai; Zhang, Shihao; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Object Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms with Pipeline embolization device (PED) (ev3/Covidien Vascular Therapies) has gained recent popularity. One application of PEDs that is not well described in the literature is the utility and long-term safety in treatment of vertebrobasilar fusiform (VBF) aneurysms. Despite the advancements in endovascular therapy, VBF aneurysms continue to challenging pathology. The authors provide long-term follow-up of VBF aneurysms treated with PEDs. Methods We retrospectively reviewed four patients that were treated at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport with PEDs for VBFs from 2012 to 2014. Each patient was discussed in a multidisciplinary setting between neurosurgeons and neurointerventionalists. Each patient underwent platelet function tests to ensure responsiveness to anti-platelet agents and was treated by one neurointerventionalist (HC). All patients were placed on aspirin and Plavix and were confirmed for therapeutic response prior to discharge. Results Follow-up ranged from 12 to 25 months, with a mean of 14.25 months. Two cases presented with a recurrence after the initial treatment, both of which required subsequent treatment. Of the four patients treated, one patient developed hemiparesis and three died. Conclusion Despite reports describing successful treatment of VBF aneurysms with PEDs, delayed complications after obliteration and remodeling can occur. We describe our institutional experience of VBFs treated with PEDs. Treatment of holobasilar fusiform aneurysms may carry a worse prognosis after treatment. Further long-term follow-up will provide a better understanding of this pathology. PMID:26089246

  3. The safety of Pipeline flow diversion in fusiform vertebrobasilar aneurysms: a consecutive case series with longer-term follow-up from a single US center.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Lin, Ning; Sonig, Ashish; Rai, Ansaar T; Carpenter, Jeffrey S; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Pessimism exists regarding flow diversion for posterior circulation aneurysms because of reports of perforator territory infarcts and delayed ruptures. The authors report the results of patients who underwent Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) flow diversion using novel strategies for treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms, and compare these results with those from previously reported series. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of data from consecutive patients with fusiform vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms treated with the PED. RESULTS This review resulted in the identification of 12 such patients (mean [± SD] age 55.1 ± 14.1 years). Eleven patients had symptoms; 1 had a dissecting aneurysm identified on imaging for neck pain. The average aneurysm size was 13.25 ± 4.5 mm. None of the aneurysms were ruptured or previously treated. The average clinical follow-up duration was 22.1 ± 10.7 months and radiological follow-up was 14.5 ± 11.1 months from the index PED treatment. One patient suffered a perforator stroke and had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 4 at last follow-up. Another patient had a retained stent pusher requiring retrieval via surgical cut-down but recovered to an mRS score of 0 at last follow-up. Eleven (91.7%) of 12 patients recovered to an mRS score of 0 or 1. Two patients had aneurysmal remnants at 7 and 10 months, respectively, after the index PED, which were retreated with PEDs. At last follow-up, all 12 aneurysms were occluded and PEDs were patent. The minimum follow-up duration was 12 months from the index PED treatment; no patient experienced delayed hemorrhage, stroke, or in-stent stenosis. CONCLUSIONS Flow diversion with selective adjunctive techniques is evolving to become a safer treatment option for posterior circulation aneurysms. This is the longest clinical follow-up duration reported for a single-center experience of flow-diversion treatment of these aneurysms. PMID:26654175

  4. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25355741

  5. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2015-11-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25361560

  6. Tailored PICA Revascularization for Unusual Ruptured Fusiform Vertebro-PICA Origin Aneurysms: Rationale and Case Illustrations

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA–PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms. PMID:26623241

  7. Tailored PICA Revascularization for Unusual Ruptured Fusiform Vertebro-PICA Origin Aneurysms: Rationale and Case Illustrations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P

    2015-11-01

    Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA-PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms. PMID:26623241

  8. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  9. Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... travel to the vertebrobasilar arteries and cause a stroke. Less common causes of vertebrobasilar vascular disorders include connective tissue diseases, blood vessel inflammation (vasculitis), and problems in the spinal bones of the ...

  10. Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Jessica C.; Boysen, Megan M.; Warren, Chase R.; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. PMID:21691534

  11. Ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery variant

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Yu; Ohmori, Yuki; Kawano, Takayuki; Kai, Yutaka; Morioka, Motohiro; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primitive trigeminal artery variants (PTAVs) are one of the rare persistent fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations. They originate from the internal carotid artery and join one of the cerebellar arteries instead of the basilar artery. Case Description: We present an 82-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm originating at a PTAV. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiogram and cerebral angiography revealed bilateral PTAV and two aneurysms originating at the left PTAV. The proximal and distal aneurysms were saccular and fusiform, respectively. She underwent surgical treatment and her postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates that extremely rare cerebral aneurysms associated with PTAV can be addressed successfully by surgical intervention. PMID:22059121

  12. Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kamper, Lars Meyn, Hannes; Nordmeyer, Simone; Kempkes, Udo; Piroth, Werner

    2012-06-15

    Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients' outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

  13. Trigeminal hypoplasia due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: A new entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Gupta, Prakhar; Haroon, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurav; Gupta, Gagan; Khalid, Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The term “vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia” refers to anomalous dilatation of the intracranial arteries associated with elongation or tortuosity of the affected vessels. The etiology of the disease is unknown and is usually detected incidentally. The predominant clinical manifestations arise due to the mass effect of the dilated vessels and may include cranial nerve compression, extrinsic aqueductal compression, motor and sensory disturbances. Trigeminal hypoplasia is a very uncommon condition, usually described in association with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome and has not yet been attributed to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. The current case report highlights this rare association of trigeminal nerve hypoplasia and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, leading to hemifacial and corneal anesthesia. PMID:26167222

  14. Cognitive problems related to vertebrobasilar circulation.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Supporting this concept, both cognitive training exercises and physical activity promote blood flow increase and correlate with healthy cognitive aging. The terminal branches of the posterior circulation supply blood to areas of the brain, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum, involved with important intellectual functions, particularly recent memory, visual-spatial functioning, and visuomotor adaptations. Amnesia and visual agnosia may be a complication of not only posterior circulation infarctions but also vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) without accompanying structural infarcts. The cognitive impairment maybe a manifestation of transient attacks and may persist beyond resolution of symptoms related to ischemia. Early recognition of cognitive deficits in the VBI patient is important because several recent reports show stent placements or medical treatment may improve cognition. PMID:26738337

  15. Fusiform aneurysm of a persistent trigeminal artery associated with rare intracranial arterial variations and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kimball, David; Ples, Horia; Kimball, Heather; Miclaus, Gratian D; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal artery is one of four primitive anastomoses between the internal carotid artery and vertebrobasilar system that regresses in the sixth week of fetal development. A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is generally an incidental finding but may also be associated with intracranial vascular pathologies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and cranial nerve compression syndromes. We present an extremely rare case of a right PTA with an associated bleeding fusiform aneurysm located in the carotidian (lateral) part of the PTA. In addition, this rare anatomic variation was associated with bilateral absence of the posterior communicating arteries, a left posterior cerebral artery originating from the left internal carotid artery, and agenesis of the A1 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. PMID:25053265

  16. Dual Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for Fusiform Aneurysm Arising From Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    John, Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) trunk are exceptionally rare and have a high risk for rupture. Dual stent placement through each internal carotid and basilar artery for endovascular coil embolization of a fusiform aneurysm arising from the PTA has not been described in the literature. A 44-year-old female with a history of chronic headache was identified to have a fusiform aneurysm arising from medially coursing adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA trunk. Sacrifice of the PTA trunk inclusive of the aneurysm was performed with dual stent placement through each basilar and internal carotid artery across their respective junctions with the PTA. Six-month follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the PTA and the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms resolved. Our case demonstrated that the sacrifice of an adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA inclusive of an associated fusiform aneurysm is feasible with dual stent-assisted coil embolization. PMID:27621951

  17. Dual Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for Fusiform Aneurysm Arising From Persistent Trigeminal Artery.

    PubMed

    Ajeet, Gordhan; John, Dickinson

    2016-09-01

    Aneurysms of the persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) trunk are exceptionally rare and have a high risk for rupture. Dual stent placement through each internal carotid and basilar artery for endovascular coil embolization of a fusiform aneurysm arising from the PTA has not been described in the literature. A 44-year-old female with a history of chronic headache was identified to have a fusiform aneurysm arising from medially coursing adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA trunk. Sacrifice of the PTA trunk inclusive of the aneurysm was performed with dual stent placement through each basilar and internal carotid artery across their respective junctions with the PTA. Six-month follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the PTA and the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms resolved. Our case demonstrated that the sacrifice of an adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA inclusive of an associated fusiform aneurysm is feasible with dual stent-assisted coil embolization. PMID:27621951

  18. Calcium entry blockers in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hofferberth, B

    1986-01-01

    The influence of different calcium entry blockers on the vestibular system was investigated. The paper reports results from animal experiments and also from clinical studies with flunarizine and nimodipine. An animal experimental model of vertebrobasilar insufficiency was developed. The effect of the two drugs on the vestibular nystagmus was studied in Alsatian dogs before and after occluding one vertebral artery. In order to analyze the influence of the drugs on the vestibular nystagmus and on the clinical symptoms in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency, different open and double-blind studies were performed. PMID:3530776

  19. Time management in acute vertebrobasilar occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kamper, Lars; Rybacki, Konrad; Mansour, Michael; Winkler, Sven B; Kempkes, Udo; Haage, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    Acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) is associated with a high risk of stroke and death. Although local thrombolysis may achieve recanalization and improve outcome, mortality is still between 35% and 75%. However, without recanalization the chance of a good outcome is extremely poor, with mortality rates of 80-90%. Early treatment is a fundamental factor, but detailed studies of the exact time management of the diagnostic and interventional workflow are still lacking. Data on 18 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Time periods between symptom onset, admission to hospital, time of diagnosis, and beginning of intervention were correlated with postinterventional neurological status. The Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used to examine patients before and after local thrombolysis. Additionally, multivariate statistics were applied to reveal similarities between patients with neurological improvement. Primary recanalization was achieved in 77% of patients. The overall mortality was 55%. Major complications were intracranial hemorrhage and peripheral embolism. The time period from symptom onset to intervention showed a strong correlation with the postinterventional NIHSS as well as the patient's age, with the best results in a 4-h interval. Multivariate statistics revealed similarities among the patients. Evaluation of time management in acute VBO by multivariate statistics is a helpful tool for definition of similarities in this patient group. Similarly to the door-to-balloon time for acute coronary interventions, the chances for a good outcome depend on a short time interval between symptom onset and intervention. While the only manipulable time period starts with hospital admission, our results emphasize the necessity of efficient intrahospital workflow. PMID:18704570

  20. Time Management in Acute Vertebrobasilar Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kamper, Lars; Mansour, Michael; Winkler, Sven B.; Kempkes, Udo; Haage, Patrick

    2009-03-15

    Acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) is associated with a high risk of stroke and death. Although local thrombolysis may achieve recanalization and improve outcome, mortality is still between 35% and 75%. However, without recanalization the chance of a good outcome is extremely poor, with mortality rates of 80-90%. Early treatment is a fundamental factor, but detailed studies of the exact time management of the diagnostic and interventional workflow are still lacking. Data on 18 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Time periods between symptom onset, admission to hospital, time of diagnosis, and beginning of intervention were correlated with postinterventional neurological status. The Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used to examine patients before and after local thrombolysis. Additionally, multivariate statistics were applied to reveal similarities between patients with neurological improvement. Primary recanalization was achieved in 77% of patients. The overall mortality was 55%. Major complications were intracranial hemorrhage and peripheral embolism. The time period from symptom onset to intervention showed a strong correlation with the postinterventional NIHSS as well as the patient's age, with the best results in a 4-h interval. Multivariate statistics revealed similarities among the patients. Evaluation of time management in acute VBO by multivariate statistics is a helpful tool for definition of similarities in this patient group. Similarly to the door-to-balloon time for acute coronary interventions, the chances for a good outcome depend on a short time interval between symptom onset and intervention. While the only manipulable time period starts with hospital admission, our results emphasize the necessity of efficient intrahospital workflow.

  1. Medico-legal aspects of traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Kouichi; Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Mizusawa, Ikubumi; Nata, Masayuki; Kodama, Namio

    2005-11-01

    Based on our experiences with medico-legal autopsies, we analyzed traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) in traffic accident victims. VBA rupture occurred in six cases with traumatic medullary lesions, but in none with cervical cord injury. A relatively small external force applied to the head or neck can induce isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for approximately 11% of fatal head injuries. We examined the relationship between site of impact and site of vascular injury in 16 cases of isolated traumatic SAH. The results showed that the vertebral artery (VA) on the side of impact tended to be longitudinally injured in victims experiencing an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch to the head or face. There was no clear relationship between the site of impact and the site of vascular injury in victims who had sustained an external force greater than that of a fist punch. However, our results suggest that an external force causing rotation of the head was likely to cause tearing of the artery. In cases in which an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch was applied to the head, a raised blood alcohol level was a significant risk factor for artery rupture. Furthermore, a difference in the diameters of the left and right VAs was a risk factor for artery rupture. To determine why the VA, the most frequent site of arterial dissection, is also frequently the site of injury, we histologically examined normal and dissected VBAs. We also discuss medico-legal issues of the causal relationship between external force applied and rupture or dissection of the VA. PMID:16308512

  2. Morphological Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar Arterial System Are Associated with Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi; Li, Yanjun; Huang, Qinghai; Liu, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is characterized by abnormal dilation, distortion, and extension of the vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA). This study investigated whether BA and VA morphological characteristics were factors predicting VBD. Material/Methods Individuals aged ≥18 years undergoing contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the head/neck were enrolled in 2012 at Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. Data concerning cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Bilateral VA diameter and lateral displacement, BA diameter and lateral displacement, VA confluence displacement, and dominant VA (DVA) presence/absence were determined from CE-MRA. VBD was diagnosed using established criteria. DVA and no-DVA groups were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with VBD. Results Our study included 1153 individuals, of which 614 (53.3%) had DVA. The DVA group had higher mean age, hypertension prevalence (44.6% vs. 37.5%), and VBD prevalence (8.1% vs. 4.5%), and lower smoking prevalence (24.3% vs. 30.6%), than no-DVA patients. Univariate analysis revealed that age, female sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, and DVA presence were associated with VBD occurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that age and presence of a DVA were independently associated with VBD. Conclusions Age and presence of DVA are independently associated with VBD. PMID:27206494

  3. Morphological Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar Arterial System Are Associated with Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Li, Yanjun; Huang, Qinghai; Liu, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is characterized by abnormal dilation, distortion, and extension of the vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA). This study investigated whether BA and VA morphological characteristics were factors predicting VBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS Individuals aged ≥18 years undergoing contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the head/neck were enrolled in 2012 at Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. Data concerning cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Bilateral VA diameter and lateral displacement, BA diameter and lateral displacement, VA confluence displacement, and dominant VA (DVA) presence/absence were determined from CE-MRA. VBD was diagnosed using established criteria. DVA and no-DVA groups were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with VBD. RESULTS Our study included 1153 individuals, of which 614 (53.3%) had DVA. The DVA group had higher mean age, hypertension prevalence (44.6% vs. 37.5%), and VBD prevalence (8.1% vs. 4.5%), and lower smoking prevalence (24.3% vs. 30.6%), than no-DVA patients. Univariate analysis revealed that age, female sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, and DVA presence were associated with VBD occurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that age and presence of a DVA were independently associated with VBD. CONCLUSIONS Age and presence of DVA are independently associated with VBD. PMID:27206494

  4. Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented. PMID:25071936

  5. Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

  6. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed. PMID:24761228

  7. Treatment of Vertebro-Basilar Dissecting Aneurysms Using Intravascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Kawano, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Hara, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Endovascular surgery is an established primary therapeutic modality for dissecting aneurysms at vertebro-basilar arteries. Intravascular stents can be used to treat the dissecting aneurysms for which simple obliteration procedures cannot be used. In such cases, stent implantation alone or a combination of stents and coils need to be selected properly by taking into consideration the site and shape of dissections. In this report, three patterns of stent application are described and their method of selection is discussed. PMID:20569619

  8. Mechanical Removal of Migrated Onyx Due to Microcatheter Rupture During AVM Embolization: A Technical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Cagin

    2015-12-01

    We report a case where migrated Onyx could be removed safely with a mechanical thrombectomy device after withdrawal of the damaged microcatheter. A microcatheter was retained in the superior cerebellar artery with attached Onyx fragments on its tip during embolization of a bled cerebellar AVM. During retrieval maneuvers microcatheter shaft was ruptured and Onyx fragments were released into the vertebrobasilar system causing occlusion. Finally, Onyx fragment on tip of the microcatheter could be detached with dimethyl sulfoxide injection and the microcatheter could be withdrawn. A Merci retriever device (Concentric Medical, Mountain View, CA, USA) was successfully used to retrieve most of the dislodged Onyx material and recanalize the vertebrobasilar circulation. PMID:25910968

  9. Pipeline Embolization Device for Large/Giant or Fusiform Aneurysms: An Initial Multi-Center Experience in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Sam; Baik, Min Woo; Lee, Deok Hee; Jeon, Pyoung; Baik, Seung Kug; Lee, Tae Hong; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Suh, Sang-il; Byun, Jun Soo; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwon, Kihun; Kim, Dong Joon; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Bum-soo; Park, Jung Cheol; Kim, Seong Rim; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Hoon; Jo, Kyungil; Yoon, Chang Hyo; Kim, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and early outcomes of the Pipeline device for large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. Materials and Methods The Pipeline was implanted in a total of 45 patients (mean age, 58 years; M:F=10:35) with 47 large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. We retrospectively evaluated the characteristics of the treated aneurysms, the periprocedural events, morbidity and mortality, and the early outcomes after Pipeline implantation. Results The aneurysms were located in the internal carotid artery (ICA) cavernous segment (n=25), ICA intradural segment (n=11), vertebrobasilar trunk (n=8), and middle cerebral artery (n=3). Procedure-related events occurred in 18 cases, consisting of incomplete expansion (n=8), shortening-migration (n=5), transient occlusion of a jailed branch (n=3), and in-stent thrombosis (n=2). Treatment-related morbidity occurred in two patients, but without mortality. Both patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 2, but had an improved mRS score of 0 at 1-month follow-up. Of the 19 patients presenting with mass effect, 16 improved but three showed no changes in their presenting symptoms. All patients had excellent outcomes (mRS, 0 or 1) during the follow-up period (median, 6 months; range, 2-30 months). Vascular imaging follow-up (n=31, 65.9%; median, 3 months, range, 1-25 months) showed complete or near occlusion of the aneurysm in 24 patients (77.4%) and decreased sac size in seven patients (22.6%). Conclusion In this initial multicenter study in Korea, the Pipeline seemed to be safe and effective for large/giant or fusiform aneurysms. However, a learning period may be required to alleviate device-related events. PMID:26958407

  10. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage following ischemia in vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Husain, Shakir; Sztajzel, Roman; Croquelois, Alexandre; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Thaler, David; Städler, Claudio; Hungerbühler, Hansjörg; Caso, Valeria; Rinkel, Gabriel J; Michel, Patrik

    2016-07-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a chronic disorder with various cerebrovascular and compressive manifestations, involving subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Occurrence of SAH shortly after worsening of clinical VBD symptoms has occasionally been reported. The goal of the study was to examine this association, in particular its pathophysiology, clinical precursor signs, time course, and outcome.To this end, in a retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed 20 patients with VBD and SAH in regard to preceding clinical symptoms, presence of vertebrobasilar thrombosis and ischemia, outcome and neuropathological correlates.Median age of the 7 female and 13 male patients was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.3 years). Fourteen patients (70%) presented with new or acutely worsening posterior fossa signs at a median of 3 days prior to SAH (IQR 2, range 0.5-14). A thrombus within the VBD was detected in 12 patients (60%). Thrombus formation was associated with clinical deterioration (χ = 4.38, P = 0.04) and ponto-cerebellar ischemia (χ = 8.09, P = 0.005). During follow-up after SAH, 13 patients (65%) died, after a median survival time of 24 hours (IQR 66.2, range 2-264 hours), with a significant association between proven ponto-cerebellar ischemia and case fatality (χ = 6.24, P = 0.01).The data establish an association between clinical deterioration in patients with VBD, vertebrobasilar ischemia, and subsequent SAH. Antithrombotic treatment after deterioration appears controversial and SAH outcome is frequently fatal. Our data also indicate a short window of 3 days that may allow for evaluating interventional treatment, preferably within randomized trials. PMID:27399083

  11. Cervical spondylosis causing vertebrobasilar insufficiency: a surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Donald R.; Vanderark, Gary D.; Kempe, Ludwig G.

    1971-01-01

    Although the most common aetiology of transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency is atherosclerosis, a similar syndrome may occasionally be produced by cervical osteophytes. The possibility of such a remedial lesion makes further investigation mandatory in such patients—especially if symptoms are associated with sudden movements of the head or neck. When vertebral compression results from osteophytes, it can be easily relieved by a minor modification of the usual anterior cervical fusion technique. This method has proved to be quite efficacious in two patients whose case histories are reported. Images PMID:5096552

  12. Multimodality Imaging of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia: Clinical Presentations and Imaging Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Samim, Mohammad; Goldstein, Alan; Schindler, Joseph; Johnson, Michele H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is characterized by ectasia, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries, with a high degree of variability in clinical presentation. The disease origin is believed to involve degeneration of the internal elastic lamina, thinning of the media secondary to reticular fiber deficiency, and smooth muscle atrophy. The prevalence of VBD is variable, ranging from 0.05% to 18%. Most patients with VBD are asymptomatic and their VBD is detected incidentally; however, it is important to recognize that the presence of symptoms, which can lead to clinically significant morbidity and sometimes mortality, may influence clinical management. The most important clinical presentations of VBD are vascular events, such as ischemic stroke and catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage, or progressive compressive symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures, including the cranial nerves, brainstem, or third ventricle, causing hydrocephalus. The imaging diagnostic criteria for computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging include three quantitative measures of basilar artery morphology: laterality score, height of bifurcation, and basilar artery diameter. The authors review the relevant anatomy and disease origin of VBD; pertinent imaging findings, including intraluminal thrombus and relation to the cranial nerves; and imaging pitfalls, such as the hyperintense vessel sign on MR images and artifacts related to slow flow in the dolichoectatic vessel. In addition, clinical manifestations, the role of radiology in diagnosis and management of this condition, and available management options are reviewed. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27315445

  13. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  14. Ruptured eardrum

    MedlinePlus

    Tympanic membrane perforation; Eardrum - ruptured or perforated; Perforated eardrum ... Buttaravoli P, Leffler SM. Perforated tympanic membrane (ruptured eardrum). ... PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 37. Kerschner JE. Otitis ...

  15. Acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke due to electric injury.

    PubMed

    Singh Jain, Rajendra; Kumar, Sunil; Suresh, Desai Tushar; Agarwal, Rakesh

    2015-07-01

    Electrical injuries are most commonly due to household accidents.Various factors determine the severity of electric injury, including type of current, amperage, voltage, tissue resistance, pathway of current,and duration of contact with the body. Various types of neurologic damage due to electrical injury have been described in literature. It may manifest as peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord damage, seizures, cerebellarataxia, hypoxic encephalopathy, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Acute ischemic stroke is an infrequent complication of electrical injury. Herein,we report a case of middle-aged man, who accidentally sustained high voltage electrical injury followed by acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute infarctin bilateral cerebellar and medial occipital regions. Computed tomographic angiogram of the brain and neck vessels was normal. Possibly,in our patient, the mechanism could be related to direct vascular injury due to electric current. PMID:25684743

  16. Recurrent facial hemiparesis due to dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery: an unusual and ignored cause.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijay Nath; Chaurasia, Rameshwar Nath; Gupta, Shailesh; Joshi, Deepika

    2013-01-01

    Dolichoectatic arteries are elongated tortuous aneurysms of intracranial arteries most commonly of vertebrobasilar tree presenting with ischaemic, haemorrhagic, thromboembolic lesions or with cranial nerve compression. The clinical presentation includes tic douloureux, neuralgia, tinnitus, vertigo, motor or sensory deficits, ataxia, dementia, Parkinsonism, hydrocephalus, headache, migraine, aneurysm, neoplasm, stroke/transient ischaemic attacks, leukoencephalopathy, central sleep apnoea and cerebellar dysfunctions. We present a case of recurrent facial nerve palsy secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, an interesting and rare condition. PMID:23505276

  17. Fusiform aneurysm of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with cerebrovascular anatomic variations: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pleş, Horia; Loukas, Marios; Andall, Rebecca G; Andall, Naomi R; Iacob, Nicoleta; Miclăuş, GraŢian Dragoslav; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    There are four embryonic anastomoses that exist between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the vertebrobasilar (VB) system, which may fail to regress postfetal life; one of which is the trigeminal artery. Other persistent anastomoses include those formed by the hypoglossal, otic and proatlantic intersegmental arteries. In addition, other cerebrovascular variations may accompany a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA); such as arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, carotid-cavernous fistulas and stenotic cerebral vessels. We present two very rare cases of a left PPTA. In the first case, there was a past medical history significant for cervico-thoraco-lumbar spondylitis and in the second case of an operated occipital astrocytoma. In both cases, the PPTA was associated with a fusiform aneurysm located in the carotidian (lateral) aspect of the PPTA as well as other cerebrovascular anatomic variations. In the first case, the length of the PPTA was 26.0 mm and its endoluminal diameter, at its origin at the ICA, was 1.8 mm; the aneurysm has a length of 8.4 mm. In the second case, the length of the PPTA was 31.0 mm and its endoluminal diameter at its origin at the ICA was 3.0 mm; the aneurysm have a length of 7.6 mm. Identification of these variant vessels should not be ignored before planning and execution of neurosurgeries to prevent possible perioperative risks. PMID:26662153

  18. The vertebrobasilar arterial system in guinea pig as compared with dog and human.

    PubMed

    Majewska-Michalska, E

    1998-01-01

    The arterial system formed by branches of the vertebral and basilar arteries in guinea pig was compared to that of dog and human. The vertebrobasilar arterial system in particular species shows similarities and differences, considering its structure and arising branches. The differences are mainly due to the length of the basilar artery. In guinea pig the vertebrobasilar system distribute blood to the 2/3 of the brain. The same distribution is in dog. In human the carotid system predominates in the supply of the brain. PMID:9835170

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, A.Y. Stoyda, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.E.; Scherbyuk, A.N.; Kondrashin, S.A; Artukchina, E.G.; Kikevitch, V.A.

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of subclavian (SA), innominate (IA) and vertebral (VA) arteries. Procedures were done by radiologists experienced in systematic stenting of the lesions. VBI was manifested by persistent signs in 15 patients, and by transitory ischemic attacks in the posterior circulatory territory in 4 (19%). Two patients (10%) experienced ischemic strokes (in the vertebrobasilar circulation in both cases). In 3 patients (14%) VBI was accompanied by upper limb vascular insufficiency symptoms. All cases were resistant to medical treatment. A neurologist assessed complaints, initial VBI signs and their alteration after intervention in all patients. Outcomes were measured with the 5-point scale suggested by Malek et al.: (1) excellent result (asymptomatic, no neurologic deficits and no symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (2) good (no neurologic deficits, at most one transient episode of vertebrobasilar ischemia over a period of 3 months after treatment); (3) fair (minimal neurologic deficit and at most one transient episode per month of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (4) poor (no improvement compared with neurologic status before treatment and/or persistent symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (5) death (regardless of cause). Endovascular treatment was performed for SA stenosis in 15 patients, for SA occlusion in 2, for IA stenosis in 2, and for VA stenosis in 2. There were 15 cases of atherosclerosis, 2 of aortoarteritis, 4 of proximal SA kinking. SA and IA stenoses ranged from 60% to 100% (mean 74

  20. [Vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks in young and middle aged patients].

    PubMed

    Beliavskiĭ, N N; Likhachev, S A; Varenik, T N; Demarin, V

    2008-01-01

    A complex clinical, neurological, laboratory, ultrasound and neuroimaging examination of 70 patients, aged 31-59 years, suffering from vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack (TIA) was carried out in order to determine clinical and pathogenetic peculiarities of the disease in young and middle aged patients. The hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of the large cerebral arteries (LCA) as a cause of TIA was observed more rarely in the young and middle age groups than in elderly and aged people. Heart valves lesion was the main cause of cerebral cardioembolism in young and middle aged patients with TIA. A greater number of cases with other established causes of the disease (dissections, kinking of vertebral arteries, hemorheological microocclusion) were revealed. An undetermined pathogenesis of the disease mostly due to the inability to choose the main pathogenetic mechanism out of other potential mechanisms, e.g., the association of arterial hypertension with kinking, the hypoplasia or anomaly of the entrance of vertebral artery into the transverse channel, was observed in these groups more often than in elderly and aged people. The clinical picture of TIA in young and middle aged patients with hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of LCA had the highest similarity with that in elderly and aged ones. In case of cardioembolic pathogenesis, it was characterized by the markedly less severe signs of the disease and in case of the disease due to isolated arterial hypertension--by the lower rate of vascular white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging. A relatively higher rate of symptoms attributed to the manifestation of hypertensive crisis during the attack was observed in young and middle aged patients with TIA due to isolated arterial hypertension comparing with other pathogenetic variants of the disease. The clinical picture of TIA due to other established causes was depended on the main pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. PMID:19431240

  1. The fusiform face area is enlarged in Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Hong, Sungjin; Haas, Brian W.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Mills, Debra L.; Bellugi, Ursula; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by atypical brain structure, cognitive deficits, and a life-long fascination with faces. Face recognition is relatively spared in WS, despite abnormalities in aspects of face processing, and structural alterations in the fusiform gyrus, part of the ventral visual stream. Thus, face recognition in WS may be subserved by abnormal neural substrates in the ventral stream. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the fusiform face area (FFA), which is implicated in face recognition in typically developed individuals (TD), but its role in WS is not well understood. We found that the FFA size was approximately twice larger among WS than TDs, (both absolutely and relative the fusiform gyrus), despite apparently normal levels of face recognition performance on a Benton face recognition test. Thus, a larger FFA may play a role in face recognition proficiency among WS. PMID:20463232

  2. MRI diffusion tensor tracking of a new amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathway system in humans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles D.; Lori, Nicolas F.; Akbudak, Erbil; Sorar, Ertugrul; Gultepe, Eren; Shimony, Joshua S.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To use MRI diffusion-tensor tracking (DTT) to test for the presence of unknown neuronal fiber pathways interconnecting mid-fusiform cortex and anteromedial temporal lobe in humans. Such pathways are hypothesized to exist because these regions co-activate in functional MRI (fMRI) studies of emotion-valued faces and words, suggesting a functional link that could be mediated by neuronal connections. Materials and Methods 15 normal human subjects were studied using unbiased DTT approaches designed for probing unknown pathways, including whole-brain seeding and large pathway-selection volumes. Several quality-control steps verified the results. Results Parallel amygdalo-fusiform and hippocampo-fusiform pathways were found in all subjects. The pathways begin/end at mid-fusiform gyrus above the lateral occipitotemporal sulcus bilaterally. The superior pathway ends/begins at the superolateral amygdala. The inferior pathway crosses medially and ends/begins at the hippocampal head. The pathways are left-lateralized, with consistently larger cross-sectional area, higher anisotropy, and lower minimum eigenvalue (D-min) on the left, where D-min assesses intrinsic cross-fiber diffusivity independent of curvature. Conclusion A previously-undescribed pathway system interconnecting mid-fusiform region with amygdala/hippocampus has been revealed. This pathway system may be important for recognition, memory consolidation, and emotional modulation of face, object, and lexical information, which may be disrupted in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19418556

  3. Doppler sonography characteristics of vertebrobasilar circulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Mirjana; Sinanović, Osman; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Burina, Adnan; Hudić, Josip

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the doppler sonography findings of vertebrobasilar circulation (VB) in patients with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients were analyzed (25 men's and 15 women) with Parkinson's disease, average age was 61.9 years (SD=11.43), treated at the Clinic for Neurology in Tuzla. Device for doppler sonography was Multidop x 4. Doppler sonography findings of VB circulation were analyzed in order to computerized tomography (CT) findings of the brain (with or without ischemic lacunar lesions) and in order to presence of postural disturbances as one of dominant Parkinson's disease symptoms during actual hospitalization. Our results suggest that vertebrobasilar insufficiency is more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (no matter of type) and postural disturbances as a dominant symptom comparing to group of Parkinson's disease patients without postural disturbances. These results implicate the importance of doppler sonography findings of vertebrobasilar circulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and possibility of considering role of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in development of postural disturbances. PMID:18816258

  4. Interplay of Proximal Flow Confluence and Distal Flow Divergence in Patient-Specific Vertebrobasilar System

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Feng, Yundi; Tan, Wenchang; Liu, Huaijun

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of ischemic strokes involve the vertebrobasilar arterial system that includes the upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence. A patient-specific hemodynamic analysis is needed to understand the posterior circulation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebrobasilar system, based on computer tomography angiography images. Here, the interplay of upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence was hypothesized to be a determinant factor for the hemodynamic distribution in the vertebrobasilar system. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to compute the flow fields in patient-specific vertebrobasilar models (n = 6). The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were the aortic pressure waveform and flow resistances, respectively. A 50% reduction of total outlet area was found to induce a ten-fold increase in surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., TAWSS ≤ 4 dynes/cm2). This study enhances our understanding of the posterior circulation associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27467755

  5. Interplay of Proximal Flow Confluence and Distal Flow Divergence in Patient-Specific Vertebrobasilar System.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Feng, Yundi; Tan, Wenchang; Liu, Huaijun; Huo, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of ischemic strokes involve the vertebrobasilar arterial system that includes the upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence. A patient-specific hemodynamic analysis is needed to understand the posterior circulation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebrobasilar system, based on computer tomography angiography images. Here, the interplay of upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence was hypothesized to be a determinant factor for the hemodynamic distribution in the vertebrobasilar system. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to compute the flow fields in patient-specific vertebrobasilar models (n = 6). The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were the aortic pressure waveform and flow resistances, respectively. A 50% reduction of total outlet area was found to induce a ten-fold increase in surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., TAWSS ≤ 4 dynes/cm2). This study enhances our understanding of the posterior circulation associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27467755

  6. Rupture disc

    DOEpatents

    Newton, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough.

  7. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  8. Intracranial Pseudoaneurysms, Fusiform Aneurysms and Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xianli; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Wu, Zhongxue

    2008-01-01

    Summary The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fu-siform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons
2/15. Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection. Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities. PMID:20557743

  9. Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter.

    PubMed

    Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. PMID:26063795

  10. Puerarin and betahistine treatment of vertebrobasilar ischemia vertigo: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YAN-YAN; CHEN, WEN; ZHANG, QING; LI, HUI; ZHANG, YE-WEN; KANG, QIAN; LAN, YI; WU, QING

    2016-01-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of puerarin co-treatment with betahistine in treating vertebrobasilar ischemia (VBI) vertigo. A total of 6 medical databases were searched, identifying randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of VBI vertigo performed until August 2014 that investigated a combined treatment of puerarin with betahistine or with other conventional drugs. The quality of the literature was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias, and Rev Man 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis and evaluation. The present study included 7 RCTs, involving a total of 664 subjects, and revealed a statistically significant increase in efficacy between the control and the experimental group (odds ratio [OR], 4.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05 to 8.15). The average blood flow velocity within the vertebrobasilar arteries increased following treatment with puerarin and betahistine compared with that of the control groups (OR, 7.59; 95% CI, 6.19 to 9.00); however, no difference was detected between these groups in the average flow velocity within the left vertebral artery (OR, 6.17; 95% CI, 5.22 to 7.13). The frequency of adverse reactions in the experimental group was lower (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.77) compared with the control group. Combined puerarin and betahistine regimens were more effective in treating VBI vertigo compared with other, conventional drugs; effectively alleviating the associated symptoms, including dizziness and increased average blood flow velocity within the vertebrobasilar arteries, without causing an increased number of serious side effects. However, the efficacy and safety of puerarin and betahistine use in treating VBI vertigo requires additional investigation. PMID:26998036

  11. Hemodynamic Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar System Analyzed Using MRI-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    Wake-Buck, Amanda K.; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrobasilar system (VBS) is unique in human anatomy in that two arteries merge into a single vessel, and it is especially important because it supplies the posterior circulation of the brain. Atherosclerosis develops in this region, and atherosclerotic plaques in the vertebrobasilar confluence can progress with catastrophic consequences, including artery occlusion. Quantitative assessments of the flow characteristics in the VBS could elucidate the factors that influence flow patterns in this confluence, and deviations from normal patterns might then be used to predict locations to monitor for potential pathological changes, to detect early signs of disease, and to evaluate treatment options and efficacy. In this study, high-field MRI was used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the hemodynamics of subject-specific confluence models (n = 5) and to identify different geometrical classes of vertebrobasilar systems (n = 12) of healthy adult subjects. The curvature of the vessels and their mutual orientation significantly affected flow parameters in the VBS. The basilar artery geometry strongly influenced both skewing of the velocity profiles and the wall shear stress distributions in the VBS. All five subjects modeled possessed varying degrees of vertebral asymmetry, and helical flow was observed in four cases, suggesting that factors other than vertebral asymmetry influence mixing of the vertebral artery flow contributions. These preliminary studies verify that quantitative, MR imaging techniques in conjunction with subject-specific CFD models of healthy adult subjects may be used to characterize VBS hemodynamics and to predict flow features that have been related to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis in large arteries. This work represents an important first step towards applying this approach to study disease initiation and progression in the VBS. PMID:23251503

  12. Abnormal fusiform activation during emotional-face encoding assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Nancy E; Kayser, Reilly R; Olsavsky, Aviva K; Bones, Brian L; Muhrer, Eli J; Fromm, Stephen J; Pine, Daniel S; Zarate, Carlos; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A

    2013-05-30

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study shows that children and adults with bipolar disorder (BD), compared with healthy subjects, exhibit impaired memory for emotional faces and abnormal fusiform activation during encoding. Fusiform activation abnormalities in BD were correlated with mania severity and may therefore represent a trait and state BD biomarker. PMID:23541333

  13. Abnormal fusiform activation during emotional-face encoding in children and adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly R.; Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Bones, Brian L.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Zarate, Carlos; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study shows that, compared to healthy subjects, children and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit impaired memory for emotional faces and abnormal fusiform activation during encoding. Fusiform activation abnormalities in BD were correlated with mania severity and may therefore represent a trait and state BD biomarker. PMID:23541333

  14. Clinical Results of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Intracranial Vertebrobasilar Atherosclerotic Stenoses and Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuura, M.; Terada, T.; Masuo, O.; Tsumoto, T.; Yamaga, H.; Itakura, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Hyoutani, G.; Hayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebrobasilar stenosis and occlusion were treated by PTA or stenting. In 11 of 18 cases, only PTA was performed and in seven of 18 cases, we used stents. The mean stenosis before and after PTA/stenting was 82.8% and 22.3%, respectively. In 11 cases of PTA only, the stenotic rate decreased from 81.8% to 29.6%, while 85.0% of the stenotic rate remarkably reduced to 6.0% in seven cases of stenting. The 30 days morbidity and 30 days mortality rate were 5.5% and 5.5%, respectively. There was only one haemorrhagic complication (cerebellar haemorrhage) in cases of stenting, and no ischemic events during or after the procedures. Restenosis (more than 50% stenosis) occurred in four of 18 cases(22.2%) during mean follow-up period of 12 months. Two patients with VA occlusion before treatment, developed restenosis and reocclusion. Complete total occlusion seems to be a high-risk lesion and strict follow-up is required. In this study, PTA/stenting for intracranial vertebrobasilar artery stenosis or occlusion is an effective treatment, but strict indications may be required because procedure-related 30 days morbidity rate was 5.5% in addition to unclear natural history. PMID:20587244

  15. Computed Tomography Angiography of Carotid Arteries and Vertebrobasilar System: A Simulation Study for Radiation Dose Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Manuel; Ellmann, Stephan; Allmendinger, Thomas; Eller, Achim; Kammerer, Ferdinand; May, Matthias S; Baigger, João F; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar system is a standardized procedure with excellent image quality, but radiation exposure remains a matter of concern. The aim of this study is to examine to what extent radiation dose can be lowered in relation to a standard protocol by simulating examinations with lower tube currents applying a dedicated software.Lower tube current was simulated by a dedicated noise insertion and reconstruction software (ReconCT). In a phantom study, true scans were performed with different dose protocols and compared to the results of simulated dose reductions of the same degree, respectively. In a patient study, 30 CTAs of supra-aortic vessels were reconstructed at a level of 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of the initial dose. Objective and subjective image analyses were performed.No significant noise differences between true scans and simulated scans of mimicked contrasted vessels were found. In the patient study, the quality scores of the 4 dose groups differed statistically significant; this difference vanished for the comparison of the 100% and 75% datasets after dichotomization into the categories of diagnostic and nondiagnostic image quality (P = .50).This study suggests an easy-to-implement method of simulating CTAs of carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar system with lower tube current for dose reduction by artificially adding noise to the original raw data. Lowering the radiation dose in a moderate extent to 75% of the original dose levels does not significantly alter the diagnostic image quality. PMID:26131822

  16. Skill Dependent Audiovisual Integration in the Fusiform Induces Repetition Suppression

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13 years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. PMID:25585276

  17. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  18. Functional organization of the fusiform gyrus revealed with connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    Within the object recognition-related ventral visual stream, the human fusiform gyrus (FG), which topographically connects the striate cortex to the inferior temporal lobe, plays a pivotal role in high-level visual/cognitive functions. However, though there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the FG, the functional organization of the whole FG in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. In the current study, a replicable functional organization of the FG based on distinct anatomical connectivity patterns was identified. The FG was parcellated into medial (FGm), lateral (FGl), and anterior (FGa) regions using diffusion tensor imaging. We validated the reasonability of such an organizational scheme from the perspective of resting-state whole brain functional connectivity patterns and the involvement of functional subnetworks. We found corroborating support for these three distinct modules, and suggest that the FGm serves as a transition region that combines multiple stimuli, the FGl is responsible for categorical recognition, and the FGa is involved in semantic understanding. These findings support two organizational functional transitions of the ventral temporal gyrus, a posterior/anterior direction of visual/semantic processing, and a media/lateral direction of high-level visual processing. Our results may facilitate a more detailed study of the human FG in the future. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3003-3016, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132874

  19. Evaluation of fusiform rust-resistant loblolly pine families for the South Carolina sandhills region

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    Loblolly pine trees from various geographic sources are being evaluated for resistance to fusiform rust. Reasons for differences in resistance and the mechanisms of rust infection are also being investigated. (ACR)

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao; Zou, Huixi; Pang, Qiuying

    2015-06-01

    Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival. PMID:25827747

  1. Distinct but Overlapping Patterns of Response to Words and Faces in the Fusiform Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Rice, Grace E; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-07-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the fusiform gyrus is involved in the processing of both faces and words. We used fMRI to investigate the extent to which the representation of words and faces in this region of the brain is based on a common neural representation. In Experiment 1, a univariate analysis revealed regions in the fusiform gyrus that were only selective for faces and other regions that were only selective for words. However, we also found regions that showed both word-selective and face-selective responses, particularly in the left hemisphere. We then used a multivariate analysis to measure the pattern of response to faces and words. Despite the overlap in regional responses, we found distinct patterns of response to both faces and words in the left and right fusiform gyrus. In Experiment 2, fMR adaptation was used to determine whether information about familiar faces and names is integrated in the fusiform gyrus. Distinct regions of the fusiform gyrus showed adaptation to either familiar faces or familiar names. However, there was no adaptation to sequences of faces and names with the same identity. Taken together, these results provide evidence for distinct, but overlapping, neural representations for words and faces in the fusiform gyrus. PMID:26157025

  2. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  3. Premature rupture of membranes

    MedlinePlus

    ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go ... th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The earlier your water ...

  4. Treatment of fenestrated vertebrobasilar junction-related aneurysms with endovascular techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, De-Yuan; Fang, Yi-Bin; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Qiang; Duan, Guo-Li; Liu, Jian-Min; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Fenestrated vertebrobasilar junction-related aneurysms (fVBJ-AN) are uncommon and endovascular management strategies have become the first options for the treatment of these lesions. This clinical study aimed to report our experience in the endovascular management of these lesions and to review the literature. We retrospectively reviewed 10 consecutive patients harboring 12 fVBJ-AN between January 2007 and December 2014. The demographic, angiographic and clinical data were reviewed. Additionally, a literature review was performed. Endovascular management strategies were successfully applied in all 10 patients. Post-procedural angiograms indicated total occlusion in eight (66.7%) aneurysms, a residual neck in one (8.3%) aneurysm, and three residual aneurysms (25%). No procedure-related complications were observed. Follow-up angiograms were obtained in eight patients and revealed nine occluded aneurysms and one improved aneurysm; two patients were lost to angiographic follow-up. Clinical follow-ups were obtained in all patients (until July 2015), and the modified Rankin Scale scores at 69.5months (range 17-101months) of follow-up were 0 in eight patients and 1 in two patients. Endovascular management strategies provided a high occlusion rate and an acceptable complication rate and are thus efficacious in the treatment of fVBJ-AN. Further studies are necessary to validate the utility of these treatments due to the low incidence of fVBJ-AN. PMID:26778513

  5. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  6. Ratio of fusiform and ray initials in the vascular cambium of Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Saima; Siddiqui, M Badruzzaman

    2007-02-01

    The anatomical studies of the vascular cylinder revealed in tangential longitudinal plane have fusiform initials and ray initials arranged in non-stratified manner like majority of dicots. It is generally believed that fusiform initials constitute more than 90% of the vascular cambium but contrary to above reports, 60 to 83% fusiform initials have been observed in different tropical tree and in certain extreme cases their proportion may fall as low as 25%. Keeping in view the above variations, the present communication aims at presenting the proportions of the fusiform initials which was found to be 65% mean tangential area in the cambial zone of presently investigated species. PMID:19069530

  7. Sargassum fusiforme fraction is a potent and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Lin, Xudong; Duus, Karen; McSharry, James J; Veille, Jean-Claude L; Thornber, Carol; Liu, Yanze; Lee, David Yu-Wei; Canki, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiforme mixture. Here, we report isolation of a bioactive fraction SP4-2 (S. fusiforme), which at 8 μg/ml inhibited HIV-1 infection by 86.9%, with IC50 value of 3.7 μg. That represents 230-fold enhancement of antiretroviral potency as compared to the whole extract. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5) tropic HIV-1. Specifically, 10 μg/ml SP4-2 blocked HIV-1 fusion and entry by 53%. This effect was reversed by interaction of SP4-2 with sCD4, suggesting that S. fusiforme inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking CD4 receptor, which also explained observed inhibition of both X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. SP4-2 also inhibited HIV-1 replication after virus entry, by directly inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in a dose dependent manner by up to 79%. We conclude that the SP4-2 fraction contains at least two distinct and biologically active molecules, one that inhibits HIV-1 fusion by interacting with CD4 receptor, and another that directly inhibits HIV-1 RT. We propose that S. fusiforme is a lead candidate for anti-HIV-1 drug development. PMID:18197976

  8. Orthographic transparency modulates the functional asymmetry in the fusiform cortex: An artificial language training study

    PubMed Central

    MEI, Leilei; XUE, Gui; LU, Zhong-Lin; HE, Qinghua; ZHANG, Mingxia; XUE, Feng; CHEN, Chuansheng; DONG, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained subjects to read the same artificial script either as an alphabetic (i.e., transparent orthography) or a logographic (i.e., nontransparent orthography) language. Consistent with our previous results, both types of phonological training enhanced activations in the left fusiform gyrus. More interestingly, the laterality in the fusiform gyrus (especially the posterior region) was modulated by the orthographic transparency of the artificial script (more left-lateralized activation after alphabetic training than after logographic training). These results provide an alternative account (i.e., orthographic transparency) for the laterality difference between Chinese and alphabetic languages, and may have important implications for the role of the fusiform in reading. PMID:22434043

  9. Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of Vertebrobasilar Dissecting Aneurysms: Procedural Outcomes and Factors for Recanalization

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Rhim, Jong Kook; Park, Jeong Jin; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Hwang, Gyojun; Kwon, O-Ki; Han, Moon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Outcomes of stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) have not been well established in the setting of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms (VBDAs) due to the low percentage of cases that need treatment and the array of available therapeutic options. Herein, we presented clinical and radiographic results of SACE in patients with VBDAs. Materials and Methods A total of 47 patients (M:F, 30:17; mean age ± SD, 53.7 ± 12.6 years), with a VBDA who underwent SACE between 2008 and 2014 at two institutions were evaluated retrospectively. Medical records and radiologic data were analyzed to assess the outcome of SACE procedures. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors that were associated with aneurysmal recanalization after SACE. Results Stent-assisted coil embolization technically succeeded in all patients. Three cerebellar infarctions occurred on postembolization day 1, week 2, and month 2, but no other procedure-related complications developed. Immediately following SACE, 25 aneurysms (53.2%) showed no contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. During a mean follow-up of 20.2 months, 37 lesions (78.7%) appeared completely occluded, whereas 10 lesions showed recanalization, 5 of which required additional embolization. Overall recanalization rate was 12.64% per lesion-year, and mean postoperative time to recanalization was 18 months (range, 3–36 months). In multivariable analysis, major branch involvement (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.28; p = 0.013) and the presence of residual sac filling (HR: 8.49, p = 0.044) were identified as statistically significant independent predictors of recanalization. No bleeding was encountered in follow-up monitoring. Conclusion Stent-assisted coil embolization appears feasible and safe for treatment of VBDAs. Long-term results were acceptable in a majority of patients studied, despite a relatively high rate of incomplete occlusion immediately after SACE. Major branch involvement and coiled

  10. Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian Zhao Zhenwei Gao Guodong Deng Jianping; Yu Jia; Gao Li; Yuan Yang; Qv Youzhi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all{>=}70%) who underwent elective stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Results: In all cases, the stent deployment was technically successful. The mean stenosis decreased significantly from 82.28 {+-} 8.02% (range, 72-99%) to 11.18 {+-} 7.28% (range, 0-25%) after stent-assisted angioplasty (P < 0.05). Periprocedure complications occurred in 3 (10%) of 30 patients; there were 2 cases of perforator strokes and 1 case of transient flow insufficiency with stent overlap. Clinical follow-up (mean, 17.81 {+-} 11.49 months; range, 5-40 months) was available for 27 patients, and angiographic follow-up (mean, 9.95 {+-} 5.74 months, range, 5-20 months) was available for 19 patients. Only one case demonstrated recurrent symptoms with restenosis ({>=}50%). There were no recurrent ischemic events and no cases of restenosis in the other patients. Conclusions: According to our data, the Wingspan stent for symptomatic intracranial VBA stenoses is a safe and efficacious treatment alternative in cases with recurrent symptoms despite medical therapy. However, the improvement of outcome requires the reduction in the rate of procedure-related complications and long-term outcomes still have to be demonstrated.

  11. Vertebro-Basilar Junction Aneurysms: A Single Centre Experience and Meta-Analysis of Endovascular Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Francesca; Ganau, Mario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vascular lesions of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are challenging in neurosurgical practice, and their gold-standard therapy is still under debate. We describe the operative strategies currently in use for the management of these complex vascular lesions and discuss their rationale in a literature meta-analysis and single centre blinded retrospective study. The single centre study included a review of initial presentation, angiographic features and clinical outcome (with modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores) over a long-term follow-up. In our series, small aneurysms were effectively treated by endosaccular coil embolization, whereas a strategy including flow-diverter devices combined with endosaccular coil embolization was the option of choice in large and giant aneurysms, leading to satisfactory outcomes in most cases. Our Medline review showed that endovascular treatment was chosen in most VBJ cases, whereas the microsurgical option was assigned to only a few cases. Among the endovascular treatments, the most common techniques used for the treatment of VBJ aneurysms were: coiling, stent-assisted coiling and flow diversion. Our study highlights that aneurysm morphology, location and patient-specific angio-architecture are key factors to be considered in the management of VBJ aneurysms. Most case series, including our own, show that parent artery reconstruction using a flow-diverter device is a feasible and successful technique in some cases of giant and complex aneurysms (especially those involving the lower third of the basilar artery) while a "sit back, wait and see" approach may represent the safest and most reasonable option. PMID:25489898

  12. The Left Fusiform Area Is Affected by Written Frequency of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    The recent neuroimaging literature gives conflicting evidence about whether the left fusiform gyrus (FG) might recognize words as unitary visual objects. The sensitivity of the left FG to word frequency might provide a neural basis for the orthographic input lexicon theorized by reading models [Patterson, K., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M.…

  13. Neurons in the Fusiform Gyrus are Fewer and Smaller in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kooten, Imke A. J.; Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; von Cappeln, Patricia; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Korr, Hubert; Heinsen, Helmut; Hof, Patrick R.; van Engeland, Herman; Schmitz, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in face perception are a core feature of social disabilities in autism. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that patients with autism could perform face perception tasks. However, the fusiform gyrus (FG) and other cortical regions supporting face processing in controls are hypoactive in patients with autism.…

  14. Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Rony H.; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F.; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J.; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more

  15. Endoport-Assisted Microsurgical Treatment of a Ruptured Periventricular Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Caruso, James; Starke, Robert M; Ding, Dale; Buell, Thomas; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Importance. Ruptured periventricular aneurysms in patients with moyamoya disease represent challenging pathologies. The most common methods of treatment include endovascular embolization and microsurgical clipping. However, rare cases arise in which the location and anatomy of the aneurysm make these treatment modalities particularly challenging. Clinical Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old female with moyamoya disease who presented with intraventricular hemorrhage. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed an aneurysm located in the wall of the atrium of the right lateral ventricle. Distal endovascular access was not possible, and embolization risked the sacrifice of arteries supplying critical brain parenchyma. Using the BrainPath endoport system, the aneurysm was able to be accessed. Since the fusiform architecture of the aneurysm prevented clip placement, the aneurysm was ligated with electrocautery. Conclusion. We demonstrate the feasibility of endoport-assisted approach for minimally invasive access and treatment of uncommon, distally located aneurysms. PMID:27195160

  16. Endoport-Assisted Microsurgical Treatment of a Ruptured Periventricular Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Caruso, James; Buell, Thomas; Crowley, R. Webster; Liu, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Importance. Ruptured periventricular aneurysms in patients with moyamoya disease represent challenging pathologies. The most common methods of treatment include endovascular embolization and microsurgical clipping. However, rare cases arise in which the location and anatomy of the aneurysm make these treatment modalities particularly challenging. Clinical Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old female with moyamoya disease who presented with intraventricular hemorrhage. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed an aneurysm located in the wall of the atrium of the right lateral ventricle. Distal endovascular access was not possible, and embolization risked the sacrifice of arteries supplying critical brain parenchyma. Using the BrainPath endoport system, the aneurysm was able to be accessed. Since the fusiform architecture of the aneurysm prevented clip placement, the aneurysm was ligated with electrocautery. Conclusion. We demonstrate the feasibility of endoport-assisted approach for minimally invasive access and treatment of uncommon, distally located aneurysms. PMID:27195160

  17. Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after ‘Ecstasy’ abuse

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2014-01-01

    Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘Ecstasy’ has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting ‘Ecstasy’. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2 mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. ‘Ecstasy’ can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

  18. Excess copper induced proteomic changes in the marine brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hui-Xi; Pang, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Lin, Li-Dong; Li, Nan; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for algal growth and development; however, it is also generally considered to be one of the most toxic metals when present at higher levels. Seaweeds are often exposed to low concentrations of metals, including Cu, for long time periods. In cases of ocean outfall, they may even be abruptly exposed to high levels of metals. The physiological processes that are active under Cu stress are largely unknown. In this study, the brown macroalga Sargassum fusiforme was cultured in fresh seawater at final Cu concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 24 and 47 μM. The Cu(2+) concentration and chlorophyll autofluorescence were measured to establish the toxic effects of Cu on this economically important seaweed. The accumulation of Cu by S. fusiforme was also dependent upon the external Cu concentration. Algal growth displayed a general decline with increasing media Cu concentrations, indicating that S. fusiforme was able to tolerate Cu stress at low concentrations, while it was negatively impacted at high concentrations. The term "acute stress" was employed to indicate exposure to high Cu concentrations for 1 day in this study. On the other hand, "chronic stress" was defined as exposure to lower sub-lethal Cu concentrations for 7 days. Proteins were extracted from control and Cu-treated S. fusiforme samples and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct patterns of protein expression in the acute and chronic stress conditions were observed. Proteins related to energy metabolism and photosynthesis were reduced significantly, whereas those related to carbohydrate metabolism, protein destination, RNA degradation and signaling regulation were induced in S. fusiforme in response to acute copper stress. Energy metabolism-related proteins were significantly induced by chronic Cu stress. Proteins from other functional groups, such as those related to membranes and transport, were present in minor quantities. These results suggest that S

  19. Structural characterization and effect on anti-angiogenic activity of a fucoidan from Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qifei; Chen, Huanjun; Liao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Peipei; Qin, Yi; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

    2016-01-20

    A fucoidan FP08S2 was isolated from the boiling-water extract of Sargassum fusiforme, purified by CaCl2 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300. FP08S2 contained fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and 20.8% sulfate. The sulfate groups were attached to diverse positions of fucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose residues. The backbone of FP08S2 consisted of alternate 1,2-linked α-D-Manp and 1,4-linked β-D-GlcpA. Sugar composition analysis and ESI-MS revealed that the oligosaccharides from branches contained fucose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and sulfate. FP08S2 could significantly inhibit tube formation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) dose-dependently. These results suggested that the fucoidan FP08S2 from brown seaweeds S. fusiforme could be a potent anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:26572427

  20. Tuning of the human left fusiform gyrus to sublexical orthographic structure.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Medler, David A; Westbury, Chris F; Liebenthal, Einat; Buchanan, Lori

    2006-11-01

    Neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence point to a role for the left fusiform gyrus in visual word recognition, but the specific nature of this role remains a topic of debate. The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity of this region to sublexical orthographic structure. We measured blood oxygenation (BOLD) changes in the brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging while fluent readers of English viewed meaningless letter strings. The stimuli varied systematically in their approximation to English orthography, as measured by the probability of occurrence of letters and sequential letter pairs (bigrams) comprising the string. A whole-brain analysis showed a single region in the lateral left fusiform gyrus where BOLD signal increased with letter sequence probability; no other brain region showed this response pattern. The results suggest tuning of this cortical area to letter probabilities as a result of perceptual experience and provide a possible neural correlate for the 'word superiority effect' observed in letter perception research. PMID:16956773

  1. Increased Synchrony and Bursting of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Fusiform Cells Correlate with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of phantom sounds, is thought to arise from increased neural synchrony, which facilitates perceptual binding and creates salient sensory features in the absence of physical stimuli. In the auditory cortex, increased spontaneous cross-unit synchrony and single-unit bursting are de facto physiological correlates of tinnitus. However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. Synchrony and bursting, as well as spontaneous firing rate (SFR), correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, and increased synchrony and bursting were associated with SFR elevation. The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in DCN fusiform cells suggests that a neural code for phantom sounds emerges in this brainstem location and likely contributes to the formation of the tinnitus percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tinnitus, a phantom auditory percept, is encoded by pathological changes in the neural synchrony code of perceptual processing. Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. Here, we demonstrate increased synchrony and bursting of fusiform cell spontaneous firing, which correlate with frequency-specific behavioral measures of tinnitus. Thus, the neural representation of tinnitus emerges early in auditory processing and likely drives its pathophysiology in higher structures. PMID:26865628

  2. Evaluation of fusiform rust resistant pines: Final report for the period September 1, 1978 to December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, H.R. Jr.

    1985-12-05

    The resistance of loblolly and slash pines to fusiform rust (Cronartium fusiforme) was studied. There was a marked difference in rust resistance between the five seed sources of loblolly pine planted on the SPR. After several growing seasons there was little infection on Texas and Arkansas sources and only light infection on Louisiana and Maryland sources compared to susceptible controls. Greenhouse tests indicated the Maryland source was most resistant. Trees from fusiform resistant and susceptible seed sources were treated with 300 or 600 pounds of N per acre via a municipal sludge. The 300-pound application produced the most growth. Level of sludge application had no influence on fusiform infection. There was found to be no direct correlation between levels of rust resistance in 20 loblolly pine families and their visible injury following treatment with SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/.

  3. The orthography-specific functions of the left fusiform gyrus: Evidence of modality and category specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the cognitive functions of an individual with a resection of the left fusiform gyrus. This individual and a group of control participants underwent testing to examine the question of whether or not there are neural substrates within the left fusiform gyrus that are dedicated to orthographic processing. We evaluated the modality specificity (written vs. spoken language) and the category specificity (written language vs. other visual categories) of this individual’s impairments. The results clearly reveal deficits affecting lexical processes in both reading and spelling. Specifically, we find disruption of normal, rapid access to meaning from print in reading and of accurate retrieval of the spellings of words from their meaning in writing. These deficits stand in striking contrast with intact processing of spoken language and categories of visual stimuli such as line drawings of objects and faces. The modality and category specificity of the deficits provide clear evidence of neural substrates within the left mid-fusiform gyrus that are specialized and necessary for normal orthographic processing. PMID:19428003

  4. Incidence of fusiform rust infection on loblolly pine related to tip moth damage

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, H.R. Jr.; Stone, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) is a limiting factor in the production of southern pines throughout a broad area of the southeastern United States, extending from South Carolina to Texas. The target areas on the hosts for both pests are young, succulent shoot tissues. Carbofuran, a systematic insecticide, was used to determine the effect of controlling tip moth on seedlings infected by the fusiform rust organism. Beginning with the 2nd year carbofuran was applied over 4 successive years. The insecticide sharply reduced the incidence of tip moth and increased the height of 5-year-old saplings compared with untreated controls. Usually any treatment that stimulates the growth of pines also results in increased rust infection. However, this was not the case here because untreated saplings had significantly more infection. It is not known whether the increased disease incidence on untreated trees was due to the susceptibility and/or total number of secondary shoots initiated in response to tip dieback caused by the tip moth, or if carbofuran itself has some fungicidal effect resulting in lower infection on treated seedlings. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    PubMed

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  6. Inter-hemispheric connectivity in the fusiform gyrus supports memory consolidation for faces.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Maximilian J; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Klaver, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated how changes of functional connectivity over time accompany consolidation of face memories. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that connectivity changes in networks initially active during face perception and face encoding would be associated with individual recognition memory performance. Resting-state functional connectivity was examined shortly before, shortly after and about 40 min after incidental learning of faces. Memory performance was assessed in a surprise recognition test shortly after the last resting-state session. Results reveal that memory performance-related connectivity between the left fusiform face area and other brain areas gradually changed over the course of the experiment. Specifically, the increase in connectivity with the contralateral fusiform gyrus, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the inferior frontal gyrus correlated with recognition memory performance. As the increase in connectivity in the two final resting-state sessions was associated with memory performance, the present results demonstrate that memory formation is not restricted to the incidental learning phase but continues and increases in the following 40 min. It is discussed that the delayed increase in inter-hemisphere connectivity between the left and right fusiform gyrus is an indicator for memory formation and consolidation processes. PMID:26844811

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): genome architecture and taxonomic consideration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun; Luo, Minbo

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell (=Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura) is one of the most important economic seaweeds for mariculture in China. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. fusiforme. The genome is 34,696 bp in length with circular organization, encoding the standard set of three ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), 35 protein-coding genes, and two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Its total AT content is 62.47%, lower than other brown algae except Pylaiella littoralis. The mitogenome carries 1571 bp of intergenic region constituting 4.53% of the genome, and 13 pairs of overlapping genes with the overlap size from 1 to 90 bp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. fusiforme has a closer evolutionary relationship with Sargassum muticum than Sargassum horneri, indicating Hizikia are not distinct evolutionary entity and should be reduced to synonymy with Sargassum. PMID:24989050

  8. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

  9. Crossmodal plasticity in the fusiform gyrus of late blind individuals during voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Cordula; Föcker, Julia; Best, Anna; Röder, Brigitte; Büchel, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Blind individuals are trained in identifying other people through voices. In congenitally blind adults the anterior fusiform gyrus has been shown to be active during voice recognition. Such crossmodal changes have been associated with a superiority of blind adults in voice perception. The key question of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was whether visual deprivation that occurs in adulthood is followed by similar adaptive changes of the voice identification system. Late blind individuals and matched sighted participants were tested in a priming paradigm, in which two voice stimuli were subsequently presented. The prime (S1) and the target (S2) were either from the same speaker (person-congruent voices) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent voices). Participants had to classify the S2 as either coming from an old or a young person. Only in late blind but not in matched sighted controls, the activation in the anterior fusiform gyrus was modulated by voice identity: late blind volunteers showed an increase of the BOLD signal in response to person-incongruent compared with person-congruent trials. These results suggest that the fusiform gyrus adapts to input of a new modality even in the mature brain and thus demonstrate an adult type of crossmodal plasticity. PMID:25280451

  10. Radical surgical treatment for recurrent giant fusiform thrombosed vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled

    PubMed Central

    J-O’Shanahan, Aruma; Noda, Kosumo; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Ota, Nakao; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Tanikawa, Rokuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fusiform aneurysms are rare (<1%) and the underlying pathophysiology is not well known. Endovascular coiling is the standard of treatment; however, a surgical procedure with vascular reconstruction by excluding the pathological segment of the vessel and restoring the blood flow, seems to be the most effective and definitive treatment. Case Description: We report a patient who presented a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm previously coiled which developed a giant enlargement and a new contralateral fusiform aneurysm. Hemodynamic changes resulting in the formation of contralateral aneurysm might be the result of aneurysm occlusion without revascularization. In addition, continued blood flow to the aneurysmal wall through the vasa vasorum might result in aneurysm recanalization or regrowth. In order to account for these possible sources of complications, we performed a vascular reconstruction with high and low flow bypasses after trapping the aneurysm. Conclusions: We hypothesize that, in this and similar cases, surgical vascular reconstruction should be the first and definitive treatment under experienced cerebrovascular surgeons. PMID:27127714

  11. Fault rupture segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Kenneth Michael

    A critical foundation to earthquake study and hazard assessment is the understanding of controls on fault rupture, including segmentation. Key challenges to understanding fault rupture segmentation include, but are not limited to: What determines if a fault segment will rupture in a single great event or multiple moderate events? How is slip along a fault partitioned between seismic and seismic components? How does the seismicity of a fault segment evolve over time? How representative are past events for assessing future seismic hazards? In order to address the difficult questions regarding fault rupture segmentation, new methods must be developed that utilize the information available. Much of the research presented in this study focuses on the development of new methods for attacking the challenges of understanding fault rupture segmentation. Not only do these methods exploit a broader band of information within the waveform than has traditionally been used, but they also lend themselves to the inclusion of even more seismic phases providing deeper understandings. Additionally, these methods are designed to be fast and efficient with large datasets, allowing them to utilize the enormous volume of data available. Key findings from this body of work include demonstration that focus on fundamental earthquake properties on regional scales can provide general understanding of fault rupture segmentation. We present a more modern, waveform-based method that locates events using cross-correlation of the Rayleigh waves. Additionally, cross-correlation values can also be used to calculate precise earthquake magnitudes. Finally, insight regarding earthquake rupture directivity can be easily and quickly exploited using cross-correlation of surface waves.

  12. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation. PMID:24581205

  13. Incomplete Cesarean Scar Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine rupture at the site of a previous cesarean scar is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of pregnancy, which is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation A 30-year old woman at 24th week of gestation and complaint of pain, contractions and spotting was admitted in Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran. She had a past medical history of an EP and a cesarean section delivery, respectively 4 and 2 years before hospitalization. Herniation of an amniotic membrane into the maternal bladder was found on ultrasound examination. Conclusion Risk factors of cesarean scar rupture should be considered in women undergoing subsequent pregnancies as they need extra care. Ultrasonography can be used to evaluate women with previous cesarean section to assess the risks of scar rupture during subsequent pregnancies. PMID:23926561

  14. Inactivation of murine norovirus-1 in the edible seaweeds Capsosiphon fulvescens and Hizikia fusiforme using gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Kang, Sujin; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of gamma radiation (3-10 kGy) upon the inactivation of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate. The edible green and brown algae, fulvescens (Capsosiphon fulvescens) and fusiforme (Hizikia fusiforme), respectively, were experimentally contaminated with 5-6 log10 plaque forming units (PFU)/ml MNV-1. The titer of MNV-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as the dose of gamma radiation increased. MNV-1 titer decreased to 1.16-2.46 log10 PFU/ml in fulvescens and 0.37-2.21 log10 PFU/ml in fusiforme following irradiation. However, all Hunters ('L', 'a' and 'b') and sensory qualities (appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different in both algae following gamma radiation. The Weibull model was used to generate non-linear survival curves and to calculate Gd values for 1, 2, and 3 log10 reductions of MNV-1 in fulvescens (R(2) = 0.992) and fusiforme (R(2) = 0.988). A Gd value of 1 (90% reduction) corresponded to 2.89 and 3.93 kGy in fulvescens and fusiforme, respectively. A Gd value of 2 (99% reduction) corresponded to 7.75 and 9.02 kGy in fulvescens and fusiforme, respectively, while a Gd value of 3 (99.9% reduction) in fulvescens and fusiforme corresponded with 13.83 and 14.93 kGy of gamma radiation, respectively. A combination of gamma radiation at medium doses and other treatments could be used to inactivate ≥ 3 log10 PFU/ml NoV in seaweed. The inactivation kinetics due to gamma radiation against NoV in these algae might provide basic information for use in seaweed processing and distribution. PMID:26919820

  15. Electrical stimulation of human fusiform face-selective regions distorts face perception.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Josef; Jacques, Corentin; Foster, Brett L; Witthoft, Nathan; Withoft, Nathan; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-10-24

    Face-selective neural responses in the human fusiform gyrus have been widely examined. However, their causal role in human face perception is largely unknown. Here, we used a multimodal approach of electrocorticography (ECoG), high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) to directly investigate the causal role of face-selective neural responses of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face perception in a patient implanted with subdural electrodes in the right inferior temporal lobe. High-resolution fMRI identified two distinct FG face-selective regions [mFus-faces and pFus-faces (mid and posterior fusiform, respectively)]. ECoG revealed a striking anatomical and functional correspondence with fMRI data where a pair of face-selective electrodes, positioned 1 cm apart, overlapped mFus-faces and pFus-faces, respectively. Moreover, electrical charge delivered to this pair of electrodes induced a profound face-specific perceptual distortion during viewing of real faces. Specifically, the subject reported a "metamorphosed" appearance of faces of people in the room. Several controls illustrate the specificity of the effect to the perception of faces. EBS of mFus-faces and pFus-faces neither produced a significant deficit in naming pictures of famous faces on the computer, nor did it affect the appearance of nonface objects. Further, the appearance of faces remained unaffected during both sham stimulation and stimulation of a pair of nearby electrodes that were not face-selective. Overall, our findings reveal a striking convergence of fMRI, ECoG, and EBS, which together offer a rare causal link between functional subsets of the human FG network and face perception. PMID:23100414

  16. A fusiform aneurysm of a persistent trigeminal artery variant: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhigang; Liu, Jianmin; Zhao, Wenyuan; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Huang, Qinghai; He, Shike

    2010-04-01

    A 48-year-old man suffered from spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Emergent right internal carotid angiography showed the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) variant with a fusiform aneurysm on its proximal segment where it branched from the internal carotid artery. This artery supplied the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. After consideration of the adequacy of the cerebellar circulation without this anomalous artery, intraluminal occlusion of the aneurysm together with the PTA variant was performed using detachable coils. The patient recovered uneventfully without any neurologic deficits. PMID:19690795

  17. The Contribution of the Left Mid-fusiform Cortical Thickness to Chinese and English Reading in a Large Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jin; Chen, Chuansheng; Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a critical role in reading. However, there is very limited research relating this region’s anatomical structure to reading performance either in native or second language. Using structural MRI and three reading tasks (Chinese characters, English words, and alphabetic pseudowords) and a non-reading task (visual-auditory learning), this study investigated the contributions of the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness to reading in a large sample of 226 Chinese subjects. Results showed that cortical thickness in the left mid-fusiform gyrus was positively correlated with performance on all three reading tasks but not with the performance on the non-reading task. Our findings provide structural evidence for the left mid-fusiform cortex as the “gateway” region for reading Chinese and English. The absence of the association between the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness and non-reading performance implied the specific role of this area in reading skills, not in general language skills. PMID:23022094

  18. [Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coiling in a Patient with Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion via the Posterior Communicating Artery].

    PubMed

    Ashida, Noriaki; Saitoh, Minoru; Fujita, Atsushi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Background:De novo aneurysms after internal carotid artery(ICA)occlusion occur in the contralateral ICA or anterior communicating artery. Hemodynamic changes with increased blood flow to the contralateral carotid circulation were considered the main factor for the formation of these aneurysms. We report a rare case of ruptured ICA aneurysm associated with ipsilateral ICA occlusion treated with coil embolization via the vertebrobasilar and posterior communicating arteries. Case Presentation:An 82-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset disturbance of consciousness at our outpatient clinic and went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Computed tomography(CT)performed after cardiopulmonary resuscitation revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed a right ICA aneurysm associated with the ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Considering that the patient showed clinical improvement with the critical care for neurogenic pulmonary edema, the aneurysm was treated with endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery. With this technique, complete obliteration was attained without perioperative complication. Conclusion:Endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery was proven effective as a treatment method for ruptured ICA aneurysms with ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Hemodynamic stress due to increased blood flow in the posterior communicating artery may play an important role in the growth and rupture of ICA aneurysms. PMID:27605482

  19. Fucosterol, a sterol extracted from Sargassum fusiforme, shows antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xing-Hua; Quan, Ying-Chun; Jiang, Hai-Ying; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Qu, You-Le; Guan, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that extracts of Sargassum fusiforme significantly reduce immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, suggesting that these extracts possess antidepressant-like effects. Here, fucosterol extracted from S. fusiforme was evaluated for antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Fucosterol (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) significantly shortened immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test for30min after treatment but had no effect on locomotor activity in the open field test. Fucosterol significantly increased serotonin, norepinephrine and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mouse brain, suggesting that the effects of fucosterol may be mediated through these neurotransmitters. As assessed using maximal electroshock, fucosterol (20, 40, 100mg/kg) possessed anticonvulsant activity, whereas rotarod toxicity test results indicated that fucosterol did not induce neurotoxicity at the same dose levels in mice. Thus, fucosterol may be a useful antidepressant adjunct candidate for treating depression in patients with epilepsy. A significant increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was found in the fucosterol 20mg/kg group (P<0.05). Our findings suggested that fucosterol may possess an antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by increasing central BDNF levels. PMID:26515446

  20. The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Robert T; Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami; Kleinman, Jamie; Van der Gaag, Christiaan; Marois, René; Skudlarski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A region in the lateral aspect of the fusiform gyrus (FG) is more engaged by human faces than any other category of image. It has come to be known as the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). The origin and extent of this specialization is currently a topic of great interest and debate. This is of special relevance to autism, because recent studies have shown that the FFA is hypoactive to faces in this disorder. In two linked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of healthy young adults, we show here that the FFA is engaged by a social attribution task (SAT) involving perception of human-like interactions among three simple geometric shapes. The amygdala, temporal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, inferolateral frontal cortex and superior temporal sulci were also significantly engaged. Activation of the FFA to a task without faces challenges the received view that the FFA is restricted in its activities to the perception of faces. We speculate that abstract semantic information associated with faces is encoded in the FG region and retrieved for social computations. From this perspective, the literature on hypoactivation of the FFA in autism may be interpreted as a reflection of a core social cognitive mechanism underlying the disorder. PMID:12639338

  1. Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

  2. Osteoprotective Effects of Polysaccharide-Enriched Hizikia fusiforme Processing Byproduct In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Tae; Baek, Seung Hwa; Jeong, Sang Chul; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Kim, Ok Hee; Oh, Byung Chul; Jung, Ji Wook; Kim, Jin Hee

    2016-08-01

    The traditional manufacturing method used to produce goods from Hizikia fusiforme, utilizes extraction steps with hot water. The byproduct (of hot water extraction) is rich in polysaccharide and is considered a waste. To evaluate the osteogenic effects of the byproduct of H. fusiforme (HFB), osteogenic cells and animal models were used to test it effects on osteogenesis. The HFB-treated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells exhibited significant dose dependently elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and slightly increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HFB also suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and TRAP staining in the bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) cells that had been stimulated with the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kB ligand/macrophage colony-stimulating factor kB ligand. In addition, HFB also increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) level. Finally, osteogenic effects of HFB were clearly confirmed in the three in vivo models: zebrafish, ovariectomized mice, and mouse calvarial bones. HFB accelerated the rate of skeletal development in zebrafish and prevented much of the mouse femoral bone density loss of ovariectomized mice. Moreover, HFB enhanced woven bone formation over the periosteum of mouse calvarial bones. Our result showed that HFB functions as a bone resorption inhibitor as well as an activator of bone formation in vivo and in osteogenic in vitro cell systems. PMID:27458685

  3. Language experience shapes fusiform activation when processing a logographic artificial language: an fMRI training study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Jin, Zhen; Dong, Qi

    2006-07-01

    The significant role of the left midfusiform cortex in reading found in recent neuroimaging studies has led to the visual word form area (VWFA) hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that years of experience reading native language change the visual expertise of this region to be especially sensitive to the visual form of native language. The present study aimed at testing this hypothesis by exploring the role of language experience in shaping the fusiform activation. We designed a logographic artificial language (LAL) using the visual form and pronunciation of Korean Hangul characters (but their correspondence was shuffled) and assigning arbitrary meanings to these characters. Twelve native Chinese Mandarin speakers (6 male and 6 female, 18 to 21 years old) with no prior knowledge of Korean language were trained in the visual form of these characters for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks each of phonological and semantic training. Behavioral data indicated that training was effective in increasing the efficiency of visual form processing and establishing the connections among visual form, sounds, and meanings. Imaging data indicated that at the pre-training stage, subjects showed stronger activation in the fusiform regions for LAL than for Chinese across both one-back visual matching task and the passive viewing task. Visual form training significantly decreased the activation of bilateral fusiform cortex and the left inferior occipital cortex, whereas phonological training increased activation in these regions, and the right fusiform remained more active after semantic training. Increased activations after phonological and semantic training were also evident in other regions involved in language processing. These findings thus do not seem to be consistent with the visual-expertise-induced-sensitivity hypothesis about fusiform regions. Instead, our results suggest that visual familiarity, phonological processing, and semantic processing all make significant but different

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) on Vertebral Artery Blood Flow in Patients with Vertebro-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Tekatas, Aslan; Ogur, Erkin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). Materials and Methods The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 ± 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm2 to 10.80 cm2 at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm2 at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Conclusion Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs. PMID:19039262

  5. Blunt cardiac rupture.

    PubMed

    Martin, T D; Flynn, T C; Rowlands, B J; Ward, R E; Fischer, R P

    1984-04-01

    Blunt injury to the heart ranges from contusion to disruption. This report comprises 14 patients seen during a 6-year period with cardiac rupture secondary to blunt trauma. Eight patients were injured in automobile accidents, two patients were injured in auto-pedestrian accidents, two were kicked in the chest by ungulates, and two sustained falls. Cardiac tamponade was suspected in ten patients. Five patients presented with prehospital cardiac arrest or arrested shortly after arrival. All underwent emergency department thoracotomy without survival. Two patients expired in the operating room during attempted cardiac repair; both had significant extracardiac injury. Seven patients survived, three had right atrial injuries, three had right ventricular injuries, and one had a left atrial injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass was not required for repair of the surviving patients. There were no significant complications from the cardiac repair. The history of significant force dispersed over a relatively small area of the precordium as in a kicking injury from an animal or steering wheel impact should alert the physician to possible cardiac rupture. Cardiac rupture should be considered in patients who present with signs of cardiac tamponade or persistent thoracic bleeding after blunt trauma. PMID:6708151

  6. Premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Poma, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane rupture. The fact that preterm premature rupture of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children. PMID:8583489

  7. Toxicity of so-called edible hijiki seaweed (Sargassum fusiforme) containing inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Konomi, Aki

    2012-07-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency and its counterparts in other countries have warned consumers not to eat hijiki (Sargassum fusiforme; synonym Hizikia fusiformis), a Sargasso seaweed, because it contains large amounts of inorganic arsenic. We investigated dietary exposure of hijiki in weaning male F344/N rats fed an AIN-93G diet supplemented with 3% (w/w) hijiki powder for 7 weeks, compared with those fed only an AIN-93G diet. Body weight, body temperature, blood and tissue arsenic concentrations, plasma biochemistry and hematological parameters were measured. We found that feeding rats a 3% hijiki diet led to a marked accumulation of arsenic in blood and tissues, and evoked a high body temperature and abnormal blood biochemistry including elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorus, consistent with arsenic poisoning. These findings should prompt further investigations to identify the health hazards related to consumption of hijiki and related Sargassum species in humans. PMID:22561181

  8. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2− production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  9. Arrangement of fusiform bodies to reduce the wave drag at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morris D; Cohn, Doris

    1955-01-01

    By means of linearized-body theory and reverse-flow theorems, the wave drag of a system of fusiform bodies at zero angle of attack and supersonic speeds is studied to determine the effect of varying the relative location of the component parts. The investigation is limited to two-body and three-body arrangements of Sears-Haack minimum-drag bodies. It is found that in certain arrangements the interference effects are beneficial, and may even result in the two or three-body system having no more wave drag than that of the principal body alone. The most favorable location appears to be one in which the maximum cross-section of the auxiliary body is slightly forward of the Mach cone from the tail of the main body. The least favorable is the region between the Mach cone from the nose and the forecone from the tail of the main body. (author)

  10. Functional asymmetry between the left and right human fusiform gyrus explored through electrical brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-03-01

    The ventral temporal cortex (VTC) contains several areas with selective responses to words, numbers, faces, and objects as demonstrated by numerous human and primate imaging and electrophysiological studies. Our recent work using electrocorticography (ECoG) confirmed the presence of face-selective neuronal populations in the human fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left or right hemisphere. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) disrupted the conscious perception of faces only when it was delivered in the right, but not left, FG. In contrast to our previous findings, here we report both negative and positive EBS effects in right and left FG, respectively. The presence of right hemisphere language dominance in the first, and strong left-handedness and poor language processing performance in the second case, provide indirect clues about the functional architecture of the human VTC in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in language processing and handedness. PMID:26277460

  11. Task Effects in the Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison of Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Processing of Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yi; Burgund, E. Darcy

    2010-01-01

    The left mid-fusiform gyrus is repeatedly reported to be involved in visual word processing. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether this area responds to orthographic processing of reading. To examine this idea, neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the present study while subjects performed phonological,…

  12. Biosorption of Hg(II) and Cu(II) by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme in aquatic solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengmou; Lin, Gan

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption of heavy metals Hg(II) and Cu(II) from aquatic solution by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme was studied in the paper. The Sargassum fusiforme was able to absorb appreciable amount of mercury and copper from the aquatic solutions within 60 min of contact time with the metal solution and exhibited high removal of mercury and copper at low equilibrium concentrations. The specific adsorption of both Hg(II) and Cu(II) increased at low concentration of biomass and decreased when biomass concentration exceeded 2.0 g/L. The binding of mercury followed Freundlich model while copper supported Langmuir isotherm for adsorption with their r(2) values of 0.971 and 0.923, respectively. The maximum adsorption per unit masses of Sargassum fusiforme (mg/L) at equilibrium (qmax) for Hg(II) and Cu(II) were calculated to be 30.86 and 7.69 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption by Sargassum fusiforme was best described using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model for copper and mercury ions in solution in the study. The adsorption was pH dependent as the maximum mercury biosorption and copper adsorption was happened at solution pH of 8-10. PMID:25806112

  13. The left fusiform area is affected by written frequency of words.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    The recent neuroimaging literature gives conflicting evidence about whether the left fusiform gyrus (FG) might recognize words as unitary visual objects. The sensitivity of the left FG to word frequency might provide a neural basis for the orthographic input lexicon theorized by reading models [Patterson, K., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M. (1985). Surface dyslexia: Cognitive and neuropsychological studies of phonological reading. London: Lawrence Erlbaum]. The goal of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of word processing in right-handed readers engaged in an orthographic decision task. Three hundred and twenty Italian words of high and low written frequency and 320 non-derived legal pseudo-words were presented for 250ms in the central visual field. ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites in 10 Italian University students. Behavioural data showed a word superiority effect, with faster RTs to words than pseudo-words. Left occipito/temporal N2 (240ms) was greater to high-frequency than low-frequency words and pseudo-words. According to the swLORETA inverse solution, the underlying neural source of this effect was located in the left fusiform gyrus of the occipital lobe (X=-29, Y=-66, Z=-10, BA19) and the right superior temporal gyrus (X=51, Y=6, Z=-5, BA22), which are probably involved in word recognition and semantic representation, respectively. Later frontal ERP components, LPN (300-350) and P3 (400-500), also showed strong lexical sensitivity, thus suggesting implicit semantic processes. The results shed some light on the possible neural substrate of visual reading disabilities such as developmental surface dyslexia or pure alexia. PMID:18485421

  14. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  15. The Effectiveness of Additional Treatment Modalities after the Failure of Recanalization by Thrombectomy Alone in Acute Vertebrobasilar Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Mook; Sohn, Sung-Il; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Chang, Hyuk-Won; Lee, Chang-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (AVBAO) is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate. One of the most important factors affecting favorable clinical outcome is early recanalization. Mechanical thrombectomy is an emerging treatment strategy for achieving a high recanalization rates. However, thrombectomy alone can be insufficient to complete recanalization, especially for acute stroke involving large artery atheromatous disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in AVBAO. Methods Fourteen consecutive patients with AVBAO were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Additional multimodal treatments were intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, or permanent stent placement. Recanalization by thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were assessed by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score. Clinical outcome was determined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at 7 days and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Results Thrombectomy alone and multimodal treatments were performed in 10 patients (71.4%) and 4 patients (28.6%), respectively. Successful recanalization (TICI 2b-3) was achieved in 11 (78.6%). Among these 11 patients, 3 (27.3%) underwent multimodal treatment due to underlying atherosclerotic stenosis. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 showed NIHSS score improvement of >10. Overall mortality was 3 (21.4%) of 14. Conclusion We suggest that mechanical thrombectomy is safe and effective for improving recanalization rates in AVBAO, with low complication rates. Also, in carefully selected patients after the failure of recanalization by thrombectomy alone, additional multimodal treatment such as IA thrombolysis, balloons, or stents can be needed to achieve successful recanalization. PMID:26713141

  16. Spontaneous rupture on irregular faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is now know (e.g. Robinson et al., 2006) that when ruptures propagate around bends, the rupture velocity decrease. In the extreme case, a large bend in the fault can stop the rupture. We develop a 2-D finite difference method to simulate spontaneous dynamic rupture on irregular faults. This method is based on a second order leap-frog finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh of triangles. A relaxation method is used to generate an irregular fault geometry-conforming mesh from the uniform mesh. Through this numerical coordinate mapping, the elastic wave equations are transformed and solved in a curvilinear coordinate system. Extensive numerical experiments using the linear slip-weakening law will be shown to demonstrate the effect of fault geometry on rupture properties. A long term goal is to simulate the strong ground motion near the vicinity of bends, jogs, etc.

  17. Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding. PMID:26217647

  18. Short-lived Supershear Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.

  19. Inhibition of highly productive HIV-1 infection in T cells, primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes by Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Lin, Xudong; Li, Wen; Cotter, Robin; Klein, Michael T; Roberge, Emily; Yu, Er K; Clark, Bruce; Veille, Jean-Claude; Liu, Yanze; Lee, David Y-W; Canki, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and increasing resistance to currently available antiretroviral (ART) therapies highlight the need for new antiviral agents. Products derived from natural sources have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication during various stages of the virus life cycle, and therefore represent a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. To expand our arsenal of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection, we investigated aqueous extract from Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme) for ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in the periphery, in T cells and human macrophages, and for ability to inhibit in the central nervous system (CNS), in microglia and astrocytes. Results S. fusiforme extract blocked HIV-1 infection and replication by over 90% in T cells, human macrophages and microglia, and it also inhibited pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) infection in human astrocytes by over 70%. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV-1, was dose dependant and long lasting, did not inhibit cell growth or viability, was not toxic to cells, and was comparable to inhibition by the nucleoside analogue 2', 3'-didoxycytidine (ddC). S. fusiforme treatment blocked direct cell-to-cell infection spread. To investigate at which point of the virus life cycle this inhibition occurs, we infected T cells and CD4-negative primary human astrocytes with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which bypasses the HIV receptor requirements. Infection by pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) was also inhibited in a dose dependant manner, although up to 57% less, as compared to inhibition of native NL4-3, indicating post-entry interferences. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating S. fusiforme to be a potent inhibitor of highly productive HIV-1 infection and replication in T cells, in primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes. Results with VSV/NL4-3 infection, suggest inhibition of both entry and

  20. The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: findings of fusiform activity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Karen; Haist, Frank; Sedaghat, Farshad; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Past functional MRI (FMRI) studies of autism have reported reduced activation in response to the faces of strangers primarily in the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). An alternative and potentially stronger test of FFA function in autism is one that attempts to affect levels of FFA activity using factors believed to modulate function in this brain region, such as face familiarity and the perception of face identity. The current study presented personally meaningful faces, such as mother and co-worker, as well as stranger faces in a rapid event-related FMRI design. Seven autistic and nine normal control adults participated and pressed a button in response to all female faces. A deconvolution analysis revealed significant FFA activity in response to familiar and stranger faces in both autism and normal control groups. Individuals with autism also showed greater fusiform activity in response to familiar faces than stranger faces, as well as the prototypical right hemisphere dominance in response to both types of faces. Normal subjects showed additional activation to familiar faces in the posterior cingulate, amygdala and medial frontal lobes, including the anterior cingulate. Subjects with autism showed a similar, but more limited, network in response to familiar faces. This network included the amygdala and implies that this structure, involved in multiple socio-emotional functions, can be responsive in autism in the presence of stimuli that represent high reward value, such as mother's face. Furthermore, the presence of a distinct network to process familiar faces in autism, one that included limbic structures and was not found in response to the faces of strangers, suggests socio-emotional processing in autism. A potentially noteworthy trend, however, was evidence for a reduction in medial frontal lobe function in the autism group. The main finding of FFA activity in autism stands in contrast to most past FMRI studies of face processing in this disorder. This positive

  1. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

  2. Early averted gaze processing in the right Fusiform Gyrus: An EEG source imaging study.

    PubMed

    Berchio, Cristina; Rihs, Tonia A; Piguet, Camille; Dayer, Alexandre G; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christoph M

    2016-09-01

    Humans are able to categorize face properties with impressively short latencies. Nevertheless, the latency at which gaze recognition occurs is still a matter of debate. Through spatio-temporal analysis of high-density event-related potentials (ERP), we investigated the brain activity underlying the ability to spontaneously and quickly process gaze. We presented neutral faces with direct and averted gaze in a matching picture paradigm, where subjects had to detect repetition of identical faces and gaze was implicitly manipulated. The results indicate that faces with averted gaze were better discriminated than faces with direct gaze, and evoked stronger P100 amplitudes localized to the right fusiform gyrus. In contrast, direct gaze induced stronger activation in the orbital frontal gyrus at this latency. Later in time, at the beginning of the N170 component, direct gaze induced changes in scalp topography with a stronger activation in the right medial temporal gyrus. The location of these differential activations of direct vs. averted gaze further support the view that faces with averted gaze are perceived as less rewarding than faces with direct gaze. We additionally found differential ERP responses between repeated and novel faces as early as 50ms, thereby replicating earlier studies of very fast detection of mnestic aspects of stimuli. Together, these results suggest an early dissociation between implicit gaze detection and explicit identity processing. PMID:27381931

  3. The Faces in Radiological Images: Fusiform Face Area Supports Radiological Expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim; Grottenthaler, Thomas; Nägele, Thomas; Lindig, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) has often been used as an example of a brain module that was developed through evolution to serve a specific purpose-face processing. Many believe, however, that FFA is responsible for holistic processing associated with any kind of expertise. The expertise view has been tested with various stimuli, with mixed results. One of the main stumbling blocks in the FFA controversy has been the fact that the stimuli used have been similar to faces. Here, we circumvent the problem by using radiological images, X-rays, which bear no resemblance to faces. We demonstrate that FFA can distinguish between X-rays and other stimuli by employing multivariate pattern analysis. The sensitivity to X-rays was significantly better in experienced radiologists than that in medical students with limited radiological experience. For the radiologists, it was also possible to use the patterns of FFA activations obtained on faces to differentiate X-ray stimuli from other stimuli. The overlap in the FFA activation is not based on visual similarity of faces and X-rays but rather on the processes necessary for expertise with both kinds of stimulus. Our results support the expertise view that FFA's main function is related to holistic processing. PMID:25452573

  4. Perceived animacy influences the processing of human-like surface features in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sarah; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    While decades of research have demonstrated that a region of the right fusiform gyrus (FG) responds selectively to faces, a second line of research suggests that the FG responds to a range of animacy cues, including biological motion and goal-directed actions, even in the absence of faces or other human-like surface features. These findings raise the question of whether the FG is indeed sensitive to faces or to the more abstract category of animate agents. The current study uses fMRI to examine whether the FG responds to all faces in a category-specific way or whether the FG is especially sensitive to the faces of animate agents. Animate agents are defined here as intentional agents with the capacity for rational goal-directed actions. Specifically, we examine how the FG responds to an entity that looks like an animate agent but that lacks the capacity for goal-directed rational action. Region-of-interest analyses reveal that the FG activates more strongly to the animate compared with the inanimate entity, even though the surface features of both animate and inanimate entities were identical. These results suggest that the FG does not respond to all faces in a category-specific way, and is instead especially sensitive to whether an entity is animate. PMID:24905285

  5. Ingestion and excretion of arsenic compounds present in edible brown algae, Hijikia fusiforme, by mice.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Nozawa, Shihoko; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi; Kaise, Toshikazu

    2010-02-01

    The element arsenic is a carcinogen and toxic for humans and other living organisms. Some seaweeds contain high amounts of inorganic arsenic (iAs). In particular, Hijikia fusiforme has a high iAs content of approximately 50%. In this study, we examined the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and accumulation of arsenic compounds in mice after the administration of Hijiki. The single-dose experiment, wherein a single dose of cooked Hijiki was administered to the mice, revealed that the urinary and fecal excretion of arsenic compounds was the highest on the first day of dosing, and it became clear that 66-92% of arsenic was excreted within 3 days after administration of the first dose. The repeated-dose experiment, wherein repeated doses of cooked or dried Hijiki were administered to the mice, arsenic was detected in all the tissues, but only approximately 5% of the administered dose of arsenic was detected as residual arsenic. These results suggest that the arsenic present in cooked Hijiki is accumulated in very small amounts in mice. PMID:19808076

  6. Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A.; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex. PMID:24194707

  7. Fusiform Gyrus Laterality in Writing Systems with Different Mapping Principles: An Artificial Orthography Training Study.

    PubMed

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A; Wrencher, Alaina; Durisko, Corrine; Moore, Michelle W; Fiez, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Writing systems vary in many ways, making it difficult to account for cross-linguistic neural differences. For example, orthographic processing of Chinese characters activates the mid-fusiform gyri (mFG) bilaterally, whereas the processing of English words predominantly activates the left mFG. Because Chinese and English vary in visual processing (holistic vs. analytical) and linguistic mapping principle (morphosyllabic vs. alphabetic), either factor could account for mFG laterality differences. We used artificial orthographies representing English to investigate the effect of mapping principle on mFG lateralization. The fMRI data were compared for two groups that acquired foundational proficiency: one for an alphabetic and one for an alphasyllabic artificial orthography. Greater bilateral mFG activation was observed in the alphasyllabic versus alphabetic group. The degree of bilaterality correlated with reading fluency for the learned orthography in the alphasyllabic but not alphabetic group. The results suggest that writing systems with a syllable-based mapping principle recruit bilateral mFG to support orthographic processing. Implications for individuals with left mFG dysfunction will be discussed. PMID:26918586

  8. Is This Car Looking at You? How Anthropomorphism Predicts Fusiform Face Area Activation when Seeing Cars

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts. PMID:25517511

  9. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

    2014-01-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

  10. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    PubMed

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. PMID:27233826

  11. Increased BOLD signal in the fusiform gyrus during implicit emotion processing in anorexia nervosa☆

    PubMed Central

    Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent; Surguladze, Simon; Williams, Steven; Tchanturia, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background The behavioural literature in anorexia nervosa (AN) has suggested impairments in psychosocial functioning and studies using facial expression processing tasks (FEPT) have reported poorer recognition and slower identification of emotions. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used alongside a FEPT, depicting neutral, mildly happy and happy faces, to examine the neural correlates of implicit emotion processing in AN. Participants were instructed to specify the gender of the faces. Levels of depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive symptoms and eating disorder behaviour were obtained and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to acquire uncorrelated variables. Results fMRI analysis revealed a greater blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in AN in the right fusiform gyrus to all facial expressions. This response showed a linear increase with the happiness of the facial expression and was found to be stronger in those not taking medication. PCA analysis revealed a single component indicating a greater level of general clinical symptoms. Conclusion Neuroimaging findings would suggest that alterations in implicit emotion processing in AN occur during early perceptual processing of social signals and illustrate greater engagement on the FEPT. The lack of separate components using PCA suggests that the questionnaires used might not be suited as predictive measures. PMID:24501698

  12. Repetition suppression to faces in the fusiform face area: A personal and dynamic journey.

    PubMed

    Henson, Richard N

    2016-07-01

    I review a number of fMRI studies that investigate the effects of repeating faces on responses in the fusiform face area (FFA). These studies show that repetition suppression (RS), as well as repetition enhancement (RE), are sensitive to multiple factors, including pre-existing stimulus representations, cognitive task, lag between repetitions and spatial attention. Parallel EEG studies provide additional constraints on the timing of these repetition effects. Together, the results suggest that RS is not a unitary phenomenon, but likely subsumes multiple mechanisms that operate under different conditions. These mechanisms of course need to relate to single-cell data and known physiological mechanisms; but to make further progress, I believe we need dynamical neural network models that relate these mechanisms to the properties of neural populations that are measured by fMRI and EEG data. One example model is sketched, in which RS reflects an acceleration of neural dynamics, owing to reduced prediction error within a recurrent visual processing hierarchy. PMID:26615518

  13. Achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, R. S.; Parsons, N.; Underwood, M.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The evidence base to inform the management of Achilles tendon rupture is sparse. The objectives of this research were to establish what current practice is in the United Kingdom and explore clinicians’ views on proposed further research in this area. This study was registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN68273773) as part of a larger programme of research. Methods We report an online survey of current practice in the United Kingdom, approved by the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and completed by 181 of its members. A total of ten of these respondents were invited for a subsequent one-to-one interview to explore clinician views on proposed further research in this area. Results The survey showed wide variations in practice, with patients being managed in plaster cast alone (13%), plaster cast followed by orthoses management (68%), and orthoses alone (19%). Within these categories, further variation existed regarding the individual rehabilitation facets, such as the length of time worn, the foot position within them and weight-bearing status. The subsequent interviews reflected this clinical uncertainty and the pressing need for definitive research. Conclusions The gap in evidence in this area has resulted in practice in the United Kingdom becoming varied and based on individual opinion. Future high-quality randomised trials on this subject are supported by the clinical community. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:65–9 PMID:25868938

  14. The relationship between visual word and face processing lateralization in the fusiform gyri: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Johnston, Samantha; Tashakkor, Yashar; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Visual words and faces activate similar networks but with complementary hemispheric asymmetries, faces being lateralized to the right and words to the left. A recent theory proposes that this reflects developmental competition between visual word and face processing. We investigated whether this results in an inverse correlation between the degree of lateralization of visual word and face activation in the fusiform gyri. 26 literate right-handed healthy adults underwent functional MRI with face and word localizers. We derived lateralization indices for cluster size and peak responses for word and face activity in left and right fusiform gyri, and correlated these across subjects. A secondary analysis examined all face- and word-selective voxels in the inferior occipitotemporal cortex. No negative correlations were found. There were positive correlations for the peak MR response between word and face activity within the left hemisphere, and between word activity in the left visual word form area and face activity in the right fusiform face area. The face lateralization index was positively rather than negatively correlated with the word index. In summary, we do not find a complementary relationship between visual word and face lateralization across subjects. The significance of the positive correlations is unclear: some may reflect the influences of general factors such as attention, but others may point to other factors that influence lateralization of function. PMID:27178362

  15. Left fusiform BOLD responses are inversely related to word-likeness in a one-back task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Although its precise functional contribution to reading remains unclear, there is broad consensus that activity in the left mid-fusiform gyrus is highly sensitive to written words and word-like stimuli. In the current study, we take advantage of a particularity of the Chinese writing system in order to manipulate word-likeness parametrically, from real characters, to pseudo-characters that vary in whether they contain phonological and semantic cues, to artificial stimuli with varying surface similarity to real characters. In a one-back task, BOLD activity in the left mid-fusiform was inversely related to word-likeness, such that the least activity was observed in response to real characters, and the greatest to artificial stimuli that violate the orthotactic constraints of the writing system. One possible explanation for this surprising result is that the short-term memory demands of the one-back task put more pressure on the visual system when other sources of information cannot be used to aid in detecting repeated stimuli. For real characters and, to a lesser extent for pseudo-characters, information about meaning and pronunciation can contribute to performance, whereas artificial stimuli are entirely dependent on visual information. Consistent with this view, functional connectivity analyses revealed a strong positive relationship between left mid-fusiform and other visual areas, whereas areas typically involved in phonological and semantic processing for text were negatively correlated with this region. PMID:21216293

  16. Is the whole the sum of its parts? Configural processing of headless bodies in the right fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Soria Bauser, Denise; Suchan, Boris

    2015-03-15

    The current study aimed to explore the functional magnetic resonance (fMR)-adaption effect by presenting intact and scrambled headless bodies and faces. This fMR-adaption paradigm allows investigating processing specificity in distinct brain areas by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal related to the presentation of same or different pairs of bodies. There is clear evidence that we prefer whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. This effect refers to a subtype of configural processing termed first-order relational information. The preference for whole bodies seems to be associated with activation pattern in body-sensitive brain regions. However, it remains unclear until now, which cortical area exactly mediates this preference. In the present study, we investigated whether there are neuronal populations that show a selective adaption to whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. The right fusiform body area (FBA) showed a preference for whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts as the right and left fusiform face area showed a preference for whole faces compared to the sum of their parts. Thus, the present data support the idea that configural body and face processing is mediated by the fusiform gyrus. The current data further support the view that bodies are a special stimulus class with specific characteristics which are processed in body-sensitive brain areas. PMID:25510195

  17. Chemical composition, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Scapania verrucosa Heeg. and its endophytic fungus Chaetomium fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Han, Ting; Cao, Tong; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    An endophytic fungus Chaetomium fusiforme was obtained from a liverwort, Scapania verrucosa. A comparison of the constituents of the ether extracts between S. verrucosa and the C. fusiforme culture was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of ether extract based on dried plant material was 0.6% and 59 compounds were found in S. verrucosa. (+)-Aromadendrene (9.12%), hexadecanoic acid (6.92%), 6-isopropenyl-4,8a-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-naphthalen-2-ol (5.97%), s-tetrachloroethane (5.61%) and acetic acid (5.30%) were found to be the most abundant components among the 49 characterized compounds in S. verrucosa, which represented 84.64% of the total extract. However, the constituents of the cultured endophyte extract contained mainly acetic acid (35.05%), valeric acid, 3-methyl-, methyl ester (21.25%), and butane-2, 3-diol (12.24%). Although the extracts of S. verrucosa and its endophyte showed little chemical composition correlation, both of them demonstrated antifungal and antitumor activities. Furthermore, C. fusiforme has displayed a wider range of antimicrobial and antitumor activities, which were better than the host plant. These results could support the suggestion of endophytes as an alternative of the host for medicinal activity. PMID:18830144

  18. The ruptured PIP breast implant.

    PubMed

    Helyar, V; Burke, C; McWilliams, S

    2013-08-01

    Public concern erupted about the safety of Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants when it was revealed in 2011 that they contained an inferior, unlicensed industrial-grade silicone associated with a high rate of rupture. There followed national guidance for UK clinicians, which led to a considerable increase in referrals of asymptomatic women for breast implant assessment. In this review we discuss possible approaches to screening the PIP cohort and the salient characteristics of a ruptured implant. PMID:23622796

  19. Effect of Hijikia fusiforme extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Ol; Lee, Minhee; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Ha, Yejin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The inhibitory effect of Hijikia fusiforme (HF) extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis was examined in primary cultured rat cartilage cells and a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rat model. MATERIALS/METHODS In vitro, cell survival and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was measured after H2O2 (800 µM, 2 hr) treatment in primary chondrocytes. In vivo animal study, osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA into knee joints of rats, and then RH500, HFE250 and HFE500 were administered orally once a day for 28 days. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of HFE, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression were measured. In addition, real-time PCR was performed to measure the genetic expression of MMPs, collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan, and TIMPs. RESULTS In the in vitro assay, cell survival after H2O2 treatment was increased by HFE extract (20% EtOH). In addition, anabolic factors (genetic expression of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan) were increased by HFE extract (20% EtOH). However, the genetic expression of MMP-3 and 7, known as catabolic factors were significantly inhibited by treatment with HFE extract (20% EtOH). In the in vivo assay, anabolic factors (genetic expression of collagen type I, II, aggrecan, and TIMPs) were increased by oral administration of HFE extract. However, the genetic expression of MMP-3 and 7, known as catabolic factors, and production of NO and PGE2 were significantly inhibited by treatment with oral administration of HFE extract. CONCLUSIONS HFE extract inhibited articular cartilage degeneration through preventing extracellular matrix degradation and chondrocyte injury. PMID:27247722

  20. Processing deficits for familiar and novel faces in patients with left posterior fusiform lesions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Kim, Esther; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Woollams, Anna M

    2015-11-01

    Pure alexia (PA) arises from damage to the left posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG) and the striking reading disorder that defines this condition has meant that such patients are often cited as evidence for the specialisation of this region to processing of written words. There is, however, an alternative view that suggests this region is devoted to processing of high acuity foveal input, which is particularly salient for complex visual stimuli like letter strings. Previous reports have highlighted disrupted processing of non-linguistic visual stimuli after damage to the left pFG, both for familiar and unfamiliar objects and also for novel faces. This study explored the nature of face processing deficits in patients with left pFG damage. Identification of famous faces was found to be compromised in both expressive and receptive tasks. Discrimination of novel faces was also impaired, particularly for those that varied in terms of second-order spacing information, and this deficit was most apparent for the patients with the more severe reading deficits. Interestingly, discrimination of faces that varied in terms of feature identity was considerably better in these patients and it was performance in this condition that was related to the size of the length effects shown in reading. This finding complements functional imaging studies showing left pFG activation for faces varying only in spacing and frontal activation for faces varying only on features. These results suggest that the sequential part-based processing strategy that promotes the length effect in the reading of these patients also allows them to discriminate between faces on the basis of feature identity, but processing of second-order configural information is most compromised due to their left pFG lesion. This study supports a view in which the left pFG is specialised for processing of high acuity foveal visual information that supports processing of both words and faces. PMID:25837867

  1. Horizontal tuning for faces originates in high-level Fusiform Face Area.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Duecker, Felix; Hausfeld, Lars; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-29

    Recent work indicates that the specialization of face visual perception relies on the privileged processing of horizontal angles of facial information. This suggests that stimulus properties assumed to be fully resolved in primary visual cortex (V1; e.g., orientation) in fact determine human vision until high-level stages of processing. To address this hypothesis, the present fMRI study explored the orientation sensitivity of V1 and high-level face-specialized ventral regions such as the Occipital Face Area (OFA) and Fusiform Face Area (FFA) to different angles of face information. Participants viewed face images filtered to retain information at horizontal, vertical or oblique angles. Filtered images were viewed upright, inverted and (phase-)scrambled. FFA responded most strongly to the horizontal range of upright face information; its activation pattern reliably separated horizontal from oblique ranges, but only when faces were upright. Moreover, activation patterns induced in the right FFA and the OFA by upright and inverted faces could only be separated based on horizontal information. This indicates that the specialized processing of upright face information in the OFA and FFA essentially relies on the encoding of horizontal facial cues. This pattern was not passively inherited from V1, which was found to respond less strongly to horizontal than other orientations likely due to adaptive whitening. Moreover, we found that orientation decoding accuracy in V1 was impaired for stimuli containing no meaningful shape. By showing that primary coding in V1 is influenced by high-order stimulus structure and that high-level processing is tuned to selective ranges of primary information, the present work suggests that primary and high-level levels of the visual system interact in order to modulate the processing of certain ranges of primary information depending on their relevance with respect to the stimulus and task at hand. PMID:26683383

  2. Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-15

    The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children. PMID:23153968

  3. Processing deficits for familiar and novel faces in patients with left posterior fusiform lesions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kim, Esther; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Woollams, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia (PA) arises from damage to the left posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG) and the striking reading disorder that defines this condition has meant that such patients are often cited as evidence for the specialisation of this region to processing of written words. There is, however, an alternative view that suggests this region is devoted to processing of high acuity foveal input, which is particularly salient for complex visual stimuli like letter strings. Previous reports have highlighted disrupted processing of non-linguistic visual stimuli after damage to the left pFG, both for familiar and unfamiliar objects and also for novel faces. This study explored the nature of face processing deficits in patients with left pFG damage. Identification of famous faces was found to be compromised in both expressive and receptive tasks. Discrimination of novel faces was also impaired, particularly for those that varied in terms of second-order spacing information, and this deficit was most apparent for the patients with the more severe reading deficits. Interestingly, discrimination of faces that varied in terms of feature identity was considerably better in these patients and it was performance in this condition that was related to the size of the length effects shown in reading. This finding complements functional imaging studies showing left pFG activation for faces varying only in spacing and frontal activation for faces varying only on features. These results suggest that the sequential part-based processing strategy that promotes the length effect in the reading of these patients also allows them to discriminate between faces on the basis of feature identity, but processing of second-order configural information is most compromised due to their left pFG lesion. This study supports a view in which the left pFG is specialised for processing of high acuity foveal visual information that supports processing of both words and faces. PMID:25837867

  4. Array Measurements of Earthquake Rupture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Peter

    Accurate measurements of earthquake rupture are an essential step in the development of an understanding of the earthquake source process. In this dissertation new array analysis techniques are developed and used to make the first measurements of two-dimensional earthquake rupture propagation. In order to measure earthquake rupture successfully it is necessary to account for the nonstationary behavior of seismic waves and nonplanar wavefronts due to time delays caused by local heterogeneities. Short time windows are also important because they determine the precision with which it is possible to measure rupture times of earthquake sources. The subarray spatial averaging and seismogram alignment methods were developed for these reasons. The basic algorithm which is used to compute frequency-wavenumber power spectra is the multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) method. Although a variety of methods could be applied with subarray spatial averaging and seismogram alignment, MUSIC is used because it has better resolution of multiple sources than other currently available methods and it provides a unique solution. Power spectra observed at the array are converted into source locations on the fault plane by tracing rays through a layered medium. A dipping layer correction factor is introduced to account for a laterally varying basin structure such as that found beneath the SMART 1 array in Taiwan. A framework is presented that allows for the estimation of precision and resolution of array measurements of source locations and can be used to design an optimum array for a given source. These methods are used to show that the November 14th 1986, M_{L} = 7.0 Hualien, Taiwan earthquake began as a shallow event with unilateral rupture from southwest to northeast. A few seconds later a second, deeper and larger event began rupturing from below the hypocentral region from southwest to northeast slightly down-dip. Energy density estimates indicate larger energy sources at greater

  5. Rupture of the tracheobronchial tree.

    PubMed Central

    Roxburgh, J C

    1987-01-01

    Eleven cases of tracheobronchial rupture are described. Nine were the result of external non-penetrating trauma and all but three had other serious injuries. The remaining two were caused by endobronchial intubation. Of the cases caused by external injury, respiratory tract injury was confined to the cervical trachea in three. Two required tracheostomy and repair and the third was managed conservatively; all made satisfactory recoveries. Intrathoracic rupture was recognised on or soon after admission in three cases. One patient died of uncontrollable pulmonary haemorrhage before he could be operated on; immediate repair gave good long term results in the other two. In three cases rupture of the main bronchus was not recognised until complete obstruction developed three, five, and 12 weeks after the accidents. The strictures were resected and the lung re-expanded. Robertshaw endobronchial tubes ruptured the left main bronchus in two patients undergoing oesophageal surgery. Uneventful recovery followed immediate repair. The difficulty of confirming rupture of a major airway is discussed and the importance of conserving the lung when the diagnosis has been missed is emphasised. Images PMID:3317977

  6. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self

  7. Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate–fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H. D.; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-Hong; Siok, Wai Ting

    2011-01-01

    How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the activity level of the fusiform–caudate circuit in the left hemisphere, which nonetheless is not predictive of the ability to read in the native language. We scanned 10-y-old children while they performed a lexical decision task on L2 (and L1) stimuli. The subjects’ written language (reading) skills were behaviorally assessed twice, the first time just before we performed the fMRI scan (time 1 reading) and the second time 1 y later (time 2 reading). A whole-brain based analysis revealed that activity levels in left caudate and left fusiform gyrus correlated with L2 literacy skills at time 1. After controlling for the effects of time 1 reading and nonverbal IQ, or the effect of in-scanner lexical performance, the development in L2 literacy skills (time 2 reading) was also predicted by activity in left caudate and fusiform regions that are thought to mediate language control functions and resolve competition arising from L1 during L2 learning. Our findings suggest that the activity level of left caudate and fusiform regions serves as an important neurobiological marker for predicting accomplishment in reading skills in a new language. PMID:21262807

  8. Very late in-stent thrombosis 9 years after double stent treatment of fusiform basilar artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Juszkat, Robert; Stanislawska, Katarzyna; Jankowski, Roman; Liebert, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment seems to be the best approach to posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms. Double stent techniques are frequently used to occlude basilar artery dilations. Unfortunately, there is a limited number of studies that have followed up with patients over prolonged periods of time in order to evaluate delayed complications, such as stenosis, thrombosis or migration of stents. We present an unusual case of in-stent thrombosis 9 years after basilar artery aneurysm treatment to caution about complications associated with double stent implantation. PMID:25964437

  9. Rupture interaction with fault jogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    Propagation of moderate to large earthquake ruptures within major transcurrent fault systems is affected by their large-scale brittle infrastructure, comprising echelon segmentation and curvature of principal slip surfaces (PSS) within typically ˜1 km wide main fault zones. These PSS irregularities are classified into dilational and antidilational fault jogs depending on the tendency for areal increase or reduction, respectively, across the jog structures. High precision microearthquake studies show that the jogs often extend throughout the seismogenic regime to depths of around 10 km. On geomorphic evidence, the larger jogs may persist for periods >105 years. While antidilational jogs form obstacles to both short- and long-term displacements, dilational jogs appear to act as kinetic barriers capable of perturbing or arresting earthquake ruptures, but allowing time-dependent slip transfer. In the case of antidilational jogs slip transfer is accommodated by widespread subsidiary faulting, but for dilational jogs it additionally involves extensional fracture opening localized in the echelon stepover. In fluid-saturated crust, the rapid opening of linking extensional fracture systems to allow passage of earthquake ruptures is opposed by induced suctions which scale with the width of the jog. Rupture arrest at dilational jogs may then be followed by delayed slip transfer as fluid pressures reequilibrate by diffusion. Aftershock distributions associated with the different fault jogs reflect these contrasts in their internal structure and mechanical response.

  10. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  11. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  12. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

  13. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  14. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  15. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  16. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  17. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  18. Bioassay-guided extraction of crude fucose-containing sulphated polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme with response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhifei; Li, Haihua; Liu, Hongbing; Hu, Shuman; Li, Yueying; Wang, Mengxue; Guan, Huashi

    2016-06-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) combined with bioassays was employed to optimize the extraction process of crude fucose-containing sulphated polysaccharides (cFCSP) from Sargassum fusiforme. The central composite design (CCD) was used with four variables, five levels, and four responses. The four variables were pH value of hydrochloric acid solution, extraction temperature (°C), ratio of liquid to raw material (mL g-1), and extraction time (h), respectively. Chemical and bioassay indices were used in combination as the response parameters, which included the yield of cFCSP, fucose content, proliferation rate of spleen cells, and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation of splenocytes. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis, and examined using the appropriate statistical methods. The best extraction conditions were as follows: the pH value of hydrochloric acid solution was 3.50; the extraction temperature was 100°C; the ratio of liquid to raw material was 15.00 mL g-1 and the extraction time was 2.50 h. The experimental yield was close to the predicted from the model. The extract could promote spleen lymphocyte proliferation, especially the lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, which suggested that its immunomodulatory effect on B lymphocytes. Therefore, cFCSP extracted from S. fusiforme could be utilized as an immunostimulant in functional foods and pharmaceutical industry in future.

  19. TAXONOMIC STUDY OF TWO NEW GENERA OF FUSIFORM GREEN FLAGELLATES, TABRIS GEN. NOV. AND HAMAKKO GEN. NOV. (VOLVOCALES, CHLOROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2009-04-01

    On the basis of LM, we isolated strains of two species of fusiform green flagellates that could be assigned to former Chlorogonium (Cg.) Ehrenb. One species, "Cg."heimii Bourr., lacked a pyrenoid in its vegetative cells and required organic compounds for growth. The other was similar to Cg. elongatum (P. A. Dang.) Francé and "Cg."acus Nayal, but with slightly smaller vegetative cells. Their molecular phylogeny was also studied based on combined 18S rRNA, RUBISCO LSU (rbcL), and P700 chl a-apoprotein A2 (psaB) gene sequences. Both species were separated from Chlorogonium emend., Gungnir Nakada and Rusalka Nakada, which were formerly assigned to Chlorogonium. They were accordingly assigned to new genera, Tabris Nakada gen. nov. and Hamakko (Hk.) Nakada gen. nov. as T. heimii (Bourr.) Nakada comb. nov. and Hk. caudatus Nakada sp. nov., respectively. Tabris is differentiated from other genera of fusiform green flagellates by its vegetative cells, which only have two apical contractile vacuoles and lack a pyrenoid in the chloroplast. Hamakko, on the other hand, is distinguishable by the fact that its pyrenoids in vegetative cells are penetrated by flattened thylakoid lamellae. PMID:27033826

  20. Behavior of the Edible Seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to Copper Pollution: Short-Term Acclimation and Long-Term Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

  1. [Uterine rupture. A case of spontaneous rupture in a thirty week primiparous gestation ].

    PubMed

    Bretones, S; Cousin, C; Gualandi, M; Mellier, G

    1997-01-01

    Uterine rupture is one of the major complications of pregnancy. Most spontaneous uterine ruptures occur during labor in parturients with a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture where the uterus is unscarred are more rare and occur more frequently in older multiparous patients. Starting from a case of uterine rupture occurring in a 40 year-old primiparous women, we will present a review of the literature concerning cases of rupture in healthy uteri with no obvious cause. PMID:9265057

  2. Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures.

    PubMed

    Wesnousky, Steven G

    2006-11-16

    The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop rupture propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake rupture. Here I examine the mapped surface rupture traces of 22 historical strike-slip earthquakes with rupture lengths ranging between 10 and 420 km. I show that about two-thirds of the endpoints of strike-slip earthquake ruptures are associated with fault steps or the termini of active fault traces, and that there exists a limiting dimension of fault step (3-4 km) above which earthquake ruptures do not propagate and below which rupture propagation ceases only about 40 per cent of the time. The results are of practical importance to seismic hazard analysis where effort is spent attempting to place limits on the probable length of future earthquakes on mapped active faults. Physical insight to the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process is further gained with the observation that the limiting dimension appears to be largely independent of the earthquake rupture length. It follows that the magnitude of stress changes and the volume affected by those stress changes at the driving edge of laterally propagating ruptures are largely similar and invariable during the rupture process regardless of the distance an event has propagated or will propagate. PMID:17108963

  3. Renal failure after ruptured aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Abbott, W M; Abel, R M; Beck, C H; Fischer, J E

    1975-09-01

    The effectiveness of an intravenous nutritional program plus aggressive dialysis was studied in 32 patients with renal failure following ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Each patient was managed postoperatively with a renal failure fluid regimen, consisting of the eight essential amino acids plus dextrose in conjunction with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. This regimen induced salutary metabolic effects temporarily improving the patient's condition in most instances. No technical or septic complications associated with the intravenous dietary therapy occurred. However, the incidence of recovery of renal function was low, and the overall patient survival was only 12.5%. The experience indicates that although this program has been shown to be efficacious in some patients with acute renal failure, it seems of little benefit in those whose renal failure follows ruptured aortic aneurysm. PMID:808197

  4. Oesophageal rupture masquerading as STEMI.

    PubMed

    Skaug, Brian; Taylor, Kenneth R; Chandrasekaran, Somya

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with acute onset of chest pain. Based on ECG changes suggestive of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), he was taken emergently to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory for coronary angiography. There he was found to have only non-obstructive coronary disease. Subsequent physical examination and review of his chest radiograph revealed subcutaneous emphysema, and CT scan revealed a distal oesophageal rupture and pneumomediastinum. After stabilisation in the intensive care unit (ICU), he was taken to the operating room for thoracotomy, chest tube placement and stenting of his oesophagus. He survived the incident and, after several weeks of ICU stay, recovered to a large extent. His case highlights the importance of considering oesophageal rupture in the differential diagnosis for acute onset of chest pain. PMID:27068730

  5. Spontaneous mid-oesophageal rupture.

    PubMed

    Holt, S; Millar, J W; Heading, R C; Charles, R G

    1978-08-01

    The clinical presentation and management of spontaneous rupture of the middle third of the oesophagus is described in two patients. Early presentation and treatment in one case led to uncomplicated recovery. In the other patient late presentation and diagnosis resulted in delayed surgical intervention with an unsuccessful outcome. The nature of this rare lesion is discussed and nine previously described cases are reviewed. PMID:733690

  6. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  7. Ground motion hazard from supershear rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    An idealized rupture, propagating smoothly near a terminal rupture velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For rupture velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the rupture trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For rupture velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh rupture velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and rupture length; only static friction is changed to determine the rupture velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of rupture is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear rupture propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.

  8. Fusiform Gyrus Dysfunction is Associated with Perceptual Processing Efficiency to Emotional Faces in Adolescent Depression: A Model-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tiffany C.; Zhang, Shunan; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Weng, Helen; Connolly, Colm G.; Henje Blom, Eva; Han, Laura K. M.; Mobayed, Nisreen O.; Yang, Tony T.

    2016-01-01

    While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD) as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions), little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL) who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT) commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not differ in mean RT, accuracy, or group-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate parameter of the LBA), the MDD group showed significantly reduced responses in left fusiform gyrus compared to the HCL group during the facial emotion identification task. Furthermore, within the MDD group, fMRI signal in the left fusiform gyrus during affective face processing was significantly associated with greater individual-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency. Our results therefore suggest that affective processing biases in adolescents with MDD are characterized by greater perceptual processing efficiency of affective visual information in sensory brain regions responsible for the early processing of visual information. The theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications of our results are discussed. PMID:26869950

  9. Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic α4/β2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24126835

  10. Fusiform Gyrus Dysfunction is Associated with Perceptual Processing Efficiency to Emotional Faces in Adolescent Depression: A Model-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tiffany C; Zhang, Shunan; Sacchet, Matthew D; Weng, Helen; Connolly, Colm G; Henje Blom, Eva; Han, Laura K M; Mobayed, Nisreen O; Yang, Tony T

    2016-01-01

    While the extant literature has focused on major depressive disorder (MDD) as being characterized by abnormalities in processing affective stimuli (e.g., facial expressions), little is known regarding which specific aspects of cognition influence the evaluation of affective stimuli, and what are the underlying neural correlates. To investigate these issues, we assessed 26 adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCL) who completed an emotion identification task of dynamically morphing faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed the behavioral data using a sequential sampling model of response time (RT) commonly used to elucidate aspects of cognition in binary perceptual decision making tasks: the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model. Using a hierarchical Bayesian estimation method, we obtained group-level and individual-level estimates of LBA parameters on the facial emotion identification task. While the MDD and HCL groups did not differ in mean RT, accuracy, or group-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate parameter of the LBA), the MDD group showed significantly reduced responses in left fusiform gyrus compared to the HCL group during the facial emotion identification task. Furthermore, within the MDD group, fMRI signal in the left fusiform gyrus during affective face processing was significantly associated with greater individual-level estimates of perceptual processing efficiency. Our results therefore suggest that affective processing biases in adolescents with MDD are characterized by greater perceptual processing efficiency of affective visual information in sensory brain regions responsible for the early processing of visual information. The theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications of our results are discussed. PMID:26869950

  11. Structural elucidation and protective role of a polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme on ameliorating learning and memory deficiencies in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pei; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Ling, Yun; Jiang, Jian; Huang, Chenggang

    2016-03-30

    A fucoidan, Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide 65 (SFPS65) A, was isolated from a brown alga (S. fusiforme). SFPS65A had an estimated molecular weight of 90kDa and showed αD(20) -74.3288 (c 0.05, H2O). SFPS65A is composed of fucose, galactose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, and mannose in the ratio of 19.23:9.58:6.64:1:6.52:2.57. The structural features of SFPS65A were investigated using composition analysis, methylation analysis, infrared spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy. Results showed that SFPS65A has a main chain composed of →3)-β-l-Fucp-(1→3,4)-β-l-Fucp-(1→3,4)-β-l-Fucp-(1→ and connected with →3,4)-α-d-GlcAp-(1→, →4)-β-d-Xylp-(1→, →4)-α-d-Galp-(1→, →3,6)-α-d-Manp-(1→ alternately. The branches at O-3 of the fucosyl residue and O-3 of the hexosyl residues may include sulfate, →4)-β-l-Fucp-(1→, β-d-Xylp-(1→, and β-d-Xylp-(1→. SFPS65A exhibited an activity on Alzheimer's disease in vivo in the pharmacological experiments by increasing the cognitive abilities of scopolamine-, ethanol-, and sodium nitrite-treated mice against memory deficits. PMID:26794958

  12. Spontaneous rupture of a splenotic nodule.

    PubMed Central

    Lanigan, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented of spontaneous rupture of splenic tissue occurring 14 years after a splenectomy was carried out for trauma. Spontaneous rupture of a splenotic nodule has not previously been described and it may be added to the list of causes of spontaneous haemoperitoneum. The incidence and function of residual splenic tissue are briefly discussed and other causes of splenic rupture are outlined. PMID:2267217

  13. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  14. Tendon Ruptures Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Alan A.; Horowitz, Bruce G.; Nagel, Donald A.

    1977-01-01

    In five patients, tendon ruptures occurred in association with corticosteroid therapy, either systemic or local infiltration. The chronic nature of the pain in all of these patients suggests that what we often call tendinitis may in fact be early or partial ruptures of tendons. Patients who receive local infiltration of corticosteroids should perhaps be advised of the risk of a ruptured tendon. In addition, particularly when the Achilles tendon is involved, immobilization should be utilized initially for a presumed tendinitis or early rupture, to protect the tendon from further injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:919538

  15. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  16. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour

    PubMed Central

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

  17. Rupture dynamics in model polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Borah, Rupam; Debnath, Pallavi

    2016-05-11

    In this paper we explore the rupture dynamics of a model polymer system to capture the microscopic mechanism during relative motion of surfaces at the single polymer level. Our model is similar to the model for friction introduced by Filippov, Klafter, and Urbakh [Filippov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 92, 135503]; but with an important generalization to a flexible transducer (modelled as a bead spring polymer) which is attached to a fixed rigid planar substrate by interconnecting bonds (modelled as harmonic springs), and pulled by a constant force FT. Bonds are allowed to rupture stochastically. The model is simulated, and the results for a certain set of parameters exhibit a sequential rupture mechanism resulting in rupture fronts. A mean field formalism is developed to study these rupture fronts and the possible propagating solutions for the coupled bead and bond dynamics, where the coupling excludes an exact analytical treatment. Numerical solutions to mean field equations are obtained by standard numerical techniques, and they agree well with the simulation results which show sequential rupture. Within a travelling wave formalism based on the Tanh method, we show that the velocity of the rupture front can be obtained in closed form. The derived expression for the rupture front velocity gives good agreement with the stochastic and mean field results, when the rupture is sequential, while propagating solutions for bead and bond dynamics are shown to agree under certain conditions. PMID:27087684

  18. Second-Trimester Uterine Rupture: Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    F. ABDULWAHAB, Dalia; ISMAIL, Hamizah; NUSEE, Zalina

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture is a rare life-threatening complication. It mainly occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and is rarely seen during the first or second trimesters. Our centre experienced three important cases of uterine rupture. First case: spontaneous uterine rupture at 14 weeks of pregnancy, which was diagnosed at autopsy. It was misled by the ultrasound finding of an intrauterine pregnancy, and searching for other non-gynaecological causes delayed the urgent obstetric surgical management. Second case: ruptured uterus at 24 weeks following medical termination due to foetal anomaly. It was diagnosed only at laparotomy indicated for failed medical termination and chorioamnionitis. Third case: uterine rupture at 21 weeks of pregnancy in a patient with gastroenterology symptoms. In these reports, we have discussed the various risk factors, presentations, course of events and difficulties in diagnosing uterine rupture. The study concludes that the clinical presentation of uterine ruptures varies. It occurs regardless of gestational age. Ultrasound findings of intrauterine pregnancy with free fluid do not exclude uterine rupture or ectopic pregnancy. Searching for non-gynaecological causes in such clinical presentations might delay crucial surgical intervention, which leads to unnecessary morbidity, mortality or loss of obstetrics function. PMID:25977625

  19. [Bilateral bronchial rupture: problems of respiratory management].

    PubMed

    Sztark, F; Thicoïpé, M; Favarel-Garrigues, J F; Velly, J F; Lassié, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the case of bilateral bronchial rupture in a 39-year-old multiple trauma patient. During the thoracotomy for right main bronchus repair, a partial left bronchial rupture was recognized because of severe hypoxaemia after left selective intubation. PMID:7486281

  20. Madelung Deformity and Extensor Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Shahcheraghi, Gholam Hossain; Peyman, Maryam; Mozafarian, Kamran

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tendon rupture in chronic Madelung deformity, as a result of tendon attrition on the dislocated distal ulna, is a rare occurrence. It is, however, seen more often in rheumatoid arthritis. There are few case reports in the English-language literature on this issue. We report a case of multiple tendon ruptures in a previously undiagnosed Madelung deformity. PMID:26161772

  1. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    PubMed

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  2. Myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular septal rupture.

    PubMed

    Sahjian, Michael; Ventriglia, Rich; Bolton, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Transporting patients with an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a fairly common practice for most critical care transport teams. When a STEMI is complicated by ventricular septal rupture, the care can become more challenging, especially if the rupture is not yet diagnosed. This article describes such a transport and reviews the pathophysiology of the process along with treatment options. PMID:22225564

  3. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

    2010-11-01

    Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

  4. The effects of barriers on supershear rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiankuan; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei

    2016-07-01

    A barrier may induce a supershear rupture transition in some cases, whereas it may prevent the further propagation of a supershear rupture in other cases. We investigate the effects of a barrier on the supershear rupture propagation on a planar fault in a 3-D half-space. Our results show that the effect of a barrier on supershear is strongly dependent on its size, strength, and location. For larger sizes, shallower buried depths, and relatively higher strengths, the barrier tends to prevent supershear propagation more strongly. When the barrier is located on the free surface and near the critical distance, it prevents the further propagation of supershear rupture. If a barrier is located far from the critical distance, the first supershear daughter crack is slowed down and a new supershear daughter crack is generated after the rupture front passes through the barrier. This mechanism greatly lengthens the supershear transition distance.

  5. Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong

    2014-07-01

    Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen operated in gynecological unit mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: total splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eko, Filbert Eko; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; de Paul, Elanga Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is always neglected when consulting acute abdominal pains in gynecological emergencies. It constitutes about 1% of all splenic ruptures and can be managed by abstention, surgery or embolization. We present the case of a young lady who was diagnosed of spontaneous rupture during surgery that was mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst and finally treated by total splenectomy. The pre-operative work up was absolute for a rupturred hemorrhagic cyst and secondariy for a ruptured ectopic gestation. PMID:25918564

  7. Dedifferentiated face processing in older adults is linked to lower resting state metabolic activity in fusiform face area.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie; Ward, Noreen; Boshyan, Jasmine; Gutchess, Angela; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-08-01

    We used multimodal brain imaging to examine possible mediators of age-related neural dedifferentiation (less specific neural activation) to different categories of stimuli that had been shown in previous research. Specifically, we examined resting blood flow and brain activation in areas involved in object, place and face perception. We observed lower activation, specificity, and resting blood flow for older adults (OA) than younger adults (YA) in the fusiform face area (FFA) but not in the other regions of interest. Mediation analyses further revealed that FFA resting state blood flow mediated age differences in FFA specificity, whereas age differences in visual and cognitive function and cortical thickness did not. Whole brain analyses also revealed more activated voxels for all categories in OA, as well as more frontal activation for faces but not for the other categories in OA than YA. Less FFA specificity coupled with more frontal activation when passively viewing faces suggest that OA have more difficulty recruiting specialized face processing mechanisms, and the lower FFA metabolic activity even when faces are not being processed suggests an OA deficiency in the neural substrate underlying face processing. Our data point to a detuning of face-selective mechanisms in older adults. PMID:27163722

  8. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

  9. The Left Fusiform Gyrus is a Critical Region Contributing to the Core Behavioral Profile of Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junhua; Chen, Keliang; Chen, Yan; Fang, Yuxing; Yang, Qing; Lv, Yingru; Lin, Nan; Bi, Yanchao; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu

    2016-01-01

    Given that extensive cerebral regions are co-atrophic in semantic dementia (SD), it is not yet known which critical regions (SD-semantic-critical regions) are really responsible for the semantic deficits of SD. To identify the SD-semantic-critical regions, we explored the relationship between the degree of cerebral atrophy in the whole brain and the severity of semantic deficits in 19 individuals with SD. We found that the gray matter volumes (GMVs) of two regions [left fusiform gyrus (lFFG) and left parahippocampal gyrus (lPHG)] significantly correlated with the semantic scores of patients with SD. Importantly, the effects of the lFFG remained significant after controlling for the GMVs of the lPHG. Moreover, the effects of the region could not be accounted for by the total GMV, general cognitive ability, laterality of brain atrophy, or control task performance. We further observed that each atrophic portion of the lFFG along the anterior–posterior axis might dedicate to the loss of semantic functions in SD. These results reveal that the lFFG could be a critical region contributing to the semantic deficits of SD. PMID:27242479

  10. Neural Decoding Reveals Impaired Face Configural Processing in the Right Fusiform Face Area of Individuals with Developmental Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

  11. A Model of Emergent Category-specific Activation in the Posterior Fusiform Gyrus of Sighted and Congenitally Blind Populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lang; Rogers, Timothy T

    2015-10-01

    Theories about the neural bases of semantic knowledge tend between two poles, one proposing that distinct brain regions are innately dedicated to different conceptual domains and the other suggesting that all concepts are encoded within a single network. Category-sensitive functional activations in the fusiform cortex of the congenitally blind have been taken to support the former view but also raise several puzzles. We use neural network models to assess a hypothesis that spans the two poles: The interesting functional activation patterns reflect the base connectivity of a domain-general semantic network. Both similarities and differences between sighted and congenitally blind groups can emerge through learning in a neural network, but only in architectures adopting real anatomical constraints. Surprisingly, the same constraints suggest a novel account of a quite different phenomenon: the dyspraxia observed in patients with semantic impairments from anterior temporal pathology. From this work, we suggest that the cortical semantic network is wired not to encode knowledge of distinct conceptual domains but to promote learning about both conceptual and affordance structure in the environment. PMID:26042499

  12. Activity in the right fusiform face area predicts the behavioural advantage for the perception of familiar faces.

    PubMed

    Weibert, Katja; Andrews, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    People are extremely proficient at discriminating the identity of familiar faces, but are significantly worse with unfamiliar faces. Despite this clear behavioural difference in perception, the neural correlates of the advantage for familiar faces remain unclear. Here, we use an individual differences approach to explore the link between neural responses in face-selective regions and the behavioural advantage for the perception of familiar faces. First, we compared performance on an identity matching task with either familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that participants were significantly better at matching the identity of familiar compared to unfamiliar faces. Next, we used fMRI to measure the response to familiar and unfamiliar faces. Consistent with the behavioural data, there was a significant difference in the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar faces in face-selective regions. Finally, we asked whether interindividual variation in behavioural performance could be predicted by corresponding variation in fMRI response. We found a significant correlation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA) between the difference in response to familiar and unfamiliar faces and corresponding differences on the face-matching task. That is, participants who showed a larger response to familiar compared to unfamiliar faces in the rFFA also matched familiar faces much more accurately than unfamiliar faces. No other face-selective region showed a correlation between neural and matching accuracy. These results provide a link between activity in the rFFA and the perception of familiar faces. PMID:26187507

  13. Enhanced speech perception capabilities in a blind listener are associated with activation of fusiform gyrus and primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Moos, Anja; Trouvain, Jürgen; Ackermann, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Blind individuals may learn to understand ultra-fast synthetic speech at a rate of up to about 25 syllables per second (syl)/s, an accomplishment by far exceeding the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (8-10 syl/s). The present study indicates that this exceptional skill engages distinct regions of the central-visual system. Hemodynamic brain activation during listening to moderately- (8 syl/s) and ultra-fast speech (16 syl/s) was measured in a blind individual and six normal-sighted controls. Moderately-fast speech activated posterior and anterior 'language zones' in all subjects. Regarding ultra-fast tokens, the controls showed exclusive activation of supratemporal regions whereas the blind participant exhibited enhanced left inferior frontal and temporoparietal responses as well as significant hemodynamic activation of left fusiform gyrus (FG) and right primary visual cortex. Since left FG is known to be involved in phonological processing, this structure, presumably, provides the functional link between the central-auditory and -visual systems. PMID:19241219

  14. Neuromagnetic evidence that the right fusiform face area is essential for human face awareness: An intermittent binocular rivalry study.

    PubMed

    Kume, Yuko; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Hironaga, Naruhito; Ogata, Katsuya; Shigyo, Maki; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    When and where the awareness of faces is consciously initiated is unclear. We used magnetoencephalography to probe the brain responses associated with face awareness under intermittent pseudo-rivalry (PR) and binocular rivalry (BR) conditions. The stimuli comprised three pictures: a human face, a monkey face and a house. In the PR condition, we detected the M130 component, which has been minimally characterized in previous research. We obtained a clear recording of the M170 component in the fusiform face area (FFA), and found that this component had an earlier response time to faces compared with other objects. The M170 occurred predominantly in the right hemisphere in both conditions. In the BR condition, the amplitude of the M130 significantly increased in the right hemisphere irrespective of the physical characteristics of the visual stimuli. Conversely, we did not detect the M170 when the face image was suppressed in the BR condition, although this component was clearly present when awareness for the face was initiated. We also found a significant difference in the latency of the M170 (human

  15. Preparation and certification of hijiki reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, from the edible marine algae hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme).

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narushima, Izumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2012-02-01

    A certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, for the determination of trace elements and As(V) in algae was developed from the edible marine hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme) and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Hijiki was collected from the Pacific coast in the Kanto area of Japan, and was washed, dried, powdered, and homogenized. The hijiki powder was placed in 400 bottles (ca. 20 g each). The concentrations of 18 trace elements and As(V) were determined by two to four independent analytical techniques, including (ID)ICP-(HR)MS, ICP-OES, GFAAS, and HPLC-ICP-MS using calibration solutions prepared from the elemental standard solution of Japan calibration service system (JCSS) and the NMIJ CRM As(V) solution, and whose concentrations are certified and SI traceable. The uncertainties of all the measurements and preparation procedures were evaluated. The values of 18 trace elements and As(V) in the CRM were certified with uncertainty (k = 2). PMID:22159512

  16. Learning to Read an Alphabet of Human Faces Produces Left-lateralized Training Effects in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michelle W.; Durisko, Corrine; Perfetti, Charles A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that most orthographic stimuli, such as printed English words, produce a left-lateralized response within the fusiform gyrus (FG) at a characteristic location termed the visual word form area (VWFA). We developed an experimental alphabet (FaceFont) comprising 35 face–phoneme pairs to disentangle phonological and perceptual influences on the lateralization of orthographic processing within the FG. Using functional imaging, we found that a region in the vicinity of the VWFA responded to FaceFont words more strongly in trained versus untrained participants, whereas no differences were observed in the right FG. The trained response magnitudes in the left FG region correlated with behavioral reading performance, providing strong evidence that the neural tissue recruited by training supported the newly acquired reading skill. These results indicate that the left lateralization of the orthographic processing is not restricted to stimuli with particular visual-perceptual features. Instead, lateralization may occur because the anatomical projections in the vicinity of the VWFA provide a unique interconnection between the visual system and left-lateralized language areas involved in the representation of speech. PMID:24168219

  17. Sequential and compartmentalized action of Rabs, SNAREs, and MAL in the apical delivery of fusiform vesicles in urothelial umbrella cells

    PubMed Central

    Wankel, Bret; Ouyang, Jiangyong; Guo, Xuemei; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Miller, Jeremy; Liao, Yi; Tham, Daniel Kai Long; Romih, Rok; Andrade, Leonardo R.; Gumper, Iwona; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Sachdeva, Rakhee; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Hong, Wan Jin; Sabatini, David D.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Kong, Xiangpeng; Kreibich, Gert; Rindler, Michael J.; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakins (UPs) are major differentiation products of urothelial umbrella cells and play important roles in forming the permeability barrier and in the expansion/stabilization of the apical membrane. Further, UPIa serves as a uropathogenic Escherichia coli receptor. Although it is understood that UPs are delivered to the apical membrane via fusiform vesicles (FVs), the mechanisms that regulate this exocytic pathway remain poorly understood. Immunomicroscopy of normal and mutant mouse urothelia show that the UP-delivering FVs contained Rab8/11 and Rab27b/Slac2-a, which mediate apical transport along actin filaments. Subsequently a Rab27b/Slp2-a complex mediated FV–membrane anchorage before SNARE-mediated and MAL-facilitated apical fusion. We also show that keratin 20 (K20), which forms a chicken-wire network ∼200 nm below the apical membrane and has hole sizes allowing FV passage, defines a subapical compartment containing FVs primed and strategically located for fusion. Finally, we show that Rab8/11 and Rab27b function in the same pathway, Rab27b knockout leads to uroplakin and Slp2-a destabilization, and Rab27b works upstream from MAL. These data support a unifying model in which UP cargoes are targeted for apical insertion via sequential interactions with Rabs and their effectors, SNAREs and MAL, and in which K20 plays a key role in regulating vesicular trafficking. PMID:27009205

  18. Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Thomas; Thomas, Kotsis; Tympa, Aliki; Aliki, Tympa; Kalinis, Aris; Aris, Kalinis; Vasilopoulos, Ioannis; Ioannis, Vasilopoulos; Theodoraki, Kassiani; Kassiani, Theodoraki

    2011-10-01

    Although the mortality rate after abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture approximates 90% despite the urgent management, a few cases of chronic rupture and delayed repair have been reported in the world literature; anatomic and hemodynamic reasons occasionally allow for the fortunate course of these patients. We report in this article the case of 76-year-old man with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm who was transferred to our facility 4 weeks after his initial hospitalization in a district institution and who finally had a successful open repair. PMID:21620664

  19. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy at sixteen weeks.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Fehmi; Paçarada, Myrvete; Kongjeli, Niltene; Zeqiri, Vlora; Kongjeli, Gyltene; Krasniqi, Burim

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures, leading to life -threatening intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A 22-year-old second gravida patient presented at the Emergency Center of the University Clinical Center of Kosova with a 16-week history of amenorrhea and acute onset of severe abdominal pain. She was resuscitated and taken for an emergency laparotomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, there was a massive hemoperitoneum with a ruptured right rudimentary horn Given their rarity, ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancies are of interest. PMID:24591927

  20. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  1. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  2. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Bomfim, Lucas Novais; von Atzingen, Augusto Castelli; D’Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. PMID:26543286

  4. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Bomfim, Lucas Novais; von Atzingen, Augusto Castelli; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. PMID:26543286

  5. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  6. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  7. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  8. [Centralisation of treatment of ruptured aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Akkersdijk, Willem L; Akkersdijk, George J M; Akkersdijk, George P

    2014-01-01

    In the future, patients with a ruptured aneurysm will be treated at fewer hospitals in the Netherlands. Although there is a search for scientific support for this, the reason for centralisation is obvious: reduction of costs and reduction of workload for vascular surgeons during night and weekend shifts. Already there are a number of examples of regionally organised vascular surgeons who treat their patients with a ruptured aneurysm with great satisfaction and with good results. PMID:25563776

  9. Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-01

    We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

  10. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  11. Rupture Propagation for Stochastic Fault Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favreau, P.; Lavallee, D.; Archuleta, R.

    2003-12-01

    The inversion of strong motion data of large earhquakes give the spatial distribution of pre-stress on the ruptured faults and it can be partially reproduced by stochastic models, but a fundamental question remains: how rupture propagates, constrained by the presence of spatial heterogeneity? For this purpose we investigate how the underlying random variables, that control the pre-stress spatial variability, condition the propagation of the rupture. Two stochastic models of prestress distributions are considered, respectively based on Cauchy and Gaussian random variables. The parameters of the two stochastic models have values corresponding to the slip distribution of the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake. We use a finite difference code to simulate the spontaneous propagation of shear rupture on a flat fault in a 3D continuum elastic body. The friction law is the slip dependent friction law. The simulations show that the propagation of the rupture front is more complex, incoherent or snake-like for a prestress distribution based on Cauchy random variables. This may be related to the presence of a higher number of asperities in this case. These simulations suggest that directivity is stronger in the Cauchy scenario, compared to the smoother rupture of the Gauss scenario.

  12. Reduced GABAA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in the posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus in autism.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Adrian L; Gibbs, Terrell T; Blatt, Gene J

    2011-03-22

    Individuals with autism display deficits in the social domain including the proper recognition of faces and interpretations of facial expressions. There is an extensive network of brain regions involved in face processing including the fusiform gyrus (FFG) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Functional imaging studies have found that controls have increased activity in the PCC and FFG during face recognition tasks, and the FFG has differential responsiveness in autism when viewing faces. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the GABAergic system is disrupted in the brains of individuals with autism and it is likely that altered inhibition within the network influences the ability to perceive emotional expressions. On-the-slide ligand binding autoradiography was used to determine if there were alterations in GABA(A) and/or benzodiazepine binding sites in the brain in autism. Using (3)H-muscimol and (3)H-flunitrazepam we could determine whether the number (B(max)), binding affinity (K(d)), and/or distribution of GABA(A) receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites (BZD) differed from controls in the FFG and PCC. Significant reductions were found in the number of GABA(A) receptors and BZD binding sites in the superficial layers of the PCC and FFG, and in the number of BZD binding sites in the deep layers of the FFG. In addition, the autism group had a higher binding affinity in the superficial layers of the GABA(A) study. Taken together, these findings suggest that the disruption in inhibitory control in the cortex may contribute to the core disturbances of socio-emotional behaviors in autism. PMID:20858465

  13. Fusiform gyrus responses to neutral and emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorders: a high density ERP study.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico; Federico, Rosario R; Campatelli, Giulia; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-08-15

    Face processing is a neural mechanism that allows understanding social information and cues conveyed by faces, whose dysfunction has been postulated to underlie some of the behavioral impairments characterizing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A special region of the cortex, the fusiform gyrus (FG), is believed to be the specific area for processing face features and emotions. However, behavioral, fMRI and ERP studies addressed to investigate the role of FG dysfunction in ASD have led to conflicting results. Using a high-density EEG system, we recorded the face-sensitive ERP to neutral and emotional (happiness and fearful) faces, as a measure of early activity of the FG, in children with high functioning ASD. By controlling a number of experimental and clinical variables that could have biased previous research--such as gaze direction, attention to tasks, stimulus appearance and clinical profiles--we aimed to assess the effective role of the FG in the face emotion processing deficit hypothesized in ASD. No significant differences in early face-sensitive ERP components were found between ASD and neurotypical children. However, a systematic latency delay and amplitude reduction of all early potentials were observed in the ASD group, regardless of the stimulus, although more evident for emotions. Therefore, we can assume a diffuse dysfunction of neural mechanisms and networks in driving and integrating social information conveyed by faces, in particular when emotions are involved, rather than a specific impairment of the FG-related face processing circuit. Nevertheless, there is need of further investigation. PMID:23124137

  14. Electrical Stimulation of the Left and Right Human Fusiform Gyrus Causes Different Effects in Conscious Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Foster, Brett L.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Jacques, Corentin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies across species have confirmed bilateral face-selective responses in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and prosopagnosia is reported in patients with lesions in the VTC including the fusiform gyrus (FG). As imaging and electrophysiological studies provide correlative evidence, and brain lesions often comprise both white and gray matter structures beyond the FG, we designed the current study to explore the link between face-related electrophysiological responses in the FG and the causal effects of electrical stimulation of the left or right FG in face perception. We used a combination of electrocorticography (ECoG) and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 10 human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left (5 participants, 30 FG sites) or right (5 participants, 26 FG sites) hemispheres. We identified FG sites with face-selective ECoG responses, and recorded perceptual reports during EBS of these sites. In line with existing literature, face-selective ECoG responses were present in both left and right FG sites. However, when the same sites were stimulated, we observed a striking difference between hemispheres. Only EBS of the right FG caused changes in the conscious perception of faces, whereas EBS of strongly face-selective regions in the left FG produced non-face-related visual changes, such as phosphenes. This study examines the relationship between correlative versus causal nature of ECoG and EBS, respectively, and provides important insight into the differential roles of the right versus left FG in conscious face perception. PMID:25232118

  15. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

  16. Spontaneous rupture of unscarred uterus in a primigravida with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Wael Sayed; Bersano, Debbra J; Greenspan, Peter B; Harper, Diane Medved

    2015-01-01

    Intrapartum uterine rupture is a true obstetrical emergency. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is rare in the unscarred uterus of a primigravida. A 23-year-old primigravida with an unscarred uterus was admitted with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes at 36(+4) weeks of gestation. Abnormal fetal heart monitoring, associated with acute onset of severe abdominopelvic pain, developed on admission. Rupture occurred prior to onset of regular uterine contractions and in the absence of any interventional oxytocin. The neonate had evidence of severe acidosis despite emergency caesarean delivery. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for uterine rupture, even in the unlikely setting of a primigravida with an unscarred uterus. PMID:26055584

  17. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Wei Yee; Gheorghiu, Daniel; Rao, Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. PMID:27298913

  18. Dynamic rupture processes inferred from laboratory microearthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passelègue, François. X.; Schubnel, Alexandre; Nielsen, Stefan; Bhat, Harsha S.; Deldicque, Damien; Madariaga, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    We report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures (σ3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. A high-frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particle acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events allowing us to estimate rupture speed. In addition, we record the stress drop dynamically and we show that the dynamic stress drop measured locally close to the fault plane is almost total in the breakdown zone (for normal stress >75 MPa), while the friction f recovers to values of f > 0.4 within only a few hundred microseconds. Enhanced dynamic weakening is observed to be linked to the melting of asperities which can be well explained by flash heating theory in agreement with our postmortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial state of stress, rupture velocities, stress drop, and energy budget suggest that at high normal stress (leading to supershear rupture velocities), the rupture processes are more dissipative. Our observations question the current dichotomy between the fracture energy and the frictional energy in terms of rupture processes. A power law scaling of the fracture energy with final slip is observed over 8 orders of magnitude in slip, from a few microns to tens of meters.

  19. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of water-soluble polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Jiajia; Yu, Ying; Wu, Bin

    2014-02-15

    Sargassum fusiforme (hijiki) is the well-known edible algae, whose polysaccharides have been proved to possess interesting bioactivities like antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. A facile and sensitive method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method of pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) has been established for the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides in S. fusiforme. Monosaccharides have been converted into PMP-labelled derivatives with aqueous ammonia as a catalyst at 70 °C for 30 min. The optimisation of the pre-column derivatization process was studied. The LODs of the monosaccharides were in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 nmol. PMP-labelled mixture of monosaccharides has been well separated by a reverse-phase HPLC and detected by on-line ESI-MS method under optimised conditions. The mobile phase of elution system was chosen as acetonitrile (solvent A) and 20mM aqueous ammonium acetate (solvent B) (pH 3.0) with Zorbax XDB-C18 column at 30 °C for the separation of the monosaccharide derivatives. Identification of the monosaccharides composition was carried out by analysis with mass spectral behaviour and chromatography characteristics of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelled monosaccharides. All PMP-labelled derivatives display high chemical stabilities, whose regular MS fragmentation is specific for reducing labelled sugars. The result showed that the S. fusiforme polysaccharide consisted of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, fucose and glucuronic acid or galacturonic acid, or both uronic acids. PMID:24128572

  20. Epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus of chronically sun-damaged skin, an entity distinct from the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Yazdan, Pedram; Haghighat, Zahra; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) was first described in patients with Carney complex (CNC) and subsequently shown to also occur sporadically. Over 50% of patients with CNC harbor mutations in the gene PRKAR1A, which codes for protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1α (R1α) involved in the signaling pathway regulating melanogenesis and melanocytic proliferation. Immunohistochemical expression of R1α has been shown to be absent in the majority of pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas and all CNC-associated EBNs but present in melanomas and other melanocytic nevi. We have observed several examples of EBN occurring in chronically sun-damaged (CSD) skin with a predominance of epithelioid morphology but also containing a component of fusiform and conventional blue nevus cells, which we have termed epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus of CSD skin. Several of these cases demonstrated notable pleomorphism and nuclear atypia with rare mitotic activity raising concern for the possibility of melanoma; however, the clinical outcomes, detailed histologic review, and molecular results were most consistent with a benign melanocytic neoplasm. We report our clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization experience with this distinct entity of epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus and demonstrate that it is a unique subtype of blue nevus occurring on CSD skin with a higher frequency of an associated conventional blue nevus component compared with EBN and without association with CNC or loss of R1α expression typically found in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and CNC-associated EBN. We also postulate that the epithelioid pattern may represent a subclone of the conventional blue nevus component induced by chronic UV damage. PMID:22892599

  1. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.

  2. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Vaziri, Siavoosh; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described. PMID:26139761

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture and osteoarthritis progression.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David

    2012-01-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL rupture, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial.The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL rupture and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction.There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations. PMID:22896777

  4. Postmyomectomic Uterine Rupture Despite Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, Joanna; Bartnik, Paweł; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Dobrowolska-Redo, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Fibroids can develop anywhere within the muscular wall. Leiomyomas may be associated with infertility. Laparoscopic myomectomy is often used to remove symptomatic intramural or subserosal fibroids. Advantages of the procedure include short recovery time and minimal perioperative morbidity. At the same time, the multilayer suture technique is more complicated during laparoscopy. A rare but serious complication of laparoscopic myomectomies is uterine rupture. A brief review of the literature and a clinical example of a 33-year-old woman with history of infertility, laparoscopic myomectomies and uterine rupture followed by peripartum hemorrhage is presented. The treatment of leiomyomas is a challenge not only because of possible recurrence but also due to long-term consequences following successful myomectomy. Management of patients with uterine scars should include careful planning of the route of delivery, as the risk of rupture may be increased. PMID:26976991

  5. Creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeow, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep rupture envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep rupture tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.

  6. Ruptured, Intracranial Dermoid Cyst - A Visual Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are a very rare entity of intracranial tumours. The traumatic or non-traumatic rupture of the cyst wall is a serious complication that can be treated surgically or conservatively depending on the clinical symptoms. However, more common entities have to be considered as a differential diagnosis. We report on a female patient who was admitted with complaints of significant, prolonged headache and diffuse pain. Analysis of her blood and cerebrospinal fluid indicated no clear pathology. A CT examination of the head revealed a ruptured dermoid cyst adjacent to the left sphenoidal bone. An additional MRI was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out an intracranial ischemia or vasospasms. A conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Using current imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible to identify a ruptured dermoid cyst by its pathognomonic signal behavior and rule out potentially life threatening complications. PMID:27190918

  7. A Late Presentation of Spontaneous Bladder Rupture During Labor.

    PubMed

    Farahzadi, A; Mohammadipour, S

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous bladder rupture is usually due to bladder diseases. Bladder rupture during labor or postpartum is extremely rare. Acute abdomen is the usual presentation of spontaneous bladder rupture. Patients may complain of suprapubic pain, anuria and hematuria. Some patients with intraperitoneal bladder rupture may have no abdominal pain and can pass urine without any symptoms so the diagnosis of intraperitoneal rupture may be difficult in these situations. We report a nulliparous woman with abdominal pain and distension about 20 days after normal vaginal delivery. There was intraperitoneal rupture of bladder in dome of bladder which was sealed by jejunum. PMID:27313990

  8. Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

  9. Consequences of expansion joint bellows rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.

    1992-11-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows rupture frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe rupture frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows rupture. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows rupture would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows rupture and therefore reduce the impact that bellows rupture can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.

  10. COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP RUPTURE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Macheret

    2000-06-12

    The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

  11. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  12. [Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with delayed unusual disclosure].

    PubMed

    Thicoïpé, M; Sztark, F; Lassié, P; Tueux, O; Dabadie, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the case of a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture in a 22-year-old patient admitted to hospital for a minor surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. Nine months before, he had a road traffic accident with a minor thoracic trauma. Three days after surgery, the patient was readmitted for a tension hydrothorax due to the herniation and the perforation of the stomach into the left pleural cavity. Such a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains uncommon. The peroperative ventilatory factors involved in the development of the hernia are discussed. PMID:8572411

  13. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  14. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa

    2012-07-01

    Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421

  15. Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabuchian, Vahe

    Thrust fault earthquakes are investigated in the laboratory by generating dynamic shear ruptures along pre-existing frictional faults in rectangular plates. A considerable body of evidence suggests that dip-slip earthquakes exhibit enhanced ground motions in the acute hanging wall wedge as an outcome of broken symmetry between hanging and foot wall plates with respect to the earth surface. To understand the physical behavior of thrust fault earthquakes, particularly ground motions near the earth surface, ruptures are nucleated in analog laboratory experiments and guided up-dip towards the simulated earth surface. The transient slip event and emitted radiation mimic a natural thrust earthquake. High-speed photography and laser velocimeters capture the rupture evolution, outputting a full-field view of photo-elastic fringe contours proportional to maximum shearing stresses as well as continuous ground motion velocity records at discrete points on the specimen. Earth surface-normal measurements validate selective enhancement of hanging wall ground motions for both sub-Rayleigh and super-shear rupture speeds. The earth surface breaks upon rupture tip arrival to the fault trace, generating prominent Rayleigh surface waves. A rupture wave is sensed in the hanging wall but is, however, absent from the foot wall plate: a direct consequence of proximity from fault to seismometer. Signatures in earth surface-normal records attenuate with distance from the fault trace. Super-shear earthquakes feature greater amplitudes of ground shaking profiles, as expected from the increased tectonic pressures required to induce super-shear transition. Paired stations measure fault parallel and fault normal ground motions at various depths, which yield slip and opening rates through direct subtraction of like components. Peak fault slip and opening rates associated with the rupture tip increase with proximity to the fault trace, a result of selective ground motion amplification in the

  16. [Gastric rupture after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A rupture of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric rupture. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943

  17. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria

    PubMed Central

    Alajoulin, Omar A.; Alsbou, Mohammed S.; Ja’afreh, Somayya O.; Kalbouneh, Heba M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992

  18. Primary gastric rupture in 47 horses (1995–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, Laramie S.; Dechant, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to identify factors associated with primary gastric rupture and to investigate if there were differences between etiologies of primary gastric rupture. Compared to the general colic population, Quarter horses were under-represented and Friesians and draft breeds were over-represented in 47 cases of primary gastric ruptures. Horses with primary gastric rupture typically presented with severe clinical and clinicopathological derangements. There were 24 idiopathic gastric ruptures, 20 gastric impaction associated ruptures, and 3 perforating gastric ulcers. Thoroughbred horses were over-represented in the idiopathic gastric rupture group compared to other breeds and etiologies. This study suggests the presence of important breed predispositions for development of gastric rupture. Further study is necessary to identify if these predispositions are associated with management factors or breed-specific disorders. PMID:26345205

  19. fMRI activation of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala to cartoon characters but not to faces in a boy with autism.

    PubMed

    Grelotti, David J; Klin, Ami J; Gauthier, Isabel; Skudlarski, Pawel; Cohen, Donald J; Gore, John C; Volkmar, Fred R; Schultz, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal hypoactivation in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus, brain areas that participate in face processing and social cognition, has consistently been demonstrated in persons with autism. We investigated activity in these areas in a boy with autism, DD, who had a special interest in "Digimon" cartoon characters. DD individuates Digimon faster than familiar faces and objects, but he individuates familiar faces no faster than objects. In contrast, a typically developing boy with an interest in "Pokemon" cartoon characters is equally fast at individuating faces and Pokemon and faster at individuating faces and Pokemon than objects and Digimon. In addition, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that DD activates his amygdala and fusiform gyrus for perceptual discriminations involving Digimon but not for those involving familiar or unfamiliar faces. This pattern of activation is not seen in the typically developing control with an interest in Pokemon or in a second comparison case who has autism but no interest in Digimon. These results have important implications for our understanding of autism, cortical face specialization, and the possible role of the amygdala in the development of perceptual expertise. PMID:15707614

  20. Spontaneous rupture of fetal hydronephrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Kosus, A; Kosus, N; Duran, M; Turhan, N

    2011-08-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common congenital anomaly observed with prenatal ultrasonography. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common cause of prenatal hydronephrosis. Spontaneous rupture has been reported in adults with severe hydronephrosis. There is no reported spontaneous rupture case in the fetus in the literature. A spontaneous ureteral rupture due to severe UPJO was reported in this case report. Prenatal ultrasound at 33 week gestation in a 21-year-old pregnant woman, revealed a female fetus with grade IV hydronephrosis of the right kidney, suggestive of a UPJO. During the follow-up at XXXVIII week, 5 cm cystic structure was not observed in right kidney. Mild ectasia was present in pelvicalyciel part which make us think about spontaneous rupture. Ultrasonographic examination after a week post-delivery revealed 15 mm pelvicalyciel ectasia on right side which persisted during the second control after 1 month. Vesicoureteral reflux was not detected during voiding cystourethrogram. Diuretic renography revealed loss of right renal function completely. Because there was not any complain or any clinical sign, surgery was not thought. Spontaneous follow-up was recommended. PMID:21959707

  1. In vitro analysis of localized aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Romo, Aaron; Badel, Pierre; Duprey, Ambroise; Favre, Jean-Pierre; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    In this study, bulge inflation tests were used to characterize the failure response of 15 layers of human ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA). Full field displacement data were collected during each of the mechanical tests using a digital image stereo-correlation (DIS-C) system. Using the collected displacement data, the local stress fields at burst were derived and the thickness evolution was estimated during the inflation tests. It was shown that rupture of the ATAA does not systematically occur at the location of maximum stress, but in a weakened zone of the tissue where the measured fields show strain localization and localized thinning of the wall. Our results are the first to show the existence of weakened zones in the aneurysmal tissue when rupture is imminent. An understanding these local rupture mechanics is necessary to improve clinical assessments of aneurysm rupture risk. Further studies must be performed to determine if these weakened zones can be detected in vivo using non-invasive techniques. PMID:24406100

  2. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David I.; Dean, Nicola R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  3. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.

  4. Active diaphragm rupture with laser beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Torikai, H.; Yang, Q. S.; Watanabe, K.; Sasoh, A.

    We performed shock tube operations with a layer of diaphragm being ruptured by laser beam irradiation. Mylar or Cellophane was examined as the diaphragm material. It has been demonstrated that shock tube can be operated with this new technique. The absorbed energy depends on the material and thickness of the diaphragm and is an important control parameter.

  5. D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-03

    The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

  6. Primary obstructive megaureter with ruptured kidney.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Yang, Den-Kai; Liao, Chun-Hou

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department for severe left flank pain and gross hematuria 1 hour after playing basketball without significant collision. Laboratory tests showed normal renal function and massive hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography scan disclosed a primary megaureter with ruptured kidney. We successfully treated him with ureteral stenting followed by endoscopic ureterotomy and ureteroneocystostomy. PMID:19041564

  7. Pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian C; Kasa, David; Mazer, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    A patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein with a resultant noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography is reported. A review of the existing English literature on this rare complication is also provided. PMID:19561436

  8. Traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Girdwood, Robert W.; Holden, Michael P.; Ionescu, Marian I.

    1972-01-01

    The case report of a patient who sustained a traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery in a motor vehicle accident is presented. The preoperative diagnosis, surgical approach, postoperative management, and indications for angiography in traumatic lesions of the thoracic aorta and great vessels are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. Images PMID:5034604

  9. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eugene; Watson, David I; Dean, Nicola R

    2016-05-01

    Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  10. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data. PMID:23897295

  11. Source rupture process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults rupture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault ruptured before the Yunodake fault rupture. Here, we estimated the source rupture process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The rupture starting point and rupture delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to rupture from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (ΔCFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault rupture in order to evaluate the effect of the rupture on the Yunodake fault. The ΔCFF is positive at the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to rupture; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault rupture was triggered by the Itozawa fault rupture.

  12. A case of ruptured infectious anterior cerebral artery aneurysm treated by interposition graft bypass using the superficial temporal artery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takatsugu; Endo, Hidenori; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Miki; Endo, Toshiki; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Background: To describe the application of an interposition graft bypass using superficial temporal artery (STA) for the treatment of a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infectious aneurysm. Case Description: A 30-year-old male suffered from severe headache with high fever. The patient's diagnosis was ruptured infectious ACA aneurysm at the A3 segment with a maximum diameter of 4.5 mm, caused by infectious endocarditis. The patient was initially treated with high-dose intravenous antibiotics. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed that the fusiform aneurysm had enlarged to a maximum diameter of 14.0 mm. A left paracentral artery, supplying the motor area of the left lower extremity, originated from the body of this aneurysm. Because the angiographic findings suggested a risk of recurrent bleeding, the patient underwent open surgery. Interposition graft bypass using the STA was performed to reconstruct the left A3 segment in an end-to-side manner (left proximal callosomarginal artery – STA graft – left distal pericallosal artery). Then, the origin of the left paracentral artery was cut and anastomosed to the STA graft in an end-to-side manner. The affected parent artery was trapped, and the aneurysm was resected. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no ischemic or hemorrhagic complications, and postoperative DSA revealed the patency of the interposition graft. Pathological diagnosis of the resected aneurysm revealed features corresponding to infectious cerebral aneurysm. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: In the treatment of infectious cerebral aneurysms, revascularization should be considered when the affected artery supplies the eloquent area. Interposition graft bypass using the STA is one of the options for revascularization surgery for the treatment of infectious ACA aneurysms. PMID:26862444

  13. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  14. Rupture dimensions and rupture processes of fluid-induced microcracks in salt rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, T.

    2001-08-01

    We developed and applied a simple empirical Green function method to study induced microcracks observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments in salt rock. Either unidirectional ruptures on rectangular faults or allround ruptures on elliptical faults are tested to explain the observed directivity effects in body-wave amplitude spectra. Mostly, the rectangular rupture model and horizontal fault planes are favored. The average rupture lengths are between 15 and 27 mm, the average rupture durations between 14 and 26 μs. Small average rupture velocities of 30% of the S-wave velocity of the rock are indicated. The dispersive low-frequency coda-waves present in the data look similar to coda-waves observed during other hydraulic fracturing experiments and to long-period events from some volcanoes, which have been explained by the resonance of a fluid-filled crack. The radiation pattern of first motion amplitudes of most events is dominated by a dip-slip double-couple indicating slip on horizontal or vertical planes. We cannot distinguish whether the observed low-frequency coda-waves are influenced by a source effect or by a possible sensor-borehole coupling. However, a simple method using Gauss filter at different center frequencies and relocation is tested to analyze the low-frequency coda-waves in terms of source models.

  15. Simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon with contralateral rupture of the patellar tendon in an otherwise healthy athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, N I; Mbubaegbu, C E

    1996-01-01

    A case of a healthy athlete with simultaneous rupture of quadriceps tendon and rupture of the contralateral patella tendon is reported. Both tendons rupturing in the same patient is rare and this is the first reported case in a previously healthy person. Different mechanisms are implicated in the different ruptures. The rarity is because the simultaneous presence of contributory factors for either injury in the same person is uncommon. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8799608

  16. Rupture Paths in Kappa-Maps: Quantitative Insights on Heterogeneous Earthquake Ruptures From Energy Arguments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampuero, J.; Ripperger, J.; Mai, M.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquake rupture is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. Although heterogeneities of strength and initial stress contribute to this rupture complexity, a systematic approach to quantify their effect has not yet been attempted. For instance, little is known about the relation between the final size of an earthquake and the statistical properties of initial strength excess fields. Canonical cases of dynamic rupture (e.g. uniform initial stress and friction properties), can be characterized by two non-dimensional numbers: the S-parameter (ratio of strength excess to stress drop) and the Kappa-parameter (ratio of static energy release rate to fracture energy, Madariaga and Olsen, 2000). The latter was introduced as a global parameter, involving the fault depth or asperity size as the fundamental scale. However, because faults contain heterogeneities at all scales it is not clear how a single scale-length may be relevant to define Kappa. We define here a scale-dependent Kappa-map, based on classical energy concepts in fracture mechanics. In 2D these maps can be defined exactly, and their efficient computation is implemented as a series of FFT-convolutions, by scaled analytical filters related to stress intensity factor weight functions. For given heterogeneous stress drop and fracture energy, such Kappa-maps are useful to predict nucleation properties and final moment, as we illustrate through increasingly complex examples complemented by dynamic rupture simulations. Other properties that can be derived from the 2D Kappa-maps, with additional assumptions, include radiated energy and rupture directivity. In 3D, the shape of the rupture front is unknown a priori and the energy release rate G might be non-uniform along the front. We therefore propose an approximate definition of Kappa in which G is estimated on circular patches. Comparisons with 3D dynamic rupture simulations on highly heterogeneous initial stress fields show that the final moment can

  17. Dynamic Rupture Processes during Laboratory Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passelègue, F. X.; Schubnel, A.; Nielsen, S. B.; Bhat Suresh, H.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    Since the proposal by Brace and Byerlee [1966] that the mechanism of stick-slip is similar to earthquakes, many experimental studies have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of rupture mechanics. Here, we report the results of macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial laoding (σ1>σ2=σ3) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. Usual a dual gain system, a high frequency monitoring array recorded the microseismicity during stick-slip sequences and the particle accelerations during macroscopic instabilities. While strain, stress and axial shortening were measured until 10 Hz sampling rate, we also recorded for the first time the dynamic stress changes during macroscopic rupture using dynamic strain gages located close to the fault plane (10 MHz sampling rate). We show that increasing the normal stress acting on the fault plane (i) increases the intensity of foreshock activity prior to the main rupture, (ii) increases the friction along the fault plane, (iii) increases the seismic slip, and (iv) induces the transition from sub-Rayleigh to supershear ruptures [Passelègue et al., 2013]. In addition, after demonstrating that our stick-slip instabilities exhibit a purely slip weakening behavior, we estimated the rupture processes parameters including the size of the breakdown zone (R), the slip-weakening distance (Dc), the energy rate (F) and the fracture energy (G). We compare our results with linear elastic fracture mechanics and previous experimental studies. Finally, the dynamic stress drop is almost complete at high normal stresses with dynamic friction drop ranging from 0.4 to 0.6. These results are consistent with the onset of melting, which was confirmed by our post mortem microstructural analysis (XRD, SEM, TEM). These results show that weakening mechanisms are activated after only 80 μm of slip, suggesting

  18. SORD: A New Rupture Dynamics Modeling Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, G.; Minster, B.; Day, S.

    2005-12-01

    We report on our progress in validating our rupture dynamics modeling code, capable of dealing with nonplanar faults and surface topography. The method uses a "mimetic" approach to model spontaneous rupture on a fault within a 3D isotropic anelastic solid, wherein the equations of motion are approximated with a second order Support-Operator method on a logically rectangular mesh. Grid cells are not required to be parallelepipeds, however, so that non-rectangular meshes can be supported to model complex regions. However, for areas in the mesh which are in fact rectangular, the code uses a streamlined version of the algorithm that takes advantage of the simplifications of the operators in such areas. The fault itself is modeled using a double node technique, and the rheology on the fault surface is modeled through a slip-weakening, frictional, internal boundary condition. The Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, was prototyped in MATLAB, and all algorithms have been validated against known (including analytical solutions, eg Kostrov, 1964) solutions or previously validated solutions. This validation effort is conducted in the context of the SCEC Dynamic Rupture model validation effort led by R. Archuleta and R. Harris. Absorbing boundaries at the model edges are handled using the perfectly matched layers method (PML) (Olsen & Marcinkovich, 2003). PML is shown to work extremely well on rectangular meshes. We show that our implementation is also effective on non-rectangular meshes under the restriction that the boundary be planar. For validation of the model we use a variety of test cases using two types of meshes: a rectangular mesh and skewed mesh. The skewed mesh amplifies any biases caused by the Support-Operator method on non-rectangular elements. Wave propagation and absorbing boundaries are tested with a spherical wave source. Rupture dynamics on a planar fault are tested against (1) a Kostrov analytical solution, (2) data from foam rubber scale models

  19. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2-60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of -3 to -4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for an early surgical

  20. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2–60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of −3 to −4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for

  1. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at <2 km/s, however, in detail the spatiotemporal slip distribution also showed a complex rupture propagation pattern: two up-dip rupture propagation episodes, and a secondary rupture episode may have been triggered by the strong high-frequency radiation event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  2. Stopping of earthquake ruptures at dilational fault jogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    1985-07-01

    Palaeoseismic studies over the past several years have indicated that segments of certain major faults tend to rupture at fairly regular intervals in characteristic earthquakes of about the same size1. This implies the presence of local structural controls which govern the nucleation and stopping of ruptures. Understanding rupture arrest is important, not only because it governs the size of characteristic earthquakes, but also because deceleration of ruptures results in the radiation of high-frequency energy leading to strong ground motion2. I show here that rapid opening of linking extensional fracture systems to allow passage of earthquake ruptures through dilational fault jogs in fluid-saturated crusts is opposed by transient suctional forces induced near the rupture tips3. Rupture arrest may then be followed by delayed slip transfer as fluid pressures re-equilibrate by diffusion.

  3. An unusual presentation of recurrent uterine rupture during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shu Qi; Thia, Edwin Wee Hong; Tee, Chee Seng John; Yeo, George Seow Heong

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of recurrent uterine rupture at the site of a previous rupture. Our patient had a history of right interstitial pregnancy with spontaneous uterine fundal rupture at 18 weeks of pregnancy. During her subsequent pregnancy, she was monitored closely by a senior consultant obstetrician. The patient presented at 34 weeks with right hypochondriac pain. She was clinically stable and fetal monitoring showed no signs of fetal distress. Ultrasonography revealed protrusion of the intact amniotic membranes in the abdominal cavity at the uterine fundus. Uterine rupture is a rare but hazardous obstetric complication. High levels of caution should be exercised in patients with a history of prior uterine rupture, as they may present with atypical symptoms. Ultrasonography could provide valuable information in such cases where there is an elevated risk of uterine rupture at the previous rupture site. PMID:26106245

  4. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  5. Recurrent spontaneous scleral rupture in Marfan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Kiranmaye; Senthil, Sirisha; Jalali, Subhadra

    2016-01-01

    The ocular manifestations of Marfan's syndrome (MS) range from ectopia lentis, microspherophakia, myopia, glaucoma and retinal detachment. Spontaneous scleral rupture is a rare complication and recurrent scleral perforation is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a 26-year-old male with MS who had sequential recurrent spontaneous scleral rupture which required surgical repair. He suffered from a similar problem 4 years later in both eyes in a different location, with overlying thin cystic blebs and hypotony maculopathy. Surgical repair with preserved scleral donor patch graft and conjunctival autograft in one eye, and conjunctival advancement in the other eye was performed. This helped stabilise the eyes, and resulted in complete visual recovery in both eyes. PMID:27199441

  6. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  7. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  8. Megakaryocyte rupture for acute platelet needs

    PubMed Central

    Stritt, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Circulating platelets were thought to arise solely from the protrusion and fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Now, Nishimura et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410052) show that platelet release from megakaryocytes can be induced by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) via a new rupture mechanism, which yields higher platelet numbers, occurs independently of the key regulator of megakaryopoiesis thrombopoietin, and may occur during situations of acute platelet need. PMID:25963815

  9. Megakaryocyte rupture for acute platelet needs.

    PubMed

    Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stritt, Simon

    2015-05-11

    Circulating platelets were thought to arise solely from the protrusion and fragmentation of megakaryocyte cytoplasm. Now, Nishimura et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410052) show that platelet release from megakaryocytes can be induced by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) via a new rupture mechanism, which yields higher platelet numbers, occurs independently of the key regulator of megakaryopoiesis thrombopoietin, and may occur during situations of acute platelet need. PMID:25963815

  10. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  11. Functional orthosis post pectoralis muscle rupture.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    This author described her success at fabricating a chest compression orthosis for a patient who underwent repair of a pectoralis major muscle rupture. The repair occurred nine months prior to orthotic fabrication, but the patient continued to experience weakness and pain which limited motion. The design of the orthotic allowed him increased mobility and functional use. - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:26043967

  12. An unusual presentation of bronchial rupture.

    PubMed

    Goktalay, Tugba; Yaldiz, Sadik; Ozgen Alpaydin, Aylin; Goktan, Cihan; Celik, Pinar

    2011-06-01

    Persistent hydropneumothorax was diagnosed in a 62-year-old female with a history of blunt trauma, although she was treated with chest tube and closed underwater seal drainage. Computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings were consistent with "fallen lung" syndrome. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy also found a cavitary lesion at the right tracheobronchial angle. Forceps biopsy of the cavitary lesion indicated bronchogenic carcinoma. Our final diagnosis was tracheobronchial complete rupture and fallen lung syndrome secondary to malignancy. PMID:21333086

  13. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  14. Rupture directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John

    2010-01-01

    We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate rupture direction and rupture velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5≥M≥5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The rupture direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The rupture velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the rupture direction. Rupture velocities are generally subsonic (0.5β–0.9β); for stability, we limit the rupture velocity at v=0.92β, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the rupture direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have rupture directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 rupture partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes rupture updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes rupture predominantly updip. We compare the rupture directions for 10 M≥4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the rupture directivity calculated for the mainshock.

  15. Single Event Gate Rupture in EMCCD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate rupture would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a rupture event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.

  16. Carotid artery rupture and cervicofacial actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Anne; Lhermitte, Benoît; Ödman, Micaela; Grabherr, Silke; Mangin, Patrice; Palmiere, Cristian

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon, progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces are common commensal saprophytes in the oral cavity which may have medical importance as facultative pathogens. Subsequent to local injuries to the oral mucosa, they may penetrate the deep tissues and be responsible for suppurative or granulomatous infections. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a tonsillar carcinoma. An ulcerous lesion in the base of the tongue developed and spread to the carotid artery wall. The man died of a massive hemorrhage due to left carotid artery rupture. Postmortem computed tomography angiography performed prior to autopsy allowed the precise localization of the source of bleeding to be detected. Postmortem biochemical investigations confirmed the presence of inflammation associated with local bacterial infection. Histological investigations revealed the rupture of the left carotid artery surrounded by numerous colonies of Actinomyces. Acute and chronic inflammation with tissue necrosis as well as post-actinic, fibrotic changes were also found in the tissues surrounding the ruptured artery wall. PMID:22819527

  17. Rupture models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving rupture is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance rupture has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to rupture propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.

  18. Ruptured aneurysms of sinuses of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Jugdutt, B. I.; Fraser, R. S.; Rossall, R. E.; Lee, S. J. K.

    1974-01-01

    At least one additional cardiac lesion was present in 18 consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinuses of Valsalva who were investigated between 1956 and 1973 at the University of Alberta Hospital. Clinical diagnosis was made in 78% (14/18) of the patients. Confirmation at cardiac catheterization, operation or autopsy was obtained in all but one. The main sites of rupture were the right ventricle (seven cases), right atrium (five) and left ventricle (five). Fifty percent (9/18) are alive and well following prompt operative repair, an average of 8.2 years later (range, six months to 15 years). Replacement of the aortic valve was associated with a high mortality (50% early, 13% late, total 63%) which could be explained by the higher operative risk in this group of very ill patients. Eight patients (44.4%) had had bacterial endocarditis prior to presentation and this may have played a significant role in the rupture of the sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4278257

  19. Rupture of plasma membrane under tension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Samuel Chun Wei; Yang, Tianyi; Gong, Yingxue; Liao, Kin

    2011-04-29

    We present a study on the rupture behavior of single NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts under tension using micropipette aspiration. Membrane rupture was characterized by breaking and formation of an enclosed membrane linked to a tether at the cell apex. Three different rupture modes, namely: single break, initial multiple breaks, and continuous multiple breaks, were observed under similar loading condition. The measured mean tensile strengths of plasma membrane were 3.83 ± 1.94 and 3.98 ± 1.54mN/m for control cells and cells labeled with TubulinTracker, respectively. The tensile strength data was described by Weibull distribution. For the control cells, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 1.86 and 4.40 mN/m, respectively; for cells labeled with TubulinTracker, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 2.68 and 4.48 mN/m, respectively. Based on the experimental data, the estimated average transmembrane proteins-lipid cleavage strength was 2.64 ± 0.64 mN/m. From the random sampling of volume ratio of transmembrane proteins in cell membrane, we concluded that the Weibull characteristic of plasma membrane strength was likely to be originated from the variation in transmembrane proteins-lipid interactions. PMID:21288526

  20. [Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Glock, Y; Roux, D; Soula, P; Cerene, A; Fournial, G

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 50 postraumatic aortic rupture (1968-1996, 39 males, mean age: 34.5). Group A is composed of 35 patients with an acute aortic rupture and a prompt diagnosis. Group B includes 13 patients with a chronic rupture. All patients from group A had a severe politraumatism with abdominal, cranial, extremities or hip fractures. Mediastinal thickening with or without hemothorax indicated an angiography or a transesophageal echocardiography lately. In group A, 36 patients have been operated on urgently (12-24 hours); cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 20 patients; an aorto-aortical bypass was done in 27 cases and a direct suture in the remaining 9. In group B, cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 9 patients; a aorto-aortical bypass was done in 11 cases and a direct suture in 2. Overall hospital mortality was 16%; 19% in group A and 7.6% in group B. Ischemic paraplejia appeared in 5 patients (10%), all from group A. No false aneurysm developed after 4.5 years of follow-up (3-135 months) in the 38 survivors. The usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography, the importance of medular protection and the utility of several interventionist radiologic techniques are discussed. PMID:9053930

  1. Intersonic and Supersonic ruptures in a model of dynamic rupture in a layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Elbanna, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The velocity structure in the lithosphere is quite complex and is rarely homogeneous. Wave reflection, transmission, and diffraction from the boundaries of the different layers and inclusions are expected to lead to a rich dynamic response and significantly affect rupture propagation on embedded faults. Here, we report our work on modeling dynamic rupture in an elastic domain with an embedded soft (stiff) layer as a first step towards modeling rupture propagation in realistic velocity structures. We use the Finite Element method (Pylith) to simulate rupture on a 2D in-plane fault embedded in an elastic full space. The simulated domain is 30 km wide and 100km long. Absorbing boundary conditions are used around the edges of the domain to simulate an infinite extension in all directions. The fault operates under linear slip-weakening friction law. We initiate the rupture by artificially overstressing a localized region near the left edge of the fault. We consider embedded soft/stiff layers with 20% to 60% reduction/increase of wave velocity respectively. The embedded layers are placed at different distances from the fault surface. We observed that the existence of a soft layer significantly shortens the transition length to supershear propagation through the Burridge-Andrews mechanism. The higher the material contrast, the shorter the transition length to supershear propagation becomes. We also observe that supershear rupture could be generated at pretress values that are lower than what is theoretically predicted for a homogeneous medium. We find that the distance from the lower boundary of the soft layer to the fault surface has a stronger influence on the supershear transition length as opposed to the thickness of the soft layer. In the existence of an embedded stiffer layer we found that rupture could propagate faster than the fault zone P-wave speed. In this case, the propagating rupture generate two Mach cones; one is associated with the shear wave, and the

  2. [Simultaneous determination of ten phytohormones in five parts of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Jilin; Zheng, Liyang; Li, Min; Yan, Xiaojun; Luo, Qijun

    2014-08-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of indole-3-acetic acid, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenosine, N6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine, trans-zeatin riboside, zeatin, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, gibberellin A3 and jasmonic acid in five different parts of main branch, lateral branch, primary leaf, secondary leaf and stem of Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell was established by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-TQMS). The samples were extracted with methanol/water/formic acid (15 : 4 :1, v/v/v) (containing 0.5% 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT) after vacuum freeze-drying. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column by using methanol and water as mobile phases with gradient elution. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for the quantitative analysis in the positive mode or negative mode. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) of the ten phytohormones were from 0. 9989 to 1. 0000 in the linear ranges. The detection limits of the ten phytohormones were 0. 001 2-4. 651 2 μ/L. The average recoveries were 72. 24% -91. 31% with the relative standard deviations not more than 6. 59%. In the five parts of fresh Sargasum fusiforme (Hary.) Seichell samples, the contents of the ten phytohormones were from not detected to 4 041. 431 ng/g. This method has good sensitivity, precision, recovery, and can be used to simultaneously determine the phytohormones. PMID:25434123

  3. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. PMID:26178527

  4. Coupling geodynamic earthquake cycles and dynamic ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Heuret, Arnauld

    2016-04-01

    Studying the seismicity in a subduction zone and its effects on tsunamis requires diverse modelling methods that span spatial and temporal scales. Hundreds of years are necessary to build the stresses and strengths on a fault, while consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over periods of seconds up to minutes. This dynamic rupture displaces the sea floor, thereby causing tsunamis. The aim of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulations of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project is to study all these aspects and their interactions. Here, we present preliminary results of the first aspects in this modelling chain: the coupling of a seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) code to the dynamic rupture model SeisSol. STM models of earthquake cycles have the advantage of solving multiple earthquake events in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and geometry. However, the drawback of these models is that they often lack in spatial or temporal resolution and do not include wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for frictional failure coupled to seismic wave propagation. We use the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org) based on an ADER-DG discretization allowing high-order accuracy in space and time as well as flexible tetrahedral meshing. However, such simulations require assumptions on the initial fault stresses and strengths and its geometry, which are hard to constrain due to the lack of near-field observations and the complexity of coseismic conditions. By adapting the geometry as well as the stress and strength properties of the self-consistently developing non-finite fault zones from the geodynamic models as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture models, the advantages of both methods are exploited and modelling results may be compared. Our results show that a dynamic rupture can be triggered spontaneously and that the propagating rupture is

  5. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture associated with statin use.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Marie C; Singh, Vinay K

    2016-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is an uncommon clinical presentation, which generally affects the under 40s who are active in sport. Bilateral rupture of both tendons is much rarer. It occurs most frequently in patients with predisposing factors such as corticosteroid use or systemic diseases. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old male on long-term statin therapy who sustained this injury following a fall on ice. He had no known risk factors for tendon rupture. Surgical treatment involved tendon repair using Krakow suture via bony tunnels in the patella. Statins have previously been associated with tendon ruptures at other sites but there have been no published cases of bilateral patellar tendon rupture linked to statin use. We review the literature regarding the association between statins and tendon rupture. PMID:27165749

  6. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture associated with statin use

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Marie C.; Singh, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is an uncommon clinical presentation, which generally affects the under 40s who are active in sport. Bilateral rupture of both tendons is much rarer. It occurs most frequently in patients with predisposing factors such as corticosteroid use or systemic diseases. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old male on long-term statin therapy who sustained this injury following a fall on ice. He had no known risk factors for tendon rupture. Surgical treatment involved tendon repair using Krakow suture via bony tunnels in the patella. Statins have previously been associated with tendon ruptures at other sites but there have been no published cases of bilateral patellar tendon rupture linked to statin use. We review the literature regarding the association between statins and tendon rupture. PMID:27165749

  7. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-01-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management. PMID:26557563

  8. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Wagaskar, Vinayak G; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-10-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management. PMID:26557563

  9. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  10. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

  11. Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

    2014-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

  12. Dynamic stress changes during earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the rupture front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the rupture front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the rupture front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.

  13. Kinetics of hole nucleation in biomembrane rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Evan; Smith, Benjamin A.

    2011-09-01

    The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause rupture. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, rupturing giant (~20 μm) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from <0.01 to >100 s-1. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipette suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with an increase in tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from rupture experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the process of hole

  14. Vascular changes in the ruptured Achilles tendon and paratenon.

    PubMed

    Kvist, M; Józsa, L; Järvinen, M

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients with ruptures of the Achilles tendon were studied. There were 21 men and 9 women with an average age of 36 years. Specimens from the tendon and paratenon in 24 were examined histologically. Tissue samples of 20 were studied by electron microscopy. Marked degenerative, obliterative and/or inflammatory vascular changes were found in all the ruptured tendons and their paratenon. Our findings indicate that poor vascularity play a role in the aetiology of rupture of the Achilles tendon. PMID:1473893

  15. Cohesive Zone Length of Gabbro at Supershear Rupture Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain data was obtained during large-scale biaxial friction experiments conducted at NIED in March 2013. We conducted friction experiments using a pair of meter-scale gabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5m x 0.1m. We applied 2.6MPa normal stress and loading velocity of 0.1mm/s. At the long side of the fault edge, which is parallel to the slip direction, 32 2-component semi-conductor strain gauges were installed at an interval of 50mm and 10mm off the fault. The data are conditioned by high frequency strain amplifiers (<0.5MHz) and continuously recorded at an interval of 1MHz with 16-bit resolution. Many stick slip events were observed and a unilateral rupture event was chosen in this analysis that propagated with supershear rupture velocity. One of the reasons for this selection was that the strain field ahead of the supershear rupture was not contaminated by elastic waves. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the rupture. We found that the stress concentration becomes mild as the rupture propagates and length of the stress concentration area becomes longer. This observation is quite interesting because in this experiment the rupture propagated at a constant speed close to root two times the shear wave velocity and thus a longer stress concentration region suggests more energy dissipation. We could speculate that such longer stress concentration area suggests longer plastic region ahead of the rupture (or longer cohesive distance). I.e. the cohesive zone length becomes longer as the rupture propagates to maintain constant rupture velocity propagation. We empirically obtained the relation Lc = 1.8x10^-5 L for 0.1ruptured length.

  16. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  17. Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa

    2008-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is a rare type of uterine malformation associated with obstetrical complications. Rupture of pregnant rudimentary horn is the usual presentation resulting in severe haemoperitoneum with increased maternal morbidity, and at times, mortality. A case of ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in a 24-year-old, second gravida, is reported. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy of 14 weeks gestation with haemoperitoneum. Excision of the rudimentary horn was done and an uneventful recovery followed. PMID:18452672

  18. Experimental observation of ruptures propagating on heterogeneous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, M.; Latour, S.; Voisin, C.; Catheline, S.; Renard, F.; Larose, E. F.

    2013-12-01

    We present experimental observations of a propagating rupture interacting with one or several mechanical heterogeneities. We developed a friction laboratory experiment where a soft elastic solid slides past a rigid flat plate. The system is coupled to an original medical imaging technique, ultrasound speckle interferometry, that allows observing the rupture dynamics along the interface as well as the emitted elastic shear wavefield into the solid body. We compare the dynamics of propagating rupture for an homogeneous flat interface and for three cases of heterogeneous sliding surfaces: 1) an interface with a single point-like barrier made of a small rock pebble, 2) an interface with a single linear barrier that joins the edges of the faults in a direction perpendicular to slip 3) an interface with multiple barriers disposed on half of its surface area, creating an heterogeneous zone. We obtain experimental observations of dynamic effects that have been predicted by numerical dynamic rupture simulations and provide experimental observations of the following phenomena: a barrier can stop or delay the rupture propagation; a linear single barrier can change the rupture velocity, increasing or decreasing it; we observe transition from subshear to supershear propagation due to the linear barrier; a large heterogeneous area slows down the rupture propagation. We observe a strong variability of the rupture dynamics occurring for identical frictional conditions, that we impute to memory effects caused by the heterogeneity of the stress field due to both the loading conditions and the remaining stress field due to previous rupture events. These experiments therefore confirm previously reported numerical simulations of ruptures along heterogeneous interfaces. When comparing with natural observations or earthquake ruptures, our data provide some phenomenological insights to explain the complexity of the rupture history inferred from the pattern of seismic radiations.

  19. A rare case of adductor longus muscle rupture.

    PubMed

    van de Kimmenade, R J L L; van Bergen, C J A; van Deurzen, P J E; Verhagen, R A W

    2015-01-01

    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  20. Anisotropy in rupture lines of paper sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes-Sobrinho, I. L.; Couto, M. S.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.

    2005-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the rupture lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation.

  1. Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and rupture complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that rupture complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of rupture complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a

  2. Anisotropy in rupture lines of paper sheets.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Sobrinho, I L; Couto, M S; Ribeiro, I R B

    2005-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the rupture lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation. PMID:16089834

  3. Blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, with intrapericardial rupture of the diaphragm: successful surgical repair.

    PubMed

    Le Treut, Y P; Herve, L; Cardon, J M; Boutboul, R; Bricot, R

    1981-07-01

    The authors report a case of chest injury causing rupture of the right ventricle and diaphragm, discovered during laparotomy for haemoperitoneum. This type of injury to the heart has rarely been cited in the literature since survival rates are low and the diagnosis often overlooked. PMID:7319634

  4. Tendon rupture associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy.

    PubMed

    Pullatt, Raja C; Gadarla, Mamatha Reddy; Karas, Richard H; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Thompson, Paul D

    2007-07-01

    A case of spontaneous biceps tendon rupture in a physician during therapy with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe (Vytorin) is reported. Rechallenge produced tendinopathy in the contralateral biceps tendon that abated with drug discontinuation. Tendon rupture generally occurs in injured tendons. Physiological repair of an injured tendon requires degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Statins are known to inhibit MMPs. It was hypothesized that statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity. In conclusion, statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity. PMID:17599460

  5. Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii in wakeboarders.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Swanson, Britta L; Bannar, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    Closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii is a rare injury. In this report, two cases of closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii after wakeboard traumas are described. Both patients presented with a swollen arm, weakness during flexion, and a mass in the affected forearm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed displacement of the biceps brachii into the forearm. The rupture was successfully treated with muscle removal in one case and muscle repair in the other. In patients with a wakeboard trauma and similar presentations, closed proximal muscle rupture of the biceps brachii should be suspected. PMID:21877295

  6. [Right atrium rupture due to blunt trauma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Thuboi, H; Okada, H

    2008-03-01

    We report 2 cases of surgical treatment of blunt cardiac trauma. The postoperative course was uneventful in either case. Pericardial drainage in patients with cardiac rupture should be performed with preparation for thoracotomy. Case 1: A 34-year-old male, hit in the chest by a collapsing 700-kg steel rod, was transported to our hospital via ambulance. The patient was diagnosed as having a cardiac rupture by echocardiography and underwent emergency thoracotomy. The right atrium near the inferior vena cava (IVC) was damaged, though bleeding from the wound had already ceased. No suture hemostusis was needed. Case 2: A 63-year-old female was hit by a car and transported to our hospital due to blunt trauma to the chest. Low blood pressure and chest computed tomography demonstrated cardiac tamponade, and subxiphoid pericardial drainage was performed. Blood pressure was recovered, but persistent hemorrhage necessitated emergency thoracotomy, which revealed a laceration at the right atrium near IVC. The injury was sutured to achieve complete hemostasis. PMID:18323181

  7. The repetition of large-earthquake ruptures.

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, K

    1996-01-01

    This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a "characteristic" behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:11607662

  8. Probability of rupture of multiple fault segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.; Schwerer, E.

    2000-01-01

    Fault segments identified from geologic and historic evidence have sometimes been adopted as features limiting the likely extends of earthquake ruptures. There is no doubt that individual segments can sometimes join together to produce larger earthquakes. This work is a trial of an objective method to determine the probability of multisegment ruptures. The frequency of occurrence of events on all conjectured combinations of adjacent segments in northern California is found by fitting to both geologic slip rates and to an assumed distribution of event sizes for the region as a whole. Uncertainty in the shape of the distribution near the maximum magnitude has a large effect on the solution. Frequencies of individual events cannot be determined, but it is possible to find a set of frequencies to fit a model closely. A robust conclusion for the San Francisco Bay region is that large multisegment events occur on the San Andreas and San Gregorio faults, but single-segment events predominate on the extended Hayward and Calaveras strands of segments.

  9. How is a stick slip rupture initiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic rupture started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic rupture initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain

  10. [Therapeutic strategies for postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture].

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Toshiya; Shimokawa, T; Ida, T; Kasegawa, H; Tobaru, T; Sumiyoshi, T

    2005-04-01

    We treated 93 patients who developed left ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction. Medical management including pericardial drainage was performed in 78 patients (84%), but 67 of them died. All 11 surviving patients showed an oozing type rupture. Surgical repair was performed in 15 patients (16%). As a result, 9 patients died and 6 survived. All but 1 of the patients who died presented with a blow-out rupture. Blow-out type rupture occurred in 3 and oozing type rupture in 3 of the surviving patients. One patient with blow-out type rupture underwent implantation of a left ventricular assist device following percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), because of low output syndrome after the operation. The device was successfully removed 7 days after implantation. In all of the 3 patients with oozing type rupture, sutureless technique was successfully performed using fibrin-glue or fibrin-glue sheet fixation. After a mean follow-up period of 7 years after operation, 5 of 6 are still alive. To improve the clinical outcome of left ventricular free wall rupture, it is important for surgeons to closely liaise with physicians, to perform surgical repair as soon as possible, and to utilize a circulatory support system after operation. Therefore, we developed a new PCPS system compatible with emergency cardiac surgery and a new left ventricular assist system draining via the left ventricle. PMID:15828243

  11. An Epigastric Heteropagus Twin with Ruptured Giant Omphalocele

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Sajid Hameed; Iqbal, Javaid; Latif, Tariq; Iqbal, Asif

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of heteropagus twins attached to the epigastric region. The neonate also had ruptured giant omphalocoele with most of gut and liver lying outside the abdominal cavity. Patient had uneventful surgery for separation of twins and repair of ruptured omphalocoele. PMID:26023494

  12. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  13. Ruptured bicornuate uterus mimicking ectopic pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Singh, Uma; Verma, Manju Lata

    2013-01-01

    Ruptured uterus presenting in first trimester of pregnancy is extremely uncommon and should raise the suspicion of uterine malformations. We report a case of a 24-year-old primigravida with 10 weeks of gestation presenting with acute abdomen and hemoperitoneum. Laparotomy revealed bicornuate uterus with ruptured rudimentary horn. The incidence, diagnosis and management of such cases is discussed. PMID:22691311

  14. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture while playing basketball.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Jooma, N

    2002-04-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome. PMID:11916903

  15. Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fortems, Y; Mawhinney, I; Lawrence, T; Trial, I A; Stanley, J K

    1995-06-01

    The first cases of impending rupture of the extensor pollicis longus after wrist arthroscopy are reported and the etiology is compared with extensor pollicis longus ruptures after nondisplaced or minimally displaced Colles fractures. Both cases were treated with extensor indices proprius to extensor pollicis longus transfer with good clinical results. PMID:7632309

  16. The Resolution of Ruptures in the Therapeutic Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Jeremy D.; Muran, J. Christopher

    1996-01-01

    A rupture in the therapeutic alliance is a deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist; it is an interpersonal marker that indicates an opportunity for exploring and understanding the processes that maintain a maladaptive interpersonal schema. Outlines features of a research program on ruptures in the therapeutic…

  17. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-01-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  18. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  19. A Three Year Clinicopathological Study of Cases of Rupture Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Swain, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rupture uterus is a life threatening obstetric complication with serious maternal and fetal side-effects. We report a 3 year (2010-2013) retrospective clinical study of pregnancy with rupture uterus cases attending a tertiary care hospital. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of rupture uterus, incidence as per age, parity, clinical presentations, risk factors, complications and management. Materials and Methods Retrospective data of 74 cases of rupture uterus in SCB Medical college, Cuttack was collected from case records of 26,547 deliveries during a 3 year span (2010-2013). Parameters like cause of rupture, type, site of rupture and outcome were recorded. The collected data was analysed by SPSS software v19. Results Out of 26,547 deliveries during the three year period, there were 74 cases of rupture uterus with an incidence of rupture 1 in 359 (0.28%). The mean age of rupture uterus was 27.4 years. 95.8% were multigravida and majority were referred cases from low socioeconomic status. Only 40.5% had the required minimum of four antenatal visits as recommended by WHO (World Health Organisation). A total of 48.6% of cases with rupture uterus had history of previous Caesarean section. Prolonged labour was present in 75.6% of the cases. Only 12.2% of the cases had history of oxytocin use whereas 9.5% had undergone an operative vaginal delivery. Obstructed labour was the cause in 24.3% of cases, 85.1% had complete rupture. Majority had a rupture in the anterior wall (69%) and 81.1% had rupture in lower segment of uterus. Only 17.6% had broad ligament haematoma, 10.8% colporrhexis and 6.8% had associated bladder injury. Repair was possible in only 39.2% of cases, whereas majority landed up in hysterectomy. Internal iliac ligation was done in 2.7% of cases. Perinatal mortality was 90.5% whereas maternal death was seen in 13.5% cases. One patient developed VVF (vesicovaginal fistula). Duration of hospital stay was upto 14 days in 81

  20. Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

  1. Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is rupture behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake rupture propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake rupture propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake rupture propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. [Missed traumatic diaphragmatic rupture--a legal insurance problem].

    PubMed

    Fabian, W; Reimer, H

    1991-08-01

    Even nowadays traumatic ruptures of the diaphragm cause diagnostic difficulties. Especially diaphragmatic ruptures of the so-called "late-type" are accompanied by uncharacteristic abdominal or cardio-respiratory complaints. These complaints depend on the type and the volume of the prolapsed organs. By hearing the classic previous history and symptoms the expert has to consider the diagnosis. Beside the previous history, the clinical evidents, the thoracic as well as the abdominal survey radiography, further informations can be given by Gastrointestinal passage with Gastrographin, by Colon contrast fluid enema and by abdominal CT. If there are no general contraindications, diaphragmatic ruptures have to be treated by surgery. There after patients are usually without complaints. Insurance-law-problems are unnecessarily created by "not identifying" fresh diaphragmatic ruptures and by "not considering" the possibility of "late-type" ruptures. PMID:1949474

  3. Management of distal biceps and triceps ruptures.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Susan M; Jander, Ryan M; Culp, Randall W

    2006-01-01

    The management of distal biceps and triceps ruptures is reviewed. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, surgical management, nonoperative management, and rehabilitation rationale and techniques are presented. Although various surgical repair techniques are used, none has been shown to produce superior clinical outcomes. The literature is lacking information to provide evidence-based decisions regarding rehabilitation strategies. Prospective studies comparing types and timing of repairs and timing and techniques for a postoperative program are needed. As that information is not yet available, the rehabilitation plan outlined in this article is based on timetables for healing tissue, strength of repair, prevention of complications, consideration of patient's medical history and injury history, and review of the literature. Familiarity with the different treatment options assists the surgeon and therapist tailor a therapy program that is optimal for each individual patient. PMID:16713863

  4. Endovascular approach for ruptured abdominal aortic aneursyms.

    PubMed

    Setacci, F; Sirignano, P; De Donato, G; Chisci, E; Galzerano, G; Cappelli, A; Palasciano, G; Setacci, C

    2010-06-01

    The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) causes about 15000 deaths/year in the USA alone. Even though over the last 50 years progress in surgical techniques and in postoperative intensive care have been outstanding, the analysis of registries has shown either no decrease in the mortality rate for surgically treated rAAAs. Some reports asserted better out come for endovascular repair (EVAR) compared with surgery in case of rAAA. Despite this evidence, EVAR for rAAA remains prerogative of few centers worldwide. In conclusion only larger study or registry could assest the real role of EVAR in the management of rAAA. PMID:20523280

  5. Can Severe Kyphoscoliosis Lead to Aorta Rupture?

    PubMed

    Kotopoulos, Constantinos; Karakasi, Maria Valeria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a polysystemic disease presenting with a multifaceted clinical picture. Clinical manifestations may present in the skin, as well as in the skeletal and cardiovascular system. The present study aims to describe and examine the case of a 46-year-old woman, who suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 and died abruptly in the emergency room. The forensic examination attributed her death to traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta resulting from an acute angulation that her vertebral column formed in the thoracic region (severe kyphosis). Outspread cutaneous neurofibromas, severe scoliosis, and osteoporosis (brittle bones) were observed during the autopsy. No atherosclerotic lesions were detected in the aortic lumen. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported throughout relevant literature. PMID:27323279

  6. Unresponsive primipara after rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Johanna; Berset, Andreas; Lehmann, Michael A; Lapaire, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism, also called anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy, is a rare but severe problem in obstetrics. It occurs in 8/100,000 births and the maternal mortality is up to 90%. We report the case of a patient with amniotic fluid embolism who was transferred to our hospital. The initial presentation was an unresponsive patient after spontaneous rupture of the membranes. The massive hypotension and coagulopathy as well as fetal bradycardia of 60 bpm led, after stabilisation of the mother, to an emergency caesarean section. The neonate expired hours later, despite neonatological intensive care. During the operation, we had to deal with massive bleeding due to the coagulopathy. Through interdisciplinary teamwork including Bakri postpartum balloon insertion through the obstetrics team, uterine artery embolism by the interventional radiologists and transfusion of blood products, the maternal life was saved and the patient was discharged 9 days after admission. PMID:25883261

  7. Bacterial DNA findings in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Pyysalo, Mikko J; Pyysalo, Liisa M; Pessi, Tanja; Karhunen, Pekka J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; Öhman, Juha E

    2016-05-01

    Objective Chronic inflammation has earlier been detected in ruptured intracranial aneurysms. A previous study detected both dental bacterial DNA and bacterial-driven inflammation in ruptured intracranial aneurysm walls. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of oral and pharyngeal bacterial DNA in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The hypothesis was that oral bacterial DNA findings would be more common and the amount of bacterial DNA would be higher in ruptured aneurysm walls than in unruptured aneurysm walls. Materials and methods A total of 70 ruptured (n = 42) and unruptured (n = 28) intracranial aneurysm specimens were obtained perioperatively in aneurysm clipping operations. Aneurysmal sac tissue was analysed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect bacterial DNA from several oral species. Both histologically non-atherosclerotic healthy vessel wall obtained from cardiac by-pass operations (LITA) and arterial blood samples obtained from each aneurysm patient were used as control samples. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in 49/70 (70%) of the specimens. A total of 29/42 (69%) of the ruptured and 20/28 (71%) of the unruptured aneurysm samples contained bacterial DNA of oral origin. Both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm tissue samples contained significantly more bacterial DNA than the LITA control samples (p-values 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the amount of bacterial DNA between the ruptured and unruptured samples. Conclusion Dental bacterial DNA can be found using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in both ruptured and unruptured aneurysm walls, suggesting that bacterial DNA plays a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms in general, rather than only in ruptured aneurysms. PMID:26777430

  8. [Tendinosis and ruptures of the Achilles tendon].

    PubMed

    Amlang, M H; Zwipp, H

    2012-02-01

    Tendinosis of the Achilles tendon is a degenerative-reparative structural change of the tendon with microdefects, increases in cross-section due to cicatricial tendon regeneration, neoangiogenesis and reduction of elasticity. The previously used term tendinitis is only rarely used for the chronic form since signs of inflammation such as redness and hyperthermia or elevated levels of inflammatory parameters on laboratory testing are generally absent. Duplex sonography with visualization of the neovascularization has become a valuable supplement not only for diagnostics but also for therapy planning. The classic, conservative therapy for painful tendinosis consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs, pain-adapted load reduction, raising the heel, stretching the calf musculature, and various physiotherapeutic interventions. When conservative treatment over a period of 4 - 6 months fails to produce any or non-adequate pain relief, an indication for surgical treatment should be considered. In the therapy for fresh ruptures of the Achilles tendon further developments in minimally invasive techniques have led to a worldwide paradigm change over the past 10 years. The decisive advantage of minimally invasive surgical techniques is the lower risk of wound infection as compared to the sutures of the open technique. When compared with conservative functional therapy the minimally invasive repair has the advantage of being less dependent on the compliance of the patient since, in the early phase of tendon healing the suture prevents a separation of the tendon ends upon controlled movements. However, not every patient with a ruptured Achilles tendon should be treated with a minimally invasive repair. Open tendon reconstruction and functional conservative therapy are still justified when the correct indication is given. PMID:22344862

  9. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  10. Stimulus Value Signals in Ventromedial PFC Reflect the Integration of Attribute Value Signals Computed in Fusiform Gyrus and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; O'Doherty, John P.

    2013-01-01

    We often have to make choices among multiattribute stimuli (e.g., a food that differs on its taste and health). Behavioral data suggest that choices are made by computing the value of the different attributes and then integrating them into an overall stimulus value signal. However, it is not known whether this theory describes the way the brain computes the stimulus value signals, or how the underlying computations might be implemented. We investigated these questions using a human fMRI task in which individuals had to evaluate T-shirts that varied in their visual esthetic (e.g., color) and semantic (e.g., meaning of logo printed in T-shirt) components. We found that activity in the fusiform gyrus, an area associated with the processing of visual features, correlated with the value of the visual esthetic attributes, but not with the value of the semantic attributes. In contrast, activity in posterior superior temporal gyrus, an area associated with the processing of semantic meaning, exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, both areas exhibited functional connectivity with an area of ventromedial prefrontal cortex that reflects the computation of overall stimulus values at the time of decision. The results provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis that some attribute values are computed in cortical areas specialized in the processing of such features, and that those attribute-specific values are then passed to the vmPFC to be integrated into an overall stimulus value signal to guide the decision. PMID:23678116

  11. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. PMID:22807338

  12. Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis without rupture in a pure spinal epidural cavernous angioma: a rare cause of acute lumbal radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Floeth, Frank; Riemenschneider, Markus; Herdmann, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    Pure spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare lesions, and their normal shape is that of a fusiform mass in the dorsal aspects of the spinal canal. We report a case of a lumbo-sacral epidural cavernous vascular malformation presenting with acute onset of right-sided S1 radiculopathy. Clinical aspects, imaging, intraoperative findings, and histology are demonstrated. The patient, a 27-year-old man presented with acute onset of pain, paraesthesia, and numbness within the right leg corresponding to the S1 segment. An acute lumbosacral disc herniation was suspected, but MRI revealed a cystic lesion with the shape of a balloon, a fluid level and a thickened contrast-enhancing wall. Intraoperatively, a purple-blue tumor with fibrous adhesions was located between the right S1 and S2 nerve roots. Macroscopically, no signs of epidural bleedings could be denoted. After coagulation of a reticular venous feeder network and dissection of the adhesions the rubber ball-like lesion was resected in total. Histology revealed a prominent venous vessel with a pathologically thickened, amuscular wall surrounded by smaller, hyalinized, venous vessels arranged in a back-to-back position typical for the diagnosis of a cavernous angioma. Lumina were partially occluded by thrombi. The surrounding fibrotic tissue showed signs of recurrent bleedings. There was no obvious mass hemorrhage into the surrounding tissue. In this unique case, the pathologic mechanism was not the usual rupture of the cavernous angioma with subsequent intraspinal hemorrhage, but acute mass effect by intralesional bleedings and thrombosis with subsequent increase of volume leading to nerve root compression. Thus, even without a sudden intraspinal hemorrhage a spinal cavernous malformation can cause acute symptoms identical to the clinical features of a soft disc herniation. PMID:20213297

  13. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  14. Gastric rupture in horses: 50 cases (1979-1987).

    PubMed

    Kiper, M L; Traub-Dargatz, J; Curtis, C R

    1990-01-15

    A computer-based search was conducted of medical and necropsy records of horses admitted to the teaching hospital from Jan 1, 1979, to Dec 31, 1987, to obtain the records of all horses admitted to the hospital for colic and subsequently found to have gastric rupture. Fifty cases of gastric rupture were found. The records were reviewed to obtain data regarding peritoneal fluid analysis. Cell counts of these samples were often erroneous because debris and clumps of bacteria were counted when most WBC were lysed. A cross-sectional study of gastric rupture cases versus all other colic cases regarding season of admission revealed that there was no association between season and the occurrence of gastric rupture. There was also no increased risk associated with age, gender, breed, and the occurrence of gastric rupture. One hundred colic cases, matched with the gastric rupture cases by year of admission, were randomly selected via a table of random numbers. A questionnaire regarding age, breed, gender, use of the horse, housing, diet, water source, deworming schedule, and medical history was completed from the medical records and phone conversations with the horse owners. The results indicated that horses on a diet of grass hay or grass/alfalfa hay only or those that drank water from a bucket, stream, or pond were at increased risk for having gastric rupture. In contrast, horses fed grain had a reduced risk. PMID:2298661

  15. Perianeurysmal edema as a predictive sign of aneurysmal rupture.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Fortes Diniz; de Macedo, Leonardo Lopes; Brock, Roger Schmidt; de Souza, Valéria Cardoso

    2014-11-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracranial aneurysmal rupture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors may affect the probability of rupture, such as tobacco and alcohol use; size, shape, and location of the aneurysm; presence of intraluminal thrombus; and even the sex of the patient. However, few data correlate such findings with the timing of aneurysmal rupture. The authors report 2 cases of middle-age women with headache and MRI findings of incidental aneurysms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of surrounding parenchymal edema, and in one case there was a clear increase in edema during follow-up, suggesting a progressive inflammatory process that culminated with rupture. These findings raise the possibility that bleb formation and an enlargement of a cerebral aneurysm might be associated with an inflammatory reaction of the aneurysm wall resulting in perianeurysmal edema and subsequent aneurysmal rupture. There may be a temporal link between higher degree of edema and higher risk for rupture, including risk for immediate rupture. PMID:25036206

  16. Patient specific stress and rupture analysis of ascending thoracic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Davis, Frances M; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F; Duprey, Ambroise; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-07-16

    An ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is a serious medical condition which, more often than not, requires surgery. Aneurysm diameter is the primary clinical criterion for determining when surgical intervention is necessary but, biomechanical studies have suggested that the diameter criterion is insufficient. This manuscript presents a method for obtaining the patient specific wall stress distribution of the ATAA and the retrospective rupture risk for each patient. Five human ATAAs and the preoperative dynamic CT scans were obtained during elective surgeries to replace each patient's aneurysm with a synthetic graft. The material properties and rupture stress for each tissue sample were identified using bulge inflation tests. The dynamic CT scans were used to generate patient specific geometries for a finite element (FE) model of each patient's aneurysm. The material properties from the bulge inflation tests were implemented in the FE model and the wall stress distribution at four different pressures was estimated. Three different rupture risk assessments were compared: the maximum diameter, the rupture risk index, and the overpressure index. The peak wall stress values for the patients ranged from 28% to 94% of the ATAA's failure stress. The rupture risk and overpressure indices were both only weakly correlated with diameter (ρ=-0.29, both cases). In the future, we plan to conduct a large experimental and computational study that includes asymptomatic patients under surveillance, patients undergoing elective surgery, and patients who have experienced rupture or dissection to determine if the rupture risk index or maximum diameter can meaningfully differentiate between the groups. PMID:25979384

  17. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. A 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R

    1990-12-01

    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial rupture (13[40.6%]), left atrial rupture (8 [25%]), right ventricular rupture (10[31.3%]), left ventricular rupture (4[12.5%]), and rupture of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with rupture of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular rupture died. The mortality rate from myocardial rupture is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761

  18. Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {τij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ρkk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ≠ k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a

  19. Ruptured ileocolic artery aneurysm: an unusual cause of hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R; Yousif, Omer F; Halliday, Mark W; Hubaishah, Nasser A; Adam, Khalid A

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  20. Ruptured Ileocolic Artery Aneurysm: An Unusual Cause of Hemoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R.; Yousif, Omer F.; Halliday, Mark W.; Hubaishah, Nasser A.; Adam, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  1. Rupture of the triceps tendon - A case series.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Atin; Kacchap, Naiman-Deep; Tanwar, Yashwant-Singh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Birendra

    2016-08-01

    Triceps rupture is the least common among all tendon injuries. The usual mechanism of injury is a fall on an outstretched hand, although direct contact injuries have also been reported to cause this injury. The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed, which can result in prolonged disability and delayed operative management. We presented three cases of acute triceps tendon rupture each at different site showing the spectrum of injury to the muscle and mechanism of injury and management were also discussed. PMID:27578383

  2. Infective splenic rupture presenting with symptoms of a pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Muquit, S; Azam, B

    2008-12-01

    Splenic rupture following infectious mononucleosis is rare. The case history is presented of a man who presented with sudden onset pleuritic left chest pain. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen showed an enlarged spleen with an abnormal echo pattern and a CT scan of the abdomen showed severe splenic rupture. The patient remembered that he had been unwell 2 weeks earlier with flu-like symptoms and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Serological examination was positive for Ebstein-Barr virus, confirming the diagnosis of splenic rupture following splenomegaly due to infectious mononucleosis. Management was initially conservative but he became haemodynamically unstable and an emergency splenectomy was performed. PMID:19033515

  3. Frictional melting during the rupture of the 1994 bolivian earthquake

    PubMed

    Kanamori; Anderson; Heaton

    1998-02-01

    The source parameters of the 1994 Bolivian earthquake (magnitude Mw = 8.3) suggest that the maximum seismic efficiency eta was 0.036 and the minimum frictional stress was 550 bars. Thus, the source process was dissipative, which is consistent with the observed slow rupture speed, only 20% of the local S-wave velocity. The amount of nonradiated energy produced during the Bolivian rupture was comparable to, or larger than, the thermal energy of the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption and was sufficient to have melted a layer as thick as 31 centimeters. Once rupture was initiated, melting could occur, which reduces friction and promotes fault slip. PMID:9452378

  4. The rupture of a single liquid aluminium alloy film.

    PubMed

    Heim, K; García-Moreno, F; Vinod Kumar, G S; Rack, A; Banhart, J

    2014-07-14

    The present study is based on the idea of understanding the rupture of films in metal foams by studying free standing metallic films as a model system. Liquid dynamics, the velocity of the rupturing material as well as the behaviour of ceramic particles inside the melt were analysed optically ex situ and by synchrotron X-ray radiography in situ. It was found that the resistance of films to rupture is mainly based on the interaction between solid particles and an immobile oxide skin, the formation of which depends on the oxygen content of the surrounding atmosphere and the presence of magnesium. PMID:24854899

  5. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in the First Trimester: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-In; Park, Moon-Il

    2005-01-01

    Uterine rupture is one of the most feared obstetric complications affecting the pregnant woman and fetus. Most of the cases have various risk factors and mainly occur during the second or third trimester. However, spontaneous uterine rupture during the first trimester is extremely rare. We experienced a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a 36-yr-old multiparous woman without definite risk factors. The initial impression was a hemoperitoneum of an unknown origin with normal early pregnancy. Intensive surgical method would be needed for accurate diagnosis and immediate management in bad situation by hemoperitoneum even though a patient was early pregnancy. PMID:16361828

  6. Bulkhead rupture disc for solid propellant missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Hibler, D.R. Sr.; Sigle, S.P. Jr.

    1988-04-19

    A missile bulkhead rupture disc assembly for disposition between a first stage of propellant and a second stage of propellant and for enabling release of the second stage of propellant subsequent to release of the first stage of propellant is described comprising: a generally circular element comprised of a frangible material and having a first burst pattern with a line of weakness completely circumscribing a central portion of the element. The central portion of the element having structure defines an aperture. The element has a second burst pattern comprising lines of weakness each extending in a substantially radial direction outwardly from the line of weakness of the first burst pattern. Each adjacent pair of the lines of weakness of the second burst pattern is spaced from each other and defines generally sector-shaped segments of the elements. The frangible material of the element has a tensile strength of a certain, first value in the vicinity of the line of weakness of the first burst pattern, and the frangible material of the element has a tensile strength in the vicinity of the lines of weakness of the second burst pattern of a second value which is higher than the first certain value.

  7. Stress-rupture strength of alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.L.; Cao, W.D.; Thomas, W.M.

    1996-03-01

    Alloy 718 is the most widely used of the nickel-base superalloys in aerospace applications such as compressor and turbine disks, cases, compressor blades and fasteners in aircraft gas-turbine engines. Since the development of the superalloy by Inco Alloys International over 30 years ago, researchers have made many slight modifications in chemical composition, and have refined process techniques to achieve further improvements in performance. Relatively little information on the effects of phosphorus has been published, and the available information is contradictory. However, phosphorus in superalloys is generally considered detrimental, and by specification is controlled to a low maximum value (0.015% max, for example, in AMS5662 E). This lack of data is the basis of a study by Teledyne Allvac to determine the effects of the interaction of phosphorus, boron, and carbon on the mechanical properties, processing characteristics, and microstructure of Allvac 718. Results show that a significant improvement in stress-rupture properties over those of a commercial Alloy 718 material is possible by optimizing phosphorus, boron, and carbon additions.

  8. Extracellular Matrix Dynamics and Fetal Membrane Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Strauss,, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536

  9. Extracellular matrix dynamics and fetal membrane rupture.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jerome F

    2013-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536

  10. [Bronchial rupture in blunt thoracic trauma].

    PubMed

    López Espadas, F; Zabalo, M; Encinas, M; Díaz Regañón, G; Pagola, M A; González Fernández, C

    2000-12-01

    In closed chest trauma, bronchial rupture is an unusual but potentially serious complication, with an associated mortality rate of 30%. Recent decades have seen an increase in incidence parallel to greater use of transport. Eighty percent of injuries are located 2.5 cm from the carina. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, imaging and bronchoscopy. Subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory insufficiency are the most common findings. Images show the presence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or both. Bronchoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and must be performed early. Treatment consists of reestablishing anatomical continuity of the tracheobronchial tree by surgical repair if the lesion affects more than a third of the circumference and/or pneumothorax is not resolved after two chest drainages. This type of injury should be recognized and treated early, both to restore lung function and to prevent associated complications caused by delay. However, initial findings are seldom specific, requiring the physician to display a high degree of suspicion and explaining why diagnosis often comes late. PMID:11171438

  11. Hippocampal Amyloid Burden with Downstream Fusiform Gyrus Atrophy Correlate with Face Matching Task Scores in Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Wen-Neng; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Neuronal activity during face matching shows co-activation of the fusiform gyrus (FG) and areas along the ventral visual network. To elucidate the mechanisms related to the facial discrimination deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the study evaluates the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ) load and gray matter (GM) atrophy within the ventral visual network. Methods: Comprehensive cognitive assessments and GM volumetry using 3-dimentional T1-weighted images and AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET) were studied in 44 patients with AD. We used AV-45 PET to measure regional Aβ to analyze the correlations between the regional neocortical AV-45 retention and atrophy in patients with AD. Results: FG volume was positively correlated with the para-hippocampus (β = 0.565, P < 0.001), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC; β = 0.402, P < 0.001), and hippocampus volumes (β = 0.209, P = 0.044). After carefully confounded all possible factors simultaneously, the hippocampus standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio was independently associated with FG volume (β = −0.151, P = 0.017). Furthermore, volumes of the hippocampus (r = 0.473, P = 0.003), para-hippocampus (r = 0.515, P = 0.001), and FG (r = 0.383, P = 0.018) were associated with Benton’s facial recognition test (BFRT). Conclusions: In conclusion, our study indicated that amyloid burden within the hippocampus might contribute to FG cortical hub GM atrophy. While the face matching task scores were related to the FG, hippocampus, and para-hippocampus volumes, concordant changes of the aforementioned three structures suggested the importance of the three ventral visual network hubs in AD. PMID:27378917

  12. The fusiform face area is not sufficient for face recognition: evidence from a patient with dense prosopagnosia and no occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Jennifer K E; Culham, Jody C; Duchaine, Bradley C; Pratesi, Cristiana Cavina; Valyear, Kenneth F; Schindler, Igor; Humphrey, G Keith; Milner, A David; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2006-01-01

    We tested functional activation for faces in patient D.F., who following acquired brain damage has a profound deficit in object recognition based on form (visual form agnosia) and also prosopagnosia that is undocumented to date. Functional imaging demonstrated that like our control observers, D.F. shows significantly more activation when passively viewing face compared to scene images in an area that is consistent with the fusiform face area (FFA) (p < 0.01). Control observers also show occipital face area (OFA) activation; however, whereas D.F.'s lesions appear to overlap the OFA bilaterally. We asked, given that D.F. shows FFA activation for faces, to what extent is she able to recognize faces? D.F. demonstrated a severe impairment in higher level face processing--she could not recognize face identity, gender or emotional expression. In contrast, she performed relatively normally on many face categorization tasks. D.F. can differentiate faces from non-faces given sufficient texture information and processing time, and she can do this is independent of color and illumination information. D.F. can use configural information for categorizing faces when they are presented in an upright but not a sideways orientation and given that she also cannot discriminate half-faces she may rely on a spatially symmetric feature arrangement. Faces appear to be a unique category, which she can classify even when she has no advance knowledge that she will be shown face images. Together, these imaging and behavioral data support the importance of the integrity of a complex network of regions for face identification, including more than just the FFA--in particular the OFA, a region believed to be associated with low-level processing. PMID:16125741

  13. Cortical Mapping by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Quantitative Cytological Analysis in the Human Brain: A Feasibility Study in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Annese, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is a layered cellular structure that is tangentially organized into a mosaic of anatomically and functionally distinct fields. In spite of centuries of investigation, the precise localization and classification of many areas in the cerebral cortex remain problematic because the relationship between functional specificity and intra-cortical structure has not been firmly established. Furthermore, it is not yet clear how surface landmarks, visible through gross examination and, more recently, using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), relate to underlying microstructural borders and to the topography of functional activation. We have designed a multi-modal neuroimaging protocol that combines MRI and quantitative microscopic analysis in the same individual to clarify the topography of cytoarchitecture underlying gross anatomical landmarks in the cerebral cortex. We tested our approach in the region of the fusiform gyrus (FG), because in spite of its seemingly smooth appearance on the ventral aspect of both hemispheres, this structure houses many functionally defined areas whose histological borders remain unclear. In practice, we used MRI-based automated segmentation to define the region of interest from which we could then collect quantitative histological data (specifically, neuronal size and density). A modified stereological approach was used to sample the cortex within the FG without a priori assumptions on the location of architectonic boundaries. The results of these analyses illustrate architectonic variations along the FG and demonstrate that it is possible to correlate quantitative histological data to measures that are obtained in the context of large-scale, non-invasive MRI-based population studies. PMID:23628159

  14. Co-existence of a rare dyspnea with pericardial diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Öz, Necdet; Kargı, Ahmet Bülent; Zeybek, Arife

    2015-06-01

    Pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture is a rare condition which occurs after blunt trauma and involves the herniation of abdominal organs into the pericardium. A 77-year-old female patient presenting with complaints of palpitation and difficulty in breathing was admitted to the emergency room. Left lateral thoracotomy revealed the herniation of abdominal organs into the thorax. A pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture and a pericardial rupture were found to co-exist. The diaphragm and the pericardium were repaired primarily. The case is presented here because herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavity through the pericardium is a rare condition. PMID:26336505

  15. Co-existence of a rare dyspnea with pericardial diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kargı, Ahmet Bülent; Zeybek, Arife

    2015-01-01

    Pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture is a rare condition which occurs after blunt trauma and involves the herniation of abdominal organs into the pericardium. A 77-year-old female patient presenting with complaints of palpitation and difficulty in breathing was admitted to the emergency room. Left lateral thoracotomy revealed the herniation of abdominal organs into the thorax. A pericardial-diaphragmatic rupture and a pericardial rupture were found to co-exist. The diaphragm and the pericardium were repaired primarily. The case is presented here because herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavity through the pericardium is a rare condition. PMID:26336505

  16. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Robert T.; Feig, Christine; Reintals, Michelle; Hill, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative signs and symptoms of patients with Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) implants could be predictive of device failure. Based on clinical observation and intraoperative findings 4 hypotheses were raised: (1) Preoperative clinical signs including acquired asymmetry, breast enlargement, fullness of the lower pole, decreased mound projection, and change in breast consistency could be indicative of implant rupture. (2) Device failure correlates with a low preoperative Baker grade of capsule. (3) Brown-stained implants are more prone to implant failure. (4) The brown gel could be indicative of iodine ingression through a substandard elastomer shell. Methods: Preoperative clinical signs were compared with intraoperative findings for 27 patients undergoing PIP implant explantation. Results: Acquired asymmetry (P = 0.0003), breast enlargement (P = 0.0002), fuller lower pole (P < 0.0001), and loss of lateral projection (P < 0.0001) were all significantly predictive of device failure. Capsule Baker grade was lower preoperatively for ruptured implants. The lack of palpable and visible preoperative capsular contracture could be secondary to the elastic nature of the capsular tissue found. Brown implants failed significantly more often than white implants. Analysis of brown gel revealed the presence of iodine, suggesting povidone iodine ingression at implantation. Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants. PMID:25506532

  17. Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach.

  18. Staged Management of a Ruptured Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, O Young; Kim, Gun Jik; Oh, Tak Hyuk; Lee, Young Ok; Lee, Sang Cjeol; Cho, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    The rupture of an internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1) is a rare but life-threatening complication requiring emergency management. A 50-year-old man with NF-1 was transferred to the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital, where an IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were diagnosed and drained. The IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were successfully repaired by staged management combining endovascular treatment and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The patient required cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, the staged management of coil embolization, and a subsequent VATS procedure. This staged approach may be an effective therapeutic strategy in cases of IMA aneurysmal rupture. PMID:27066438

  19. [Spontaneous rupture of mediastinal cystic teratoma (case report)].

    PubMed

    Ege, Gürkan; Akman, Haluk; Kuzucu, Kismet; Kalayci, Göksel

    2004-06-01

    Teratomas are rare tumors in the mediastinum. Benign cystic teratomas of anterior mediastinum are rarely complicated by rupture into an adjacent body cavity. Such rupture, however, is usually associated with life-threatening complications. We present a case with spontaneous rupture of mediastinal cystic teratoma. The patient was evaluated with chest radiograph, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A complex mass including predominantly cystic components was detected in the left anterior mediastinum. After surgery, pathologic diagnosis was reported as mature cystic teratoma. High levels of amylase and lipase were detected in both the cystic fluid and serum. This finding supported the hypothesis of autolysis for the explanation of rupture. In addition, carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, CA 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were high in the cystic fluid. PMID:15236127

  20. Splenic rupture as a presenting feature of endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Winearls, James Roger; McGloughlin, Steven; Fraser, John F

    2009-04-01

    We describe the first case of infective endocarditis presenting with spontaneous splenic rupture. Our patient, a known intravenous drug user presented with hypovolaemic shock secondary to splenic rupture. The patient was resuscitated and underwent an emergency splenectomy. Subsequent clinical examination revealed a systolic murmur and a diagnosis of mitral valve infective endocarditis was made after echocardiography. Splenic tissue, blood cultures and mitral valve tissue all cultured Enterococcus faecalis. The patient had a successful mitral valve replacement and was discharged home after 44 days. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of enterococcal endocarditis presenting with splenic rupture. This case highlights the need to consider endocarditis in spontaneous splenic rupture particularly in those patients in a high risk group, such as IV drug users, especially if they lack a clear history of trauma. PMID:19217796

  1. Staged Management of a Ruptured Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O Young; Kim, Gun Jik; Oh, Tak Hyuk; Lee, Young Ok; Lee, Sang Cjeol; Cho, Jun Yong

    2016-04-01

    The rupture of an internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1) is a rare but life-threatening complication requiring emergency management. A 50-year-old man with NF-1 was transferred to the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital, where an IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were diagnosed and drained. The IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were successfully repaired by staged management combining endovascular treatment and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The patient required cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, the staged management of coil embolization, and a subsequent VATS procedure. This staged approach may be an effective therapeutic strategy in cases of IMA aneurysmal rupture. PMID:27066438

  2. Delayed aortic rupture resulting from postoperative superficial sternal wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Wan; Chang, Jee Won

    2016-01-01

    While deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery is a significant contributor to patient morbidity and mortality, superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) mostly has a benign course. We report a mortality case of aortic rupture resulting from SSWI after cardiac surgery. A 50-year-old male underwent an aortic valve replacement (AVR). Three months after the valve operation, he presented with severe dyspnea, which had never before been observed, and chest computed tomography revealed an ascending aortic rupture with large hematoma compressing the main pulmonary artery. We performed an emergent operation for aortic rupture that possibly originated from the SSWI. Postoperatively, the patient died of hypovolemic shock due to recurrent aortic rupture despite efforts to resuscitate him. PMID:27499988

  3. Subacute cardiac rupture complicating myocardial infarction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rosato, G; Santomauro, M; Stanco, G; Petillo, F; Sauro, R; Chiariello, M; Spampinato, N; Rotiroti, D

    1996-02-01

    The authors have focused this study on the emergence of subacute ventricular free wall rupture in a seventy-six-year-old patient admitted to hospital for inferior acute myocardial infarction. After six days he showed clinical signs of bradycardia and hypotension evolving to electromechanical dissociation. Given an adequate pharmacologic therapy, the patient was submitted to echocardiography, which was believed to be consistent with myocardial rupture, showing a moderate to large pericardial effusion. Pericardiocentesis of 150 mL of bloody fluid resulted in a further improvement in his hemodynamics. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with repair of the myocardial rupture through a large diaphragmatic infarction by a Dacron polyester fiber graft and pacemaker placement. In conclusion the authors confirm the relevant role of clinical data such as persistent chest pain and hemodynamic instability and the value of echocardiography in identifying subacute myocardial free wall rupture after an episode of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:8595015

  4. Acute Bilateral Traumatic Achilles Tendon Rupture – A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Maulik; Golwala, Paresh; Merh, Aditya; Patel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the body, which is commonly ruptured in male athletes. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon is a rare condition with very few reported cases in the literature. It poses a challenge in management, and hence, we report a case with traumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture in a young male patient and its management. One side was treated conservatively as the rupture was partial and the other side, which had a complete tear, was operated. At nine months follow-up, the patient has had a satisfactory result and is now bearing full weight without any problems. We suggest this method of treatment to be worthwhile for this unusual entity. PMID:27588227

  5. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse.

    PubMed

    Dasa, Osama; Siddiqui, Nauman; Ruzieh, Mohammed; Javaid, Toseef

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. PMID:27525149

  6. Neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cherrad, Taoufik; Louaste, Jamal; Kasmaoui, El Houcine; Bousbaä, Hicham; Rachid, Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon (PT) is extremely rare and is generally associated to some chronic diseases. When the rupture becomes chronic, it is more difficult to repair that as it remained untreated. The diagnosis, which is clinical, is often delayed, guided by standard radiography and confirmed by ultrasound or MRI. The management of a bilateral neglected, chronic patellar tendon rupture must address some serious difficulties: the proximally retracted patella, the reconstruction of the patellar tendon, finally, the temporary protection of this repair. We report a case of neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon in a chronic hemodialysis patient, treated with a plastic surgery of the ipsilateral quadriceps tendon. PMID:26566349

  7. Spontaneous Posterior Uterine Rupture in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela C.; Waltner-Toews, Rebecca; Goodnight, William

    2015-01-01

    Background The maternal and fetal risks of uterine distension in rapidly progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the setting of prior uterine scar are poorly characterized. Case We present the case of a 42-year-old woman, G4P1201, at 21 weeks gestation with stage-1 TTTS who developed a spontaneous posterior uterine rupture necessitating emergent laparotomy and delivery of previable fetuses, possibly due to prior uterine scar from a displaced intrauterine device. Conclusion TTTS may be a risk factor for uterine rupture, including uterine rupture in atypical anatomic locations. Prior unrecognized uterine scars, including perforations, may magnify the risk for atypical uterine rupture in the setting of excessive uterine distension. PMID:26929874

  8. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nauman; Javaid, Toseef

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. PMID:27525149

  9. CT of ruptured aneurysm of aberrant right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Vega, A; Ortíz, A; Longo, J M; Pagola, M A

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the first description of a ruptured aneurysm of an aberrant right subclavian artery. CT clearly demonstrated the vascular malformation as well as the existence of a bilateral hemothorax. PMID:3102065

  10. Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture after Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Seung Joon; Pham, The Hien

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a catastrophic complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Though revision TKA has been suspected of being a predisposing factor for the occurrence of patellar tendon rupture, there are few reports on patellar tendon rupture after revision TKA. Here, we present a case of acute patellar tendon rupture that occurred after TKA revision. In the patient, the patellar tendon was so thin and could not be repaired, and accordingly was sutured end to end. We used the anterior tibialis tendon allograft to augment the poor quality patellar tendon tissue. Fixation of the allograft was done by using the bone tunnel created through tibial tuberosity and suturing the allograft to the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. The patient was instructed to wear a full extension knee splint and was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks after operation. Full knee extension could be achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26060612

  11. Retrograde approach for closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Jayaranganath, M; Subramanian, Anand; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2010-07-01

    Though ruptured sinuses of Valsalva have been traditionally managed surgically, they are amenable to transcatheter closure. Various devices have been used for closure of these defects. We describe a novel technique of closure of a ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. A muscular ventricular septal defect occluder was deployed retrogradely, without resorting to the usual antegrade technique involving formation of an arteriovenous loop. PMID:20603510

  12. A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard

    2009-06-01

    We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is modelled by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dynamic earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further dynamic rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.

  13. First report of splenic rupture following deep enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Carlo Maria; Pometta, Roberta; Facciotto, Corinna; Mella, Roberto; Bernasconi, Giordano

    2016-05-10

    Splenic rupture is a rare complication of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. Herein, we report for the first time a case of splenic rupture following therapeutic retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy, which occurred in an 85-year-old man who was treated for recurrent mid-intestinal bleeding that resulted from ileal angioectasia. This patient promptly underwent an operation and eventually recovered. PMID:27170840

  14. First report of splenic rupture following deep enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Carlo Maria; Pometta, Roberta; Facciotto, Corinna; Mella, Roberto; Bernasconi, Giordano

    2016-01-01

    Splenic rupture is a rare complication of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. Herein, we report for the first time a case of splenic rupture following therapeutic retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy, which occurred in an 85-year-old man who was treated for recurrent mid-intestinal bleeding that resulted from ileal angioectasia. This patient promptly underwent an operation and eventually recovered. PMID:27170840

  15. Traumatic rupture of arachnoid cyst with subdural hygroma.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, A; Bramhaprasad, V; Purohit, A K

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial arachnoid cysts developing in relation to the cerebral hemispheres and middle cranial fossa are usually incidental or asymptomatic. However, most of the clinically active cysts present with seizures because of chronic compression. Presentation as raised intracranial pressure due to cyst rupture into the subdural space is a rare clinical entity. We herein present a case of an asymptomatic arachnoid cyst with rupture into the subdural space bilaterally and presenting as raised intracranial pressure. PMID:22837775

  16. A Tuboovarian Abscess Associated with a Ruptured Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer S.; Sheele, Johnathan Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of a tuboovarian abscess complicated by a ruptured spleen. Our patient was a 27-year-old female with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of urinary symptoms and diarrhea. After being diagnosed with a tuboovarian abscess (TOA), she received antibiotics and was admitted to the gynecology service. Shortly thereafter she developed hemorrhagic shock, necessitating a splenectomy and salpingooophorectomy from a ruptured spleen. PMID:26904315

  17. Spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare presentation of dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Mainak; Chatterjee, Nandini; Maity, Pranab; Patar, Kartik

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (DF). We report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. Subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for DF. Early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:24678156

  18. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  19. Cohesive zone length of metagabbro at supershear rupture velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain array data along the sliding fault surfaces were obtained during the large-scale biaxial friction experiments at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience. These friction experiments were done using a pair of meter-scale metagabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5 m × 0.1 m. A 2.6-MPa normal stress was applied with loading velocity of 0.1 mm/s. Near-fault strain was measured by 32 two-component semiconductor strain gauges installed at an interval of 50 mm and 10 mm off the fault and recorded at an interval of 1 MHz. Many stick-slip events were observed in the experiments. We chose ten unilateral rupture events that propagated with supershear rupture velocity without preceding foreshocks. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the ruptured area. The temporal variation of strain array data is converted to the spatial variation of strain assuming a constant rupture velocity. We picked up the peak strain and zero-crossing strain locations to measure the cohesive zone length. By compiling the stick-slip event data, the cohesive zone length is about 50 mm although it scattered among the events. We could not see any systematic variation at the location but some dependence on the rupture velocity. The cohesive zone length decreases as the rupture velocity increases, especially larger than √{2} times the shear wave velocity. This feature is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  20. Quadricuspid aortic valve with ruptured sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Akerem Khan, Shamruz Khan; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Burkhart, Harold M; Araoz, Philip A; Young, Phillip M

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with quadricuspid aortic valve with ruptured sinus of Valsalva. Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. The recognition of quadricuspid aortic valve has clinical significance as it causes aortic valve dysfunction, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac abnormalities. We showed the important role of multimodality imaging in diagnosing a quadricuspid aortic valve associated with ruptured sinus of Valsalva. PMID:22874066

  1. Atraumatic splenic rupture secondary to chronic HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C S; Martin, Natasha K; Naresh, Kikkeri N; Nelson, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As patients infected with HIV live longer due to effective anti-retroviral therapy, new disease manifestations are becoming apparent. We describe the case of a 59-year-old patient who presented to our unit with atraumatic splenic rupture secondary to chronic HIV infection. Given the high mortality associated with atraumatic splenic rupture, we believe it should be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-positive patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. PMID:23970617

  2. Softball injury causing haemoperitoneum due to ruptured Meckel's mesodiverticular band.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, Julie; Barnett, Mark; Shapkov, Peter

    2011-10-14

    A 16-year-old male sustained an intra-abdominal haemorrhage after diving for last base during a softball game. At laparotomy a ruptured patent mesodiverticular band supplying a large Meckel's diverticulum was found. Traumatic rupture of a mesodiverticular band leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage is a rare event, and has never been reported as a single injury or in the context of a sport's injury. PMID:22016169

  3. Dissecting aneurysm of vertebral artery manifestating as contralateral abducens nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Sue; Lee, Sang Hyung; Son, Young-Je; Chung, Young Seob

    2013-03-01

    Isolated abducens nerve paresis related to ruptured vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is rare. It usually occurs bilaterally or ipsilaterally to the pathologic lesions. We report the case of a contralateral sixth nerve palsy following ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. A 38-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a 6-day history of headache. Abnormalities were not seen on initial computed tomography (CT). On admission, the patient was alert and no signs reflecting neurologic deficits were noted. Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography revealed a fusiform dilatation of the right VA involving origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient suddenly suffered from severe headache with diplopia the day before the scheduled cerebral angiography. Neurologic examination disclosed nuchal rigidity and isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Emergent CT scan showed high density in the basal and prepontine cistern compatible with ruptured aneurismal hemorrhage. Right vertebral angiography illustrated a right VA dissecting aneurysm with prominent displaced vertebrobasilar artery to inferiorly on left side. Double-stent placement was conducted for the treatment of ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. No diffusion restriction signals were observed in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem. Eleven weeks later, full recovery of left sixth nerve palsy was documented photographically. In conclusion, isolated contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with ruptured VA aneurysm may develop due to direct nerve compression by displaced verterobasilar artery triggered by primary thick clot in the prepontine cistern. PMID:23634273

  4. Fast rupture propagation for large strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Mori, Jim; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    Studying rupture speeds of shallow earthquakes is of broad interest because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes, and it is an important parameter that reflects stress levels and energy on a slipping fault. However, resolving rupture speed is difficult in standard waveform inversion methods due to limited near-field observations and the tradeoff between rupture speed and fault size for teleseismic observations. Here we applied back-projection methods to estimate the rupture speeds of 15 Mw ≥ 7.8 dip-slip and 8 Mw ≥ 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes for which direct P waves are well recorded in Japan on Hi-net, or in North America on USArray. We found that all strike-slip events had very fast average rupture speeds of 3.0-5.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally rupture with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s.

  5. Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {similar to}2{times}10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs.

  6. Short term creep rupture predictions for Tantalum alloy T-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTG's near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Ground-motion signature of dynamic ruptures on rough faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.

    2016-04-01

    Natural earthquakes occur on faults characterized by large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. This multi-scale geometrical complexity controls the dynamic rupture process, and hence strongly affects the radiated seismic waves and near-field shaking. For a fault system with given segmentation, the question arises what are the conditions for producing large-magnitude multi-segment ruptures, as opposed to smaller single-segment events. Similarly, for variable degrees of roughness, ruptures may be arrested prematurely or may break the entire fault. In addition, fault roughness induces rupture incoherence that determines the level of high-frequency radiation. Using HPC-enabled dynamic-rupture simulations, we generate physically self-consistent rough-fault earthquake scenarios (M~6.8) and their associated near-source seismic radiation. Because these computations are too expensive to be conducted routinely for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment, we thrive to develop an effective pseudo-dynamic source characterization that produces (almost) the same ground-motion characteristics. Therefore, we examine how variable degrees of fault roughness affect rupture properties and the seismic wavefield, and develop a planar-fault kinematic source representation that emulates the observed dynamic behaviour. We propose an effective workflow for improved pseudo-dynamic source modelling that incorporates rough-fault effects and its associated high-frequency radiation in broadband ground-motion computation for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment.

  8. Sexual intercourse and cerebral aneurysmal rupture: potential mechanisms and precipitants.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Willie, Jon T; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G

    2011-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant cause of death in young and middle-aged individuals and causes tremendous morbidity in affected patients. Despite the identification of various risk factors, the series of events leading to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is poorly understood. Cerebral aneurysm rupture has been associated with sexual intercourse and other forms of physical exercise. In fact, multiple case series reported that coitus was the immediate preceding activity in 3.8-14.5% of patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH. This may be related to the large elevations in mean arterial blood pressure that occur in both males and females during sexual intercourse (130-175 and 125-160 mm Hg, respectively). While coitus and physical exercise share important physiological similarities, each may differentially affect the probability that a preformed aneurysm will rupture. In this literature review and synthesis, the authors analyze the physiological human response to sexual intercourse in an effort to delineate those factors that may precipitate aneurysmal rupture. The authors' analysis is based on the original data collected by Masters and Johnson. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to address the link between sexual intercourse and intracranial aneurysmal rupture. While actual measurements of the physiological variables relevant to SAH were not performed in this article, the authors make reasonable assumptions based on the available data to help elucidate the mechanism of sexually induced aneurysmal rupture. PMID:20540599

  9. The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

  10. Shear rupture under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.

    2014-11-01

    A grain based Distinct Element Method and its embedded Grain Based Method are used to simulate the fracturing processes leading to shear rupture zone creation in a calibrated massive (non-jointed) brittle rock specimen deformed in direct shear under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions. Under these boundary conditions, shear rupture zone creation relative to the shear stress versus applied horizontal displacement (load-displacement) curve occurs pre-peak, before the maximum peak shear strength is reached. This is found to be the result of a normal stress feedback process caused by the imposed shear displacement which couples increases in normal stress, due to rupture zone dilation, with shear stress, producing a complex normal-shear stress-path that reaches and then follows the rock's yield (strength) envelope. While the yield envelope is followed, the shear strength increases further and shear stress oscillations (repeated stress drops followed by re-strengthening periods) in the load-displacement curves occur due to fracture creation as the rupture zone geometry smoothens. Once the maximum peak strength is reached (after a series of shear stress oscillations) the largest stress drops occur as the ultimate or residual shear strength is approached. The simulation results provide insight into the fracturing process during rupture zone creation and improve the understanding of the shear stress versus applied horizontal displacement response, as well as the stick-slip behaviour of shear rupture zones that are being created under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions.

  11. [Ligament ruptures of the lower extremity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Herbort, M; Raschke, M J

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing incidence of ligament ruptures of the lower extremities in older patients. This higher incidence is caused by the typical current demographic changes in the population and the higher level of activity and athletic motivation of the older people in our society. In this review we address the most important ligament ruptures of the lower extremity in the old patient. Quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon ruptures are mostly the result of degenerative and abrasion changes. The ACL rupture on the other hand occurs spontaneously after adequate trauma and without former degenerative changes especially in highly active patients. For a differentiated treatment of the older patient with tendon ruptures, secondary diseases, an increased risk and complication profile and a potentially decreased compliance during rehabilitation must be taken into consideration before indicating operative or conservative therapy. There are no strict age-related limitations for indication of an operative treatment of tendon ruptures in the older patient. In this patient group a differentiated treatment decision is recommended. PMID:21766204

  12. Rupture of a biomembrane under dynamic surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicout, D. J.; Kats, E.

    2012-03-01

    How long will a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before rupture? Or conversely, how high should the surface tension be to rupture such a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we developed a theoretical framework that allows for the description and reproduction of dynamic tension spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane rupture under ramps of surface tension is described as a succession of an initial pore formation followed by the Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and a derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we study the membrane lifetime (or inverse of rupture rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at rupture as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure, and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce the main features of DTS experiments, particularly the pore nucleation and pore-size diffusion-controlled limits of membrane rupture dynamics. This approach can be adapted and applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion).

  13. Limitations of rupture forecasting exposed by instantaneously triggered earthquake doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Elliott, J. R.; Sloan, R. A.; Craig, T. J.; Funning, G. J.; Hutko, A.; Parsons, B. E.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments and rupture forecasts are based on the potential length of seismic rupture and whether or not slip is arrested at fault segment boundaries. Such forecasts do not generally consider that one earthquake can trigger a second large event, near-instantaneously, at distances greater than a few kilometres. Here we present a geodetic and seismological analysis of a magnitude 7.1 intracontinental earthquake that occurred in Pakistan in 1997. We find that the earthquake, rather than a single event as hitherto assumed, was in fact an earthquake doublet: initial rupture on a shallow, blind reverse fault was followed just 19 s later by a second rupture on a separate reverse fault 50 km away. Slip on the second fault increased the total seismic moment by half, and doubled both the combined event duration and the area of maximum ground shaking. We infer that static Coulomb stresses at the initiation location of the second earthquake were probably reduced as a result of the first. Instead, we suggest that a dynamic triggering mechanism is likely, although the responsible seismic wave phase is unclear. Our results expose a flaw in earthquake rupture forecasts that disregard cascading, multiple-fault ruptures of this type.

  14. Self-healing pulse-like shear ruptures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lykotrafitis, George; Rosakis, Ares J; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2006-09-22

    Models predict that dynamic shear ruptures during earthquake faulting occur as either sliding cracks, where a large section of the interface slides behind a fast-moving rupture front, or self-healing slip pulses, where the fault relocks shortly behind the rupture front. We report experimental visualizations of crack-like, pulse-like, and mixed rupture modes propagating along frictionally held, "incoherent" interfaces separating identical solids, and we describe the conditions under which those modes develop. A combination of simultaneously performed measurements via dynamic photoelasticity and laser interferometry reveals the rupture mode type, the exact point of rupture initiation, the sliding velocity history, and the rupture propagation speed. PMID:16990544

  15. Right ventricular free wall dissection as a rupture tract in left ventricular rupture during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Takada, Aya; Saito, Kazuyuki; Murai, Tatsuya; Kurosaki, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Katsuyoshi; Hamamatsu, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Three rare cases of cardiac rupture with right ventricular wall dissection during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were reported. The cases comprised 2% among our 148 previously reported postinfarction cardiac ruptures with sudden death. The dissections occurred in hearts with biventricular inferior wall AMI and developed between the superficial layers and the deeper layers of inferior wall of the right ventricle. All had an endocardial tear at the basal septum where it meets the inferior free wall of the left ventricle, and had an epicardial tear on the middle inferior wall of the right ventricle. Based on the evidence of the ages of the thrombi of the rupture tracts, delayed epicardial rupture was found besides that soon after the right ventricular dissection. PMID:26594003

  16. [Blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, with intrapericardial rupture of the diaphragm. Successful surgical repair (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Le Treut, Y P; Herve, L; Boutboul, R; Cardon, J M; Bricot, R

    1980-12-01

    The authors report a case of blunt traumatic rupture of the right ventricle, diagnosed during a laparotomy. Similar cases were seldom met: too short a time of spontaneous survival, and difficult challenging diagnosis explain it. PMID:7462357

  17. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  18. Dynamic rupture in a damage-breakage rheology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ilchev, Assen; Mendecki, Aleksander

    2016-05-01

    We present a thermodynamically-based formulation for modeling dynamic rupture processes in the brittle crust using a continuum damage-breakage rheology. The model combines aspects of a continuum viscoelastic damage framework for brittle solids with a continuum breakage mechanics for granular flow within dynamically generated slip zones. The formulation accounts for the density of distributed cracking and other internal flaws in damaged rocks with a scalar damage parameter, and addresses the grain size distribution of a granular phase in the slip zone with a breakage parameter. A dynamic brittle instability is associated with a critical level of damage in the solid, leading to loss of convexity of the solid strain energy, localization, and transition to a granular phase associated with lower energy level. The continuum damage-breakage rheology model treats the localization to a slip zone at the onset of dynamic rupture and post-failure recovery process as phase transitions between solid and granular states. The model generates sub- and super-shear rupture velocities and pulse-type ruptures seen also in frictional models, and additional important features such as strong dynamic changes of volumetric strain near the rupture front and diversity of nucleation mechanisms. The propagation of rupture front and slip accumulation at a point are correlated with sharp dynamic dilation followed by a gradual decay to a level associated with the final volumetric change associated with the granular phase transition in the slipping zone. The local brittle failure process associated with the solid-granular transition is expected to produce isotropic radiation in addition to the deviatoric terms. The framework significantly extends the ability to model brittle processes in complex geometrical structures and allows analyzing the roles of gouge thickness and other parameters on nucleation, rupture and radiation characteristics.

  19. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  20. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  1. Dynamic rupture in a damage-breakage rheology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ilchev, Assen; Mendecki, Aleksander

    2016-08-01

    We present a thermodynamically based formulation for modelling dynamic rupture processes in the brittle crust using a continuum damage-breakage rheology. The model combines aspects of a continuum viscoelastic damage framework for brittle solids with a continuum breakage mechanics for granular flow within dynamically generated slip zones. The formulation accounts for the density of distributed cracking and other internal flaws in damaged rocks with a scalar damage parameter, and addresses the grain size distribution of a granular phase in the slip zone with a breakage parameter. A dynamic brittle instability is associated with a critical level of damage in the solid, leading to loss of convexity of the solid strain energy, localization and transition to a granular phase associated with lower energy level. The continuum damage-breakage rheology model treats the localization to a slip zone at the onset of dynamic rupture and post-failure recovery process as phase transitions between solid and granular states. The model generates sub- and supershear rupture velocities and pulse-type ruptures seen also in frictional models, and additional important features such as strong dynamic changes of volumetric strain near the rupture front and diversity of nucleation mechanisms. The propagation of rupture front and slip accumulation at a point are correlated with sharp dynamic dilation followed by a gradual decay to a level associated with the final volumetric change associated with the granular phase transition in the slipping zone. The local brittle failure process associated with the solid-granular transition is expected to produce isotropic radiation in addition to the deviatoric terms. The framework significantly extends the ability to model brittle processes in complex geometrical structures and allows analysing the roles of gouge thickness and other parameters on nucleation, rupture and radiation characteristics.

  2. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

    1984-01-01

    The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

  3. Using Dynamic Rupture Models to Explore Physical Controls on the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic and geodetic recordings are routinely used to invert for kinematic source models of large earthquakes, which provide us with detailed images of slip distribution and rupture evolution on causative faults. To gain insight into physical conditions that allow a fault to slip and a rupture to propagate in the way they did, we can resort to dynamic source models that obey physical laws in continuum mechanics and rock friction. Published kinematic models of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake reveal several features of the rupture. These features include 1) high static stress drop with large amounts of slip in a small area, 2) a weak initial phase, down-dip rupture for the first 40 seconds, extensive shallow rupture during 60 to 70 seconds, and continuing deeper rupture lasting more than 100 seconds, and 3) systematically down-dip high-frequency radiation with respect to the hypocenter. In this study, we use spontaneous rupture models to explore what physical conditions, including the initial stress state and friction properties on the subducting fault, can reproduce these features, so that we can gain some physical insights into controls on this megathrust earthquake. Dynamic rupture simulations of this shallow dipping megathrust faulting at reasonable spatial and temporal resolutions require parallel computing on supercomputers. Our newly parallelized finite element method algorithm EQdyna allows us to simulate a large suite of spontaneous rupture models to examine the questions. In model setup, we use depth-dependence principal stresses and take into account variations in pore fluid pressure and frictional properties associated with subducted seafloor features such as seamounts. Our preliminary results suggest followings. First, a high strength and high stress drop patch (probably a subducted seamount or seamout chain) just above the hypocenter on the fault plane can delay up-dip rupture and result in a concentrated large slip area. Second, significantly

  4. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake Is Predictive of Rupture in a Novel Rat Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Model

    PubMed Central

    English, Sean J.; Piert, Morand R.; Diaz, Jose A.; Gordon, David; Ghosh, Abhijit; D'Alecy, Louis G.; Whitesall, Steven E.; Sharma, Ashish K.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Watt, Tessa; Su, Gang; Henke, Peter K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) micro–positron emission tomography (micro-PET) can predict abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Background An infrarenal AAA model is needed to study inflammatory mechanisms that drive rupture. 18F-FDG PET can detect vascular inflammation in animal models and patients. Methods After exposing Sprague-Dawley rats to intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) (12 U/mL), AAA rupture was induced by daily, subcutaneous, β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, 300 mg/kg, N = 24) administration. Negative control AAA animals (N = 15) underwent daily saline subcutaneous injection after PPE exposure. BAPN-exposed animals that did not rupture served as positive controls [nonruptured AAA (NRAAA) 14d, N = 9]. Rupture was witnessed using radiotelemetry. Maximum standard uptakes for 18F-FDG micro-PET studies were determined. Aortic wall PAI-1, uPA, and tPA concentrations were determined by western blot analyses. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and MIP-2 were determined by Bio-Plex bead array. Neutrophil and macrophage populations per high-power field were quantified. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities were determined by zymography. Results When comparing ruptured AAA (RAAA) to NRAAA 14d animals, increased focal 18F-FDG uptakes were detected at subsequent sites of rupture (P = 0.03). PAI-1 expression was significantly less in RAAA tissue (P = 0.01), with comparable uPA and decreased tPA levels (P = 0.02). IL-1β (P = 0.04), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-10 (P = 0.04), and MIP-2 (P = 0.02)expression, neutrophil (P = 0.02) and macrophage presence (P = 0.002), and MMP9 (P < 0.0001) activity were increased in RAAA tissue. Conclusions With this AAA rupture model, increased prerupture 18F-FDG uptake on micro-PET imaging was associated with increased inflammation in the ruptured AAA wall. 18F-FDG PET imaging may be used to monitor inflammatory changes before AAA rupture. PMID:24651130

  5. Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations provide strong evidence for four intriguing aspects of rupture process complexity for the 4 April 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah - Indiviso earthquake. First, the southern “fork” of the rupture exhibits two splays just to the northwest of the event epicenter, both with nearly pure right-lateral faulting. Teleseismic source modeling by others indicates normal slip on deep fault surface preceded the shallow strike-slip faulting, and our field observations from the fork area indicate that the earliest phase of strike-slip faulting did not involve a significant normal faulting component. Second, as rupture propagated to the northwest along the Pescadores fault, slip ended abruptly on this fault and transferred across a complex zone to the Borrego fault (although the Pescadores fault continues farther and would have seemed an easier route to follow). This stepover is called the Puerta Accommodation Zone (PAZ) which extends 11 km along-strike within an elevated portion of the Cucapah massif and accommodates a left step (transpressional) that measures less than 2 km across-strike. Though partly obscured by rockfalls in the steep terrain here, only discontinuous faulting of up to one meter reached the ground surface, yet imagery differencing by others indicates several meters of continuous subsurface slip throughout this section. This 11 km region of reduced and discontinuous slip is one of the longest surface rupture jumps ever observed, with lengthy and continuous surface faulting on either side. The SE end of the stepover coincides spatially with the Canon Rojo embayment where the M7.2 1892 surface rupture propagated onto a second fault forming an abrupt corner in its surface trace. Hence, the surface rupture and slip distribution pattern in 2010 appears to have been influenced by stress changes induced by the 1892 event. Thirdly, from the NW end of the transition section, the Borrego fault continues to the NNW with strong east-down slip obliquity. Along

  6. Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral Rupture in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the

  7. Investigating rupture process of Parkfield seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ah Yi

    In this dissertation the result of four studies regarding earthquake source parameter determination, and three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation are presented. I have developed finite-source models for the September 28, 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake using GPS and InSAR geodetic data, and seismic strong motion waveform data inverted both separately and jointly. The preferred model from the joint inversion shows that the rupture is predominantly unilateral to the NW with a small component to the SE. There are two primary high slip asperities one around the hypocenter and the other between 10 and 23 km to the NW both within the depth range of 5--13 km. The results from detailed sensitivity analyses indicate that the developed finite-source slip model is stable and the kinematic parameters are well resolved. I also examined the effect of the assumed velocity structure and corresponding Green's functions on the finite source inversion for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using near-fault strong motion data with 1D and 3D velocity models. Using either the 1D or 3D velocity structures produce similar results, however there are significant differences in detail, where slip using 3D Green's functions is more compact, and the peak slip occurs in the hypocentral asperity in contrast to the 1D case where peak slip is located in the NW asperity. A comparison of seismic waveform derived slip models reveals that the 3D Green's function model predicts the GPS data significantly better. Both 1D and 3D Green's function models failed to model the strong motion waveform data from stations located very close to or within the fault-zone. Forward modeling revealed that accounting for a narrow low-velocity zone improves the fit to the data from these near-fault sites. Synthetic tests show that the influence of such fault-zone structure decreases rapidly with distance suggesting that excluding fault-zone stations from inversions and focusing on data from more distant stations may lead to less

  8. Rupture Directivity in a Foam Rubber Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anooshehpoor, R.; Brune, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding earthquake rupture dynamics, especially forward rupture directivity (focusing of seismic energy in the direction of rupture propagation), is crucial in determining the seismic hazard for critical structures located near major active faults. We use foam rubber modeling experiments to provide constraints on parameters that control rupture dynamics, and consequently, forward directivity effects. Numerical models currently in use have too many unconstrained parameters to allow confidence in predictions, and may not even be realistic from a physical point of view. The foam rubber model allows us to develop a deep physical understanding of an actual physical model. This in turn will allow us to better specify which physical parameters used in numerical models are critical, and establish a realistic range for their values, and to better understand and qualify particular numerical models. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of earlier experiments with excellent results provided incentive for additional funding from PEER to increase the number of recording channels in the model from 32 to 76. In particular, we have increased the number of recording sites on the fault plane from 12 to 35 to provide a better picture of the slip distribution on the fault during rupture. At the time of meeting we will present waveforms for selected events.

  9. Spectral Element Simulations of Rupture Dynamics along kinked faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.; Madariaga, R.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical simulation of earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for ground-motion prediction and insights into the physics of dynamic rupture propagation. Faulting is controlled by non-linear frictional interactions and damage within the fault zone. Important features of the earthquakes dynamics, such as rupture velocity, arrest phase and high-frequency radiation are believed to be strongly influenced by the geometry of the faults (kinks, jogs and forks). Data analysis as well as kinematic inversions have pointed out potential links between super-shear and geometry, as in the case of the Denali and Izmit earthquakes. Finally, recent laboratory experiments of sub- and super-shear rupture propagation along kink interfaces have shed new lights on these phenomena. We present here spectral element simulations of the dynamic rupture propagation along kinked and curved fault interfaces, a problem that has been experimentally investigated by Rousseau and Rosakis (2003). Depending on the state of the initial stress, we numerically analyze the mechanics of the dynamical fault branching for sub- and super-shear rupture propagation. Special interest is devoted to source directivity effects and high frequency generation related to the branching process. Implications for strong motion analysis will be discussed. This work was supported by the SPICE - Research and Training project

  10. Relaxation creep rupture of heterogeneous material under constant strain.

    PubMed

    Hao, Sheng-Wang; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Tian, Ji-Feng

    2012-01-01

    We focus on a system consisting of an elastic part and a damageable part in series, to study the relaxation creep rupture of a heterogeneous system subjected to a uniaxial constant strain applied instantaneously. The viscoelastic behavior of the damageable part is modeled by a fiber bundle model consisting of Kelvin-Voigt elements and global load sharing is assumed for the redistribution of load following fiber breaking in the damageable part. Analytical and numerical calculations show that the global relaxation creep rupture appears if the elastic energy stored in the elastic part exceeded the fracture energy of the damageable part. The lifetime of the system strongly depends on the values of the applied external strain and the initial stiffness ratio k between the elastic part and the damageable part. We show that a higher stiffness ratio implies a more brittle system. Prior to complete failure, relaxation creep rupture exhibits a sequence of three stages, similar to creep rupture under constant stress, and the nominal force rate presents a power law singularity with a power index -1/2 near the global rupture time. PMID:22400604

  11. Direct visualization of microalgae rupture by ultrasound-driven bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommella, Angelo; Harun, Irina; Pouliopoulos, Antonis; Choi, James J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Garbin, Valeria

    2015-11-01

    Cell rupture induced by ultrasound is central to applications in biotechnology. For instance, cell disruption is required in the production of biofuels from microalgae (unicellular species of algae). Ultrasound-induced cavitation, bubble collapse and jetting are exploited to induce sufficiently large viscous stresses to cause rupture of the cell membranes. It has recently been shown that seeding the flow with bubbles that act as cavitation nuclei significantly reduces the energy cost for cell processing. However, a fundamental understanding of the conditions for rupture of microalgae in the complex flow fields generated by ultrasound-driven bubbles is currently lacking. We perform high-speed video microscopy to visualize the miscroscale details of the interaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , microalgae of about 10 μm in size, with ultrasound-driven microbubbles of 2-200 μm in diameter. We investigate the efficiency of cell rupture depending on ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude (from 10 kPa up to 1 MPa), and the resulting bubble dynamics regimes. In particular we compare the efficiency of membrane rupture in the acoustic microstreaming flow induced by linear oscillations, with the case of violent bubble collapse and jetting. V.G. acknowledges partial support from the European Commission (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG), Grant No. 618333.

  12. Creep Rupture Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep rupture properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep rupture tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep rupture strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep rupture tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h rupture strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.

  13. Creep rupture testing of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Kathryn Anne

    Carbon fiber is becoming more prevalent in everyday life. As such, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of, not solely general mechanical properties, but of long-term material behavior. Creep rupture testing of carbon fiber is very difficult due to high strength and low strain to rupture properties. Past efforts have included testing upon strands, single tows and overwrapped pressure vessels. In this study, 1 inch wide, [0°/90°]s laminated composite specimens were constructed from fabric supplied by T.D. Williamson Inc. Specimen fabrication methods and gripping techniques were investigated and a method was developed to collect long term creep rupture behavior data. An Instron 1321 servo-hydraulic material testing machine was used to execute static strength and short term creep rupture tests. A hanging dead-weight apparatus was designed to perform long-term creep rupture testing. The testing apparatus, specimens, and specimen grips functioned well. Collected data exhibited a power law distribution and therefore, a linear trend upon a log strength-log time plot. Statistical analysis indicated the material exhibited slow degradation behavior, similar to previous studies, and could maintain a 50 year carrying capacity at 62% of static strength, approximately 45.7 ksi.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518

  15. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

    2009-01-01

    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  16. Rupture and dewetting of water films on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mulji, Neil; Chandra, Sanjeev

    2010-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted to observe rupture and dewetting of water films, 0.5-2mm thick, on solid surfaces. The effects of surface roughness, wettability, protrusions on surfaces, and air entrapment between films and surfaces were studied. Film thickness measurements were made and film rupture and surface dewetting photographed. Experiments showed that liquid films ruptured first along the highest edges of test surfaces. Placing a protrusion on the surface had no effect-the liquid film continued to rupture along the edges. A thermodynamic model was developed to show that protrusions lower the surface energy of the system and promote wetting. Increasing surface roughness therefore increases film stability by resisting rupture and dewetting. Water films could be punctured by introducing an air bubble that burst and created a hole. The hole would close if the film was thick and the solid-liquid contact angle was either small or large; the hole would grow larger if the film was thin and the contact angle was in the mid-range (∼80°). An analytical model that calculates the difference between the surface energies of the two states can be used to predict whether a hole would lead to surface dewetting or not. PMID:20817200

  17. Stress-rupture behavior of small diameter polycrystalline alumina fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Goldsby, Jon C.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous length polycrystalline alumina fibers are candidates as reinforcement in high temperature composite materials. Interest therefore exists in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, obtaining possible insights into underlying mechanisms, and understanding fiber performance under long term use. Results are reported on the time-temperature dependent strength behavior of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Below 1000 C and 100 hours, Nextel 610 with the smaller grain size had a greater fast fracture and rupture strength than Fiber FP. The time exponents for stress-rupture of these fibers were found to decrease from approximately 13 at 900 C to below 3 near 1050 C, suggesting a transition from slow crack growth to creep rupture as the controlling fracture mechanism. For both fiber types, an effective activation energy of 690 kJ/mol was measured for rupture. This allowed stress-rupture predictions to be made for extended times at use temperatures below 1000 C.

  18. Dealing with a penstock rupture: A success story

    SciTech Connect

    Siminski, D.R. )

    1993-08-01

    Speed and safety are important considerations when repairing damaged penstocks. When the Control Gorge penstock in southern California ruptured, quick, successful action prevented complications. In the winter of 1991, a break occurred in the lower portion of the 8-foot-diameter Owens River Gorge penstock. The rupture created a vacuum, which caused about 1,500 feet of the pipe upstream of the break to collapse. Investigations by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) indicate that pressure surges in the penstock caused by rapid opening and closing of a turbine bypass-relief valve at the Control Gorge hydro plant and a defective weld at a manway (a small access that leads into the penstock) led to the rupture. Quick emergency repairs were required owing to the limited bypass capability around the penstock, the need for water flow for fish habitat in the lower sections of the Owens River, and water needs for Los Angeles. Within ten days, LADWP employees had temporarily repaired the penstock. In less than five months, workers had replaced the collapsed and ruptured sections, and returned the penstock to full service. The penstock rupture at Owens Gorge caused LADWP to recognize that older hydro plants may have hidden defects that would not have been left in place with current construction and inspection methods. Therefore, additional care should be taken during operation of these plants to avoid placing any unnecessary stresses on plant equipment.

  19. Space qualification of the ISO cryogenic rupture discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettlinger, E.; Ruediger, H.; Wanner, M.

    1990-03-01

    Space cryostats, like the model to be used in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), require safety components to protect the satellite, the launcher, and the personnel against overpressure in the helium system. The ISO cryostat, which carries 2250 cu dm of liquid helium, will be equipped with a rupture disk as the ultimate safety component in case of loss of the insulation vacuum. Because it will have to operate under conditions of zero gravity and low pressure drop, the rupture disk has to be located directly on the helium tank and may thus release up to 5 kg/s of helium at a differential pressure of 2.6 bar directly into the insulation vacuum space. The selection and design of the rupture disk, as well as the test and qualification philosophy, are described.

  20. Dynamic Rupture Segmentation Along The Nankai Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hok, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Hashimoto, C.

    2010-12-01

    In southwest Japan, large devastating earthquakes (Mw>8) occurred along the Nankai subduction zone every 100-200 years (e.g. Ando, 1975, Tectonophys.; Ishibashi, 2004, Ann. Geophys.). Historical records revealed the segmented nature of the 600 km long seismogenic zone, producing Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes to occur separately or jointly at each cycle. The intersegment zone which separates Nankai and Tonankai source areas, near the Kii Peninsula, should have some special physical properties. In this study, we investigate the dynamic linkage of the coseismic slips on the Nankai and Tonankai segments, by modeling the spontaneous rupture propagation on the subduction interface. To conduct a reliable modeling, the parameters’ lateral variations along the place interface are introduced by combining several geophysical observation data sets. First, we use a large-scale 3D geometry for the plate interface, inferred from seismicity; we also integrate the slip deficit distribution (Hashimoto et al., 2009, SSJ meeting) obtained by inversion of GPS data, to constrain the distribution of stress drop on the interface. This distribution is not uniform, and explains the 1st order asperities of the subduction zone: Hyuga, Nankai, Tonankai and Tokai areas appear clearly as loaded regions. In addition, a constitutive friction law is required to link fault slip and stress release. We compiled regional geophysical information relevant to the segmentation, to infer the distribution of the frictional parameters at seismogenic depths. We focused on areas where the rupture is known to have stopped. The barriers seem to be related to upper plate structure (Wells et al. 2003, JGR, Rosenau and Oncken 2009, JGR). Uplifted areas show common characteristics: end of seismogenic segments, underplating in the wedge, and higher density of the upper old wedge (granitic intrusions). Following above review, we introduced 3 barrier regions delimiting 2 asperity regions (Nankai and Tonankai

  1. Survivors of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip.

    PubMed Central

    Armour, R H

    1977-01-01

    In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for ruptured aneurysms among series reported in British journals is 53%, but the survivors are a small minority of the total number of people in the community whose aneurysms rupture. No basis could be found for the view that replacing an aortic aneurysm with a straight graft (while leaving behind aneurysmal common iliac arteries) lowers the operative mortality. On the contrary, oversimplifying the operation may be hazardous. PMID:922418

  2. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Stress Rupture Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar(TradeMark) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm (40-in.) diameter Kevlar(TradeMark) COPV was tested to failure (burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

  3. A Case of Post Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Milnes, Christopher; Kumar, Vishesh; Raizada, Amol; Nykamp, Verlyn; Stys, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Papillary muscle rupture is a rare, life-threatening post myocardial infarction mechanical complication. Without surgical intervention, prognosis is very poor. Clinicians need to recognize this complication early, as prompt therapy is crucial. We present a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe acute mitral regurgitation (flail anterior mitral leaflet), acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. In our patient, a new mitral regurgitation murmur suggested this mechanical complication. Complete disruption of papillary muscle was visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. This case illustrates the importance of good physical examination for early diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture, so that life-saving treatment can be administered without delay. PMID:27443107

  4. Rupture Zones of Strong Earthquakes In The Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Kouskouna, V.; Plessa, A.

    Ruptures zones of the strong (M 8805; 6) earthquakes that occurred in the Corinth rift in the last three hundred years have been determined on the basis of aftershock epi- central distributions , intensity distributions and observations regarding seismogenic ground failures and tsunamis. The space U time distribution of the rupture zones indi- cates that (1) for time intervals of about 50yrs the rupture zones do not overlap; over- alpping appear, however, in longer time intervals , (2) there is a trend of the seismic activity to decrease westwards , and (3) particular regions constitute potential seis- mic gaps , like the Kiato UXylocastro region in the south coast of the Corinth Gulf, where the large 1402 earthquake occurred, and the Livadia U Desfina region where the A.D.361 and 551 large earthquakes possibly took place.

  5. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel(COPV) Stress Rupture Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark, R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar® composite overwrapped pressure vessels(COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm(40-in.) diameter Kevlar® COPV was tested to failure(burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

  6. Emergency Stenting of a Ruptured Infected Anastomotic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Tsigris, Chris; Papadopouli, Katerina; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bastounis, Elias

    2007-11-15

    A 74-year-old man presented with a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Due to severe medical comorbidities he was considered unsuitable for conventional surgical management and underwent an emergency endovascular repair with a balloon-expandable covered stent. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded successfully and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery with long-term suppressive antimicrobials. He remained well for 10 months after the procedure with no signs of recurrent local or systemic infection and finally died from an acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, emergency endovascular treatment of a free ruptured bleeding femoral artery pseudoaneurysm has not been documented before in the English literature. This case illustrates that endovascular therapy may be a safe and efficient alternative in the emergent management of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms when traditional open surgery is contraindicated.

  7. Late calcification and rupture: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting.

    PubMed

    Kural, Cahit; Kirik, Alparslan; Pusat, Serhat; Senturk, Tolga; Izci, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year old boy who had undergone a ventriculoperitoneal (V/P) shunt because of hydrocephalus at 10 days of age was doing well until 20 days ago, when he began to experience headache and seizures. CT scan revealed dilated lateral ventricles and calcification at the shunt site. X-rays showed an unusual calcification pattern around the shunt tube and rupture of the tube between the mastoid bone and clavicle. The patient underwent surgery and the shunt was changed completely. The ventricles became small in the follow-up. Even though V/P shunts may induce fibrous tissue formation and calcification around the tube, there are a few cases of shunt rupture and calcification of shunts in the literature. Possible mechanisms of the rupture and calcification are discussed in this paper. PMID:23208915

  8. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  9. Spontaneous common iliac vein rupture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    DePass, Ian E.

    1998-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman, admitted because of acute lower quadrant abdominal pain but no history of trauma, underwent laparotomy for a suspected ruptured aortic aneurysm. Exploration revealed a 20-mm longitudinal tear in the left iliac vein. The vein was repaired primarily. Her postoperative course was complicated by deep vein thrombosis. Spontaneous rupture of the iliac vein without trauma is rare. but occurs predominantly in healthy white women between the ages of 40 and 80 years. Various causative mechanisms have been described: inflammation of the vessel wall secondary to thrombophlebitis, proximal obstruction of the iliac vein and spontaneous rupture without obstruction or thrombosis. In many cases an increase in intra-abdominal pressure is noted. PMID:9854541

  10. Evaluating fault rupture hazard for strike-slip earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.; Cao, T.; Dawson, Tim; Frankel, A.; Wills, C.; Schwartz, D.

    2004-01-01

    We present fault displacement data, regressions, and a methodology to calculate in both a probabilistic and deterministic framework the fault rupture hazard for strike-slip faults. To assess this hazard we consider: (1) the size of the earthquake and probability that it will rupture to the surface, (2) the rate of all potential earthquakes on the fault (3) the distance of the site along and from the mapped fault, (4) the complexity of the fault and quality of the fault mapping, (5) the size of the structure that will be placed at the site, and (6) the potential and size of displacements along or near the fault. Probabilistic fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in design of structures or lifelines that are located within about 50m of well-mapped active faults.

  11. Complicated malaria and a covert ruptured spleen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Peter; Macleod, Jana; Gikonyo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in complicated malaria is an uncommon cause of hemoperitoneum in the tropics. The exact incidence of splenic rupture is unknown, largely due to under-reporting, but has been estimated at ∼2%. Its pathophysiology is linked to the formation of a subcapsular hematoma. Upon rupture, patients present with features of shock and peritonitis and in most cases (95%), computed tomography (CT) scan detects the splenic injury. Patients should be managed conservatively with splenectomy reserved for patients with shock and hemoperitoneum due to risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with severe malaria who presented with fever, chills and abdominal pains. A CT scan abdomen failed to reveal splenic parenchymal injury or any splenic extravasation of contrast. Conservative management was unsuccessful. Exploratory laparatomy confirmed the spleen as the site of bleeding necessitating a splenectomy. PMID:25395608

  12. A Rare Case of Bilateral Patellar Tendon Ruptures: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Nadim; O'loughlin, Padhraig; Amin, Amin; Keogh, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are rare. The majority of case reports describing bilateral patellar tendon ruptures have occurred in patients with predisposing factors to tendinopathy. We describe a case of bilateral patellar tendon rupture sustained following minimal trauma by a patient with no systemic disease or history of steroid use. Due to the rarity of this injury, clinical suspicion is low. It is reported that 38% of patellar tendon ruptures are misdiagnosed initially. Therefore careful history taking and physical examination is integral in ensuring a diagnosis is achieved for early primary repair. We discuss the aetiology of spontaneous tendon rupture and report a literature review of bilateral patellar tendon ruptures. PMID:27200200

  13. Morphology Parameters for Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sujan; Tremmel, Markus; Mocco, J; Kim, Minsuok; Yamamoto, Junichi; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Meng, Hui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlate with human intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. METHODS For 45 patients with terminal or sidewall saccular IAs (25 unruptured, 20 ruptured), three-dimensional geometries were evaluated for a range of morphological parameters. In addition to five previously studied parameters (aspect ratio, aneurysm size, ellipticity index, nonsphericity index, and undulation index), we defined three novel parameters incorporating the parent vessel geometry (vessel angle, aneurysm [inclination] angle, and [aneurysm-to-vessel] size ratio) and explored their correlation with aneurysm rupture. Parameters were analyzed with a two-tailed independent Student's t test for significance; significant parameters (P < 0.05) were further examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed on each parameter. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were found between mean values in ruptured and unruptured groups for size ratio, undulation index, nonsphericity index, ellipticity index, aneurysm angle, and aspect ratio. Logistic regression analysis further revealed that size ratio (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03−1.92) and undulation index (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08−2.11) had the strongest independent correlation with ruptured IA. From the receiver operating characteristic analysis, size ratio and aneurysm angle had the highest area under the curve values of 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. CONCLUSION Size ratio and aneurysm angle are promising new morphological metrics for IA rupture risk assessment. Because these parameters account for vessel geometry, they may bridge the gap between morphological studies and more qualitative location-based studies. PMID:18797347

  14. Assessing magnitude probability distribution through physics-based rupture scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hok, Sébastien; Durand, Virginie; Bernard, Pascal; Scotti, Oona

    2016-04-01

    When faced with complex network of faults in a seismic hazard assessment study, the first question raised is to what extent the fault network is connected and what is the probability that an earthquake ruptures simultaneously a series of neighboring segments. Physics-based dynamic rupture models can provide useful insight as to which rupture scenario is most probable, provided that an exhaustive exploration of the variability of the input parameters necessary for the dynamic rupture modeling is accounted for. Given the random nature of some parameters (e.g. hypocenter location) and the limitation of our knowledge, we used a logic-tree approach in order to build the different scenarios and to be able to associate them with a probability. The methodology is applied to the three main faults located along the southern coast of the West Corinth rift. Our logic tree takes into account different hypothesis for: fault geometry, location of hypocenter, seismic cycle position, and fracture energy on the fault plane. The variability of these parameters is discussed, and the different values tested are weighted accordingly. 64 scenarios resulting from 64 parameter combinations were included. Sensitivity studies were done to illustrate which parameters control the variability of the results. Given the weight of the input parameters, we evaluated the probability to obtain a full network break to be 15 %, while single segment rupture represents 50 % of the scenarios. These rupture scenario probability distribution along the three faults of the West Corinth rift fault network can then be used as input to a seismic hazard calculation.

  15. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm with retrograde approach.

    PubMed

    Narin, Nazmi; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Baykan, Ali; Uzüm, Kazım

    2014-04-01

    A three-year-old girl with multiple heart malformations admitted to the pediatric cardiology unit because of excessive sweating and fatigue. Abnormal color Doppler flow was detected into the right atrium from the dilated coronary sinus on the echocardiographic examination, and ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) was diagnosed. Although in most such cases, an antegrade transcatheter approach has been used, a retrograde approach can be used as a cost-effective treatment modality in those cases with selective high-risk surgery. In this report, we present a patient with ruptured SVA, which was closed via Amplatzer vascular plug-4 by retrograde approach. PMID:24769826

  16. Multiple stage inflation packer with secondary opening rupture disc

    SciTech Connect

    Stepp, L.W.; Giroux, R.L.; Crump, J.B.; Borges, J.F.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes an inflatable packer apparatus for use in a well bore, it comprises: case means for connecting to a casing string and defining a port therethrough; inflatable packing means, connected to the case means and in communication with the port, for sealingly engaging the well bore when inflated; and rupture means upstream of the inflatable packing means for rupturing in response to a predetermined pressure after inflation of the packing means and thereby placing the port in communication with a well annulus.

  17. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: Surviving a catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Bisoyi, Samarjit; Mohanty, Jitendu; Mohapatra, Raghunath; Nayak, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR) is rupture of the left ventricle (LV). This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period. PMID:25566717

  18. Analysis of slipstream flow in two ruptured intracranial cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, S G; Kerber, C W

    1999-10-01

    Replicas of ruptured posterior communicating and basilar artery aneurysms were created from cadaveric specimens and then were placed in a circuit of pulsating non-Newtonian fluid. Individual fluid slipstreams were opacified with isobaric dyes, and images were recorded on film. The slipstreams entered the distal aneurysm neck with impact against the distal lateral wall of the aneurysm. They then swirled slowly in a reverse vortical pattern within the aneurysm sac. Fluid exited the aneurysm at the proximal neck. The flow pattern clearly shows the impact zone of entering slipstreams (the point of aneurysm rupture) and provides information pertaining to aneurysm growth and formation. PMID:10543644

  19. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid documentation (<1 day) of co-seismic surface rupture location and slip is essential for scientific and emergency response. We demonstrate how social media (text messaging and Twitter) and the emerging 3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to

  20. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  1. Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, C. O.; Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A.; Steger, U.; Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R.

    2012-02-15

    Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

  2. Rupture of ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingshuai; Zhang, Junhui; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 35-year-old female patient presented with swelling pain at left waist for 1 month. Left renal pelvis stones were found and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy was successfully performed. Two weeks later, the patient suddenly suffered massive bleeding presented with gross hematuria. Rupture of ectopic renal artery pseudoaneurysm was identified by computed tomography and angiography of the renal artery. Emergency selective angioembolization of one branch of the artery was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured ectopic renal arterial pseudoaneurysm. PMID:27564300

  3. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in rudimentary horn of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Amber; Hashmi, Haleema A

    2007-02-01

    Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. It is difficult to diagnose before surgery and hazardous to maternal life as rupture of pregnant horn result in severe hemoperitoneum. Case of rudimentary horn pregnancy is reported in a lady with history of habitual abortion and signs and symptoms of acute adnexal pathology. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. Excision of accessory horn was done. PMID:17288859

  4. Ruptured and unruptured mycotic superior mesenteric artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Semel, Marcus E; McGillicuddy, Edward A; Ho, Karen J; Menard, Matthew T; Gates, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and branches thereof are uncommon but have a high rate of rupture and mortality relative to other visceral artery aneurysms. Historically, the predominant etiology has been infectious; with a renewed rise in intravenous drug abuse rates in the last decade, we hypothesize a resurgence in septic embolic complications may occur in the coming years. Here, we describe the presentation and management of 2 cases of intravenous drug users presenting with infectious endocarditis and SMA main trunk and branch aneurysms, one of which was ruptured. In addition, we review the literature on these rare clinical entities. PMID:25017769

  5. Renal allograft transplant recipient with ruptured hydatid native kidney.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Wani, Imtiyaz; Khan, Imran; Wani, Muzaffar

    2014-07-01

    Echinococcosis of the kidneys in a renal transplant recipient is extremely rare and its occurrence being related to immunosuppression is a possibility which needs further characterisation. Ruptured renal hydatid in a renal transplant recipient is not reported so far to our best knowledge. We present a 42-year-old renal allograft receipient who presented one year after transplant with left flank pain, palpable left lumbar mass and gross hydatiduria. Investigations revealed a ruptured native hydatid kidney. Patient was managed with a combination of chemotherapy and left native nephrectomy and discharged in a satisfactory condition. PMID:25125908

  6. Rare presentation of ruptured syphilitic aortic aneurysm with pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Feitosa, Israel Nilton; Dantas Leite Figueiredo, Magda; de Sousa Belem, Lucia; Evelin Soares Filho, Antônio Wilon

    2015-11-01

    We report the interesting case of a rare form of presentation of rupture of the ascending aorta with formation of a pseudoaneurysm, diagnosed following the development of a large mass on the surface of the chest over a period of about eight months. Serological tests were positive for syphilis. Echocardiography and computed tomography angiography were essential to confirm the diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cardiovascular syphilis is a rare entity since the discovery of penicillin. Rupture of an aortic aneurysm with formation of a pseudoaneurysm is a potentially fatal complication. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital within days of surgery. PMID:26481180

  7. Umbilical cord rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Madhusudhan; Nama, Vivek; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Kakumani, Vijayasri; Worth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The umbilical cord acts as a mechanical conduit between the fetus and placenta, allowing movement of water and nutrient substances between the fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Complications can occur antenatally or intranatally and are usually acute events that require immediate delivery to prevent intrauterine death. Even though the majority of the cord complications are unpreventable, significant improvement in perinatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved if such an event can be predicted. Umbilical cord rupture is not uncommon, but significantly underreported. We present an unusual cause of umbilical cord rupture and a review of literature. PMID:18320869

  8. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

    2008-01-01

    California?s 35 million people live among some of the most active earthquake faults in the United States. Public safety demands credible assessments of the earthquake hazard to maintain appropriate building codes for safe construction and earthquake insurance for loss protection. Seismic hazard analysis begins with an earthquake rupture forecast?a model of probabilities that earthquakes of specified magnitudes, locations, and faulting types will occur during a specified time interval. This report describes a new earthquake rupture forecast for California developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP 2007).

  9. Coil treatment of a fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with a combination of "kissing" neuroform stents, TriSpan-, 3D- and fibered coils, and permanent implantation of the microguidewires.

    PubMed

    Henkes, H; Kirsch, M; Mariushi, W; Miloslavski, E; Brew, S; Kühne, D

    2004-06-01

    Endovascular coil occlusion of fusiform intracranial aneurysms without sacrifice of the parent artery can be technically challenging. Bridging of wide aneurysm necks with stents is common practice for side-wall aneurysms but is less frequently used for bifurcation aneurysms. We describe the technical aspects of the successful coil occlusion of a fusiform aneurysm of the upper basilar trunk, with preservation of the parent vessel. The procedure comprised the following steps: (a) stenting of the left V1- and proximal V2 segments; (b) simultaneous deployment of two Neuroform stents from both P1 segments down to the basilar artery ("kissing" stents) (c) using a TriSpan device to hold (d) three-dimensional electrolytically detachable coils in place and (e) filling the aneurysmal lumen mainly with fibered electrolytically detachable coils; and finally (f) cutting the extracorporeal part of both microguidewires below the skin level in both groins, leaving the microguidewires as they were used for the deployment of the stents in place, thus reaching from both P2 segments down to the basilar artery and further proximally. PMID:15103433

  10. Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona

    2014-05-01

    The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and

  11. Rupture termination at restraining bends: The last great earthquake on the Altyn Tagh Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Austin J.; Oskin, Michael E.; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Shao, Yanxiu

    2015-04-01

    Strike-slip rupture propagation falters where changes in fault strike increase Coulomb failure stress. Numerical models of this phenomenon offer predictions of rupture extent based on bend geometry, but have not been verified with field data. To test model predictions of rupture barriers, we examine rupture extent along a section of the sinistral Altyn Tagh Fault punctuated by three major double bends. We measure 3-8 m offsets and map >95 km of continuous scarps that define the most recent surface rupture. We document the eastern terminus of this rupture within the Aksay bend, where an undeformed Pleistocene alluvial fan we mapped and dated overlaps the fault. We conclude, based on this geomorphologic evidence, that multiple Holocene ruptures have stopped in the Aksay bend. Our field data validate model predictions of rupture termination at a >18° restraining bend and support use of geometric parameters to define expected earthquake sizes in seismic hazard models.

  12. A Reliable Way to Track Rupture Process of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ge, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an algorithm which could find the solution to a sparse linear problem, which is physically consist with inversion problem of rupture process. Because relative to the whole fault plane, the seismic power radiation area is sparse in a specific moment during a great earthquake. CS method is used to invert the rupture process from teleseismic P wave data recorded by multiple seismic arrays with different azimuths and epicentral distances. Synthetic tests illustrate that, our method can suppress the artifacts caused by interference phases ( eg. PcP ) thus we can obtain a more reliable result than using the data from a single array. Moreover, the "swimming effect" in traditional back-projection method can be reduced due to the better azimuth coverage. Then the rupture process of the Mw7.9 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands, occurred at June 23, 2014 20:53 UTC is inverted. The results show that the rupture is along the subduction zone, which can be used to locate the primary fault plane combined with central moment tensor. In addition, where the released power concentrates in the earthquake is also given, which could help us determine which area is effected by the earthquake most heavily, thus the rescue operation can be effective. In conclusion, different from traditional beamforming method, CS can offer a high-resolution solution.

  13. Characterizing Earthquake Rupture Properties Using Peak High-Frequency Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Teleseismic array back-projection (BP) of high frequency (~1Hz) seismic waves has been recently applied to image the aftershock sequence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The BP method proves to be effective in capturing early aftershocks that are difficult to be detected due to the contamination of the mainshock coda wave. Furthermore, since the event detection is based on the identification of the local peaks in time series of the BP power, the resulting event location corresponds to the peak high-frequency energy rather than the hypocenter. In this work, we show that the comparison between the BP-determined catalog and conventional phase-picking catalog provides estimates of the spatial and temporal offset between the hypocenter and the peak high-frequency radiation. We propose to measure this peak high-frequency shift of global earthquakes between M4.0 to M7.0. We average the BP locations calibrated by multiple reference events to minimize the uncertainty due to the variation of 3D path effects. In our initial effort focusing on the foreshock and aftershock sequence of the 2014 Iquique earthquake, we find systematic shifts of the peak high-frequency energy towards the down-dip direction. We find that the amount of the shift is a good indication of rupture length, which scales with the earthquake magnitude. Further investigations of the peak high frequency offset may provide constraints on earthquake source properties such as rupture directivity, rupture duration, rupture speed, and stress drop.

  14. Progressive visual loss following rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Mascitelli, Justin R; Steinberger, Jeremy M; Weiss, Nirit

    2014-01-01

    A 51-year-old man with several months of headache and progressive visual decline was found to have bilateral optic disc pallor with significant impairment of visual acuity. Despite a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation, the cause of visual loss could not be elucidated. MRI of the brain revealed a lesion in the left anterior Sylvian fissure as well as disseminated foci of subarachnoid fat consistent with a diagnosis of a ruptured dermoid cyst. The decision for open surgical resection was chosen to minimize the risk of cyst re-rupture and further visual or neurologic decline. The diagnosis of dermoid cyst was confirmed at the time of surgery. Vasospasm-induced ischemia of the optic nerves, optic chiasm or bilateral optic tracts secondary to the inflammatory reaction following cyst rupture is the most likely mechanism of visual loss in this patient. To the authors' knowledge, this report represents the first reported case of visual loss secondary to rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst not related to mass effect of the tumor on the optic apparatus, visual pathways or visual cortex. PMID:23896550

  15. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Brent; Tabbarah, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient's worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient's flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided. PMID:26483981

  16. Mechanics of shear rupture applied to earthquake zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Victor C.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanics of shear slippage and rupture in rock masses are reviewed. The essential ideas in fracture mechanics are summarized emphasizing the interpretation and relation among the fracture parameters in shear cracks. The slip-weakening model is described. The general formulation of the problem of nonuniform slip distribution in a continuum is covered.

  17. Percutaneous and Endovascular Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Andrew F.; Lee, Wai Kit

    2002-06-15

    A 72-year-old woman presented with an intraperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured intrahepatic arteryaneurysm, with an associated pseudoaneurysm developing a high-flow arteriovenous fistula. Persistent coagulopathy and a median arcuate ligament stenosis of the celiac axis further complicated endovascular management. Aneurysm thrombosis required percutaneous embolization with coils, a removable core guidewire and polyvinyl alcohol particles.

  18. Spontaneous postpartum rupture of an intact uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mavromatidis, George; Karavas, George; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Petousis, Stamatios; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Rousso, David

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of uterus is an obstetrical complication characterized by a breach in the uterine wall and the overlying serosa. We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vaginally after 2 days, giving birth to a male neonate of 3,020 g with normal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute. Her uterus was intact and gynecological examination after delivery was normal without any potential signs or symptoms of pathology. However, the day following her labor, patient complained of left iliac fossa pain. Her blood tests revealed a CRP value at 27.6 mg/L, whereas the X-rays revealed an extensive impacted fecal mass in the colon. MRI revealed that the left lower myometrial part of the uterus was depicted abrupt, with simultaneous presence of hemorrhagic stuff. The decision of laparotomy was therefore made in order to further evaluate rupture of uterus and properly treat patient. And subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Postoperative follow-up period was not characterized by any complications and patient was finally discharged 4 days after hysterectomy. PMID:25368704

  19. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of valsalva to left ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Devi A; Lahiri, Anandaroop; George, Oommen K

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of ruptured right sinus of valsalva into the left ventricle (LV). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a marked turbulent flow from the right aortic sinus to the LV. We describe a novel technique of closure of this defect with duct occluder, involving the formation of an arterio-arterial loop, without resorting to the usual arteriovenous loop. PMID:27011698

  20. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of valsalva to left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Devi A; Lahiri, Anandaroop; George, Oommen K

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of ruptured right sinus of valsalva into the left ventricle (LV). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a marked turbulent flow from the right aortic sinus to the LV. We describe a novel technique of closure of this defect with duct occluder, involving the formation of an arterio-arterial loop, without resorting to the usual arteriovenous loop. PMID:27011698

  1. Theory of time-dependent rupture in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, S.; Scholz, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is used to develop a theory of earthquake mechanism which includes the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth. The following phenomena are predicted: slow earthquakes, multiple events, delayed multiple events (doublets), postseismic rupture growth and afterslip, foreshocks, and aftershocks. The theory predicts a nucleation stage prior to an earthquake, and suggests a physical mechanism by which one earthquake may 'trigger' another.

  2. Probing voltage induced bond rupture in a molecular junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haixing; Su, Timothy; Kim, Nathaniel; Darancet, Pierre; Leighton, James; Steigerwald, Michael; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    We use scanning tunneling microscope break junction to study electric field breakdown at the single molecule level. We investigate breakdown phenomena in atomic chains composed of Si--Si, Si--O, Si--C, Ge--Ge and C--C bonds that are commonly found in the low- κ dielectric material. We see different bond rupture behaviors in a range of molecular backbones, and use the results from a statistically large number of measurements to determine which bond breaks. We find that Si--Si and Ge--Ge bonds rupture above a 1V bias. We also find that the Si--C bond is more robust than Si--O or Si--Si bond at above 1V. Finally, we illustrate how an additional conductance pathway in parallel to the Si--Si bond changes bond rupture behavior under an electric field. We carry out ab initio calculations on these systems and demonstrate that the mechanism for bond rupture under electric field involves ``heating'' of the molecule through electron-vibrational mode coupling. Haixing Li is supported by Semiconductor Research Corporation and New York CAIST program. We thank the NSF for the support of these studies under Grant No. CHE-1404922.

  3. Isolated splenic peliosis with spontaneous rupture after a viperine bite.

    PubMed

    Lal, Anupam; Singhal, Manphool; Sharma, Navneet; Bhalla, Ashish; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-02-01

    Isolated splenic peliosis is an extremely uncommon condition that can present with atraumatic rupture and potential fatal outcome. We here report 1 such case that developed after a viperine bite in a 21-year-old woman. The case highlights the diagnostic findings on computed tomographic (CT) scan and its potential complications. PMID:24286667

  4. Earthquake rupturing as a mineralizing agent in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    1987-08-01

    Much fault-hosted epithermal mineralization is localized in dilational jogs between en echelon fault segments, as fissure veins or as hydrothermally cemented, high-dilation wall-rock breccias. Jog widths may range from millimetres to kilometres; vein textures record histories of incremental development. Perturbation or arrest of earthquake ruptures at dilational jogs has been observed and is believed to involve extensional fracturing at the rupture tip, locally reducing fluid pressure and inducing suctions opposing rapid slip transfer across the jog. This forced fissuring leads to brecciation by hydraulic implosion and to a concentrated fluid influx, allowing delayed slip transfer accompanied by aftershock activity. Within the southern San Andreas fault system, major dilational jogs extend throughout the seismogenic regime and form loci for magmatic-hydrothermal systems; they act as vertical pipelike conduits for enhanced fluid flow. Rupture termination at these structures has sometimes been followed by hydrothermal eruptions, suggesting that high-level boiling events are triggered by the arrest mechanism. It thus seems probable that episodic mineral deposition in the top 1 2 km of such jogs is induced by the dynamic effects of rupturing on the flanking strike-slip faults.

  5. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. Presentation of case A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Discussion Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. PMID:26298093

  6. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  7. Ruptured Liver Abscess in Neonates: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Choudhury, SR; Jhanwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hepatic abscess is a rare disease seen mainly in preterm following umbilical catheterisation. Liver abscess in term neonates without any predisposing factor is still rarer and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Here we report two cases of liver abscess in term neonates presenting with abdominal mass due to rupture. PMID:27433449

  8. Axial creep-rupture time of boron-aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Koichi; Hamada, Jun`ichi

    1995-11-01

    Axial creep tests of a 10vol% boron-aluminum hotpressed monolayer composite were carried out under several constant loads at 300 C in air. The composite behaved with slight primary creep, but did not show appreciable secondary creep. Several specimens encountered a momentary increase of strain during the creep test which separated the creep curve into two regions, because of the individual fiber breaks in the composite. And then, almost all the specimens suddenly fractured without tertiary creep. From the viewpoint of reliability engineering the statistical properties of the creep-rupture time were investigated. The average creep-rupture time decreased with an increase in the applied stress, and the relatively large coefficient of variation was estimated in every case, being around 1,000%. However, these scatters were estimated to be smaller than the scatter of creep-rupture time in the boron fiber itself. That means, the reliability of the fiber`s creep-rupture time is improved by compositing with matrix material.

  9. Tibiofibular screw fixation for syndesmotic ruptures: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Stein, G; Eichler, C; Ettmann, L; Koebke, J; Müller, L P; Thelen, U; Skouras, E

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms of injuries to the tibiofibular syndesmosis include isolated rupture and rupture in combination with ankle fractures. Current concepts of surgical treatment are fixation using bioabsorbable screws, syndesmotic stapling, syndesmotic hooks, and the widely used screw fixation. Postoperative care utilises passive motion of the ankle joint either with or without axial weight-bearing. The aim of our investigation was to quantify the motion of the mortise during axial load. Therefore, photoelastic tests, on the one hand, and biomechanical tests of cadaveric specimens, on the other, using axial loads of up to 2,000 N were used. Our photoelastic investigations showed force distribution through the screw into the cranial and caudal parts of the distal fibula. Biomechanical testing showed a progressive dehiscence in both ruptured and fixated specimens up to 2.89 (ruptured) and 2.42 mm (despite screw). Our findings strongly suggest a concept of partial weight-bearing at most to support regeneration of scar tissue and to prevent the appearance of instability in the ankle joint. PMID:22415030

  10. Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Hemangioma in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Leo, Bruno; Vidal-Medina, Jorge; Cervantes-Ledezma, Jesús; Díaz De León-Rivera, Arid; Díaz-Velasco, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Spleen vascular tumors such as hemangiomas, albeit rare, can present during neonatal period with unexplained circulatory shock. We present a case of a newborn with refractory hypovolemic shock and acute abdomen that underwent emergency splenectomy due to spontaneous rupture of a splenic hemangioma. PMID:27433454

  11. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of earthquake rupture characteristics using hydroacoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot-Hedlin, C.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroacoustic signals (T-waves) generated by the 2004 Great Sumatra earthquake were recorded by a network of 5 small hydroacoustic arrays located in the Indian Ocean at distances of 2800 to 7000 km from the epicenter. The array configurations allow for accurate determination of the receiver to source azimuth given coherent arrivals. Analysis of a series of short time windows within the T-wave coda shows that the receiver to source azimuth varies smoothly as a function of time, suggesting a non-stationary T-wave source. The data indicate that the rupture proceeded in two distinct phases; initially it progressed northwest at approximately 2.4 km/s along the Sunda trench. At 600km from the epicenter the rupture slowed to approximately 1.5 km/s. However, T-waves generated by small earthquakes are also generated over a wide range of azimuths, reflecting seismic to acoustic over a broad expanse of the seafloor. Although the azimuthal variations for the great Sumatra event are shown to be inconsistent with a small-scale source, it is difficult in general to distinguish between azimuthal variations associated with the physics of T-wave excitation and those associated with an extended rupture zone. A method of determining rupture length based on the apparent motion of the T-wave source location is presented here and applied to several events, including the Great Sumatra earthquake of Dec 26, 2004 and the magnitude 8.6 event of March 28, 2005.

  13. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Nablo, Brian J; Panchal, Rekha G; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E; Robertson, Joseph W F; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M; Kasianowicz, John J

    2013-08-14

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

  14. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  15. PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR PLUGGING LEAKS IN RUPTURED CONTAINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A development program was performed successfully to develop and test a prototype system for temporarily stopping the flow of hazardous materials spilling on land or underwater from ruptured or damaged containers. The prototype system is portable, integrated, and field-operable by...

  16. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. PMID:24964430

  17. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  18. [Sudden deaths due to non-traumatic aortic aneurysms rupture].

    PubMed

    Bury, Anna; Meissner, Ewa; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    In this work we review two cases of ruptured aortic aneurysms which arose from congenital abnormalities of the aortic wall structure. In the first case, a 16-year old, previously untreated boy died, with no previous symptoms of an aortic aneurysm. The boy was suspected of taking drugs and even of committing suicide. A young couple found the boy's body in the wood close to the bus stop. There were no signs of violence on the corpse and the body was fully and properly dressed. The autopsy revealed enlarged (true aneurysm) and ruptured ascending aorta with about 700 ml of blood in the pericardial sac. Toxicological examination was negative. Histopathology showed abnormalities in the structure of the wall of aorta in the place of the rupture. All other body organs and vessels seemed to be normal and properly developed except the thoracic aorta, and no other morphologic abnormalities were present. In the second case, the corpse of a 30-year-old man was found in his apartment (he lived with his parents). The parents claimed he did not use drugs or alcohol. The autopsy, as in the previous case, revealed a ruptured true aneurysm of the ascending aorta with 370 g of blood in the pericardial sac. The concaved thoracic cavity was also observed. After the autopsy, the man's parents reported that in childhood, their son was diagnosed to suffer from Marfan syndrome. PMID:22715682

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen associated with Legionella pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Casanova-Roman, Manuel; Casas, Javier; Sanchez-Porto, Antonio; Nacle, Belen

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen associated with Legionella pneumonia is a rare and life-threatening complication; only three cases have been reported to date. The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with pneumonia and abdominal pain. He underwent a splenectomy, and was successfully treated with clarithromycin and levofloxacin. PMID:21886641

  20. Massive Pellet and Rupture Disk Testing for Disruption Mitigation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Baylor, Larry R; Caughman, John B; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Fehling, Dan T; Foust, Charles R; Jernigan, Thomas C; McGill, James M; Parks, P. B.; Rasmussen, David A

    2009-01-01

    Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing close-coupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D and should be ready for experiments later this year. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

  1. Ruptured saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with covered stents.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Keisuke; Funayama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ako, Junya; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysms are rare complications following coronary bypass graft surgery. A 46-year-old man presented with streptococcal infectious endocarditis and needed sequential operations for aortic root reconstruction. Shortly after the surgeries, a composite SVG on the right coronary artery developed a ruptured pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully treated using covered stents. PMID:25917780

  2. Traumatic ruptured globe eye injuries in a large urban center

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Eitan S; Lazzaro, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine patient characteristics and outcomes in a group of consecutive patients with ruptured globe eye injuries at Kings County Hospital Center, a large, urban, level 1 trauma center. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with ruptured globe eye injuries seen between January 2009 and October 2011. Thirty-eight patients who sustained ruptured globe eye injuries from all causes were investigated for etiology and final visual outcomes Results Eight eyes in which vision could be assessed were evaluated as having no light perception at presentation and three of these eyes required primary enucleation. Of the 38 eyes, orbit fractures were found in 15 eyes and an intraocular foreign body was found in six eyes. Discussion Our cohort revealed a 37.5% rate of primary enucleation in eyes with no light perception, which we believe to be a reflection of the severity of injury. All three cases were secondary to a gunshot wound. Further, our sample, although small in size, revealed a very high percentage of eyes that were ruptured secondary to violent causes compared with other studies. PMID:23493627

  3. [Proximal and distal ruptures of the biceps brachii tendon].

    PubMed

    Klonz, A; Loitz, D; Reilmann, H

    2003-09-01

    Proximal ruptures. Ruptures of the long head of the M. biceps humeri are commonly caused by degenerative changes within the tendon. Non-operative treatment gives good results, the loss of power regarding elbow flexion and supination amounts to only 8-21%. Refixation may be indicated for cosmetic reasons and offers a small but evident improvement of flexion and supination power. Deformity of the slipped muscle can be corrected effectively. Residual complaints after conservative treatment often result from associated subacromial problems. Distal ruptures. Ruptures of the distal tendon should be treated operatively. The loss of power after conservative treatment is evident (30-40% for flexion, >50% for supination). Extra-anatomical tenodesis to the brachialis muscle or anatomical fixation to the radial tuberosity can be applied. Flexion power and cosmesis can be addressed by both techniques. If supination strength is to be restored, the tendon has to be fixed anatomically. Preparation of the tuberosity bears the risk of heterotopic ossification or nerve damage. Mini-open techniques, using only a limited anterior approach, may decrease risks. PMID:14959750

  4. Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

  5. New finding in the radiographic diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, H.; Mellon, W.S. Jr.; Malhotra, A.K.; Olken, S.M.; Halls, J.

    1982-06-01

    The authors describe a new radiographic sign of rupture of the Achilles tendon system. It is a fracture, with separation through an osteophyte at the insertion of this tendon. Previously reported signs are also discussed as well as the present case report.

  6. Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar

  7. Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

    2010-05-01

    The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining

  8. Silent rupture of unscarred uterus: an unusual presentation at second trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neena; Chanana, Charu

    2007-04-01

    Rupture of unscarred uterus during the second trimester is rare. A case of ruptured uterus in a multiparous woman is presented. To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case in the English literature of uterine rupture during second trimester termination of pregnancy using ethacridine lactate. This case is also rare as uterine rupture is presented with an insidious course rather than acute, thus delaying the diagnosis. PMID:16957913

  9. Improved Data Set for the Frequency of Gaps and Steps in Ground Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, G. P.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Morelan, A. E., III

    2014-12-01

    Observations of actual ground ruptures from moderate and large earthquakes show a wide range of behaviors, including fault-to-fault jumps, branching topologies, and rupture traces with multi-kilometer gaps between them. Seismic hazard assessments have responded to these observations by including increasingly sophisticated scenarios of possible ruptures in their earthquake rate forecasts. The largest of these to date has been the Uniform California Earthquake Forecast 3 (UCERF3), which explicitly included ruptures with fault-to-fault jumps in its rupture rate estimates. High-level site-specific seismic source characterizations such as for the Diablo Canyon Power Plant have also begun including complicated rupture geometries. Systematic collection of observations from ground rupturing earthquakes provide one way to evaluate these seismic source models. We have expanded an initial collection by Wesnousky (2008) with events post-dating that collection and events for which new information is available. New events increase the strike-slip and normal event set by 50% and reverse events by 35%. New data allow us to revise previous estimates for strike-slip rupture of the probability that a step of 1 km or more in width will arrest rupture. Observationally, 65% of strike-slip ruptures include at least one step of 1 km or greater. The number of steps through which ruptures are observed to rupture through can be modeled by a geometric distribution in which steps are crossed about 59% of the time. Steps are slightly more effective at arresting rupture in normal and reverse faulting cases, being crossed 56% and 50%, respectively. New events were also systematically examined for gaps in the mapped rupture trace. We find gaps of 1 km or more in about half of the ruptures of the new event set. These empirical data will compliment new research into rupture propagation across gaps, exemplified by the 2010 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake, which included a gap measured variously at 7 or

  10. Risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformation rupture during pregnancy and puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuan-li; Teo, Mario; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Cao, Yong; Ye, Xun; Kang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the risk of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is increased during pregnancy and puerperium. Methods: Participants included 979 female patients with intracranial AVM admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 1960 and 2010. Two neurosurgery residents reviewed medical records for each case. Of them, 393 patients with ruptured AVM between 18 and 40 years of age were used for case-crossover analysis. Number of children born and clinical information during pregnancy and puerperium were retrieved to identify whether AVM rupture occurred during this period. Results: Of the 979 women, 797 hemorrhages occurred during 25,578 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 3.11%. The annual AVM hemorrhage rate in patients aged 18 to 40 years (n = 579) was 2.78%, lower than the rate in other age groups (odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.86, p < 0.05). Of the 393 patients with rupture of AVM aged 18 to 40 years, 12 hemorrhages occurred in 12 patients over 452 pregnancies, yielding a hemorrhage rate of 2.65% per pregnancy or 3.32% per year. Among the remaining 381 patients, 441 hemorrhages occurred during 10,627 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 4.14%. The odds ratio for rupture of AVM during pregnancy and puerperium, compared with the control period, was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.61–0.82). Conclusions: No increased risk of hemorrhage was found in patients with cerebral AVM during pregnancy and the puerperium. We therefore would not advise against pregnancy in women with intracranial AVM. PMID:24759847

  11. Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.

    PubMed

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-06-28

    Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene. PMID:24834440

  12. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations by a finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.

    2009-07-01

    Dynamic rupture of a 3-D spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape is investigated using a finite volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra whereas the surface, on which the rupture takes place, is discretized with triangles that are faces of tetrahedra. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for an easy application of the FV discretization. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles that have suffered rupture. On these broken surfaces, stress follows a linear slip-weakening law, although other friction laws can be implemented. For The Problem Version 3 of the dynamic-rupture code verification exercise conducted by the SCEC/USGS, numerical solutions on a planar fault exhibit a very high convergence rate and are in good agreement with the reference one provided by a finite difference (FD) technique. For a non-planar fault of parabolic shape, numerical solutions agree satisfactorily well with those obtained with a semi-analytical boundary integral method in terms of shear stress amplitudes, stopping phases arrival times and stress overshoots. Differences between solutions are attributed to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach, whose results are particularly sensitive to the mesh regularity (structured/unstructured). We expect this method, which is well adapted for multiprocessor parallel computing, to be competitive with others for solving large scale dynamic ruptures scenarios of seismic sources in the near future.

  13. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.

    2012-12-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  14. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  15. [Delayed spontaneous rupture of the bladder following augmentation enterocystoplasty].

    PubMed

    Leibovitch, I; Ramon, J; Ben Chaim, J; Goldwasser, B

    1990-08-01

    Delayed spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder following augmentation enterocystoplasty is a serious life-threatening complication of uncertain etiology. Multiple factors are believed to contribute to the mechanism of bladder perforation. Ruptured augmented bladders share a common urodynamic pattern of high leak point pressure of the urethra, with sensory and mechanical tolerance of high filling pressure. This combination seems to be the main predisposing factor for spontaneous perforation. Other risk factors, including catheter trauma during intermittent self-catheterization, urinary retention due to mucus retention or noncompliance with the catheterization protocol, chronic infection, and decreased sensation of bladder filling, may play roles in the mechanism of rupture. Clinically, patients present with sepsis, abdominal pain and distension, ileus, fever, oliguria and peritoneal irritation. The diagnosis is made on low pressure cystography, although failure of cystography to demonstrate extravasation is not unusual. Aggressive surgical treatment consists of immediate exploration, primary repair of the perforation, drainage of the perivesical space, suprapubic cystostomy and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Longterm management includes a strict intermittent catheterization schedule, anticholinergic therapy and urodynamic evaluation. Failure to achieve a low pressure storage reservoir by conservative means entails an increased risk of recurrent perforation. In such cases further surgical intervention should be considered. We present a 21-year-old paraplegic man 5 months after augmentation enterocystoplasty who required operation because of spontaneous rupture of the augmented bladder. Spontaneous delayed rupture of the bladder should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients after augmentation enterocystoplasty. Early surgical treatment and subsequent monitoring of the low pressure reservoir are recommended. PMID:2227670

  16. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon in patients on steroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, J F

    1983-01-01

    Three patients are presented who sustained bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon while on systemic steroid therapy for chest disease; a fourth patient with polymyalgia rheumatica on steroids is also presented. This is further evidence that tendon rupture can be a direct complication of steroid treatment. The English-language literature on bilateral Achilles tendon rupture is reviewed. PMID:6651370

  17. Creep-rupture of polymer-matrix composites. [graphite-epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Morris, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An accelerated characterization method for resin matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep rupture analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer matrix composites. Comparisons between creep rupture experiments and analytical models are presented. The time dependent creep rupture process in graphite epoxy laminates is examined as a function of temperature and stress level.

  18. Complementary Ruptures of Surface Ruptures and Deep Asperity during the 2014 Northern Nagano, Japan, Earthquake (MW 6.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

    2015-12-01

    A thrust earthquake of MW 6.3 occurred along the northern part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) in the northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan, on November 22, 2014. This event was reported to be related to an active fault, the Kamishiro fault belonging to the ISTL (e.g., HERP, 2014). The surface rupture is observed along the Kamishiro fault (e.g., Lin et al., 2015; Okada et al., 2015). We estimated the kinematic source rupture process of this earthquake through the multiple time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We used velocity waveforms in 0.05-1 Hz from 12 strong motion stations of K-NET, KiK-net (NIED), JMA, and Nagano prefecture (SK-net, ERI). In order to enhance the reliability in Green's functions, we assumed one-dimensional velocity structure models different for the different stations, which were extracted from the nation-wide three-dimensional velocity structure model, Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012). Considering the spatial distribution of aftershocks (Sakai et al., 2015) and surface ruptures, the assumed fault model consisted of two dip-bending fault segments with different dip angles between the northern and southern segments. The total length and width of the fault plane is 20 km and 13 km, relatively, and the fault model is divided into 260 subfaults of 1 km × 1 km in space and six smoothed ramp functions in time. An asperity or large slip area with a peak slip of 1.9 m was estimated in the lower plane of the northern segment in the approximate depth range of 4 to 8 km. The depth extent of this asperity is consistent with the seismogenic zone revealed by past studies (e.g., Panayotopoulos et al., 2014). In contrast, the slip in the southern segment is relatively concentrated in the shallow portion of the segment where the surface ruptures were found along the Kamishiro fault. The overall spatial rupture pattern of the source fault, in which the deep asperity

  19. Near-source ground motions from simulations of sustained intersonic and supersonic fault ruptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the long-period near-source ground motions from simulations of M 7.4 events on a strike-slip fault using kinematic ruptures with rupture speeds that range from subshear speeds through intersonic speeds to supersonic speeds. The strong along-strike shear-wave directivity present in scenarios with subshear rupture speeds disappears in the scenarios with ruptures propagating faster than the shear-wave speed. Furthermore, the maximum horizontal displacements and velocities rotate from generally fault-perpendicular orientations at subshear rupture speeds to generally fault-parallel orientations at supersonic rupture speeds. For rupture speeds just above the shear-wave speed, the orientations are spatially heterogeneous as a result of the random nature of our assumed slip model. At locations within a few kilometers of the rupture, the time histories of the polarization of the horizontal motion provide a better diagnostic with which to gauge the rupture speed than the orientation of the peak motion. Subshear ruptures are associated with significant fault-perpendicular motion before fault-parallel motion close to the fault; supershear ruptures are associated with fault-perpendicular motion after significant fault-parallel motion. Consistent with previous studies, we do not find evidence for prolonged supershear rupture in the long-period (>2 sec) ground motions from the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake. However, we are unable to resolve the issue of whether a limited portion of the rupture (approximately 10 km in length) propagated faster than the shear-wave speed. Additionally, a recording from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake does appear to be qualitatively consistent with locally supershear rupture. Stronger evidence for supershear rupture in earthquakes may require very dense station coverage in order to capture these potentially distinguishing traits.

  20. PIP breast implants: rupture rate and correlation with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    MOSCHETTA, M.; TELEGRAFO, M.; CORNACCHIA, I.; VINCENTI, L.; RANIERI, V.; CIRILLI, A.; RELLA, L.; IANORA, A.A. STABILE; ANGELELLI, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence of Poly Implant Prosthése (PIP) rupture as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of the detected signs and the potential correlation with breast carcinoma. Patients and methods 67 patients with silicone breast implants and clinical indications for breast MRI were evaluated for a total of 125 implants: 40 (32%) PIP in 21 patients and 85 non-PIP in 46 patients (68%), the latest considered as control group. A 1.5-T MR imaging device was used in order to assess implant integrity with dedicated sequences and in 6 cases a dynamic study was performed for characterizing breast lesions. Two radiologists with more than 5 years’ experience in the field of MRI evaluated in consensus all MR images searching for the presence of clear signs of intra or extra-capsular implant rupture. Results 20/40 (50%) PIP implants presented signs of intra-capsular rupture: linguine sign in 20 cases (100%), tear-drop sign in 6 (30%). In 12/20 cases (60%), MRI signs of extra-capsular rupture were detected. In the control group, an intra-capsular rupture was diagnosed in 12/85 cases (14%) associated with extra-capsular one in 5/12 cases (42%). Among the six cases with suspected breast lesions, in 2/21 patients with PIP implants (10%) a breast carcinoma was diagnosed (mucinous carcinoma, n=1; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=1). In 4/46 patients (9%) with non-PIP implants, an invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. Conclusion The rupture rate of PIP breast implants is significantly higher than non-PIP (50% vs 14%). MRI represents the most accurate imaging tool for evaluating breast prostheses and the linguine sign is the most common MRI sign to be searched. The incidence of breast carcinoma does not significantly differ between the PIP and non-PIP implants and a direct correlation with breast cancer can not been demonstrated. PMID:25644728