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1

Treatment of a Ruptured Vertebrobasilar Fusiform Aneurysm Using Pipeline Embolization Device  

PubMed Central

Treatment options of ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms (VFA) are limited and often carry significant mortality and morbidity. We report the use of Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) to successfully treat a patient with a ruptured vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm (VFA) who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 73 year-old man with a history of cardiac stent placement seven days earlier presented with Hunt-Hess II SAH. He was taking aspirin and clopidogrel. Computed tomography angiogram revealed a large vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysm. Microsurgical treatment options are technically challenging and carry high risk. He underwent endovascular treatment of the ruptured VFA using overlapping PEDs. Five PEDs were placed in a telescoping fashion to reconstruct the affected portions of the left vertebral and basilar arteries. An additional 2-mm blister aneurysm in the right vertebral artery was also discovered during the conventional cerebral angiography and was treated with one additional PED. The patient remained neurologically intact after the procedure. He was continued on aspirin and clopidogrel. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at three months demonstrated patency of the stents without any evidence of ischemic change. Follow-up conventional cerebral angiogram at six months demonstrated thrombosis of the VFA and reconstruction of the vertebrobasilar system. The patient remained clinically well. An endovascular approach using PEDs can be a safe and effective treatment option for ruptured VFA in selected cases. PMID:23593603

Tan, Lee A.; Lopes, Demetrius K.

2013-01-01

2

Risk Factors Affecting Clinical Outcome of Ruptured Vertebrobasilar Saccular Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Ruptured vertebrobasilar (VB) saccular aneurysm is a difficult lesion to treat, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the clinical outcome of ruptured VB aneurysms. Methods A retrospective review of 29 patients with ruptured VB saccular aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 was conducted between Jan 2002 and Dec 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for determination of the statistical significance of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at three months, according to age, initial Hunt-Hess grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus, and treatment modality. Results The study included 24 (82.7%) females and five (17.3%) males, with a mean age of 59 years (range, 22-78 years). Seventeen patients were treated with surgical clipping and 12 patients were treated with endovascular coil embolization. No statistical significance was observed between clinical outcome and treatment modalities (clipping or coiling; p = 0.803). Seventeen (58.6%) patients achieved favorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 4-5, at 3 months. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven patients (24.1%). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 1-3 (Odds ratio (OR) = 8.63, Confidence interval (CI) [95%] 1.11-66.84, p = 0.039 and OR = 36.64, CI [95%] 2.23-599.54, p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion The present study suggests that the clinical outcomes are related to the initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus in ruptured saccular VB aneurysms. PMID:23210044

Kang, Mun Soo; Kang, Hee In; Moon, Byung Gwan; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Joo Seung

2012-01-01

3

Pathological examination of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical course of fusiform compared with saccular aneurysms. The case of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm accompanied by dissection at the M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is reported, along with pathological findings. Case Description: A 41-year-old female presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was revealed to have a ruptured fusiform aneurysm at the M2 portion of the right MCA on angiography. She was treated with superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm consisted of a whitish fusiform dilatation with a thickened wall of the MCA and two red protrusions on it. Pathological examinations revealed disruption and fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina and intimal thickening in the fusiform lesion. There were two aneurysmal protrusions on the main fusiform dilatation. In one protruded lesion, a dissection of the intima was observed. Conclusion: We propose that a dissection and saccular aneurysm additionally developed on the wall of a preexisting segmental ectasia of the MCA in our case. In this report, we discuss the etiology of fusiform aneurysms of the MCA.

Kinoshita, Masashi; Kida, Shinya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

4

Treatment of Ruptured Saccular Aneurysms of the Fenestrated Vertebrobasilar Junction with Balloon Remodeling Technique  

PubMed Central

Summary Fenestration of the intracranial arteries is a relatively common occurrence. This anatomic variation may predispose to aneurysm formation at certain sites. Treatment of such aneurysms is difficult as it may occlude one of the limbs of fenestration with resultant deficit. Thus, preservation of both the limbs with adequate exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation should be the aim of any treatment. We describe a series of four cases of ruptured aneurysms arising from a fenestrated vertebrobasilar junction treated with endovascular balloon remodeling technique. PMID:24070077

Gupta, Vivek; Ahuja, Chirag K; Khandelwal, N; Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, S K

2013-01-01

5

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Vertebrobasilar insufficiency presents with characteristic symptoms and signs due to impaired perfusion of the cerebellum,\\u000a the brain stem, and the occipital cortex. This may be due to reduced perfusion usually due to atherosclerosis or thromboembolism.\\u000a Choice of treatment depends on understanding the different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Antiplatelet therapy; reduction\\u000a of risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and cigarette

Arockia Doss; Constantine C. Phatouros

2006-01-01

6

Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. PMID:21691534

Schoen, Jessica C.; Boysen, Megan M.; Warren, Chase R.; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

2011-01-01

7

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency and stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertigo is the most common symptom of transient ischemia within the vertebrobasilar system. Episodes typically come on abruptly and last minutes. Although there are usually associated symptoms, isolated attacks of vertigo can occur. Vertigo is also a common symptom with brain stem and cerebellar strokes. Isolated cerebellar infarction can mimic peripheral vestibular disorders because vertigo and imbalance are the main

ROBERT W. BALOH

1995-01-01

8

The surgical management of vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Vertebrobasilar insufficiency may result from structural lesions anywhere along the vertebrobasilar system. Recently developed techniques in angiography and microsurgery have made the vertebrobasilar system more accessible to surgical therapy. The syndrome of vertebrobasilar insufficiency is discussed, and our experience with the surgical treatment of lesions from the vertebral origin to the distal basilar region is reviewed.

R. A. de los Reyes; J. I. Ausman; F. G. Diaz; H. Pak; J. E. Pearce; M. Dujovny

1983-01-01

9

Vertebrobasilar Artery Insufficiency and Electroencephalogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a renewed diagnostic approach to vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) — a condition which stood in the focus of this author's interest several decades ago. The time for a revisitation has come.The EEG findings consist mainly of generally reduced voltage output and enhanced photic driving response. There is also some theta activity over anterior temporal and midtemporal region, but

E. Niedermeyer

2008-01-01

10

Deafness associated with vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of auditory disturbances in vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is considered much rarer than vestibular disturbances, but no routine audiometric test results for VBI patients have been published. To determine the incidence of deafness associated with VBI and the sites predominantly involved in deafness, we studied 70 vertiginous patients with VBI using a routine audiological examination and magnetic resonance imaging

Tatsuya Yamasoba; Shigeru Kikuchi; Ryuzaburo Higo

2001-01-01

11

Clinical analysis of vertebrobasilar dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. The natural history of vertebrobasilar artery dissection (VAD) is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to review\\u000a the clinical outcome of the patients with VAD, then to propose an appropriate management strategy for VAD.\\u000a \\u000a Method. From 1992 to 2004, 35 VAD patients admitted to our institutes were retrospectively reviewed. There were 28 men and 7 women,

C.-H. Kim; Y.-J. Son; S. H. Paek; M. H. Han; J. E. Kim; Y. S. Chung; B. J. Kwon; C. W. Oh; D. H. Han

2006-01-01

12

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Correlation of Clinical and Radiologic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological and clinical findings of 20 cases with angiographically proven stenosis or occlusion of the vertebrobasilar system and with clinical signs and symptoms attributable to posterior circulation disorder were studied. A simpli fied classification of vertebrobasilar arterial disease was presented; type I refers to stenosis of the vertebrobasilar system or subclavian artery, type II refers to vertebrobasilar occlusion, and type

Takuya Fujiwara; Kazunori Tanohata; Yoshihito Hagiwara; Kiyoharu Inoue; Hideyo Fujino

1993-01-01

13

Retrosigmoid craniotomy for clipping of two vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms.  

PubMed

In this operative video, we demonstrate the approach to a 10-mm distal left vertebral artery and proximal basilar artery blister aneurysm in a 62-year-old male presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. He initially underwent clipping of the ruptured ACoA aneurysm and two incidental right MCA aneurysms. Ten days later, the posterior circulation aneurysms were clipped through an extended retrosigmoid approach, working between cranial nerves 9-11 inferiorly and 7-8 superiorly. The vertebral artery was accessible from its dural entry site to the vertebrobasilar junction with the rostral limit of the exposure at the level of the tentorium. He underwent uneventful clipping of all aneurysms without postoperative morbidity. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/PaZM7ecBCB0 . PMID:24380517

Abla, Adib Adnan; Englot, Dario J; Lawton, Michael L

2014-01-01

14

Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients' outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

Kamper, Lars, E-mail: lars.kamper@helios-kliniken.de; Meyn, Hannes [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Nordmeyer, Simone [St. Josef-Hospital Oberhausen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Germany); Kempkes, Udo; Piroth, Werner [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Isenmann, Stefan [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Neurology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany); Haage, Patrick [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal (Germany)

2012-06-15

15

Vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency in rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical myelopathy has become commonly recognized as a complication of rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation. A small group of patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may have intermittent symptoms associated with change of head position and which are due to vertebral artery compression. Two such cases are reported, one with necropsy findings of infarction in the area supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. The pathogenesis

M W Jones; J C Kaufmann

1976-01-01

16

Disorders of memory in vertebrobasilar disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) were assessed with a number of neuropsychological tests in order to investigate the qualitative nature and permanency of cognitive deficits associated with this disorder. Results suggested that VBI may produce a mild memory problem which has the characteristics of an axial amnesia. Qualitative features of this disorder are discussed. There appeared to be

Jennie L. Ponsford; Geoffrey A. Donnan; Kevin W. Walsh

1980-01-01

17

Combined Stent Placement and Thrombolysis in Acute Vertebrobasilar Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke is often associated with high morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. Endovascular treatment with thrombolysis has offered some hope for affected patients; however, overall outcomes have been less than satisfactory. In this report, we present the results of our approach in six consecutive cases of acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke by combined proximal

Doris D. M. Lin; Philippe Gailloud; Norman J. Beauchamp; Eric M. Aldrich; Robert J. Wityk; Kieran J. Murphy

2003-01-01

18

Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented. PMID:25071936

Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio

2014-01-01

19

Volatile terpenoids from aeciospores of Cronartium fusiforme.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of the terpenoids present in the volatile fraction from aeciospores of the gall rust fungus Cronartium fusiforme. The major monoterpenoid hydrocarbons found to be present with only traces of camphene include alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene, myrcene, linonene, beta-phellandrene, and delta-terpinene. A number of monoterpenoid alcohols, acyclic sesquiterpenes, and aromatic compounds were also present.

Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

1973-01-01

20

Revascularization of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion at the chronic stage.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who underwent intracranial angioplasty and Solitaire stent placement for recanalization of a vertebrobasilar artery occlusion 2 months after symptom onset. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed that both vertebral arteries and the proximal basilar artery were occluded. Balloon angioplasty was performed on a segment of the occluded left vertebral artery and basilar artery, followed by successful detachment of one Solitaire stent. Repeat angiography showed near normal patency of the left vertebrobasilar artery. The patient`s symptoms improved significantly, and postoperative transcranial Doppler sonography 3 months later showed no evidence of in-stent restenosis. PMID:23887219

Liu, Xun-Can; Chen, Chen; Shi, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shou-Chun

2013-07-01

21

Time management in acute vertebrobasilar occlusion.  

PubMed

Acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) is associated with a high risk of stroke and death. Although local thrombolysis may achieve recanalization and improve outcome, mortality is still between 35% and 75%. However, without recanalization the chance of a good outcome is extremely poor, with mortality rates of 80-90%. Early treatment is a fundamental factor, but detailed studies of the exact time management of the diagnostic and interventional workflow are still lacking. Data on 18 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Time periods between symptom onset, admission to hospital, time of diagnosis, and beginning of intervention were correlated with postinterventional neurological status. The Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used to examine patients before and after local thrombolysis. Additionally, multivariate statistics were applied to reveal similarities between patients with neurological improvement. Primary recanalization was achieved in 77% of patients. The overall mortality was 55%. Major complications were intracranial hemorrhage and peripheral embolism. The time period from symptom onset to intervention showed a strong correlation with the postinterventional NIHSS as well as the patient's age, with the best results in a 4-h interval. Multivariate statistics revealed similarities among the patients. Evaluation of time management in acute VBO by multivariate statistics is a helpful tool for definition of similarities in this patient group. Similarly to the door-to-balloon time for acute coronary interventions, the chances for a good outcome depend on a short time interval between symptom onset and intervention. While the only manipulable time period starts with hospital admission, our results emphasize the necessity of efficient intrahospital workflow. PMID:18704570

Kamper, Lars; Rybacki, Konrad; Mansour, Michael; Winkler, Sven B; Kempkes, Udo; Haage, Patrick

2009-03-01

22

Calcium Entry Blockers in the Treatment of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different calcium entry blockers on the vestibular system was investigated. The paper reports results from animal experiments and also from clinical studies with flunarizine and nimodipine. An animal experimental model of vertebrobasilar insufficiency was developed. The effect of the two drugs on the vestibular nystagmus was studied in Alsatian dogs before and after occluding one vertebral artery.

B. Hofferberth

1986-01-01

23

Cervical spondylosis causing vertebrobasilar insufficiency: a surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the most common aetiology of transient vertebrobasilar insufficiency is atherosclerosis, a similar syndrome may occasionally be produced by cervical osteophytes. The possibility of such a remedial lesion makes further investigation mandatory in such patients—especially if symptoms are associated with sudden movements of the head or neck. When vertebral compression results from osteophytes, it can be easily relieved by a

Donald R. Smith; Gary D. Vanderark; Ludwig G. Kempe

1971-01-01

24

[Vertebrobasilar insufficiency and obstructive sleep apnea].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to point to correlation between vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that has not been perceived sufficiently till now. Namely, in the voluminous literature about sleep-disordered breathing, VBI has been cited only as one of the possible causes of central and mixed sleep apnea. However, according to our clinical observation, VBI could be one of the most important factors in etiopathogenesis of OSA. Results of recent research, which confirm the correlation between VBI and OSA, contribute to our hypothesis. High prevalence and pathogenesis of OSA in patients with VBI can be explained by hypoxia of the medulla oblongata during sleep (sleep+positional VBI --> hypoxia of the medulla oblongata --> hypoxia of the respiratory centre which regulates breathing function+hypoxia of the motor nuclei of the IX, X and XII cranial nerves whose neurons regulate the tone in upper airway muscles (IX, X) and tongue (XII) --> OSA). The development of OSA in certain patients with VBI is probably in close correlation with the degree of hypoxia of the medulla oblongata during sleep (moderate VBI --> OSA; severe VBI --> central or mixed sleep apnea). Considering the fact that VBI of vascular and/or compressive etiology can be the primary cause of OSA, the Doppler sonography examination ofVB system (VBS) with the positional functional tests should be included in the diagnostic algorithm for OSA. Since the functional and organic disorders of cervical spine can either cause circulation disturbances in VBS or aggravate insufficient circulation, especially during sleep in certain head and neck positions, detailed examination of cervical spine including physiatric examination, manual functional examination and radiological examination, should become a part of the routine examination in patients with either suspected or confirmed OSA. Circulation in VBS can be improved or normalized by an appropriate therapy for vascular disorders (for example, stenting of vertebral artery), and the compressive effect of cervical spine disorders on circulation in VBS can be reduced or eliminated by an appropriate therapy of cervical spine disorders (for example, manual therapy, physical therapy, kinesitherapy, surgery etc.). OSA symptoms can be significantly reduced or completely cease after an improvement or normalization of circulation in VBS. PMID:21644279

Grgi?, Vjekoslav

2011-01-01

25

Rapid Progression of Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Dissection on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous intracranial vertebrobasilar dissection can manifest with various clinical symptoms, including subarachnoid hemorrhage or ischemic symptoms from impaired posterior circulation. A 29-year-old woman came to our emergency department with a sudden onset of left sided mild motor weakness and headache. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed mild luminal irregularities in the vertebrobasilar arteries with an eccentric periluminal hematoma. Follow-up MRI obtained 3 days later showed a progression of vertebrobasilar dissection to multifocal stenoses with an increased intramural hematoma.

Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Hwang, Seung Bae; Chung, Gyung Ho

2014-01-01

26

Phonological decoding involves left posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Aloud reading of novel words is achieved by phonological decoding, a process in which grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules are applied to "sound out" a word's spoken representation. Numerous brain imaging studies have examined the neural bases of phonological decoding by contrasting pseudoword (pronounceable nonwords) to real word reading. However, only a few investigations have examined pseudoword reading under both aloud and silent conditions, task parameters that are likely to significantly alter the functional anatomy of phonological decoding. Subjects participated in an fMRI study of aloud pseudoword, aloud real word, silent pseudoword, and silent real word reading. Using this two-by-two design, we examined effects of word-type (real words vs. pseudowords) and response-modality (silent vs. aloud) and their interactions. We found 1) four regions to be invariantly active across the four reading conditions: the anterior aspect of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's Area (BA) 6), and three areas within the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex; 2) a main effect of word-type (pseudowords > words) in left inferior frontal gyrus and left intraparietal sulcus; 3) a main effect of response-modality (aloud > silent) that included bilateral motor, auditory, and extrastriate cortex; and 4) a single left hemisphere extrastriate region showing a word-type by response-modality interaction effect. This region, within the posterior fusiform cortex at BA 19, was uniquely modulated by varying phonological processing demands. This result suggests that when reading, word forms are subject to phonological analysis at the point they are first recognized as alphabetic stimuli and BA 19 is involved in processing the phonological properties of words. PMID:15934062

Dietz, Nicole A E; Jones, Karen M; Gareau, Lynn; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Eden, Guinevere F

2005-10-01

27

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency revealed by xenon-133 inhalation SPECT  

SciTech Connect

A study of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow reactivity to acetazolamide by xenon-133-inhalation single photon emission computed tomography (/sup 133/Xe SPECT) was carried out in a patient with bouts of transient basilar ischemia, whose neurological examination, computed tomographic scan, and auditory evoked potentials were normal. Though the patient was symptom-free at the time of the study, /sup 133/Xe SPECT demonstrated vertebrobasilar insufficiency by showing an impaired vasodilatory response in both the occipital lobes and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Three weeks later, the patient suffered an extensive stroke in these same areas. We therefore suggest that this method could be of great value in the assessment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

Delecluse, F.; Voordecker, P.; Raftopoulos, C.

1989-07-01

28

Clinical analysis of trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.  

PubMed

Our objective is to explore the clinical manifestations, imaging features, and therapy of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD). Clinical and imaging data of 11 cases with trigeminal neuralgia caused by VBD were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literatures were reviewed. Of these 11 patients, 8 were male, and 10 suffered from hypertension. Imaging findings revealed that the vertebrobasilar arteries were pathologically enlarged and tortuous. Facial pain disappeared or was relieved after the microvascular decompression (MVD) in all 11 patients; no recrudescence was found with an average of 22-month follow-up. We concluded that TN caused by VBD, a rare clinical disease, mainly occurred in older men with a history of hypertension. CT, MRI, and MRA have great significance in the diagnosis of this disease; MVD is a preferred treatment method. PMID:23645139

Ma, Xiangyu; Sun, Xinguo; Yao, Jun; Ni, Shilei; Gong, Jie; Wang, Jiangang; Li, Xingang

2013-10-01

29

Pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks within the vertebrobasilar arterial system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by xenon 133 inhalation in 36 patients with vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency (VBI), three patients with brain stem infarction, and 15 age-matched normal controls before and after inducing postural hypotension. Probes mounted over the suboccipital area by means of a helmet were used to measure rCBF over the brain stem and cerebellar regions. When

H. Naritomi; F. Sakai; J. S. Meyer

1979-01-01

30

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency revealed by xenon-133 inhalation SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow reactivity to acetazolamide by xenon-133-inhalation single photon emission computed tomography (¹³³Xe SPECT) was carried out in a patient with bouts of transient basilar ischemia, whose neurological examination, computed tomographic scan, and auditory evoked potentials were normal. Though the patient was symptom-free at the time of the study, ¹³³Xe SPECT demonstrated vertebrobasilar insufficiency

F. Delecluse; P. Voordecker; C. Raftopoulos

1989-01-01

31

Cardiovascular Risk and Neuroradiological Profiles in Asymptomatic Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Clinicoradiological variability of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is known. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and neuroradiological profiles of asymptomatic VBD. Methods: A total of 7,345 adults (5,534 men and 1,811 women) underwent physical checkup (PC) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) studies between 2004 and 2007. Asymptomatic VBD was diagnosed by neurological examination and MR angiography. Neuroradiological features

Ken Ikeda; Yoshikazu Nakamura; Takehisa Hirayama; Tokinori Sekine; Riya Nagata; Osamu Kano; Kiyokazu Kawabe; Tetsuhito Kiyozuka; Masaki Tamura; Yasuo Iwasaki

2010-01-01

32

The fusiform face area is enlarged in Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by atypical brain structure, cognitive deficits, and a life-long fascination with faces. Face recognition is relatively spared in WS, despite abnormalities in aspects of face processing, and structural alterations in the fusiform gyrus, part of the ventral visual stream. Thus, face recognition in WS may be subserved by abnormal neural substrates in the ventral stream. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the fusiform face area (FFA), which is implicated in face recognition in typically developed individuals (TD), but its role in WS is not well understood. We found that the FFA size was approximately twice larger among WS than TDs, (both absolutely and relative the fusiform gyrus), despite apparently normal levels of face recognition performance on a Benton face recognition test. Thus, a larger FFA may play a role in face recognition proficiency among WS. PMID:20463232

Golarai, Golijeh; Hong, Sungjin; Haas, Brian W.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Mills, Debra L.; Bellugi, Ursula; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

2013-01-01

33

Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent

A. Y. Zaytsev; A. Y. Stoyda; V. E. Smirnov; A. N. Scherbyuk; S. A Kondrashin; E. G. Artukchina; V. A. Kikevitch

2006-01-01

34

Processing of Facial Emotion in the Human Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological and fMRI-based investigations of the ventral temporal cortex of primates provide strong support for regional specialization for the processing of faces. These responses are most frequently found in or near the fusiform gyrus, but there is substantial variability in their anatomical location and response properties. An outstanding question is the extent to which ventral temporal cortex participates in processing

Hiroto Kawasaki; Naotsugu Tsuchiya; Christopher K. Kovach; Kirill V. Nourski; Hiroyuki Oya; Matthew A. Howard; Ralph Adolphs

35

Face-Specific Processing in the Human Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of faces is sometimes regarded as a specialized task involving discrete brain regions. In an attempt to identi$ face-specific cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation evoked by faces presented in a continuously changing montage of common objects or in a similar montage of nonobjects. Bilateral regions of the posterior fusiform gyrus were activated

Gregory McCarthy; Aina Puce; John C. Gore; Truett Allison

1997-01-01

36

Unique fusiform alumina nanotubes fabricated by combined anodization.  

PubMed

Alumina nanotubes (ANTs) with unique fusiform morphologies were synthesized via a simple electrochemical route; the fluctuation of the electronic current density during the anodization process is considered to be the main reason for the formation of such new alumina nanostructures. PMID:21218215

Yi, Li; Zhiyuan, Ling; Xing, Hu; Yisen, Liu; Yi, Chang

2011-02-21

37

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Tandem Selection for Fusiform Rust Disease  

E-print Network

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 216 Tandem Selection for Fusiform Rust Disease Resistance are intensively managed for short-term genetic gain. Fusiform rust disease, caused by the fungus Cronartium of the fusiform rust fungus at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Resistance Screening Center

Standiford, Richard B.

38

Cuneus and fusiform cortices thickness is reduced in trigeminal neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain disorders are presumed to induce changes in brain grey and white matters. Few studies have focused CNS alterations in trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods The aim of this study was to explore changes in white matter microstructure in TN subjects using diffusion tensor images (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS); and cortical thickness changes with surface based morphometry. Twenty-four patients with classical TN (37-67 y-o) and 24 healthy controls, matched for age and sex, were included in the study. Results Comparing patients with controls, no diffusivity abnormalities of brain white matter were detected. However, a significant reduction in cortical thickness was observed at the left cuneus and left fusiform cortex in the patients group. The thickness of the fusiform cortex correlated negatively with the carbamazepine dose (p?=?0.023). Conclusions Since the cuneus and the fusiform gyrus have been related to the multisensory integration area and cognitive processing, as well as the retrieval of shock perception conveyed by A? fibers, our results support the role of these areas in TN pathogenesis. Whether such changes occurs as an epiphenomenon secondary to daily stimulation or represent a structural predisposition to TN in the light of peripheral vascular compression is a matter of future studies. PMID:24661349

2014-01-01

39

The Diagnosis of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Using Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a hemodynamic posterior circulation transient ischemic attack (TIA) caused by intermittent vertebral artery occlusion that is induced by a head rotation or extension. VBI may result from large vessel atherosclerotic disease, dissection, cervical compressive lesions, and subclavian steal phenomenon. Diagnostic transcranial Doppler (TCD) of VBI disease and hemodynamic posterior circulation TCD monitoring in symptomatic positions might prove a useful tool in establishing the diagnosis. Patient and Material/Method. A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a one-year history of episodic positional vertigo and ataxic gait that were induced by a neck extension and resolved by an upright position or a neck flexion. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and TCD confirmed the presence of VBI where no blood flow was detected through posterior cerebral arteries in the symptomatic position (head extension position). Conclusion. TCD is a promising noninvasive technique that might have a role as a diagnostic test in VBI. PMID:23251187

Alnaami, Ibrahim; Siddiqui, Muzaffer; Saqqur, Maher

2012-01-01

40

Vertebrobasilar angulation and its association with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is unclear, though some researchers postulate the major mechanism of onset to be via circulatory disturbance or cochlear inflammation. SSNHL can represent the sole manifestation of anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction, and patients with a SSNHL may have higher than normal risk of future stoke. According to a vascular remodeling theory, vertebral arteries (VAs) are typically asymmetric with the basilar artery (BA) gradually curving in the opposite direction of the larger VA. Decreased wall shear stress on the inner surface of the curvature (weaker side of the vertebral artery) gives rise to an atherothrombogenic environment. It is hypothesized that angulation of the BA could contribute to the decline of anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) flow or to the development of atheroma formation in the AICA orifice. Vertebrobasilar junction angulation could represent a simple and useful marker of SSNHL caused by a vascular compromise of the cochlea. PMID:22688399

Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Choi, Hui-Chul

2012-08-01

41

Reactivity of Rat Basilar Artery to Serotonin after Short-Term Ischemia of Hindbrain and during Chronic Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contractile responses of the basilar artery to serotonin were examined in vitro on two models of circulation disturbances in the vertebrobasilar region of the brain. Two days after 30-min reversible occlusion of vertebral arteries, the sensitivity of the basilar artery to serotonin decreased, while chronic vertebrobasilar insufficiency had no effect on serotonin-induced contraction.

V. V. Sabadash; O. E. Fadyukova; V. B. Koshelev

2005-01-01

42

Guglielmi Detachable Coil Treatment of Ruptured Saccular Cerebral Aneurysms: Retrospective Review of a 10Year Single-Center Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We retrospectively analyzed our results with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) for the endovascular occlusion of acutely ruptured saccular cerebral aneurysms over 10 years. METHODS: Between 1991-2000, 83 patients (mean age, 56.1 years) with aneurysmal sub- arachnoid hemorrhage were treated with endovascular GDCs. Patients with aneurysms due to trauma or dissection and those with mycotic or fusiform aneurysms

Jonathan A. Friedman; Douglas A. Nichols; Fredric B. Meyer; Mark A. Pichelmann; Jon I. McIver; L. Gerard Toussaint; Patsy L. Axley; Robert D. Brown

43

The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces  

E-print Network

of the human brain that appears to play a key role in face perception, known as the fusiform face area (FFAThe fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces Nancy Kanwisher1 to the perception of faces (the face-specificity hypothesis). Here, we review the literature on a region

Kanwisher, Nancy

44

Vertebrobasilar Occlusion Presenting as Sudden Isolated Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Isolated bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia, primarily due to occlusion of the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries or their branch, the internal auditory artery. We reported on uncommon case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss without typical neurological symptoms resulting from vertebrobasilar ischemia. We performed the available examinations, including otoscopy, laboratory tests, and pure tone audiogram, however we were not able to identify the cause of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance image showed the cerebellar infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. Brain magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral vertebral and basilar artery occlusion. We suggest vertebrobasilar ischemia as a cause of sudden isolated deafness. PMID:24167804

Kim, Eunja; Son, Min-Ki; Kang, Chang-Ki

2013-01-01

45

Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic\\u000a stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI)\\u000a resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon\\u000a angioplasty

A. Y. Zaytsev; A. Y. Stoyda; V. E. Smirnov; A. N. Scherbyuk; S. A Kondrashin; E. G. Artukchina; V. A. Kikevitch

2006-01-01

46

Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of subclavian (SA), innominate (IA) and vertebral (VA) arteries. Procedures were done by radiologists experienced in systematic stenting of the lesions. VBI was manifested by persistent signs in 15 patients, and by transitory ischemic attacks in the posterior circulatory territory in 4 (19%). Two patients (10%) experienced ischemic strokes (in the vertebrobasilar circulation in both cases). In 3 patients (14%) VBI was accompanied by upper limb vascular insufficiency symptoms. All cases were resistant to medical treatment. A neurologist assessed complaints, initial VBI signs and their alteration after intervention in all patients. Outcomes were measured with the 5-point scale suggested by Malek et al.: (1) excellent result (asymptomatic, no neurologic deficits and no symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (2) good (no neurologic deficits, at most one transient episode of vertebrobasilar ischemia over a period of 3 months after treatment); (3) fair (minimal neurologic deficit and at most one transient episode per month of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (4) poor (no improvement compared with neurologic status before treatment and/or persistent symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (5) death (regardless of cause). Endovascular treatment was performed for SA stenosis in 15 patients, for SA occlusion in 2, for IA stenosis in 2, and for VA stenosis in 2. There were 15 cases of atherosclerosis, 2 of aortoarteritis, 4 of proximal SA kinking. SA and IA stenoses ranged from 60% to 100% (mean 74.5%), VA stenoses were 90% in both cases. Results. Initial technical success was achieved in 96% of cases. There were no postprocedural complications or deaths. During 6-36 months (mean 21.3 months) of follow-up all patients showed improvement in VBI symptoms or upper limb ischemia. Within 36 months after the procedure outcomes were estimated as excellent and good in 13 patients (76%) and poor in 2 (12%), the last being attributed to atherosclerosis progression in other vascular areas. Restenosis in the stented area has developed in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of extracranial vertebrobasilar arterial stenoses appeared to be effective in endovascular treatment of medically resistant VBI. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of subclavian artery kinking in VBI development and indications for various methods of its correction.

Zaytsev, A.Y., E-mail: cir-auz@mail.ru; Stoyda, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.E. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Scherbyuk, A.N. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kondrashin, S.A [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Artukchina, E.G. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kikevitch, V.A. [N.N. Burdenko Interventional Radiology Center, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation)

2006-10-15

47

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdogan

2014-01-01

48

Cerebral infarction in both carotid and vertebrobasilar territories associated with a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery with severe dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a relatively rare vascular anomaly of a persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis. A 76-year-old man with severe dilated cardiomyopathy suddenly lost consciousness. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed extensive infarction in the carotid and vertebrobasilar territories. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed a PPHA and occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and vertebrobasilar artery. Cardioembolic infarction associated with a PPHA should be recognized as a possible cause of multiple infarctions in both the carotid and vertebrobasilar distributions in the absence of stenotic ICA lesions. PMID:22959108

Kawano, Hiroyuki; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Yonehara, Toshiro

2014-01-01

49

“Stretched loop sign” of the vertebral artery: a predictor of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in atlantoaxial dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVertebrobasilar territory infarction is one of the rarer presentations of CVJ anomalies. A new radiologic sign due to stretching of the short third segment of VA detected on MRA\\/DSA may identify patients of AAD at risk of developing VBI.

Vijay Sawlani; Sanjay Behari; Pravin Salunke; Vijendra K. Jain; Rajendra V. Phadke

2006-01-01

50

Brain stem compression by a giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm mimicking seronegative myasthenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient is described with a vertebrobasilar aneurysm who was erroneously thought to have myasthenia gravis on the basis of the clinical presentation and investigations, which were interpreted as supportive of a disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Despite the correct diagnosis being made at a late stage the patient made a full recovery after radiological intervention.

J Frisby; A Wills; T Jaspan

2001-01-01

51

Hemodynamic vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by multiple arterial lesions: Results of surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1982 to 1990, 111 of 1013 patients undergoing cerebral artery reconstruction presented with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency associated with hemodynamically significant lesions of at least three cerebral arteries. There were 71 men and 40 women whose mean age was 70.3 ± 8.4 years. Forty patients also had hemispheric symptoms, whereas three had ophthalmic symptoms as well. A total of

Eugenio Rosset; Pierre Edouard Magnan; Alain Branchereau; Hugo Espinoza; Pierre Grama

1993-01-01

52

Altered Vertebrobasilar Flow in Children: Angiographic, MR, and MR Angiographic Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical, MR, MR angiographic, and conventional angiographic findings in vertebrobasilar disease in children. METHODS: Eight children with posterior circulation ischemia and infarction had conventional spin-echo MR and MR angiography of the head and neck. Six patients had conventional angiography. RESULTS: Six patients had alteration of vertebral or basilar artery flow void on spin-echo images. MR angiography

Charles A. James; Charles M. Glasier; Edgardo E. Angtuaco

53

Doppler Ultrasonography of the Vertebrobasilar Circulation in Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still unclear and is most probably diverse. Objective: To determine the relationship between vertebrobasilar circulation and hearing in patients with SSNHL treated with pentoxifylline. Design: Case-control study of 32 consecutive patients with SSNHL. Methods: Patients with onset of SSNHL within 72 hours were treated with pentoxifylline infusions for 10 days.

Marko Grgi?; Vlado Petric; Marija Pastorci? Grgi?; Vida Demarin; Boris Pegan

2005-01-01

54

Rupture of lenticulostriate artery aneurysms.  

PubMed

The authors report on 3 rare cases of ruptured lenticulostriate artery (LSA) aneurysms that were heralded by deep cerebral hematomas. The hematomas were unilateral in 2 cases and bilateral in 1; in the bilateral case, only a single LSA aneurysm could be identified on the right side of the brain. Because of their small size (? 2 mm), fusiform aspect, and deep location within the brain, all of the aneurysms were treated conservatively. There was no hemorrhage recurrence, and follow-up angiography demonstrated spontaneous thrombosis in 2 of the 3 cases. The clinical course was favorable in 2 of the 3 patients. The course in the patient with the bilateral hematoma was marked by an ischemic event after the initial episode, resulting in an aggravation of deficits. The cause of this second event was uncertain. Because our knowledge about the natural history of LSA aneurysms is incomplete, there is no consensus concerning a therapeutic strategy. The authors' experience in 3 reported cases leads them to think that a conservative approach involving close angiographic monitoring may be proposed as first-line treatment. If the monitored aneurysm then persists or grows in size, its occlusion should be considered. Nonetheless, other studies are needed to further strengthen the legitimacy of this strategy. PMID:24053505

Heck, Olivier; Anxionnat, René; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Derelle, Anne-Laure; Ducrocq, Xavier; Richard, Sébastien; Bracard, Serge

2014-02-01

55

Evaluation of fusiform rust-resistant loblolly pine families for the South Carolina sandhills region  

SciTech Connect

Loblolly pine trees from various geographic sources are being evaluated for resistance to fusiform rust. Reasons for differences in resistance and the mechanisms of rust infection are also being investigated. (ACR)

Powers, H.R. Jr.

1981-10-01

56

Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for the Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysms often have an unfavorable geometry that may limit surgical or endovascular treatment. Herein, we present a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the proximal MCA, which was successfully treated using stent-assisted coil embolization. A 42-year-old man presented with repeated headache and syncope. Five years earlier, a right MCA aneurysm had been treated by aneurismal wrapping. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a partially-thrombosed proximal MCA aneurysm at the right perisylvian region. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a multilobulated fusiform-shaped aneurysm. The patient underwent stent-assisted coil embolization under general anesthesia and symptoms resolved postoperatively. A three-month follow-up angiography revealed no recanalization of the aneurysm and indicated tolerable blood flow through the right MCA, as compared to the preoperative angiography. We suggest that in selected patients, stent-assisted coil embolization of proximal MCA fusiform aneurysms can be an effective treatment modality. PMID:20539806

Jeong, Seong-Man; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Lee, Nam-Joon

2010-01-01

57

Altered fusiform connectivity during processing of fearful faces in social anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with hyper-reactivity in limbic brain regions like the amygdala, both during symptom provocation and emotional face processing tasks. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we sought to examine brain regions implicated in emotional face processing, and the connectivity between them, in patients with SAD (n=14) compared with healthy controls (n=12). We furthermore aimed to relate brain reactivity and connectivity to self-reported social anxiety symptom severity. SAD patients exhibited hyper-reactivity in the bilateral fusiform gyrus in response to fearful faces, as well as greater connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and decreased connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Within the SAD group, social anxiety severity correlated positively with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, amygdala-fusiform connectivity and connectivity between the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus (STS). These findings point to a pivotal role for the fusiform gyrus in SAD neuropathology, and further suggest that altered amygdala-fusiform and amygdala-STS connectivity could underlie previous findings of aberrant socio-emotional information processing in this anxiety disorder. PMID:24105443

Frick, A; Howner, K; Fischer, H; Kristiansson, M; Furmark, T

2013-01-01

58

Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Giant Serpentine Aneurysm of the Superior Cerebellar Artery in a Patient with a Chiari II Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present a case of a ruptured giant serpentine aneurysm (GSA) of the superior cerebellar artery in a patient with a Chiari II malformation. The fusiform aneu- rysm was successfully treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion of the GSA by using detachable coils. Giant serpentine aneurysms (GSAs) are rare, fusi- form aneurysms greater than 2.5 cm, which have a

Jason Zicherman; Sudipta Roychowdhury; James K. Demarco; Scott Shepard; Steven Schonfeld; Irwin Keller; Scott Schlesinger

59

Adjuvant use of self-expanding stents in acute atherothrombotic vertebrobasilar occlusions.  

PubMed

Recanalization of acute atherothrombotic vertebrobasilar occlusions is a challenging neuroendovascular procedure. A long angiographic occlusion frequently overestimates the true extent of occlusive plaque. We propose the novel use of the Solitaire stent (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) as an adjuvant device in the endovascular management of acute atherothrombotic vertebrobasilar occlusions and present our experience. A self-expanding Solitaire stent is fully deployed, but not detached, along the entire occluded segment, from normal-to-normal arterial segment, to obtain a transient endovascular bypass effect and to obtain clear depiction of the true extent and characteristics of the complicated plaque. The Solitaire stent is then retrieved and a stent with greater radial force and lower porosity is deployed across the occlusion to achieve full revascularization of the vertebral and basilar arteries and branches. This technique allows early revascularization (transient endovascular bypass) and permits a clear definition of the underlying plaque, a crucial step for a safe angioplasty. PMID:23384507

Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Itshayek, Eyal; Leker, Ronen R

2013-04-01

60

Comparison of open and controlled pollinated pine families for susceptibility to air pollution, acid rain, and fusiform rust. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Loblolly pine seedlings were fumigated with SO/sub 2/, ozone, and a combination of SO/sub 2/ and ozone to determine the relative susceptibility of different strains to air pollution and to fusiform rust. There seems to be no relationship between susceptibility to air pollution and to fusiform rust, indicating it should be possible to select strains resistant to both fusiform rust and air pollution. (ACR)

Chevone, B.; Powers, H.R. Jr.

1982-10-01

61

Magnetic resonance angiography evaluation of basilar artery stenosis in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the usefulness of evaluating basilar arterial flow by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), MRA results for patients\\u000a with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) were compared with those for age-matched individuals with no vestibular disorders.\\u000a The presence of stenosis in the basilar artery, its severity and the presence of complications associated with atherosclerosis\\u000a in the two groups were statistically compared. Analyses revealed

Takayuki Nakagawa; Toshinobu Shigeta; Tadayoshi Takashima; Kenta Tomiyama

2000-01-01

62

Correlations of Arterial Hemodynamics with the Severity of Clinical Manifestations of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of clinical manifestations of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in virtually the same anatomical disorders of the vertebral\\u000a arteries indicates the multilevel regulation of the cerebral bloodflow aimed at its stabilization and maintenance. The main\\u000a arteries of the head and peripheral arteries were studied by Doppler ultrasonography in patients with anatomical disorders\\u000a of vertebral arteries (atherosclerotic, extravasal compressions, congenital abnormalities, etc.).

T. A. Vokina; S. B. Tkachenko; N. F. Beresten’; V. V. Tvalavadze

2008-01-01

63

Rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to vertebral artery occlusion from fibrous band of the longus coli muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rotation-induced vertebrobasilar artery hypoperfusion causes transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), affecting the cerebellum,\\u000a brainstem and spinal cord. When these symptoms occur transiently due to head movement, compression of the vertebral artery\\u000a by an extraluminal lesion should be suspected. Cervical spondylotic spurs and anterior scalene muscle or deep cervical fascia\\u000a are among the factors which can compress the vertebral artery. When symptoms

M. R. Dadsetan; H. E. I. Skerhut

1990-01-01

64

Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system. A comprehensive review on natural history and treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral artery dissection has been recognized as an uncommon cause of ischemic stroke. However, it is less well known as\\u000a a cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Even if dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare, their importance arise\\u000a from their high morbidity and mortality with rebleeding occurring more often than in cases of saccular aneurysms. Dissecting\\u000a aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar

Jorge Arturo Santos-Franco; Marco Zenteno; Angel Lee

2008-01-01

65

Sonographic detection of haemodynamic changes in a case of vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a diagnostically challenging case of vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by head rotation. The patient was a\\u000a 58-year-old man complaining of dizziness and faintness with head rotation to the left. Vertebral arteriography with the head\\u000a turned to the left revealed mechanical compression of the right vertebral artery at the occipitoatlantal joints and an occluded\\u000a left vertebral artery. Duplex sonography demonstrated

K. Nakamura; Y. Saku; R. Torigoe; S. Ibayashi; M. Fujishima

1998-01-01

66

Spontaneous Kidney Allograft Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous renal allograft rupture is one of the most dangerous complications of kidney transplantation, which can result in graft loss.This condition needs immediate surgical intervention. Conservative management has dismal results. Its prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3%. Rupture occurs in first few weeks after transplantation. Predisposing factors for graft rupture are acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, and renal vein thrombosis.

H. Shahrokh; H. Rasouli; M. A. Zargar; K. Karimi; K. Zargar

2005-01-01

67

Selectivity for the Human Body in the Fusiform Gyrus Marius V. Peelen and Paul E. Downing  

E-print Network

without faces, relative to tools and scenes. In a group-average analysis (n 22), the fusiform activations on faces and suggest that this region contains multiple distinct category- selective neural representations, they have other features in common. Both provide cues to identity, emotion, intention, age, and gender

Downing, Paul

68

Discriminable spatial patterns of activation for faces and bodies in the fusiform gyrus  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies consistently report that the visual perception of faces and bodies strongly activates regions within ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) and, in particular, within the mid-lateral fusiform gyrus. One unresolved issue is the degree to which faces and bodies activate discrete or overlapping cortical regions within this region. Here, we examined VOTC activity to faces and bodies at high spatial resolution, using univariate and multivariate analysis approaches sensitive to differences in both the strength and spatial pattern of activation. Faces and bodies evoked substantially overlapping activations in the fusiform gyrus when each was compared to the control category of houses. No discrete regions of activation for faces and bodies in the fusiform gyrus survived a direct statistical comparison using standard univariate statistics. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis differentiated faces and bodies in regions where univariate analysis found no significant difference in the strength of activation. Using a whole-brain multivariate searchlight approach, we also found that extensive regions in VOTC beyond those defined as fusiform face and body areas using standard criteria where the spatial pattern of activation discriminated faces and bodies. These findings provide insights into the spatial distribution of face- and body-specific activations in VOTC and the identification of functionally specialized regions.

Kim, Na Yeon; Lee, Su Mei; Erlendsdottir, Margret C.; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-01-01

69

Discriminable spatial patterns of activation for faces and bodies in the fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies consistently report that the visual perception of faces and bodies strongly activates regions within ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) and, in particular, within the mid-lateral fusiform gyrus. One unresolved issue is the degree to which faces and bodies activate discrete or overlapping cortical regions within this region. Here, we examined VOTC activity to faces and bodies at high spatial resolution, using univariate and multivariate analysis approaches sensitive to differences in both the strength and spatial pattern of activation. Faces and bodies evoked substantially overlapping activations in the fusiform gyrus when each was compared to the control category of houses. No discrete regions of activation for faces and bodies in the fusiform gyrus survived a direct statistical comparison using standard univariate statistics. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis differentiated faces and bodies in regions where univariate analysis found no significant difference in the strength of activation. Using a whole-brain multivariate searchlight approach, we also found that extensive regions in VOTC beyond those defined as fusiform face and body areas using standard criteria where the spatial pattern of activation discriminated faces and bodies. These findings provide insights into the spatial distribution of face- and body-specific activations in VOTC and the identification of functionally specialized regions. PMID:25177286

Kim, Na Yeon; Lee, Su Mei; Erlendsdottir, Margret C; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-01-01

70

Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the ventral temporal lobe is thought to be critical for face perception, but what determines this specialization remains unknown. We present evidence that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference. Acquisition of expertise with novel objects

Isabel Gauthier; Michael J. Tarr; Adam W. Anderson; Pawel Skudlarski; John C. Gore

1999-01-01

71

Rab11a-dependent exocytosis of discoidal/fusiform vesicles in bladder umbrella cells  

E-print Network

Rab11a-dependent exocytosis of discoidal/fusiform vesicles in bladder umbrella cells Puneet. We observed that Rab11a was expressed in umbrella cells (but not Rab11b or Rab25) and was associated active (DA) or dominant negative (DN) mutants of Rab11a. DA-Rab11a stimulated an in- crease in apical

Apodaca, Gerard

72

Hemodynamic Characteristics of the Vertebrobasilar System Analyzed Using MRI-Based Models  

PubMed Central

The vertebrobasilar system (VBS) is unique in human anatomy in that two arteries merge into a single vessel, and it is especially important because it supplies the posterior circulation of the brain. Atherosclerosis develops in this region, and atherosclerotic plaques in the vertebrobasilar confluence can progress with catastrophic consequences, including artery occlusion. Quantitative assessments of the flow characteristics in the VBS could elucidate the factors that influence flow patterns in this confluence, and deviations from normal patterns might then be used to predict locations to monitor for potential pathological changes, to detect early signs of disease, and to evaluate treatment options and efficacy. In this study, high-field MRI was used in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the hemodynamics of subject-specific confluence models (n?=?5) and to identify different geometrical classes of vertebrobasilar systems (n?=?12) of healthy adult subjects. The curvature of the vessels and their mutual orientation significantly affected flow parameters in the VBS. The basilar artery geometry strongly influenced both skewing of the velocity profiles and the wall shear stress distributions in the VBS. All five subjects modeled possessed varying degrees of vertebral asymmetry, and helical flow was observed in four cases, suggesting that factors other than vertebral asymmetry influence mixing of the vertebral artery flow contributions. These preliminary studies verify that quantitative, MR imaging techniques in conjunction with subject-specific CFD models of healthy adult subjects may be used to characterize VBS hemodynamics and to predict flow features that have been related to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis in large arteries. This work represents an important first step towards applying this approach to study disease initiation and progression in the VBS. PMID:23251503

Wake-Buck, Amanda K.; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.

2012-01-01

73

Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus  

PubMed Central

Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more numerous. PMID:25294990

Salloum, Rony H.; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F.; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J.; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A.

2014-01-01

74

Wingspan Stent for High-Grade Symptomatic Vertebrobasilar Artery Atherosclerotic Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was designed to present the treatment outcomes with Wingspan stent angioplasty of high-grade intracranial vertebrobasilar\\u000a artery (VBA) stenosis in symptomatic patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 2007 and 2010, the records of 30 patients with 31 intracranial high-grade VBA stenoses (all?70%) who underwent elective\\u000a stenting due to the failure of medical therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical evaluation was performed based on the

Jian Li; Zhen-Wei Zhao; Guo-Dong Gao; Jian-Ping Deng; Jia Yu; Li Gao; Yang Yuan; You-Zhi Qv

75

Screening for Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency in Patients With Neck Pain: Manual Therapy Decision Making in the Presence of Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence supports the effectiveness of manual therapy interventions in patients with neck pain; however, considerable attention has also been afforded to the potential risks such as vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Despite the existence of guidelines advocating specific screening procedures, research does not support the ability to accurately identify patients at risk. The logical question becomes, ''How does one proceed in

Sara R. Piva; Timothy W. Flynn; Julie M. Fritz; Julie M. Whitman; Robert S. Wainner; Philip E. Greenman

2005-01-01

76

Analysis of intellectual and cognitive performance in patients with multi-infarct dementia, vertebrobasilar insufficiency with dementia, and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent feature in dementia is intellectual deterioration. Review of the clinical literature indicates a lack of suitably quantitated studies of specific intellectual defects in dementia. The present study investigated the performance of patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) with dementia using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Forty-two patients ranging

F I Perez; V M Rivera; J S Meyer; J R Gay; R L Taylor; N T Mathew

1975-01-01

77

A Population-Based Case-Series of Ontario Patients Who Develop a Vertebrobasilar Artery Stroke After Seeing a Chiropractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe current evidence suggests that association between chiropractic care and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke is not causal. Rather, recent epidemiological studies suggest that it is coincidental and reflects the natural history of the disorder. Because neck pain and headaches are symptoms that commonly precede the onset of a VBA stroke, these patients might seek chiropractic care while their stroke is

Stephanie Choi; Eleanor Boyle; Pierre Côté; J. David Cassidy

2011-01-01

78

Influence of the Basilar Artery Blood Flow on Vertebrobasilar Ischaemia in the Subclavian Steal Phenomenon: A Transcranial Doppler Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients with a subclavian steal phenomenon were subjected to a neurological examination, ultrasonic duplex scanning, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and a computerised eye-movement investigation before and after a postischaemic hyperaemia test. Four patients showed symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischaemia. They had very low mean blood flow velocities in the basilar artery before (1 patient) or after (3 patients) postischaemic hyperaemia. In

P. A. W. Frima-Verhoeven; E. H. J. F. Boezeman; R. G. A. Ackerstaff

1992-01-01

79

Sonography of Vertebral Arteries in De Kleyn's Position in Subjects and in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Transient Ischemic Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of subjects, matched for age, were studied. The first group consisted of 190 healthy subjects, the second, of 60 patients with vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 22 of whom underwent angiography. After it was ascertained that the findings from continuous-wave (cw) Doppler of carotid and vertebral arteries, performed in the standard position, were normal, the examination was then

Graziano Arnetoli; Andrea Amadori; Paolo Stefani; Giuseppe Nuzzaci

1989-01-01

80

Ruptured ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulnar artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are rare lesions that usually occur distal to the wrist and cause symptoms as a result of embolization and not rupture. An elderly woman presented with acute rupture of an ulnar artery pseudoaneurysm proximal to the wrist, which caused severe neurologic compromise as a result of bleeding into Guyon's canal and the carpal tunnel. The

Luke S. Erdoes; William C. Brown

1995-01-01

81

Possible earthquake rupture speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though mode II shear fractures (primarily strike slip earthquakes) can not only exceed the shear wave speed of the medium, but can even reach the compressional wave speed, steady-state calculations showed that speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds were not possible, thus defining a forbidden zone. For more than 30 years it was believed that this result in which the rupture jumps over the forbidden zone, also holds for 3-D ruptures, in which mode II and mode III (mainly dip-slip faulting) are mixed. Using unprecedentedly fine spatial and temporal grids, we show that even in the simple configuration of homogeneous fault properties and linear slip-weakening friction law, a realistic 3-D rupture which start from rest and accelerates to some higher velocity, actually does pass smoothly through this forbidden zone, but very fast. The energy flux from the rupture tip is always positive, even within the so-called forbidden zone, contrary to the 2-D case. Finally, our results show that the width of the cohesive zone initially decreases, then increases as the rupture exceeds the shear wave speed and finally again decreases as the rupture accelerates to a speed of ~90% of the compressional wave speed. Several movies illustrating the development of the ruptures will be shown. A. Bizzari and S. Das (2012). Possible earthquake rupture speeds, EPSL, submitted.

Das, S.; Bizzarri, A.

2012-12-01

82

The role of the fusiform gyrus in successful encoding of face stimuli.  

PubMed

PET was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) while memorizing pictures of unfamiliar human faces presented one at a time (FaceMemory). Other conditions included: (1) FaceRepeat-memorization of four individual faces presented repeatedly; (2) FaceWatching-viewing passively single faces without overt memory demands; and (3) Scrambled-counting dots superimposed on pictures of scrambled faces. After each FaceMemory condition and after the final FaceWatching condition scan, recall was tested by measuring face recognition. Contrasting FaceMemory and Scrambled conditions revealed several temporal activations: right midfusiform and bilateral anterior fusiform gyri. Contrasting FaceWatching and Scrambled conditions showed bilateral activation in the temporal poles and in the anterior fusiform gyri. No hippocampal activation arose from any contrast. Region of interest analyses on the above areas showed correlations with performance: (1) only rCBF in the right midfusiform correlated positively with encoding during the FaceMemory and FaceWatching conditions; (2) in the right temporal polar cortex rCBF decreased during FaceMemory and correlated positively with performance, whereas rCBF increased during FaceWatching and correlated negatively with incidental performance; and (3) activity in the anterior fusiform gyri remained constant across the conditions of FaceMemory, FaceRepeat, FaceWatching, and Scrambled and was uncorrelated with performance. These data suggest an expanded mnemonic role for the right midfusiform in depth of processing/encoding of face information, temporal polar cortex in face perception and recognition, and anterior fusiform activity in featural visual feature processing. PMID:10334903

Kuskowski, M A; Pardo, J V

1999-06-01

83

Effects of low-spatial frequency components of fearful faces on fusiform cortex activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotive faces elicit neural responses even when they are not consciously perceived. We used faces hybridized from spatial frequency-filtered individual stimuli to study processing of facial emotion. Employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show enhanced fusiform cortex responses to hybrid faces containing fearful expressions when such emotional cues are present in the low-spatial frequency (LSF) range. Critically, this

Joel S. Winston; Patrik Vuilleumier; Raymond J. Dolan

2003-01-01

84

Automatic Priming of Semantically Related Words Reduces Activity in the Fusiform Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used rapid, event-related fMRI to identify the neural systems underlying object semantics. During scanning, subjects silently read rapidly presented word pairs (150 msec, SOA = 250 msec) that were either unrelated in meaning (ankle- carrot), semantically related (fork-cup), or identical (crow- crow). Activity in the left posterior region of the fusiform gyrus and left inferior frontal cortex was modulated

Thalia Wheatley; Jill Weisberg; Michael S. Beauchamp; Alex Martin

2005-01-01

85

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

86

How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.  

PubMed

While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

2014-11-01

87

Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Cd²? biosorption by the brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.  

PubMed

A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

88

Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme  

PubMed Central

A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters. PMID:24736449

Zou, Hui-Xi; Li, Nan; Wang, Li-Hua; Yu, Ping; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

89

Surface Appearance of the Vertebrobasilar Artery Revealed on Basiparallel Anatomic Scanning (BPAS)MR Imaging: Its Role for Brain MR Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Basiparallel anatomic scanning (BPAS)-MR imaging is a simple MR imaging technique that we designed for visualization of the surface appearance of the vertebrobasilar artery within the cistern. It can clearly show the outer contour of occluded arteries or thrombosed aneurysms. By comparing BPAS-MR imaging with 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA), we can precisely evaluate the vertebrobasilar artery condition.

Morio Nagahata; Yoshinao Abe; Shuichi Ono; Takaaki Hosoya; Seiyu Uno

90

[Cognitive functions and treatment of their impairment in elderly patients with the vertebrobasilar issufficiensy].  

PubMed

Authors studied impairment of cognitive functions in 180 patients, aged 56-74 years, with chronic blood flow deficiency in the vertebrobasilar territory. Along with neurological examination, we used MRI of the brain and the cervical spine, MRI-angiography, ultrasound Doppler method, EEG, ECG, clinical and biochemical blood testing. Cognitive functions were assessed using standard neuropsychological tests (a word retrieval test, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment battery, the Schulte test, the Landolt test, Wechsler tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and others). Neuropsychological performance was assessed before and after treatment with cavinton (25 mg intravenous during 10 days and then 10 mg 3 times daily during 3 months). The treatment improved cognitive function and the effect remained for more than 3 months. PMID:23739435

Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Lalayan, T V; Pugachova, E L; Smolko, D G

2013-01-01

91

Hemodynamics of the normal aorta compared to fusiform and saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms with emphasis on a potential thrombus formation mechanism.  

PubMed

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs), i.e., focal enlargements of the aorta in the abdomen are frequently observed in the elderly population and their rupture is highly mortal. An intra-luminal thrombus is found in nearly all aneurysms of clinically relevant size and multiply affects the underlying wall. However, from a biomechanical perspective thrombus development and its relation to aneurysm rupture is still not clearly understood. In order to explore the impact of blood flow on thrombus development, normal aortas (n = 4), fusiform AAAs (n = 3), and saccular AAAs (n = 2) were compared on the basis of unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. To this end patient-specific luminal geometries were segmented from Computerized Tomography Angiography data and five full heart cycles using physiologically realistic boundary conditions were analyzed. Simulations were carried out with computational grids of about half a million finite volume elements and the Carreau-Yasuda model captured the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. In contrast to the normal aorta the flow in aneurysm was highly disturbed and, particularly right after the neck, flow separation involving regions of high streaming velocities and high shear stresses were observed. Naturally, at the expanded sites of the aneurysm average flow velocity and wall shear stress were much lower compared to normal aortas. These findings suggest platelets activation right after the neck, i.e., within zones of pronounced recirculation, and platelet adhesion, i.e., thrombus formation, downstream. This mechanism is supported by recirculation zones promoting the advection of activated platelets to the wall. PMID:19936925

Biasetti, Jacopo; Gasser, T Christian; Auer, Martin; Hedin, Ulf; Labruto, Fausto

2010-02-01

92

Right fusiform response patterns reflect visual object identity rather than semantic similarity.  

PubMed

We previously reported the neuropsychological consequences of a lesion confined to the middle and posterior part of the right fusiform gyrus (case JA) causing a partial loss of knowledge of visual attributes of concrete entities in the absence of category-selectivity (animate versus inanimate). We interpreted this in the context of a two-step model that distinguishes structural description knowledge from associative-semantic processing and implicated the lesioned area in the former process. To test this hypothesis in the intact brain, multi-voxel pattern analysis was used in a series of event-related fMRI studies in a total of 46 healthy subjects. We predicted that activity patterns in this region would be determined by the identity of rather than the conceptual similarity between concrete entities. In a prior behavioral experiment features were generated for each entity by more than 1000 subjects. Based on a hierarchical clustering analysis the entities were organised into 3 semantic clusters (musical instruments, vehicles, tools). Entities were presented as words or pictures. With foveal presentation of pictures, cosine similarity between fMRI response patterns in right fusiform cortex appeared to reflect both the identity of and the semantic similarity between the entities. No such effects were found for words in this region. The effect of object identity was invariant for location, scaling, orientation axis and color (grayscale versus color). It also persisted for different exemplars referring to a same concrete entity. The apparent semantic similarity effect however was not invariant. This study provides further support for a neurobiological distinction between structural description knowledge and processing of semantic relationships and confirms the role of right mid-posterior fusiform cortex in the former process, in accordance with previous lesion evidence. PMID:23811413

Bruffaerts, Rose; Dupont, Patrick; De Grauwe, Sophie; Peeters, Ronald; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Vandenberghe, Rik

2013-12-01

93

The clinical reasoning of musculoskeletal physiotherapists in relation to the assessment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical reasoning processes of physiotherapists in relation to the assessment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI).Using a qualitative multiple case studies design 12 physiotherapists (mean=12.89 years clinical experience, SD=3.44) with an MSc in Manipulative Physiotherapy were shown 2 patient vignettes of a cervical spine disorder and associated symptoms of VBI sequentially in 4

Aoife Sweeney; Catherine Doody

2010-01-01

94

Vertebrobasilar Flow Evaluation and Risk of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke (VERiTAS) Study: Rationale and Design  

PubMed Central

Background Over one third of ischemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation, a leading cause of which is atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar disease (VBD). Symptomatic VBD carries a high annual recurrent stroke risk, averaging 10–15% per year. Endovascular angioplasty and stenting are increasingly employed, but carry risks, and the benefit remains unproven. Determining stroke predictors in this population is critical to identifying high risk patients for future trials of intervention. Preliminary studies indicate that stroke risk in VBD is strongly related to hemodynamic compromise, which can be measured noninvasively using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA). Methods/Study Design The VERiTAS Study, a prospective multi-center NIH funded observational study of symptomatic vertebrobasilar stenosis (? 50%) or occlusion, is designed to test the hypothesis that patients demonstrating compromised blood flow as assessed by QMRA are at higher stroke risk. The study will recruit 80 patients at 6 sites in North America over four years. Upon enrollment, subjects will undergo hemodynamic assessment with blinded QMRA to assess large vessel flow in the vertebrobasilar territory, and be prospectively designated as compromised or normal flow. Patients will be reimaged with QMRA at 6, 12 and 24 months, and followed for 12 to 24 months for the primary endpoint of stroke in the vertebrobasilar territory. Conclusion VERiTAS is the first prospective study of hemodynamics and stroke risk in the posterior circulation. The results may impact the selection criteria for interventional candidates and also define a low risk population in whom the risks of invasive interventions would be unnecessary. PMID:21050408

Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Rose-Finnell, Linda; Richardson, DeJuran; Ruland, Sean; Pandey, Dilip; Thulborn, Keith R.; Liebeskind, David S.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Kramer, Jeffrey; Silver, Frank L.; Kasner, Scott E.; Caplan, Louis R.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Gorelick, Philip B; Charbel, Fady T.

2010-01-01

95

The Contribution of the Left Mid-fusiform Cortical Thickness to Chinese and English Reading in a Large Chinese Sample  

PubMed Central

Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a critical role in reading. However, there is very limited research relating this region’s anatomical structure to reading performance either in native or second language. Using structural MRI and three reading tasks (Chinese characters, English words, and alphabetic pseudowords) and a non-reading task (visual-auditory learning), this study investigated the contributions of the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness to reading in a large sample of 226 Chinese subjects. Results showed that cortical thickness in the left mid-fusiform gyrus was positively correlated with performance on all three reading tasks but not with the performance on the non-reading task. Our findings provide structural evidence for the left mid-fusiform cortex as the “gateway” region for reading Chinese and English. The absence of the association between the left mid-fusiform cortical thickness and non-reading performance implied the specific role of this area in reading skills, not in general language skills. PMID:23022094

Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jin; Chen, Chuansheng; Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

2012-01-01

96

The role of vertebral and internal carotid artery disease in the pathogenesis of vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks.  

PubMed

Color-coded duplex sonography has improved the evaluation of the hemodynamics of the vertebral arteries (VA). A reliable differentiation between a normal vessel, hypoplasia, stenosis and occlusion of VA can now be made. We studied two groups of patients in a prospective study with isolated carotid artery disease (n = 48), and with a combination of carotid and vertebral artery disease (n = 14), to determine the role of VA in the pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in the vertebrobasilar system. Apart from the existing arteriosclerotic changes of the internal carotid arteries, the condition of the VA was of importance for the occurrence of TIAs in the vertebrobasilar territory. We found that 8% of the patients with isolated hemodynamically relevant stenosis or occlusion of one or both internal carotid arteries had a TIA in the vertebrobasilar territory. Patients with combined carotid and vertebral artery disease had an increase of TIAs in the same region in 71%. The high rate of TIAs in this group might be attributed to the combined effect of carotid and vertebral artery disease, as a third group (n = 30) with isolated vertebral artery disease showed TIAs in only 13%. PMID:8461343

Delcker, A; Diener, H C; Timmann, D; Faustmann, P

1993-01-01

97

Application of dual Willis covered stents in the management of large fusiform carotid aneurysms in a canine model.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the efficacy of dual Willis covered stents for the treatment of large fusiform carotid aneurysms in a canine model. Carotid fusiform aneurysms >10?mm long were surgically created in 10 dogs and were then repaired using either single or dual covered stents. Clinical results were assessed by scheduled angiography and histological features by light and electron microscopy. Angiography immediately post-op and 6 months after surgery revealed aneurysm isolation rates of 60 and 20% for the single stent technique and 60 and 100% for the dual stent technique, respectively. The rate of complete obliteration of the aneurysm sac differed significantly between treatments (P?=?0.048). The dual stent technique also resulted in greater endothelialization. For large carotid fusiform aneurysms in a canine model, endovascular repair using dual Willis covered stents is technically feasible and more effectively obliterates the aneurysm sac than the use of a single stent. PMID:24459129

Wan-Yin, Shi; Ming-Hua, Li; Lei, Yan; Yue-Qi, Zhu; Jian-Ping, Gu

2014-12-01

98

Two-stage selection in slash pine produces good gains in fusiform rust resistance  

SciTech Connect

The best 6 of 21 progeny-tested first-generation slash pine selections were crossed in a half diallel to study inheritance patterns of their superior fusiform rust resistance (5 trees) and height (1 tree). Their six first-test progenies were duplicated and included in the study. These two groups of progenies, along with two commercial check lots, were planted on an Upper Coastal Plain and a Flatwoods site in Georgia. At age 10 yr, the 15 progenies in the half diallel averaged 23% rust-infected compared with 54% for the check lots. First-test progenies averaged 30% infected. For percentage infection, the six parents differed in general combining ability (GCA) (0.01>P>0.001) on both test sites and in specific combining ability (0.05>P>0.01) on one site. GCA variation for height was significant (0.05>P>0.01) on one site. The parent selected for height had the highest breeding value for height at age 10 yr. These results show that resistance to the fusiform rust disease, a serious problem in management of the species, can be improved in slash pine. These 6 parents and their 15 progenies in the half-diallel cross are a good source of rust resistance genes for use in slash pine improvement programs.

Sluder, E.R.

1996-08-01

99

Characterization of laminaran and a highly sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme.  

PubMed

The crude polysaccharide (HFS) from Sargassum fusiforme (Hizikia fusiforme) was extracted using 0.1M HCl and was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography into three fractions: HFS-1, HFS-2, and HFS-3. Based on the chemical analysis, HFS-1 was composed of laminaran, HFS-2 was a mixture of alginate and sulfated heteropolysaccharides, and HFS-3 was primarily composed of sulfated galactofucan. The NMR spectra revealed that HFS-1 was composed of a soluble laminaran with chains that are terminated by ?-d-glucose residues. In contrast, the spectra obtained for HFS-2 were still complex, even after most of the alginate was removed. In addition, HFS-3 might contain 3-linked fucan sulfated at C-2, 6-linked galactan sulfated at C-2 and branched at C-4 by 2-sulfated Fuc, and galactofucan with a backbone of either alternating Gal and Fuc sulfated at C-2 or alternating (Gal)n and (Fuc)n sulfated at C-2. Moreover, HFS-3 also contained small amounts of fucoglucuronomannan and xylan. PMID:24413558

Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ren, Sumei; Song, Ni; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

2014-02-19

100

Effects of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides on antioxidant activities and intestinal functions in mice.  

PubMed

Sargassum fusiforme is a kind of brown algae that has been widely consumed not only as food, but also as herbal medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities and intestinal functions of polysaccharides extracted from S. fusiforme (SFP) in normal and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice. The experiment was performed on six groups of ICR mice, which treated with cyclophosphamide (CY, 200 mg/kg) or different dosages of SFP for 14 days. The results showed that administration of SFP was able to overcome the immunosuppression, and significantly increased the spleen index and antioxidant activities in mice (P<0.05). It also remarkably improved the numbers of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and goblet cells in immunosuppressed mice (P<0.05). For normal mice, SFP increased both thymus index and intestinal function parameters such as villus length/crypt depth ratio and intestinal IELs and goblet cells (P<0.05). The results suggested that SFP, possessing pronounced antioxidant activities, may play an important role in the improvement of intestinal function in mice. This might be one of the possible mechanisms of SFP for the immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23567289

Wang, Wei; Lu, Jia-Bin; Wang, Cai; Wang, Cai-Sheng; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Cai-Yan; Qian, Guo-Ying

2013-07-01

101

Imaging gate oxide ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As minimum feature sizes are reduced in MOS silicon devices, dielectric breakdown continues to pose a formidable challenge. A more complete understanding of the failure mechanism which induces oxide rupture has become an absolute necessity in order to meet the advancing yield and reliability requirements of today's complex integrated structures. This paper will present an interesting insight into the nature

Horacio Mendez; Steve Morris; Sudhindra Tatti; Nicholas Dickson; Ronald E. Pyle

1993-01-01

102

Bipolar infrapatellar tendon rupture.  

PubMed

Traumatic patella alta in children occurs either distal to the patellar tendon as a tibial tubercle apophyseal fracture or proximally as an osteochondral sleeve fracture of the inferior patellar pole. Acute surgical exploration in a pediatric case of a knee extensor mechanism rupture revealed both proximal and distal (bipolar) patellar tendon pathology. PMID:7790483

Berg, E E

1995-01-01

103

Fault branching and rupture directivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism

Sonia Fliss; Harsha S. Bhat; Renata Dmowska; James R. Rice

2005-01-01

104

Analysis of the vertebrobasilar system in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the vertebrobasilar system in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study population was made up of 48 patients with OSA and 21 healthy volunteers who served as controls; the OSA patients were subdivided into one group with mild or moderate OSA (n = 22) and another with severe OSA (n = 26). Each participant underwent Doppler ultrasonography three times to measure the diameter of the vertebral artery, the peak systolic velocity (PSV), the resistive index (RI), and the vertebral artery flow volume; the mean of the three measurements was calculated for each patient, for the OSA and control groups, and for various subgroups. No significant differences in vessel diameter, PSV, or RI were seen among any of the subgroups. Overall, the vertebral artery flow volume was slightly, but not significantly, higher in all patients with OSA (206 ml/min) than in the control group (177 ml/min); this difference might reflect the body's daytime response to the chronic apneic events experienced during sleep. The only statistically significant difference we found was in vertebral artery flow volume between the controls and the subgroup with mild or moderate OSA (p = 0.026); no difference was seen between the controls and the patients with severe OSA (p = 0.318). Likewise, no significant difference in any of the four parameters was seen when patients were subclassified by body mass index and arterial oxygen saturation level. PMID:23975498

Taskin, Umit; Yigit, Ozgur; Sisman, Ayse S; Ogreden, Sahin; Azizli, Elad; Kantarci, Fatih; Mihmanli, Ismail

2013-08-01

105

Evaluation of vertebrobasilar artery changes in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) lesions in elderly patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) by magnetic resonance angiography. VBA lesions in patients older than 65 years of age with BPPV were prospectively investigated by magnetic resonance angiography. Vascular risk factors, blood vessel changes, and vertigo severity were recorded. Age-matched individuals without BPPV were included in the control group. Of 126 patients screened for this study, 104 were included. Relevant comorbidities included diabetes (12 patients), hypertension (23 patients), and dyslipidemia (20 patients). Findings included left or right vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion (22 patients, 21.2%), VA tortuosity (25 patients, 24.0%), VA dominance (20 patients, 19.2%), basilar artery (BA) stenosis or occlusion (nine patients, 8.6%), and BA tortuosity (12 patients, 11.5%). These abnormal vessels differed between BPPV patients and the control group (all P<0.05). The severity of Vertigo did not differ between the abnormal VA and abnormal BA groups (P>0.05), but did differ between the normal group and the abnormal VA or BA group (P<0.05). Vertigo severity correlated with VA stenosis or occlusion, VA dominance, and unilateral or bilateral VA tortuosity. VBA tortuosity and VA dominance were common in BPPV patients and may contribute toward BPPV. PMID:23903461

Zhang, Daopei; Zhang, Shuling; Zhang, Hongtao; Xu, Yuming; Fu, Shengqi; Yu, Meng; Ji, Peng

2013-09-11

106

Decreased GABAB Receptors in the Cingulate Cortex and Fusiform Gyrus in Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder and among its symptoms are disturbances in face and emotional processing. Emerging evidence demonstrates abnormalities in the GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) system in autism, which likely contributes to these deficits. GABAB receptors play an important role in modulating synapses and maintaining the balance of excitation-inhibition in the brain. The density of GABAB receptors in subjects with autism and matched controls was quantified in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, important for socio-emotional and cognitive processing, and the fusiform gyrus, important for identification of faces and facial expressions. Significant reductions in GABAB receptor density were demonstrated in all three regions examined suggesting that alterations in this key inhibitory receptor subtype may contribute to the functional deficits in individuals with autism. Interestingly, the presence of seizure in a subset of autism cases did not have a significant effect on the density of GABAB receptors in any of the three regions. PMID:20557420

Gibbs, Terrell T.; Blatt, Gene J.

2010-01-01

107

Facial affect recognition training in autism: can we animate the fusiform gyrus?  

PubMed

One of the most consistent findings in the neuroscience of autism is hypoactivation of the fusiform gyrus (FG) during face processing. In this study the authors examined whether successful facial affect recognition training is associated with an increased activation of the FG in autism. The effect of a computer-based program to teach facial affect identification was examined in 10 individuals with high-functioning autism. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes in the FG and other regions of interest, as well as behavioral facial affect recognition measures, were assessed pre- and posttraining. No significant activation changes in the FG were observed. Trained participants showed behavioral improvements, which were accompanied by higher BOLD fMRI signals in the superior parietal lobule and maintained activation in the right medial occipital gyrus. PMID:16492133

Bölte, Sven; Hubl, Daniela; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Prvulovic, David; Dierks, Thomas; Poustka, Fritz

2006-02-01

108

24(S)-saringosterol from edible marine seaweed Sargassum fusiforme is a novel selective LXR? agonist.  

PubMed

Dietary phytosterols have been successfully used for lowering cholesterol levels, which correlates with the fact that some phytosterols are able to act as liver X receptor (LXR) agonists. Sargassum fusiforme is an edible marine seaweed well-known for its antiatherosclerotic function in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, seven phytosterols including fucosterol (1), saringosterol (2), 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (3), 29-hydroperoxy-stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3?-ol (4), 24-methylene-cholesterol (5), 24-keto-cholesterol (6), and 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (7) were purified and evaluated for their actions on LXR-mediated transcription using a reporter assay. Among these phytosterols, 2 was the most potent compound in stimulating the transcriptional activities of LXR? by (3.81±0.15)-fold and LXR? by (14.40±1.10)-fold, respectively. Two epimers of 2, 24(S)-saringosterol (2a) and 24(R)-saringosterol (2b), were subsequently separated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Interestingly, 2a was more potent than 2b in LXR?-mediated transactivation ((3.50±0.17)-fold vs (1.63±0.12)-fold) compared with control. Consistently, 2a induced higher expression levels of LXR target genes including key players in reverse cholesterol transport in six cell lines. These data along with molecular modeling suggested that 2a acts as a selective LXR? agonist and is a potent natural cholesterol-lowering agent. This study also demonstrated that phytosterols in S. fusiforme contributed to the well-known antiatherosclerotic function. PMID:24927286

Chen, Zhen; Liu, Jiao; Fu, Zhifei; Ye, Cheng; Zhang, Renshuai; Song, Yiyun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Haihua; Ying, Hao; Liu, Hongbing

2014-07-01

109

Iatrogenic tracheobronchial rupture  

PubMed Central

Abstract Iatrogenic tracheobronchial ruptures most frequently occur during tracheal intubation, but they can also be produced during tracheobronchial endoscopy or thoracic surgery. The clinical presentation can be brutal, with respiratory failure, cervical emphysema, pneumothorax and hemoptysis. There are also less symptomatic presentations. The diagnosis is confirmed by bronchoscopy. The therapeutic approach can be differentiated, surgical or conservative, although the criteria are not universally accepted. This article aims to review the indications and therapeutic options. PMID:25408752

Paraschiv, M

2014-01-01

110

[Surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm associated with tortuous vertebrobasilar system (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm associated with tortuous vertebrobasilar system was reported. A patient was 63-year-old female, who first experienced mild and intermittent muscle twitching around her left eye twenty years prior to admission. Five years later, the twitching extended to all the facial muscles on the left side. She was treated with facial nerve block, which resulted in facial palsy for about one year. Because of recurrence of the hemifacial spasm, she was admitted to the Neurosurgical Department of Bokuto Municipal Hospital on October 12, 1977. Neurological examination revealed no abnormalities except for left hemifacial spasm with slight muscular weakness. Electromyogram showed severe twitching and synkinesis of all the muscles of facial expression. Vertebral angiogram on the left side disclosed pronounced elongation of the vertebral and basilar arteries, which extended into the left cerebellopontine angle. Compression of the facial nerve root exit zone at the brainstem by the vertebral artery was considered to be the cause of the hemifacial spasm. Suboccipital craniectomy was carried out on November 29, 1977. The vertebral artery extended into the cerebellopontine angle, and adhered to the facial nerve. After mobilization of the vertebral artery from the facial nerve, a small prosthesis of non-absorbable spongy material (Teflon felt) was interposed between the vertebral artery and brainstem. Postoperatively, the hemifacial spasm disappeared, but the facial palsy, which had been observed preoperatively probably due to previous facial nerve block and long-standing hemifacial spasm, remained. The function of the acoustic nerve was preserved. Recently vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone has been reported as a major cause of hemifacial spasm, but such abnormal vessels are rarely demonstrated angiographically. PMID:215927

Suzuki, I; Sasaki, A; Yanagibashi, K; Tsuchida, T; Hayakawa, I; Kobayashi, T

1978-12-01

111

Slow rupture of frictional interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

2012-02-01

112

Is cervical spine rotation, as used in the standard vertebrobasilar insufficiency test, associated with a measureable change in intracranial vertebral artery blood flow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine rotation is used by manual therapists as a premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) test to identify patients at risk of developing VBI post-manipulation. Investigations of the effect of rotation on vertebral artery blood flow have yielded conflicting results, the validity of the test being debated. It was the aim of this study, therefore, to investigate the effects of cervical

Jeanette Mitchell; David Keene; Craig Dyson; Lyndsay Harvey; Christopher Pruvey; Rita Phillips

2004-01-01

113

Perceived animacy influences the processing of human-like surface features in the fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

While decades of research have demonstrated that a region of the right fusiform gyrus (FG) responds selectively to faces, a second line of research suggests that the FG responds to a range of animacy cues, including biological motion and goal-directed actions, even in the absence of faces or other human-like surface features. These findings raise the question of whether the FG is indeed sensitive to faces or to the more abstract category of animate agents. The current study uses fMRI to examine whether the FG responds to all faces in a category-specific way or whether the FG is especially sensitive to the faces of animate agents. Animate agents are defined here as intentional agents with the capacity for rational goal-directed actions. Specifically, we examine how the FG responds to an entity that looks like an animate agent but that lacks the capacity for goal-directed rational action. Region-of-interest analyses reveal that the FG activates more strongly to the animate compared with the inanimate entity, even though the surface features of both animate and inanimate entities were identical. These results suggest that the FG does not respond to all faces in a category-specific way, and is instead especially sensitive to whether an entity is animate. PMID:24905285

Shultz, Sarah; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-07-01

114

Increased BOLD signal in the fusiform gyrus during implicit emotion processing in anorexia nervosa?  

PubMed Central

Background The behavioural literature in anorexia nervosa (AN) has suggested impairments in psychosocial functioning and studies using facial expression processing tasks (FEPT) have reported poorer recognition and slower identification of emotions. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used alongside a FEPT, depicting neutral, mildly happy and happy faces, to examine the neural correlates of implicit emotion processing in AN. Participants were instructed to specify the gender of the faces. Levels of depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive symptoms and eating disorder behaviour were obtained and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to acquire uncorrelated variables. Results fMRI analysis revealed a greater blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in AN in the right fusiform gyrus to all facial expressions. This response showed a linear increase with the happiness of the facial expression and was found to be stronger in those not taking medication. PCA analysis revealed a single component indicating a greater level of general clinical symptoms. Conclusion Neuroimaging findings would suggest that alterations in implicit emotion processing in AN occur during early perceptual processing of social signals and illustrate greater engagement on the FEPT. The lack of separate components using PCA suggests that the questionnaires used might not be suited as predictive measures. PMID:24501698

Fonville, Leon; Giampietro, Vincent; Surguladze, Simon; Williams, Steven; Tchanturia, Kate

2013-01-01

115

Why is the Fusiform Face Area recruited for novel categories of expertise?: A neurocomputational investigation  

PubMed Central

What is the role of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Is it specific to face processing, or is it a visual expertise area? The expertise hypothesis is appealing due to a number of studies showing that the FFA is activated by pictures of objects within the subject’s domain of expertise (e.g., cars for car experts, birds for birders, etc.), and that activation of the FFA increases as new expertise is acquired in the lab. However, it is incumbent upon the proponents of the expertise hypothesis to explain how it is that an area that is initially specialized for faces becomes recruited for new classes of stimuli. We dub this the “visual expertise mystery.” One suggested answer to this mystery is that the FFA is used simply because it is a fine discrimination area, but this account has historically lacked a mechanism describing exactly how the FFA would be recruited for novel domains of expertise. In this study, we show that a neurocomputational model trained to perform subordinate-level discrimination within a visually homogeneous class develops transformations that magnify differences between similar objects, in marked contrast to networks trained to simply categorize the objects. This magnification generalizes to novel classes, leading to faster learning of new discriminations. We suggest this is why the FFA is recruited for new expertise. The model predicts that individual FFA neurons will have highly variable responses to stimuli within expertise domains. PMID:17959155

Joyce, Carrie A.; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

2008-01-01

116

Structure and biological activities of an alginate from Sargassum fusiforme, and its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

An alginate fraction, 04S2P, was isolated from the brown seaweed Sargassum fusiforme and was structurally characterized by the ratio (M/G) of ?-d-mannuronic acid residues (M) to ?-l-guluronic acid residues (G) via (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. When compared to commercial alginate (Alg) and alginates from other brown algae, 04S2P has a higher M/G ratio of 9.0:1.0 as determined by a modified high-performance liquid chromatography method after pre-column derivatization with PMP. Furthermore, the sulfated polysaccharides 04S2P-S and Alg-S were prepared by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. Both C-2 and/or C-3 of M and G residues of 04S2P-S were substituted by sulfate groups, with C-3 of M residues preferentially substituted. Their effects on tube formation of HMEC-1 cells were examined, and the results indicated that the sulfated Alg, Alg-S, exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic effect on HMEC-1 cells. The anti-tumor activity of native and sulfated alginates was tested on five different tumor cell lines. Alg-S demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects on the Bel7402, SMMC7721, and HT-29 cell lines, whereas 04S2P-S showed a distinct anti-tumor effect only on the Bel7402 cell line. PMID:24877643

Cong, Qifei; Xiao, Fei; Liao, Wenfeng; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

2014-08-01

117

Structural investigation and immunological activity of a heteropolysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme.  

PubMed

A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the brown alga, Sargassum fusiforme. The heteropolysaccharide was estimated to have a molecular weight of 11kDa and showed [?]D(20) -62.2420 (c 0.05, H2O). SFPS65-B comprised galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, and galacturonic acid at a ratio of 3.04:1:1.15:2.82:6.51. Its structural features were investigated using composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-Q-TOF MS spectroscopy. Results showed that SFPS65-B contained the backbone of ?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Hexp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Fucp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?. The sulfated unit and terminal fucose residues were attached onto the backbone through the O-2 of some galactose residues. Results also showed that SFPS65-B had a good effect on thymus and spleen indices at a dose of 100mg/kg upon immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. PMID:24685576

Hu, Pei; Xue, Rui; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Jiang, Jian; Huang, Chenggang

2014-05-22

118

Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri.  

PubMed

People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G; Van Bavel, Jay J

2014-03-01

119

The effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extracts on vibriosis resistance and immune activity of the shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulants are valuable for control of shrimp diseases and the immunostimulatory effects of some polysaccharide additives for shrimp have been reported. In this study, the Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extract (SFPSE) was assessed as a feed additive when supplemented in the diet (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%) for juvenile shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, in order to study the effects of SFPSE on

Xuxiong Huang; Hongqi Zhou; Hui Zhang

2006-01-01

120

Uterine rupture: Preventable obstetric tragedies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although ruptured uterus is nowadays a rare obstetric emergency in Western countries, it is still alarmingly common in developing countries, where it remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Aims: To review the recent experience of uterine rupture at a tertiary obstetric unit in eastern Nepal and to recommend improvements in the current management of labour, especially

Sangeeta K. MISHRA; Norman MORRIS; Dhruba Kumar UPRETY

2006-01-01

121

Spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, management and outcome of patients with spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus in a single centre. Methods: Between October 1993 and May 2007, 51 consecutive patients with spontaneous oesophageal rupture were evaluated with contrast radiology and flexible endoscopy. Patients with limited contamination who fulfilled specific criteria were managed by a

S. M. Griffin; P. J. Lamb; J. Shenfine; D. L. Richardson; D. Karat; N. Hayes

2008-01-01

122

Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.  

PubMed

The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children. PMID:23153968

James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

2013-02-15

123

An integrated face-body representation in the fusiform gyrus but not the lateral occipital cortex.  

PubMed

Faces and bodies are processed by distinct category-selective brain areas. Neuroimaging studies have so far presented isolated faces and headless bodies, and therefore little is known on whether and where faces and headless bodies are grouped together to one object, as they appear in the real world. The current study examined whether a face presented above a body are represented as two separate images or as an integrated face-body representation in face and body-selective brain areas by employing a fMRI competition paradigm. This paradigm has been shown to reveal higher fMRI response to sequential than simultaneous presentation of multiple stimuli (i.e., the competition effect), indicating competitive interactions among simultaneously presented multiple stimuli. We therefore hypothesized that if a face above a body is integrated to an image of a person whereas a body above a face is represented as two separate objects, the competition effect will be larger for the latter than the former. Consistent with our hypothesis, our findings reveal a competition effect when a body is presented above a face, but not when a face is presented above a body, suggesting that a body above a face is represented as two separate objects whereas a face above a body is represented as an integrated image of a person. Interestingly, this integration of a face and a body to an image of a person was found in the fusiform, but not the lateral-occipital face and body areas. We conclude that faces and bodies are processed separately at early stages and are integrated to a unified image of a person at mid-level stages of object processing. PMID:24702456

Bernstein, Michal; Oron, Jonathan; Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

2014-11-01

124

Spontaneous rupture of adrenal haemangioma mimicking abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture  

PubMed Central

Serious bleeding from a ruptured adrenal mass limits preoperative diagnostics and can necessitate urgent laparotomy to control blood loss. A 45-year old man underwent an emergency laparotomy due to severe retroperitoneal haemorrhage causing hypovolaemia. Detailed retroperitoneal dissection after splenectomy and clamping of the abdominal aorta revealed bleeding from a ruptured haemangioma of the left adrenal gland. Following a left adrenalectomy, the patient returned to a stable haemodynamic state. Adrenal haemangiomas are rare, but may cause spontaneous life-threatening haemorrhage. PMID:22371732

Ambroziak, Iwona; Holynska-Dabrowska, Katarzyna; Siezieniewska-Skowronska, Zofia; Paluszkiewicz, Andrzej

2010-01-01

125

Imaging gate oxide ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As minimum feature sizes are reduced in MOS silicon devices, dielectric breakdown continues to pose a formidable challenge. A more complete understanding of the failure mechanism which induces oxide rupture has become an absolute necessity in order to meet the advancing yield and reliability requirements of today's complex integrated structures. This paper will present an interesting insight into the nature of dielectric breakdown in MOS transistors produced from a novel cross-sectioning TEM sample preparation method using a focused ion beam tool. By using deductive failure analysis, it was possible to determine the location of the leakage within a 1000 angstroms portion of the transfer gate of a one megabit DRAM. Once localized, a creative combination of conventional glass lapping and focused ion beam techniques were used to produce the thin TEM slice which contained the oxide breakdown. An image of the breakdown was then obtained on a 200 keV TEM. Interestingly, the image revealed that the origin of the breakdown was associated with imperfections in the form of voids in the surface of the silicon substrate. These results proved to be consistent over multiple samples. In this paper a complete description of these images will be presented along with possible theories describing the fundamental origin of these defects.

Mendez, Horacio; Morris, Steve; Tatti, Sudhindra; Dickson, Nicholas; Pyle, Ronald E.

1993-01-01

126

Steam generator tube rupture study  

E-print Network

This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

Free, Scott Thomas

1986-01-01

127

Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR

Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee

1995-01-01

128

Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive–behavior therapy: A preliminary task analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial ideal, rational model of alliance rupture and rupture resolution provided by cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) experts was assessed and compared with empirical observations of ruptures and their resolution in two cases of successful CBT. The initial rational model emphasized nondefensive acknowledgment and exploration of the rupture. Results indicated differences between what therapists think they should do to resolve ruptures

Helen Aspland; Susan Llewelyn; Gillian E. Hardy; Michael Barkham; William Stiles

2008-01-01

129

Elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures: epicondylitis, biceps and triceps ruptures.  

PubMed

Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions. PMID:19258160

Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S

2009-03-01

130

Cervical ruptures in midtrimester abortions.  

PubMed

2 groups of patients are at risk of traumatic complication after midtrimester abortion: older multiparous women (uterine ruptures) and young primigravid women (cervical ruptures). While the occurrence of uterine ruptures in the former class can be reduced by selective use of abortifacient agents, and avoidance of amnioinfusions and intravenous oxytocin, the occurrence of cervical ruptures continues to be high. From May 1974 through May 1978, 780 women underwent midtrimester abortion by various techniques. 12 patients (1.5%) sustained cervical injuries, 11 of whom were nulliparous aged 16 to 25 years. Intra-amniotic and extra-ovular methods alike produced cervical injuries. The combined method of induction increases the likelihood of damaging the cervix. Oxytocic augmentation, however, does not appear to increase its incidence. Nor does a shorter induction-abortion interval, according to the evidence. Since laminaria tents did not prevent cervical injuries, none of the presently available methods offers any protection. Nevertheless, it may be that cervical injuries can be prevented if midtrimester abortions are undertaken between 13 and 15 weeks of pregnancy. Cervical ruptures can also go unnoticed and cause future obstetric problems; the authors therefore emphasize the importance of routine cervical inspection in all patients. PMID:12335921

Rajan, R; Usha, K R

1979-06-01

131

Behavior of the Edible Seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to Copper Pollution: Short-Term Acclimation and Long-Term Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

132

Behavior of the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme to copper pollution: short-term acclimation and long-term adaptation.  

PubMed

Aquatic agriculture in heavy-metal-polluted coastal areas faces major problems due to heavy metal transfer into aquatic organisms, leading to various unexpected changes in nutrition and primary and/or secondary metabolism. In the present study, the dual role of heavy metal copper (Cu) played in the metabolism of photosynthetic organism, the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, was evaluated by characterization of biochemical and metabolic responses using both 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques under acute (47 µM, 1 day) and chronic stress (8 µM, 7 days). Consequently, photosynthesis may be seriously inhibited by acute Cu exposure, resulting in decreasing levels of carbohydrates, e.g., mannitol, the main products of photosynthesis. Ascorbate may play important roles in the antioxidant system, whose content was much more seriously decreased under acute than that under chronic Cu stress. Overall, these results showed differential toxicological responses on metabolite profiles of S. fusiforme subjected to acute and chronic Cu exposures that allowed assessment of impact of Cu on marine organisms. PMID:25025229

Zou, Hui-Xi; Pang, Qiu-Ying; Lin, Li-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Nan; Lin, Yan-Qing; Li, Lu-Min; Wu, Qin-Qin; Yan, Xiu-Feng

2014-01-01

133

Ruptures of the rotator cuff.  

PubMed Central

Through the use of improved diagnostic techniques, including arthrography and arthroscopy, ruptures of the rotator cuff that previously might not have been recognized are now being identified more frequently. In most cases the symptoms are relatively mild and respond satisfactorily to rest and therapy. Occasionally, however, there is severe, persistent disability despite treatment. These ruptures require surgical repair. In such cases the data obtained from special investigations help the surgeon select the appropriate surgical approach and repair technique. An imaginative program of physiotherapy before and after the operation contributes greatly to a satisfactory result. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7437980

Ha'eri, G B

1980-01-01

134

Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

2011-01-01

135

Factors Predicting the Oculomotor Nerve Palsy following Surgical Clipping of Distal Vertebrobasilar Aneurysms: A Single-Institution Experience.  

PubMed

Background?The aim of our study was to identify various clinical and radiologic factors that correlate with the oculomotor nerve palsy following clipping of distal vertebrobasilar aneurysms. Methods?A total of 48 patients with 51 aneurysms were included in this retrospective study . Patient's age, gender, size, location, and projection of the aneurysm, preoperative Hunt and Hess (H&H) grade, presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), temporary clipping, preoperative third nerve palsy, and Glasgow Outcome Scale were included in the model for analysis. Results?A total of 15 patients (31.25%) developed oculomotor nerve palsy following clipping of basilar apex aneurysms. 38 patients (79.2%) presented with SAH and 35 patients (72.9%) had poor H&H grades at presentation. The size of the aneurysm (p?=?0.03), preoperative H&H grade (p?=?0.04), preoperative oculomotor nerve dysfunction (p?=?0.007), and projection of an aneurysm (p?=?0.004) had shown a significant correlation with the oculomotor nerve palsy. The size of the aneurysm (p?=?0.030, odds ratio: 0.381; 95% confidence interval, 0.175-0.827] was an independent predictor of postoperative nerve dysfunction. Conclusion?The size of the aneurysm, clinical grade at presentation, and projection of the aneurysm correlated with the oculomotor nerve dysfunction following clipping. These clinical and radiologic parameters can be used to predict the oculomotor nerve outcome. PMID:25093149

Sharma, Mayur; Ahmed, Osama; Ambekar, Sudheer; Sonig, Ashish; Nanda, Anil

2014-08-01

136

Effects of dietary fermented seaweed and seaweed fusiforme on growth performance, carcass parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in fermented seaweed by-product groups were much higher than in non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, IgG concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than in control group (p<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that by-product dietary supplementation of BS, SF, FBS, and FSF in poultry may provide positive effects of growth performance and immune response. PMID:25050025

Choi, Y J; Lee, S R; Oh, J-W

2014-06-01

137

Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in fermented seaweed by-product groups were much higher than in non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, IgG concentrations in all treatment groups were lower than in control group (p<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that by-product dietary supplementation of BS, SF, FBS, and FSF in poultry may provide positive effects of growth performance and immune response. PMID:25050025

Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.

2014-01-01

138

Traumatic pericardial rupture with skeletonized phrenic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic pericardial rupture is a rare presentation. Pericardial rupture itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. OBJECTIVES: Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial rupture with complete skeletonization

Zain Khalpey; Taufiek K Rajab; Jan D Schmitto; Philipp C Camp

2011-01-01

139

A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs.

Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

140

Differential neuronal responses to the self and others in the extrastriate body area and the fusiform body area.  

PubMed

The extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fusiform body area (FBA) are selectively activated by viewing human bodies. However, the role of these functionally defined brain areas in self-other discrimination is still unresolved. Thirty-one females were presented with 16 pictures of their own body and another body in a bikini and with scrambled images while fMRI was performed. Moreover, standardized stimulus material was used in order to localize the EBA and FBA. Region-of-interest analysis showed an enhanced BOLD response to the self-images relative to the non-self-images in the right EBA and FBA. The right EBA and FBA are activated differently by viewing oneself and others and might thus play a role in visual self-other discrimination. PMID:20805543

Vocks, Silja; Busch, Martin; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Schulte, Dietmar; Herpertz, Stephan; Suchan, Boris

2010-09-01

141

Where color rests: spontaneous brain activity of bilateral fusiform and lingual regions predicts object color knowledge performance.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the physical attributes of objects is commonly assumed to be distributed near their respective modality-specific brain regions. The exact neural correlates for such knowledge, especially how it is maintained in the resting state, are largely unknown. In the current study, we explored the intrinsic neural basis related to a specific type of object knowledge - color - by investigating the relationship between spontaneous brain activity and color knowledge behavioral performance. We correlated the regional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF, a resting-state fMRI parameter) with healthy participants' performance on two object color knowledge tasks (object color verification and color attribute judgment). We found that ALFF in bilateral lingual and fusiform gyri and right inferior occipital gyrus reliably predicted participants' color knowledge performance (correlation coefficients=0.55-0.70), and that calcarine cortex showed a similar trend, although less stable. Furthermore, the ALFF-behavior correlations for other types of object knowledge (i.e. form, motion and sound) in these regions were minimal and significantly lower than those for color knowledge, suggesting that the effects in the observed regions were not merely due to general object processing. Furthermore, we showed that functional connectivity strengths of the lingual/fusiform and inferior occipital regions are significantly associated with color knowledge performance, indicating that they work as a network to support color knowledge processing or the acquisition of such knowledge. Our findings show the critical role of ventral medial occipito-temporal regions in processing or acquiring color knowledge and highlight the behavioral significance of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. PMID:23518009

Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Zaizhu; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

2013-08-01

142

Traumatically ruptured globes in children.  

PubMed

This retrospective study was designed to document the etiology of traumatically ruptured globes in children and to determine the prognostic value of several clinical parameters with respect to visual outcome. Forty-six children 16 years of age and under seen in the emergency room over a 2-year period were found to have full thickness penetration of the globe. Fifty-nine percent of injuries occurred during recreational activities, and 59% occurred outside of the home. Boys outnumbered girls by a 6:1 ratio. For children, initial visual acuity proved to be less valuable as a prognostic indicator with regard to final vision than has been reported in adults. Smaller corneal wounds offered better visual outcomes. Four eyes were enucleated. Ten ruptures (22%) were related to activity involving guns. Four of six BB gun injuries were the result of a ricocheted BB. Visual outcomes in gun-related injuries were particularly poor. PMID:7837018

Rudd, J C; Jaeger, E A; Freitag, S K; Jeffers, J B

1994-01-01

143

Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.  

PubMed Central

The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M

1989-01-01

144

The effect of prostaglandin E1 on brainstem blood flow disturbance in an animal model of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.  

PubMed

Using an animal model of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI), in which brainstem circulatory disturbance was induced in rats, we examined how prostaglandin E1 (PG-E1) affects brainstem blood flow (BBF) to clarify whether it is effective against VBI. Fifteen healthy male Wister rats that displayed positive responses to Preyer's reflex were used. Their BBF was continuously measured on the left side of the midline of the brainstem using laser Doppler flowmetry. A rat model of VBI, a pathological condition that presents with decreased BBF, was prepared by applying a vertebral artery clamp ipsilateral to the BBF measuring site and inducing hypotension of 60-70 mmHg by blood withdrawal. Saline as a control (n = 5), 5 ng/kg/min (n = 5) or 10 ng/kg/min (n = 5) PG-E1 at a dose was continuously administered to the rats using a motor-driven syringe pump. The effects of the drugs on the rats' BBF were evaluated. BBF, which was decreased by the unilateral vertebral artery clamping combined with blood withdrawal-induced hypotension, recovered in a dose-dependent manner after the administration of 5 or 10 ng/kg/min PG-E1, and complete recovery to the baseline level was achieved by 60 min treatment; however, no such effect was observed for intravenous saline. These results suggest that PG-E1 acts on local vessels and improves blood flow insufficiency in the brainstem in our animal model of VBI. PG-E1 might be useful as a cerebral vasodilator for VBI. PMID:23591797

Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Murai, Takayuki; Sawai, Yachiyo; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Hosoi, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

145

The comparative analyses of the auditory evoked potentials and color Doppler sonography findings in patients diagnosed with vertebrobasilar insufficiency.  

PubMed

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) represent an electrophysiological method used in the diagnostics of pathological changes of the brainstem. Patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) show changes in the AEP-caused ischemia of the brain structures that generate their responses. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic significance and correlation among the findings of AEP in patients with VBI established by color Doppler sonography. The cross-sectional and prospective research included 48 inpatients and outpatients treated at the Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center Nis. Ultrasound Doppler of blood vessels in the neck included an examination of the carotid blood vessels, the outcome and all sonographically available parts of the vertebral artery (VA) with particular emphasis on the intravertebral segment (V2). The morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of VA in this segment were monitored, and it was important to test the systolic velocity in two adjacent intervertebral spaces. Auditory evoked potentials were used to monitor the amplitudes, absolute latencies of waves I, II, III, IV, and V, as well as interwave latencies (IWLs) I-III, III-V, and I-V. There is statistically significant difference in the more frequent pathological finding of AEP in patients with higher degree of the reduced flow of VA established by color Doppler (P < 0·05) compared to patients with less reduction in the flow. Pathological findings of AEP are well correlated with pathological findings of VBI in color Doppler, and it may be applied as an additional and useful marker in diagnosis of VBI. PMID:24806547

Zivadinovic, Biljana; Stamenovi?, Jelena; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan

2014-11-01

146

[Rupture of the diaphragm of late manifestation].  

PubMed

Twenty one cases of delayed diagnosis of ruptured diaphragm caused by closed trauma are reported: 14 on the left side and 7 on the right side. The clinical signs and the modes of presentation are non-specific. Although the history of thoraco-abdominal trauma and the chest x-ray are sufficient to establish the diagnosis of rupture of the left hemidiaphragm, they can only suggest the diagnosis in cases of righ-sided rupture. The mechanism of rupture is more often due to sudden reflex contraction of the diaphragm against a closed glottis than to excessive abdominal pressure caused by the trauma. Diaphragmatic rupture due to closed trauma causes large tears exposing the patient to a low risk of strangulation of intestinal structures in contrast with ruptures due to a penetrating injury, which causes small tears. The diaphragmatic domes must be systematically explored during laparotomy or thoracotomy performed for thoraco-abdominal trauma. PMID:2189337

Lenot, B; Bellenot, F; Regnard, J F; Dartevelle, P; Rojas-Miranda, A; Levasseur, P

1990-01-01

147

Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

2013-01-01

148

Delayed aortic rupture following perforating trauma  

PubMed Central

The immediate death rate for aortic rupture caused by pointed and sharp-edged instruments is very high; however, delayed aortic rupture following the trauma is rarely reported. A patient who had an upper abdominal stab wound was sent to our hospital, and an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. No traumatic aortic rupture was found at that time. However, on the fifth day after surgery, aortic rupture occurred, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma was formed. The patient eventually died. Aortic rupture was confirmed by a second emergency exploratory laparotomy and the autopsy. The information from exploratory laparotomies, post-operative observations and treatments, medical imaging reports, and reasons for delayed aortic rupture, as well as the underlying pathophysiological processes, are discussed in this case report.

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang

2014-01-01

149

Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

1973-01-01

150

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

151

Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour.  

PubMed

Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

2014-01-01

152

Preparation and certification of hijiki reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, from the edible marine algae hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme).  

PubMed

A certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7405-a, for the determination of trace elements and As(V) in algae was developed from the edible marine hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme) and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Hijiki was collected from the Pacific coast in the Kanto area of Japan, and was washed, dried, powdered, and homogenized. The hijiki powder was placed in 400 bottles (ca. 20 g each). The concentrations of 18 trace elements and As(V) were determined by two to four independent analytical techniques, including (ID)ICP-(HR)MS, ICP-OES, GFAAS, and HPLC-ICP-MS using calibration solutions prepared from the elemental standard solution of Japan calibration service system (JCSS) and the NMIJ CRM As(V) solution, and whose concentrations are certified and SI traceable. The uncertainties of all the measurements and preparation procedures were evaluated. The values of 18 trace elements and As(V) in the CRM were certified with uncertainty (k = 2). PMID:22159512

Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narushima, Izumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

2012-02-01

153

Ruptured liver abscess in a neonate.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of 17-day-old neonate, diagnosed to have ruptured liver abscess secondary to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus infection. The child presented with septicemia and abdominal distension. On exploration, there was pyoperitoneum with ruptured liver abscess. PMID:22382113

Jain, Prashant; Mishra, Ashwani; Agarawal, Vyom

2012-01-01

154

Dynamic Interface Rupture in Extremely Heterogeneous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth rupture at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum rupture speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central

K. Uenishi; K. Tsuji

2007-01-01

155

Longitudinal ruptures of polyester knitted vascular prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The purpose of the study was the characterization of a type of rupture occurring on warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 cases of warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses that were explanted from humans that showed a longitudinal rupture as a part of a collaborative retrieval program. All the prostheses were immediately fixed in a 10% formaldehyde

Nabil Chakfe; Gunnar Riepe; Florence Dieval; Jean-Francois Le Magnen; Lu Wang; Elisabeth Urban; Marc Beaufigeau; Bernard Durand; Herbert Imig; Jean-Georges Kretz

2001-01-01

156

Rupture Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The rupture model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different rupture criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In

D. J. Andrews

1976-01-01

157

Spontaneous splenic rupture in a hemodialysis patient.  

PubMed

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) in a patient undergoing hemodialysis has been described as an extremely rare and potentially fatal complication. We report here spontaneous splenic rupture in a 52-year-old woman undergoing regular hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She complained of colicky abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant area and dizziness when she assumed an upright posture. Her vital signs revealed low blood pressure and tachycardia, which was suggestive of hypovolemic shock. Abdomen CT scan showed splenic hematoma and hemoperitoneum. However, she had no history of any event triggering the splenic rupture. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured spleen and an emergency splenectomy was performed. We suggest that spontaneous spleen rupture may be attributed to uremic coagulopathy and heparin-induced coagulopathy. PMID:15988818

Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Gyeong Won; Park, Dong Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Chang, Se Ho

2005-06-30

158

Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.  

PubMed

Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

159

Reduced GABAA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in the posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus in autism  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism display deficits in the social domain including the proper recognition of faces and interpretations of facial expressions. There is an extensive network of brain regions involved in face processing including the fusiform gyrus (FFG) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Functional imaging studies have found that controls have increased activity in the PCC and FFG during face recognition tasks, and the FFG has differential responsiveness in autism when viewing faces. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that the GABAergic system is disrupted in the brains of individuals with autism and it is likely that altered inhibition within the network influences the ability to perceive emotional expressions. On-the-slide ligand binding autoradiography was used to determine if there were alterations in GABAA and/or benzodiazepine binding sites in the brain in autism. Using 3H-muscimol and 3H-flunitrazepam we could determine whether the number (Bmax), binding affinity (Kd), and/or distribution of GABAA receptors and its benzodiazepine binding sites (BZD) differed from controls in the FFG and PCC. Significant reductions in the number of GABAA receptors and BZD binding sites in the superficial layers of the PCC and FFG, and in the number of BZD binding sites were found in the deep layers of the FFG. In addition, the autism group had a higher binding affinity in the superficial layers of the GABAA study. Taken together, these findings suggest that the disruption in inhibitory control in the cortex may contribute to the core disturbances of socio-emotional behaviors in autism. PMID:20858465

Oblak, Adrian L.; Gibbs, Terrell T.; Blatt, Gene J.

2010-01-01

160

Electrical stimulation of the left and right human fusiform gyrus causes different effects in conscious face perception.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies across species have confirmed bilateral face-selective responses in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and prosopagnosia is reported in patients with lesions in the VTC including the fusiform gyrus (FG). As imaging and electrophysiological studies provide correlative evidence, and brain lesions often comprise both white and gray matter structures beyond the FG, we designed the current study to explore the link between face-related electrophysiological responses in the FG and the causal effects of electrical stimulation of the left or right FG in face perception. We used a combination of electrocorticography (ECoG) and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) in 10 human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left (5 participants, 30 FG sites) or right (5 participants, 26 FG sites) hemispheres. We identified FG sites with face-selective ECoG responses, and recorded perceptual reports during EBS of these sites. In line with existing literature, face-selective ECoG responses were present in both left and right FG sites. However, when the same sites were stimulated, we observed a striking difference between hemispheres. Only EBS of the right FG caused changes in the conscious perception of faces, whereas EBS of strongly face-selective regions in the left FG produced non-face-related visual changes, such as phosphenes. This study examines the relationship between correlative versus causal nature of ECoG and EBS, respectively, and provides important insight into the differential roles of the right versus left FG in conscious face perception. PMID:25232118

Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Foster, Brett L; Weiner, Kevin S; Jacques, Corentin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Parvizi, Josef

2014-09-17

161

Dynamic Interface Rupture in Extremely Heterogeneous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth rupture at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum rupture speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central Kunlunshan and 2002 Denali earthquakes) even suggest the existence of supershear rupture speeds (i.e., rupture propagating faster than the relevant shear wave). Recently, Uenishi et al. ( SSJ Fall Meeting, 2004, 2005; AGU Fall Meeting, 2006) experimentally investigated dynamic fracture in monolithic hyperelastic materials under static mode-§ loading conditions with relatively high crack-parallel stresses. Using a high-speed digital video camera system, they showed that cracks may propagate supersonically even in homogeneous materials. However, the exact mechanism for rupture nucleation and the transition of a nucleated rupture from sub-Rayleigh to super-shear rupture speed has not been identified yet. In this contribution, we further develop our experimental system and investigate dynamic fracture in extremely heterogeneous media, consisting of thin fluid and solid films: Inside a wire frame (50mm high, 50mm wide), a flat soap film contacts a flat thin solid plastic film (20mm high, 20mm wide), under static tensile loading conditions. The rupture (crack), initiated at a point, propagates subsonically in the linear elastic fluid film (see e.g., Uenishi et al., SSJ Fall Meeting, 2006, for the dynamic rupture in monolithic fluid films). When the circular rupture front reaches the interface, the rupture advances along the interface and then it is "diffracted" at the two corners of the interface. We record the rupture propagation process utilizing our high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 20 ?s (20×10-6s). The observed results show that interface rupture propagation may accelerate (or even decelerate) and the dynamic rupture behavior is very sensitive to the geometry of the interface between the two films: (1) When the subsonic rupture front reaches the first rectangular corner, it accelerates around the corner and then advances supersonically along the interface; and (2) when the supersonic interface rupture front approaches the second corner (obtuse with respect to the rupture front in fluid), it bifurcates for a short period (400 ?s): the first branch unexpectedly expands rather straight into the bulk and the second one propagates along the interface at a lower speed; At a later stage, again unexpectedly, the first branched crack decelerates significantly in the bulk and the two cracks eventually merge into a single crack. The overall behavior is - in some sense - similar to that of the oblique shock and Prandtl- Meyer expansion waves in fluid mechanics, and it might give new insights not only into the question of high rupture speeds of natural earthquakes but also into the generation mechanism of tsunamis. u.ac.jp/~uenishi/

Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.

2007-12-01

162

Age at intracranial aneurysm rupture among generations  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have reported intracranial aneurysm (IA) occurring at young ages in subsequent generations. These studies did not correct for duration of follow-up. Second-generation members who would have their ruptured IA late in life may not be detected due to shorter follow-up time than the first generation. We examined families in which ruptured IA occurred in two consecutive generations for the hypothesis that the second generation (F1) was more likely to have a rupture at a younger age than the older generation (F0). Methods: The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is a multicenter, international study recruiting families of ruptured and unruptured IA. All available family members are interviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine differences by generation. Results: Although we found that the F1 generation was more likely to have an aneurysm rupture at a younger age than the F0 generation, we found that this was largely because of a lack of follow-up time in the F1 generation. The F1 generation had 50% the rupture rate of the prior generation. When analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, we found a tendency to have a slightly later rupture rate in the F1 generation once time to follow-up was included in the analysis model. Conclusions: Families of ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA) do not appear to demonstrate “anticipation.” Our finding suggests that genetic epidemiology of ruptured IA should examine all types of variations such as single base-pair changes, deletions, insertions, and other variations that do not demonstrate anticipation. GLOSSARY FIA = familial intracranial aneurysm; IA = intracranial aneurysm; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:19237697

Woo, D; Hornung, R; Sauerbeck, L; Brown, R; Meissner, I; Huston, J; Foroud, T; Broderick, J

2009-01-01

163

Management of traumatic aortic rupture.  

PubMed

A traumatic thoracic aortic injury is a severe and life-threatening clinical entity. Although largely fatal; if untreated, these injuries are amenable to surgical repair if appropriately diagnosed. Therefore, early triage of this condition is critically important. Unfortunately, aortic injuries rarely occur in isolation, and there has been no good cutoff value to help select the appropriate surgical strategy. Algorithms for the both diagnosis and treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injury have undergone changes in recent years. There have been several case reports, retrospective series and registry data describing the treatment of patients with traumatic thoracic aortic rupture using endovascular treatment. Endovascular treatment is a less-invasive management option for polytraumatized patients. Because it is less invasive, without the need for thoracotomy or the use of heparin, endovascular repair can be performed even in acutely injured patients, without the risk of destabilizing pulmonary, head or abdominal traumatic lesions. Long-term follow-up especially in young patients is necessary after endovascular treatment. PMID:23338596

Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Ikuo; Asari, Yasushi

2013-12-01

164

Surgical treatment of distal biceps rupture.  

PubMed

Rupture of the distal biceps tendon accounts for 10% of all biceps brachii ruptures. Injuries typically occur in the dominant elbow of men aged 40 to 49 years during eccentric contraction of the biceps. Degenerative changes, decreased vascularity, and tendon impingement may precede rupture. Although nonsurgical management is an option, healthy, active persons with distal biceps tendon ruptures benefit from early surgical repair, gaining improved strength in forearm supination and, to a lesser degree, elbow flexion. Biomechanical studies have tested the strength and displacement of various repairs; the suspensory cortical button technique exhibits maximum peak load to failure in vitro, and suture anchor and interosseous screw techniques yield the least displacement. Surgical complications include sensory and motor neurapraxia, infection, and heterotopic ossification. Current trends in postoperative rehabilitation include an early return to motion and to activities of daily living. PMID:20190104

Sutton, Karen M; Dodds, Seth D; Ahmad, Christopher S; Sethi, Paul M

2010-03-01

165

Ruptured uterus: an ongoing tragedy of motherhood.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the frequency of ruptured uterus, possible aetiologic factors, foetomaternal out come and changes in obstetric care proposed to reduce this catastrophy. From September 1994 to September 1999 in Dhaka Medical College Hospital 39,782 deliveries occurred. All delivery records were reviewed and rupture uterus cases were identified. The result was compared with studies carried out in home and abroad. During the five years period among 39,782 deliveries 424 cases were of rupture uterus with a frequency of 1/93 deliveries. Eighty three percent rupture occurred in intact uterus and 17% occurred in uteri scarred by caesarian section. Common contributing factors were -prolonged/obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious use of uterine stimulants, mismanaged labour by traditional birth attendant, delayed referral to well equipped centre, poor communication, poverty and ignorance. PMID:11942487

Khanam, R A; Khatun, M

2001-08-01

166

Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... part of the brain contains structures that are crucial for keeping a person alive, such as breathing, ... 1647-52. Epub 2008 Mar 5. Biller J, Love BB, Schneck MJ. Vascular Diseases of the Nervous ...

167

Supershear Rupture Propagation in Homogeneous, Monolithic Media: Experimental Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rupture speeds obtained by fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials are usually by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms: Some seismic inversions even suggest the existence of supershear rupture speeds (i.e., rupture propagating faster than the relevant shear wave). Exceptionally, a few laboratory experiments of dynamic rupture on pre-cut interfaces do indicate

K. Uenishi

2006-01-01

168

Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

2009-01-01

169

Spontaneous rupture of tubal leiomyoma causing haemoperitoneum.  

PubMed

Leiomyomas are benign tumours that usually originate from the genital tract organs, particularly from the uterus. Spontaneous rupture of leiomyomas is a relatively rare condition. Herein, we report a 70 years old lady who was admitted through the emergency room with sudden abdominal pain. A ruptured mass originating from the fallopian tube, causing haemoperitoneum was revealed at laparotomy. Pathological examination revealed cellular leiomyoma. PMID:24906284

Ozkan, Zeynep; Gonen, Ayse Nur; Emir, Seyfi; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Gul, Evrim; Artas, Zeynep Dogan; Aslan, Ozgen; Artas, Hakan

2014-05-01

170

Successful management of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture  

PubMed Central

Ventricular septal rupture is a rare but devastating complication of acute myocardial infarction. Especially in patients with cardiogenic shock, right ventricular dysfunction or an inferior infarct mortality is very high. We present a case in which an 83-year-old patient survived rupture of the ventricular septum complicating an inferior myocardial infarction. Unlike most patients his haemodynamic status did not deteriorate and delayed elective surgical repair was carried out successfully. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Swinkels, B.M.; Peters, R.H.J.; van den Brink, A.

2005-01-01

171

Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of water-soluble polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sargassum fusiforme (hijiki) is the well-known edible algae, whose polysaccharides have been proved to possess interesting bioactivities like antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. A facile and sensitive method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method of pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) has been established for the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides in S. fusiforme. Monosaccharides have been converted into PMP-labelled derivatives with aqueous ammonia as a catalyst at 70 °C for 30 min. The optimisation of the pre-column derivatization process was studied. The LODs of the monosaccharides were in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 nmol. PMP-labelled mixture of monosaccharides has been well separated by a reverse-phase HPLC and detected by on-line ESI-MS method under optimised conditions. The mobile phase of elution system was chosen as acetonitrile (solvent A) and 20mM aqueous ammonium acetate (solvent B) (pH 3.0) with Zorbax XDB-C18 column at 30 °C for the separation of the monosaccharide derivatives. Identification of the monosaccharides composition was carried out by analysis with mass spectral behaviour and chromatography characteristics of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelled monosaccharides. All PMP-labelled derivatives display high chemical stabilities, whose regular MS fragmentation is specific for reducing labelled sugars. The result showed that the S. fusiforme polysaccharide consisted of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, fucose and glucuronic acid or galacturonic acid, or both uronic acids. PMID:24128572

Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Jiajia; Yu, Ying; Wu, Bin

2014-02-15

172

Blood Chemical Abnormalities in Cattle with Ruptured Bladders and Ruptured Urethras  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to determine the blood chemical variables and compare changes that occurred with ruptured bladders and ruptured urethras in steers and yearling bulls. The fatality rates were 10.5% in steers with ruptured urethras and 50.8% in steers with ruptured bladders. Both groups had significantly decreased serum sodium and chloride values and significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma protein concentrations compared to the normal group. Steers with ruptured bladders were more dehydrated, had significantly lower serum sodium and chloride values and had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen concentrations than steers with ruptured urethras. The combination of a decreased serum sodium, a decreased serum chloride, and a decreased ratio of serum phosphate to blood urea nitrogen occurred consistently within the ruptured bladder group. Of the variables examined, serum phosphate was the best prognostic indicator in the steers with ruptured bladders as all of the steers that died had a serum phosphate in excess of 2.9 mmol/L. The fluid and electrolyte changes are discussed. PMID:17422206

Donecker, J. M.; Bellamy, J. E. C.

1982-01-01

173

Recurrence Characteristics of 'Full Rupture' Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prime goal in earthquake geology is to identify the recurrence characteristics of full rupture earthquakes (earthquakes that rupture the full down-dip extend of the seismogenic zone and potentially beyond it) along a given fault. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology enable to extend the seismic record by centuries or millennia --for events that are sufficiently large to disrupt the earth surface. Unfortunately, long records are rare and it is generally difficult to make statistically meaningful statements on recurrence characteristics. Furthermore, the paleoseismic and geomorphic records may also contain partial rupture earthquakes (events that may rupture ground surface but do not activate the full seismogenic width) and by that the masking signal of the full rupture events (as I will show in my presentation, those partial rupture events exhibit different recurrence characteristics than the full rupture events). Physics-based earthquake simulators provide the means to study the long-term behavior of a (simulated) fault with respect to the implemented boundary conditions (e.g., fault geometry, loading conditions, frictional behavior). Here, I present a numerical study on earthquake recurrence characteristics as a function of fault geometric roughness (considered a proxy for fault maturity) and by that as a function of fault interaction and connectivity. Focus was on magnitude-frequency distribution and fault segmentation as a function of roughness. I find that bimodality in magnitude frequency relation --the largest earthquakes occurring more frequently than anticipated from the Gutenberg-Richter relation-- is tightly linked to the structural maturity of a fault. Bimodal seismic behavior and maximum earthquake size increases as fault roughness decreases. Furthermore, the variability of large earthquake rupture characteristics of a given fault decreases with structural maturation and major earthquakes along spatially isolated faults exhibit inherent periodicity. While slip at a point along a fault is variable per se, variability becomes increasingly systematic as the fault matures. Based on my results and supported by paleoseismic data, I propose that previously presented earthquake recurrence models (uniform slip-, and characteristic earthquake model) generalize the seismic behavior of faults with different structural age and fault-system complexity and are characterized by alternating single-segment and multi-segment rupture probability.

Zielke, O.

2013-12-01

174

Caring for people with carotid artery rupture.  

PubMed

In the second of three articles, the authors discuss the care of people with carotid artery rupture. Carotid artery rupture is a potentially fatal condition that requires swift action on the part of the nurse who is present. The size of the rupture and the prognosis for the individual patient determines whether or not active resuscitation is undertaken. The multi-professional team should decide, in advance of an impending rupture, on the optimum plan of care. Calm, careful explanations should be given to patients and relatives and the decision regarding resuscitation should be recorded in the patient's notes. In the event of unforeseen circumstances where a rupture occurs, an active nursing care plan should be instituted and care taken to keep relatives well informed. The patient's airway should be kept clear through the use of suctioning, inflation of tracheostomy tube cuff and correct positioning. Sedative drugs and palliative care may subsequently be necessary. Support and help should be given to all who witness or are involved in the care of these patients. PMID:16415744

Frawley, Theresa; Begley, Cecily M

175

[Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum].  

PubMed

Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum is relatively frequent in the authors' experience. Based on the study of a series of 80 cases and a review of the literature, the authors analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and outcome of this disease. The patients in this series had a mean age of 30 years. Meticulous and intimate clinical interview demonstrated that the commonest mechanism is forced manipulation of the erect penis (68%). Clinical examination localized the site of the fracture (proximal: 57%, distal 43%). The fracture was unilateral (78 cases), rarely bilateral (2 cases) and associated with complete rupture of the urethra (1 case). Treatment was surgical in 79 patients. A distal semicircumferential incision was used in the case of bilateral rupture, distal rupture and associated urethral lesion (34 cases). A favourable course was observed in 86% of cases. However, 9 postoperative complications (12.5%) were observed (6 cases of fibrous plaques, 3 cases of chordee of the penis), due either to the extent of the haematoma or to the delay in treatment. Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum is a disease of young adults, which requires early surgical treatment with an approach adapted to the type of lesions. PMID:9834519

Bennani, S; Dakir, M; Debbagh, A; Hafiani, M; el Moussaoui, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

1998-09-01

176

Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.

Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

1991-11-01

177

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Osteoarthritis Progression  

PubMed Central

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL rupture, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL rupture and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction. There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations. PMID:22896777

Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David

2012-01-01

178

Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire ruptures.  

PubMed

Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden rupture resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These rupture events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden rupture has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472

Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William

2013-05-01

179

Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction  

PubMed Central

Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM) or developmental venous anomaly (DVA). However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Digital substraction angiography (DSA) revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ). Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 × 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM) of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion. PMID:24575317

Aggarwal, Ashish; Salunke, Pravin; Futane, Sameer; Mathuriya, S. N.; Kumar, Ajay; Mukherjee, K. K.; Radotra, B. D.

2014-01-01

180

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyte, Gabija; Plenta, Juris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaisa, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

181

Modeling rupture segmentations on the Cascadia megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cascadia subduction zone has produced a series of large to great earthquakes, most recently in 1700 AD. Paleoseismological studies of submarine turbidites suggest a significant difference in recurrence interval between Northern (~500 year) and Southern (~200-300 year) Cascadia. Whether future large ruptures are segmented is very important for estimating hazard in Pacific Northwest, but remains enigmatic from the interpretations of current locking maps. Our approach is to develop rupture scenarios of Cascadia earthquakes by performing numerical simulations using the finite element software, PyLith. Based on the USGS plate interface model of Cascadia, we have constructed a realistic three-dimensional subduction fault model that stretches from Northern California to Central Vancouver Island. We have performed a number of dynamic rupture simulations using a set of artificial friction parameters and uniform stress distributions on the fault governed by a slip-weakening friction law. Preliminary results show that ruptures have initiated from the nucleation zone with higher shear stress than the ambient fault and have propagated on the realistic three-dimensional fault surface. The increase of dip angle with depth has little effect on the rupture propagation because that is governed mostly by the fault strength. The along-strike bend of the fault beneath Washington state and Vancouver Island has not impeded the rupture propagation given the uniform fault strength. To estimate the possible rupture segmentation, we have converted a slip-deficit rate model derived from GPS data into stress change distributions on the fault assuming the entire slip deficit would be released in the next great earthquake. We are also constructing another initial stress map derived from tidal and leveling data, which shows a significant difference in the locking depth beneath Central Oregon. The other important variable, the spatial variation of frictional parameters, however, has to be determined under certain assumptions. We assume the critical distance, Dc, is proportional to the final slip, thus will be obtained from the slip deficit distribution. By combining the estimated stresses and Dc for the slip-weakening relation, we will investigate how the different interseismic locking profiles could influence possible segmentation for future ruptures on the Cascadia megathrust. This work is supported by FM Global.

Yang, H.; Liu, Y.; McGuire, J. J.

2012-12-01

182

[Apophyseal rupture of ischial bone tuberosity].  

PubMed

The apophyses of the pelvic skeleton are the insertion zones of strong muscles and tendons and are soft points towards the end of growth. Apophyseal ruptures have quite often occurred as a consequence of overstressing in the context of certain athletic disciplines. Reported in this paper are two of the authors' own cases of apophyseal rupture of Tuber ossis ischii. Diagnosis is easy on the basis of case history, clinical manifestations, and X-ray. Treatment is conservative, with the patient hip-straightened confined to bed for three weeks. Surgery might be indicated in cases of continued seating problems or neurological failures. PMID:3577444

Lindner, H O; Winkeltau, G; Kalemba, J

1987-01-01

183

What Is an Earthquake?: Rupture Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault ruptures from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.

184

Laparoscopic splenectomy for atraumatic splenic rupture.  

PubMed

A traumatic splenic rupture (ASR) is a rare clinical entity. Several underlying benign and malignant conditions have been described as a leading cause. We report on a case of ASR in a 41-year-old man treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. Considering ASR as a life-threatening condition, a prompt diagnosis can be life saving. PMID:21675627

Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Amato, Gerardo; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina M C; Cavicchioni, Camillo; Bellantone, Rocco

2011-01-01

185

Postintubation Tracheal Ruptures - A case report -  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial ruptures (TBR) rarely complicate surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Seemingly uneventful intubations can result in injury to the trachea, which often manifests as hemoptysis and subcutaneous emphysema. We present 2 patients with postintubation TBR who were treated surgically and discuss considerations in the management of this potentially lethal injury. PMID:22263165

Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong-Bum; Kuh, Ja-Hong; Jo, Jung-Ku; Park, Hyun Kyu

2011-01-01

186

Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.

García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.

2014-10-01

187

Bond-rupture immunosensors--a review.  

PubMed

It has long been the goal of researchers to develop fast and reliable point-of-care alternatives to existing lab-based tests. A viable point-of-care biosensor is fast, reliable, simple, cost-effective, and detects low concentrations of the target analyte. The target of biosensors is biological such as bacteria or virus and as such, the antibody-antigen bond derived from the real immune response is used. Biosensor applications include lab-based tests for the purposes of diagnostics, drug discovery, and research. Additional applications include environmental, food, and agricultural monitoring. The main merits of the bond-rupture method are quick, simple, and capable of discriminating between specific and non-specific interactions. The separation of specific and non-specific bonds is important for working in real-life complex serums such as blood. The bond-rupture technique can provide both qualitative results, the detection of a target, and quantitative results, the concentration of target. Bond-rupture achieves this by a label-free method requiring no pre-processing of the analyte. A piezoelectric transducer such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) shakes the bound particles free from the surface. Other transducers such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) are also considered. The rupture of the bonds is detected as electronic noise. This review article links diverse research areas to build a picture of a field still in development. PMID:18343101

Hirst, Evan R; Yuan, Yong J; Xu, W L; Bronlund, J E

2008-07-15

188

Penile Fracture with Associated Urethral Rupture  

PubMed Central

Penile fracture of the erect penis is an uncommon but emergent urological trauma. Potential outcomes include erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and urethral injury. Treatment is emergent surgical repair. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a penile fracture complicated by a urethral rupture and subsequent repair. A discussion of the key aspects of this condition is presented. PMID:21076536

Boncher, Nicholas A.; Vricella, Gino J.; Jankowski, Jason T.; Ponsky, Lee E.; Cherullo, Edward E.

2010-01-01

189

Surface Rupture in Northwest Saudi Arabia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault rupture caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...

2010-09-28

190

Unusual rupture of a flexor profundus tendon.  

PubMed

An unusual rupture of a flexor profundus tendon, previously unreported in the literature, is presented. There was avulsion and proximal displacement of a large bone fragment from the palmar base of the distal phalanx and further retraction of the tendon unattached to the bone fragment. PMID:3958452

Langa, V; Posner, M A

1986-03-01

191

Fault branching and rupture directivity Sonia Fliss  

E-print Network

, some understanding of the mechanics underlying dynamic processes of fault branching and jumping has earthquake from the rupture pattern it left? The answer to that question would be very useful for risk assessment of future earthquakes, even if it is cur- rently unknown if large earthquakes do systematically

Dmowska, Renata

192

Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341

García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A

2014-10-28

193

Evidence for Object File Encoding in the Posterior Fusiform Gyrus (pFs) and the Intraparietal Sulcus (IPS) Kenneth J Hayworth1, Mark D Lescroart1, Jiye Kim2, Irving Biederman1,2  

E-print Network

Evidence for Object File Encoding in the Posterior Fusiform Gyrus (pFs) and the Intraparietal's bundled features to separate `slots'. Such dynamic "binding" to multiple slots is at the heart theory (Pylyshyn 1989), Recognition-by-Components theory (Biederman 1987) and others. Such a slot-based

Biederman, Irving

194

Rupture of the uterus in a primigravida: a case report.  

PubMed

Uterine rupture during a first pregnancy is rare. We present the case of spontaneous intrapartum uterine rupture in a 40 year old primigravida with no prior uterine surgery, and a structurally normal uterus. The patient had obstructed labor. Operative findings were a male fresh stillbirth weighing 3800 g, massive hemoperitoneum, and an anterior transverse rupture at the lower uterine segment. Repair of the rupture was done without bilateral tubal ligation. Although a rare event, the primigravid uterus is not immune to rupture as exemplified by this report. PMID:20499765

Chigbu, B; Onwere, S; Kamanu, C; Aluka, C; Adibe, E; Onichakwe, C

2010-06-01

195

Detection of supershear rupture in 2013 Craig, Alaska, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic ruptures are akin to opening a zipper—a gap in the crust starts in one location and travels along the fault in a particular direction. When a strained fault ruptures in an earthquake, seismic waves also spread out from the epicenter. In some cases, the waves' passage can trigger the initiation of a new rupture ahead of the initial expanding rupture in locked portions of the fault. If the triggered rupture grows successfully, the overall rupture front can then outpace the passage of the shear waves, secondary seismic waves that travel slowly after the earthquake begins and are responsible for the bulk of violent shaking. These earthquakes display what is known as supershear rupture; only seven such earthquakes have previously been recorded.

Schultz, Colin

2014-01-01

196

Retinal detachment associated with traumatic chorioretinal rupture.  

PubMed

Traumatic chorioretinal rupture, also known as sclopetaria, is a full-thickness break of the choroid and retina caused by a high-velocity projectile striking or passing adjacent to, but not penetrating, the globe. Previous reports have emphasized that retinal detachment seldom occurs, and observation alone has been the recommended management strategy. However, the authors present herein a series of consecutive patients with retinal detachment associated with sclopetaria and provide a literature review of the topic. They recommend that patients with traumatic chorioretinal rupture be monitored closely for the development of retinal detachment during the first few weeks after the injury. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:451-455.]. PMID:25153657

Papakostas, Thanos D; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Wu, David; Miller, John B; Veldman, Peter B; Chee, Yewlin E; Husain, Deeba; Eliott, Dean

2014-09-01

197

Treatment of Ruptured ICA during Transsphenoidal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary Rupture of the internal carotid artery (ICA) during transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Direct surgical repair of the ICA may be difficult and time-consuming in an acute setting. Urgent endovascular treatments with vascular plug or stent-graft have been the feasible options to date. We desrcibe two cases of iatrogenic rupture of ICA during transsphenoidal surgery. In the first case we occluded the ICA with a vascular plug at the site of tear where cross circulation was adequate. In the second case we had to preserve the ICA with stent-graft since there was no adequate cross circulation. These two strategies are discussed below. PMID:20377977

Ghatge, S.B.; Modi, D.B.

2010-01-01

198

An unusual diagnosis of splenic rupture.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of worsening epigastric pain, non-productive cough and vomiting. On examination she was pale and had abdominal tenderness predominant in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasound excluded the presence of gall stones, but was unable to rule out free fluid in the abdomen. CT demonstrated extensive high-density ascites; however, no source of bleeding could be demonstrated. Clinically the patient's condition deteriorated, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. In theatre the splenic capsule was found to have detached from the splenic body and emergency splenectomy was performed. Virology serology later demonstrated acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, although tissue microscopy and CMV staining were negative. No other cause of rupture was found. The interesting aspects of this case include the poor correlation between initial presenting symptoms and subsequent diagnosis, the difficulty encountered in making a firm diagnosis and the atypical cause of rupture. PMID:25293683

Roche, Matthew; Maloku, Fatmir; Abdel-Aziz, Tarek Ezzat

2014-01-01

199

Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

1985-01-01

200

Premature rupture of the membranes: neonatal consequences.  

PubMed

Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), membrane rupture before the onset of labor, occurs in 2% to 18% of pregnancies. The time from PROM to delivery (latency) is usually less than 48 hours in term pregnancy. Therefore, the risks of PROM at term are related to fetal distress, prolapsed cord, abruptio placenta, and rarely, infection. Preterm PROM (pPROM), PROM before 37 weeks' gestation, accounts for 20% to 40% of PROM, and the incidence is doubled in multiple gestations. The latency period in pPROM is inversely related to the gestational age thereby increasing the risks of oligohydramnios and infection in very premature infants and their mothers. Because pPROM is associated with 30% to 40% of premature births, pPROM is also responsible for the neonatal problems resulting from prematurity. This review examines the impact of PROM on the neonate including fetal distress, prematurity, infection, pulmonary hypoplasia, and restriction deformations. PMID:8912991

Merenstein, G B; Weisman, L E

1996-10-01

201

Traumatic dislocation of testes and bladder rupture.  

PubMed

Traumatic dislocation of the testes with bladder rupture occurred in 2 multiply injured patients with pelvic fracture. One had a history of retractile testes and the other of previous testicular dislocation. Surgical correction was performed after closed reduction failed. These injuries must be recognized and treated promptly to maximize the likelihood of testicular salvage. If early intervention is not possible, duplex ultrasonography and pulsed Doppler analysis are the optional valuative studies. PMID:1466102

Lee, J Y; Cass, A S; Streitz, J M

1992-12-01

202

[Splenic artery rupture in pancreatic pseudocyst].  

PubMed

Hemorrhage is one of the most threatening complication of pancreatic pseudocyst. It results from erosion of adjacent vessels. Splenic, gastroduodenal, pancreaticoduodenal and middle colic vessels are predominantly involved. Hemorrhage may present different feature: intra and/or extraperitoneal collection, gastrointestinal bleeding. The authors report the rupture of splenic artery into pseudocyst, with the formation of pulsating pseudoaneurysm, increasing progressively until the final rupture. For the diagnosis the authors utilized: ultrasounds (US) which showed the cyst but not its nature and content; the CT scan which disclosed haematic contents; finally the US Color Doppler which proved the dynamic feature of hemorrhage. This technique allows to identify the arterious or venous source of bleeding and the possible presence of arteriovenous fistula. Arteriography was not performed due to circumstances, although it would permit bleeding vessel embolization and the control of hemorrhage. This procedure is not ever achievable, and doesn't exclude the possibility of rebleeding. On surgery, since the intraoperative rupture of the pseudoaneurysm occurred with severe hypovolemic shock, only a timely posterior mesogastric mobilization and the medially displacement of spleen-body-tail pancreatic complex, allowed to clamp the mass and the hemostasis. When such lesion are approached, it is mandatory to be prepared to carry on this maneuver: the severity of bleeding cannot allow intracystic ligature of bleeding vessel. PMID:10920499

Ungania, S; Panocchia, N

2000-01-01

203

[Diagnosis and treatment of diaphragm traumatic ruptures].  

PubMed

29 patients with traumatic ruptures of left cupola of the diaphragm were studied. Pain, dispnoe, tachycardia more intensive after a meal due to repletion and dislocation of the stomach into pleural cavity and its pressure on the organs of the mediastinum were the main symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the diaphragm was made on the base of clinical and roentgenological examination. In the acute period of trauma the diagnosis is difficult, especially in combined trauma. In 92.3% of cases the stomach and the bowel move into the pleural cavity, which may simulate pneumothorax or relaxation of the diaphragm. Contrast examination of the gastro-intestinal tract and pleural puncture help in differential diagnosis. All the cases of traumatic ruptures of the diaphragm should be subjected to surgical treatment. Urgent operation is indicated in continuing bleeding, incarceration of organs, acute cardiopulmonary insufficiency due to the collapse of the lung and dislocation of mediastinal organs of into contralateral position. Thoracotomy in VII intercostal space is considered as a valid approach. There were 2 (6.9%) lethal outcomes after 29 operations. Long-term results are quite favourable. PMID:10459187

Gadzhiev, Sh M; Gurbanaliev, I G; Abbasov, F; Mamedov, A S; Ze?nalov, N D; Iusifov, I A

1999-01-01

204

Ruptured Corpus Luteal Cyst: CT Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Materials and Methods Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. Results The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. Conclusion In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa. PMID:12679633

Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong

2003-01-01

205

Single Event Gate Rupture in EMCCD technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate rupture would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a rupture event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.

Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.

2012-12-01

206

Biosensing using rupture event scanning (REVS)™  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a sensitive and economical method to detect analytes directly. The technique, which we term rupture event scanning (REVS™), is based on rapidly oscillating an acoustic wave device on which the analytes have been captured. As the magnitude of oscillation of the surface of the acoustic wave device is increased, there is increasing acceleration of adherent analytes. This in turn results in a larger force exerted by the surface on the particle, that ultimately causes rupture of the bonds attaching the particle to the surface. Using the same device, we can very sensitively monitor the excitation of vibrations in the acoustic wave device produced by bond rupture, which are then converted into an electrical signal. The signal indicates not only the presence of specifically bound analytes and their affinity for the receptor, but also the number of analytes present. The method works in air, water and complex biological fluids, is quantitative over at least six orders of magnitude of particle titre, and in affinity from sub-mM to pM. For selected analyte-receptor systems the sensitivity can be as low as 80 fg mm-2 (8 × 10-14 g mm-2). In this paper an example application of REVS™ is presented and the physical forces involved in the process are discussed.

Cooper, Matthew A.

2003-11-01

207

Operative intra-aortic balloon rupture.  

PubMed

Rupture of an intra-aortic balloon (IAB), inserted to assist in weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, occurred during attempted intra-aortic administration of protamine in a 71-year-old male who later died. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) is most commonly utilized to assist in weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or to augment low-flow states following CPB. In-hospital survival following IAB insertion in these circumstances in patients with coronary artery disease is approximately 60 per cent. Patients with valvular disease have a lower in-hospital survival rate (50 per cent). Complications of IABC are usually of vascular or infectious origin. Balloon rupture is a rare though potentially lethal complication. The effects of balloon rupture may be compounded by the use of helium as a driving gas to inflate the balloon. Intra-aortic administration of protamine has not been shown to be superior to peripheral administration and should be avoided if an IAB is in place. PMID:3383321

Finegan, B A; Comm, D G

1988-05-01

208

Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2011-02-15

209

Estrogen protects against intracranial aneurysm rupture in ovariectomized mice.  

PubMed

Clinical observations suggest that postmenopausal women have a higher incidence of aneurysmal rupture than premenopausal women. We hypothesize that a relative deficiency in estrogen may increase the risks of aneurysmal growth and subarachnoid hemorrhage in postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor subtype agonists on the development of aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. We used an intracranial aneurysm mouse model that recapitulates the key features of human intracranial aneurysms, including spontaneous rupture. Ten- to 12-week-old ovariectomized female mice received treatment with estrogen, nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist, estrogen receptor-? agonist, or estrogen receptor-? agonist starting 6 days after aneurysm induction so that the treatments affected the development of aneurysmal rupture without affecting aneurysmal formation. Estrogen significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and rupture rates in ovariectomized mice. Nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist abolished the protective effect of estrogen. Although estrogen receptor-? agonist did not affect the incidence of ruptured aneurysms or rupture rates, estrogen receptor-? agonist prevented aneurysmal rupture without affecting the formation of aneurysms. The protective role of estrogen receptor-? agonist was abolished by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We showed that estrogen prevented aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. The protective effect of estrogen seemed to occur through the activation of estrogen receptor-?, a predominant subtype of estrogen receptor in human intracranial aneurysms and cerebral arteries. PMID:24732889

Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Shikata, Fumiaki; Pena Silva, Ricardo A; Kitazato, Keiko T; Hasan, David M; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki

2014-06-01

210

Dynamics of three-dimensional thin film rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of thin film rupture driven by van der Waals forces. A fourth-order nonlinear PDE governs the low Reynolds number lubrication model for a viscous liquid on a solid substrate. Finite-time singularities in this equation model rupture leading to formation of dry spots in the film. Our study addresses the problem of rupture in the full three-dimensional geometry. We focus on stability and selection of the dynamics determined by the initial conditions on small finite domains with planar and axisymmetric geometries. We also address the final stages of the dynamics - self-similar dynamics for point, line, and ring rupture. We will demonstrate that line and ring rupture are unstable and will generically destabilize to produce axisymmetric rupture at isolated points.

Witelski, Thomas P.; Bernoff, Andrew J.

2000-12-01

211

Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.  

PubMed

We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus. PMID:24456452

Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

2014-02-01

212

[Bilateral uterine rupture of an unscarred gravid uterus before labor].  

PubMed

We report a case of bilateral spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus occured in a primigravida at 32 weeks to take care in our department after in utero transfert. Uterine rupture occurs mainly on scarred uterus during labor. This is an unfrequent but serious complication involving fetal-maternal prognosis in the absence of immediate care. We are conducting a review about spontaneous uterine rupture of unscarred uterus, before and during labor. PMID:24394323

Leroux, M; Coatleven, F; Faure, M; Horovitz, J

2014-06-01

213

Successful infarct exclusion for postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture  

PubMed Central

The mortality of postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture is still high. Several surgical techniques have been used for repairing such ruptures. Here, we describe using an infarction exclusion technique to successfully treat a case of a blow-out type postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture. This technique has frequently been used for repairing postinfarction ventricular septal perforation. In this case, infarcted myocardial tearing was prevented, and complete haemostasis was achieved by infarct exclusion. PMID:23424241

Kato, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Toshihiro; Tabata, Minoru; Takanashi, Shuichiro

2013-01-01

214

Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA. Methods In a prospective case–control study 199 consecutive patients with SIA (103 females and 96 males, mean age: 43.2 years) received a semistructured face to face interview focusing on past headaches. All were admitted to hospital mostly because of rupture (177) or for unruptured aneurysm (22). In parallel we interviewed 194 blood donors (86 females, 108 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Aneurysms were diagnosed by conventional cerebral angiography. Results During the year before rupture, 124 (62.3%) had one or more types of headache. These headaches included: migraine without aura (MO): 78 (39.2%), migraine with aura (MA): 2 (1%), probable migraine (PM): 4 (2%), tension-type headache (TTH): 39 (19.6%), cluster headache (CH): 2 (1%), posttraumatic headaches (PH): 2 (1%). 1-year prevalence of headaches in controls was 32.5% (63 patients out of 194), they included: TTH: 45 (23.1%), MO: 17(8.8%), PH: 1(0.5%). Only the prevalence of MO was significantly higher in patients with SIA (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.8-11.9, p?

2013-01-01

215

Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical ruptures in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.

Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

216

Capturing Continental Rupture Processes in Afar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate rupture. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at rupture, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate rupture? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.

Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

2014-05-01

217

Rapid control in ruptured abdominal aneurysms.  

PubMed

Rapid control of a ruptured abdominal aneurysm can be achieved under local anesthesia by passing a Fogarty catheter, 8/22 F, retrograde from either femoral artery up into the thoracic aorta and inflating the balloon after administering heparin to the patient. This method avoids the often fatal hypotension that may occur with induction of general anesthesia in the hypovolemic patient. In cases in which the Fogarty catheter cannot pass up the iliac artery, direct insertion of the catheter through the aneurysm can be used, but this method requires the induction of general anesthesia prior to aortic control. PMID:7259508

Sensenig, D M

1981-08-01

218

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.  

PubMed

Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and the coagulation cascade system and may lead to thrombotic reocclusion. Measurements aimed at reversing the process of atherosclerosis via cholesterol reduction and enhanced high density lipoprotein activity are encouraging. Active research is being focused on the development of new antithrombotic tools, such as inhibitors of thrombin, thromboxane, and serotonin receptor antagonists, and monoclonal antibodies aimed at blocking platelet membrane receptors or adhesive proteins. These compounds may prove useful when immediate and potent inhibition of the hemostatic system is desired. Intensive research is still needed in the areas of pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis. PMID:2203564

Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

1990-09-01

219

What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-Rupture Analogies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault rupture accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of rupture propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault rupture. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault rupture, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.

220

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as buttock pain.  

PubMed

This is the first case report of a ruptured aortic aneurysm presenting with acute right buttock pain. The patient was an 80 year old man. A literature search revealed one report of ruptured internal iliac artery aneurysm presenting with acute hip pain and another of an unruptured aortic aneurysm presenting with chronic hip pain. Thus the present case is another unusual presentation of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and highlights the importance of careful history taking and clinical examination. A high index of clinical suspicion of aneurysm rupture should be maintained in elderly patients presenting with a history of collapse. PMID:15911962

Mahmood, F; Ahsan, F; Hockey, M

2005-06-01

221

The Modulus of Rupture from a Mathematical Point of View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to present a complete mathematical study about the three-point bending experiments and the modulus of rupture of brittle materials. We will present the mathematical model associated to three-point bending experiments and we will use the asymptotic expansion method to obtain a new formula to calculate the modulus of rupture. We will compare the modulus of rupture of porcelain obtained with the previous formula with that obtained by using the classic theoretical formula. Finally, we will also present one and three-dimensional numerical simulations to compute the modulus of rupture.

Quintela, P.; Sánchez, M. T.

2007-04-01

222

Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.  

PubMed

Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. PMID:22807338

Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

2013-12-01

223

Goal-Directed Actions Activate the Face-Sensitive Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus and Fusiform Gyrus in the Absence of Human-Like Perceptual Cues  

PubMed Central

The conditions under which we identify entities as animate agents and the neural mechanisms supporting this ability are central questions in social neuroscience. Prior studies have focused upon 2 perceptual cues for signaling animacy: 1) surface features representing body forms such as faces, torsos, and limbs and 2) motion cues associated with biological forms. Here, we consider a third cue—the goal-directedness of an action. Regions in the social brain network, such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform face area (FFA), are activated by human-like motion and body form perceptual cues signaling animacy. Here, we investigate whether these same brain regions are activated by goal-directed motion even when performed by entities that lack human-like perceptual cues. We observed an interaction effect whereby the presence of either human-like perceptual cues or goal-directed actions was sufficient to activate the right pSTS and FFA. Only stimuli that lacked human-like perceptual cues and goal-directed actions failed to activate the pSTS and FFA at the same level. PMID:21768227

Shultz, Sarah

2012-01-01

224

Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide activates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) and induces cytokine production via Toll-like receptors.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of macrophage activation by the Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (SFPS). As a result, SFPS significantly enhanced cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) productions in peritoneal macrophages, and stimulated macrophages to produce the cytokines and NO through the induction of their genes expression. The pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with special antibodies [Toll-like receptors (TLRs) antibody] significantly blocked SFPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and NO production. Furthermore, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific inhibitor of NF-?B, effectively suppressed SFPS-induced TNF-? and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) secretion in peritoneal macrophages, indicating that SFPS stimulated macrophages to produce cytokines through the NF-?B pathway and the result was further confirmed by the experiment of Western blotting (WB) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Taken together, these results suggest that SFPS-mediated induction of cytokines and NO production in macrophages is mediated, at least in part, by TLRs/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24708959

Chen, Xiaoming; Yu, Guoqing; Fan, Sairong; Bian, Manman; Ma, Huijun; Lu, Jianxin; Jin, Liqin

2014-05-25

225

Poxvirus membrane biogenesis: rupture not disruption  

PubMed Central

Summary Enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding at, or wrapping by, cellular membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, however, suggested that the prototype member of the poxviridae, vaccinia virus (VACV), may create its membrane ‘de novo’ with free open ends exposed in the cytosol. Within the frame of the German-wide priority programme we re-addressed the biogenesis and origin of the VACV membrane using electron tomography (ET), cryo-EM and lipid analysis of purified VACV using mass spectrometry (MS). This review discussed how our data led to a model of unconventional membrane biogenesis involving membrane rupture and the generation of a single open membrane from open membrane intermediates. Lipid analyses of purified virus by MS suggest an ER origin with a relatively low cholesterol content compared with whole cells, confirming published data. Unlike previous reports using thin-layer chromatography, no depletion of phosphatidylethanolamine was detected. We did detect, however, an enrichment for phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol in the virion. Our data are discussed in the light of other pathogens that may require cellular membrane rupture during their intracellular life cycle. PMID:23168015

Locker, Jacomine Krijnse; Chlanda, Petr; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Brugger, Britta

2014-01-01

226

TMI-2 lower head creep rupture analysis  

SciTech Connect

The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against rupture of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep rupture analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.

Thinnes, G.L.

1988-08-01

227

[Surgical consideration of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms].  

PubMed

During the recent 18 and a half years, 30 cases of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (including four cases of A-V fistula) were operated at Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital. In 26 cases, a conventional graft replacement was performed. In other four cases, axillo-bifemoral bypass (in the cases ruptured into the colon) or other methods were used. Overall operative mortality rate was 26.7%. However, during the last 9 years, operative results were improved (21.7%, 5 deaths out of 23 cases). Amount of intraoperative blood loss influenced the operative results greatly. Other operative risk factors included preoperative shock, preoperative severe cerebrovascular or cardiovascular complications, and postoperative thromboembolism. Factors of recent improvement in mortality included; establishment of emergency system which resulted in earlier operation after the patient's arrival at the hospital, use of occlusive balloon for bleeding control, heparin administration before the aortic clamp for preventing peripheral thromboembolism and introduction of autotransfusion system for reducing the amount of blood transfusion. PMID:2770687

Kiso, I; Yozu, R; Maehara, T; Umezu, Y; Hirotani, T; Ishikura, Y; Takeuchi, S

1989-03-01

228

Management of extensor mechanism rupture after TKA.  

PubMed

Disruption of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty may occur by tubercle avulsion, patellar or quadriceps tendon rupture, or patella fracture, and whether occurring intra-operatively or post-operatively can be difficult to manage and is associated with a significant rate of failure and associated complications. This surgery is frequently performed in compromised tissues, and repairs must frequently be protected with cerclage wiring and/or augmentation with local tendon (semi-tendinosis, gracilis) which may also be used to treat soft-tissue loss in the face of chronic disruption. Quadriceps rupture may be treated with conservative therapy if the patient retains active extension. Component loosening or loss of active extension of 20° or greater are clear indications for surgical treatment of patellar fracture. Acute patellar tendon disruption may be treated by primary repair. Chronic extensor failure is often complicated by tissue loss and retraction can be treated with medial gastrocnemius flaps, achilles tendon allografts, and complete extensor mechanism allografts. Attention to fixing the graft in full extension is mandatory to prevent severe extensor lag as the graft stretches out over time. PMID:23118397

Rosenberg, A G

2012-11-01

229

[Traumatic rupture of the descending aorta].  

PubMed

During a ten-year period 16 patients were seen with aortic rupture and false aneurysm secondary to blunt trauma. One patient underwent an acute operation, 4 patients had operative therapy elective delayed and 11 patients were operated on for chronic traumatic false aneurysm. Operative delay was done in case of simultaneous multisystem injury (e.g. shock caused by abdominal injuries, cerebral contusion or pulmonary contusion on the right side). The shunt bypass method of repair was used in the case of 3 patients, cardiopulmonary bypass in 6 cases and simple aortic cross-clamping in 6 patients. One operation was performed without aortic cross-clamping. Primary repair was achieved in three patient, in 3 more cases a patch was inserted and in 9 cases interposition Dacron grafting was accomplished. One "wrapping" operation was performed. In 2 cases, reoperation was necessary because of postoperative bleeding. One patient died in the perioperative period. Right sided hemiparesis occurred in one patient postoperatively. Rupture does not affect the whole aortic wall, especially in young people because of the natural elasticity of vessel. The appearing shock and hypotension might protect the mediastinal pleura against bursting. This could provide a chance to survive. Our experience indicate: Elective delay of operation in patients with multiple system injuries can be achieved with antihypertensive therapy. PMID:9380385

Kovács, E; Dzsinich, C; Gyöngy, T; Moravcsik, E; Szabolcs, Z; Bodor, E

1997-09-28

230

[Spontaneous rupture of the spleen disclosing pheochromocytoma].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of spontaneous rupture of spleen inaugurating the symptomatology of a pheochromocytoma. After presenting the observation, clinical problems are considered with a deceptive abdominal symptomatology and myocardial ischemia that could be part of an "adrenergic myocarditis"; the mechanism of ruptured spleen is analyzed. The diagnosis approach is discussed through a reliability study of various explorations: computed tomography has a sensitivity ranging from 93 to 97% which approaches 100% when associated with magnetic resonance, methyl-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scanning seems to be provided with similar reliability. During checking up for pheochromocytoma spreading, ectopic location was not found, but a cold thyroid nodule was detected which allowed suspecting a SIPPLE syndrome. The three-stage surgical approach was required by symptomatology, hemostasis splenectomy, lateral pheochromocytoma excision after a short preparation by blocking alpha and beta, and then total thyroidectomy after extemporaneous confirmation of the existence of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. This pathologic association leading to a SIPPLE syndrome is listed as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasias of type II (MEN II). PMID:2262521

Carles, J; Guegan, H; Crozat, T; Janvier, G; Riant, T; Videau, J

1990-10-01

231

GPU Acceleration of Support Operator Rupture Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SORD (Support Operator Rupture Dynamics) is an open-source software based on a fourth-order finite-difference method which can simulate 3D elastic wave propagation and spontaneous rupture on hexahedral mesh. It can be used for many kinds of surface boundary conditions, including free surface. The original software is developed by Geoffrey Ely from USC and modified by us for acceleration on GPU with NVIDIA CUDA. Our motivation on accelerating SORD on GPU is inspired by new generation GPU’s superior ability on general purpose computing and NVIDIA CUDA’s user-friendly developing environment for academic users. After translating the code from Fortran 95 to CUDA and implementing the transformed CUDA SORD code on the NVIDIA Tesla C1060, we obtained a factor of 6 speedup as compared to the original Fortran 95 version code , which was run on Intel Xeon X5570 2.9GHz. Our 3D wave solutions show explicitly visually in 3D format the different propagating wave fronts associated with the P and S waves according to the appropriate elastic parameter ratios. Because of the limitation of the global memory of NVIDIA Tesla C1060, too many more grid points would slow the calculation. However, by using the new NVIDIA Tesla C2070, which has 6 GBytes global memory, we can increase the simulation data size into 350X350X350.

Zhou, Y.; Dong, T.; Yuen, D. A.

2010-12-01

232

Rupture velocity inferred from near-field differential ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of the rupture propagation is a fundamental source parameter that strongly affects ground motion. It is commonly assessed from kinematic inversion of strong-motion or teleseismic data, sometimes combined with InSar and/or GPS data. The obtained rupture velocity remains inevitably affected by uncertainties, mainly due to imperfect knowledge of the earth structure and tradeoffs between different source parameters. In this study we show how the analysis of differential ground-motion may help constraining the rupture velocity, without a priori information about the earth velocity structure. Our analysis is based on synthetic ground-motion simulations (0-2 Hz) for vertical strike-slip earthquakes propagating unilaterally at a fixed rupture velocity in a homogeneous elastic medium covered with a 1 km-thick low velocity layer (shear wave velocity equal to 1 km/s). We show that when the rupture reaches the bottom of the shallow layer, the phase velocity of transverse waves measured in the forward rupture direction up to a few rupture lengths is equal to the rupture velocity, for a large range of frequencies. The comparison with the phase velocity obtained for a point source then enables to retrieve the value of the rupture velocity. The phase velocity is simply computed from the ratio between the ground velocity and the shear strain or the rotation about a vertical axis. This study points out the utility of setting up dense arrays at the vicinity of major faults to retrieve rupture features such as the rupture velocity.

Causse, Mathieu; Cornou, Cécile; Bécasse, Julie; Bouchon, Michel

2014-05-01

233

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as buttock pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first case report of a ruptured aortic aneurysm presenting with acute right buttock pain. The patient was an 80 year old man. A literature search revealed one report of ruptured internal iliac artery aneurysm presenting with acute hip pain and another of an unruptured aortic aneurysm presenting with chronic hip pain. Thus the present case is another

F Mahmood; F Ahsan; M Hockey

2005-01-01

234

The resolution of ruptures in the therapeutic alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines some of the main features of a research program on ruptures in the therapeutic alliance and reports some of the major findings to date. A rupture in the therapeutic alliance is a deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist; it is an interpersonal marker that indicates a critical opportunity for exploring and understanding

Jeremy D. Safran; J. Christopher Muran

1996-01-01

235

The Resolution of Ruptures in the Therapeutic Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rupture in the therapeutic alliance is a deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist; it is an interpersonal marker that indicates an opportunity for exploring and understanding the processes that maintain a maladaptive interpersonal schema. Outlines features of a research program on ruptures in the therapeutic…

Safran, Jeremy D.; Muran, J. Christopher

1996-01-01

236

Rupture of major bronchi resulting from closed chest injuries  

PubMed Central

Four cases of ruptured bronchus following closed chest trauma are described. All injuries resulted from motor vehicle accidents and were diagnosed and treated within 24 hours of admission to the hospital. A satisfactory result followed early suture repair of the ruptured bronchus in three cases. One patient died during pneumonectomy. The early diagnosis and treatment of the condition are discussed. Images PMID:4724503

Collins, John P.; Ketharanathan, V.; McConchie, Ian

1973-01-01

237

Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine rupture rates in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine rupture rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine rupture rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models

Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn

1999-01-01

238

Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon and most ruptured HCC present with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock. Management of ruptured HCC is different than non-ruptured one. Short- and long-term mortality increases following rupture of HCC with increasing chances of tumor dissemination. We describe a case with non-bleeding spontaneous rupture of HCC. A 62-year-old male patient was admitted to our institute hospital with mild to moderate pain in the right upper part of the abdomen. He lost appetite and weight. Ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed and it suggested HCC and ascites. Triple phase computer tomography revealed HCC in segments 6 and 7 of liver with typical radiological characteristics. Portal vein was thrombosed. No extravasation of dye was seen. Ruptured of tumor through liver capsule was seen with necrosis and hemorrhage in the center of the tumor. Non-bleeding ruptured HCC has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. We herein describe this rare case. PMID:24497757

Islam, Mahibul; Deka, Pranjal; Kapur, Raj; Ansari, Md Abu Masud

2013-07-01

239

Successful Patching of Iatrogenic Rupture of the Fetal Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common, but potentially serious complication of invasive fetal procedures. Quintero described a technique to seal the fetal membrane defect by means of a bloodpatch, usually called ‘amniopatch’ in this application. The successful use in two consecutive patients with ruptured membranes after a fetoscopic intervention at respectively 17 and 22 weeks' gestational age is

L Lewi; D Van Schoubroeck; M Van Ranst; G Bries; M-P Emonds; B Arabin; R Welch; J Deprest

2004-01-01

240

Survivors of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for ruptured aneurysms among series

R H Armour

1977-01-01

241

Do All Large Strike-slip Earthquakes Have Supershear Ruptures?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the rupture speeds of earthquakes is of broad interesting for earthquake research because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes. Also rupture speed is a key observation for understanding the controlling stresses and friction during an earthquake, yet the speed and its variations are usually difficult to determine. Using only far-field seismic waveforms, which is the only data available for many large earthquakes, there are problems for estimating the rupture speed with standard waveform inversions, due to trade-off between the rupture speed and the slip location. Here we applied a back projection method to estimate the rupture speeds of Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes since 2001 which could be analyzed using Hi-net in Japan. We found that all events had very fast average rupture speeds of 3.0-6.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally rupture with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s. Considering the depth-dependent shear-wave velocity, the average propagation speeds for all of the strike-slip events are closer to or greater than the shear wave velocity (Figure 1). For large strike-slip events, transition from subshear to supershear usually occurs within distances of 15 to 30 km from the initiation, which is probably the reason for the scarcity of observed supershear earthquakes for smaller magnitudes. Earthquakes with supershear ruptures can cause more damage than events with subshear ruptures because of the concentration of energy in the forward direction of the rupture. Numerical modeling shows strong focusing and other effects of energy at the rupture front which can intensify the ground motions. A recent example is the April 13, 2010 Qinghai, China earthquake (Mw 6.9), where a moderate-size event caused extensive damage in the Yushu region at the southeastern end of the fault. Careful evaluation of long and straight strike-slip faults should be emphasized for predicting strong ground motions due to supershear rupture. a: Average rupture speeds for Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes. For comparison, dip-slip earthquakes are also shown. The blue dashed line presents the S wave velocity model of PREM for comparison. b: Rupture velocities are shown as ratio to the local S wave velocity, as a function of depth.

Wang, D.; Mori, J. J.; Koketsu, K.

2013-12-01

242

Rupture of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst  

PubMed Central

Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065

Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.

2012-01-01

243

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as hemoperitoneum mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma rupture  

PubMed Central

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic mesenchynal sarcoma. It is uncommonly arises primarily from the intra-peritoneal cavity. Primary peritoneal MFH with tumor bleeding and rupture is rare. We describe the imaging features of a 70-year-old patient presenting with ruptured hemorrhagic peritoneal MFH at subhepatic area, accompanied by massive hemoperitoneum, mimicking a ruptured pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large heterogeneous enhanced subhepatic mass with adjacent liver, gallbladder and colon invasion. Tumor hemorrhage and rupture complicated with peritoneal seeding and massive bloody ascites were also detected. Angiography showed a hypervascular tumor fed by enlarged right hepatic arteries, cystic artery and omental branches of gastroepiploic artery. The patient underwent laparotomy for tumor resection, but the tumor recurred one month after operation. To our knowledge, the CT appearance of ruptured intraperitoneal MFH complicated by hemoperitoneum has not been previously described. PMID:18081238

Chen, Hsin-Chi; Chen, Chi-Jen; Jeng, Chin-Ming; Yang, Chan-Ming

2007-01-01

244

Macroscopic Source Properties from Dynamic Rupture Styles in Plastic Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High stress concentrations at earthquake rupture fronts may generate an inelastic off-fault response at the rupture tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Furthermore, the induced asymmetric plastic strain field in in-plane rupture modes may produce bimaterial interfaces that can increase radiation efficiency and reduce frictional dissipation. Off-fault inelasticity thus plays an important role for realistic predictions of near-fault ground motion. Guided by our previous studies in the 2D elastic case, we perform rupture dynamics simulations including rate-and-state friction and off-fault plasticity to investigate the effects on the rupture properties. We quantitatively analyze macroscopic source properties for different rupture styles, ranging from cracks to pulses and subshear to supershear ruptures, and their transitional mechanisms. The energy dissipation due to off-fault inelasticity modifies the conditions to obtain each rupture style and alters macroscopic source properties. We examine apparent fracture energy, rupture and healing front speed, peak slip and peak slip velocity, dynamic stress drop and size of the process and plastic zones, slip and plastic seismic moment, and their connection to ground motion. This presentation focuses on the effects of rupture style and off-fault plasticity on the resulting ground motion patterns, especially on characteristic slip velocity function signatures and resulting seismic moments. We aim at developing scaling rules for equivalent elastic models, as function of background stress and frictional parameters, that may lead to improved "pseudo-dynamic" source parameterizations for ground-motion calculation. Moreover, our simulations provide quantitative relations between off-fault energy dissipation and macroscopic source properties. These relations might provide a self-consistent theoretical framework for the study of the earthquake energy balance based on observable earthquake source parameters.

Gabriel, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, P. M.

2011-12-01

245

Imaging Atherosclerosis and Risk of Plaque Rupture  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis imaging strategies can delineate characteristics of plaques at risk of rupture and thrombosis. Structural plaque imaging identifies high-risk plaque features including lipid pools, thin fibrous caps, and intraplaque hemorrhage, among others. New molecular imaging techniques complement structural imaging approaches by illuminating important features of plaque biology, with a prominent focus on detecting inflammation as a high-risk phenotype. As we unravel the molecular and structural characteristics underlying thrombosis-prone plaques, there is significant promise for eventual early identification and prediction of atherosclerotic plaque complications before they occur. Here we focus on recent imaging insights into high-risk arterial plaques, the etiologic agent of acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23982263

Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

2013-01-01

246

Monaural conductive hearing loss alters the expression of the GluA3 AMPA and glycine receptor ?1 subunits in bushy and fusiform cells of the cochlear nucleus.  

PubMed

The impact of conductive hearing loss (CHL), the second most common form of hearing loss, on neuronal plasticity in the central auditory pathway is unknown. After short-term (1 day) monaural earplugging, the GluA3 subunits of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) are upregulated at auditory nerve synapses on the projection neurons of the cochlear nucleus; glycine receptor ?1 (GlyR?1) subunits are downregulated at inhibitory synapses in the same neuronal population. These data suggest that CHL affects receptor trafficking at synapses. We examined the impact of 7 days of CHL on the general expression of excitatory and inhibitory receptors by quantitative biochemistry and immunohistochemistry, using specific antibodies to detect AMPAR subunits (GluA1, GluA2, GluA2/3, and GluA4), GlyR?1, and the GABA(A) receptor subunits ?2/3. Following monaural earplugging and an elevation of the hearing threshold by approximately 35 dB, the immunolabeling of the antibody for the GluA2/3 subunits but not the GluA2 subunit increased on bushy cells (BCs) and fusiform cells (FCs) of the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei. These same cell types showed a downregulation of the GlyR?1 subunit. Similar results were observed in the contralateral nuclei. The expression levels of GABA(A) ?2/3 were unchanged. These findings suggest that, following longer periods of monaural conductive hearing loss, the synthesis and subsequent composition of specific glutamate and glycine receptors in projection neurons and their synapses are altered; these changes may contribute to abnormal auditory processing. PMID:22044924

Wang, H; Yin, G; Rogers, K; Miralles, C; De Blas, A L; Rubio, M E

2011-12-29

247

Using the Snare System to Cross the Acute-Angled Vertebrobasilar Junction in Treating Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm with the Stent-Assisted Method via a Retrograde Approach. A Technical Note.  

PubMed

Retrograde stenting via the contralateral vertebral artery (VA) is a safe and effective treatment for posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm. Many methods, including tip shaping and the looping technique, have been attempted as ways to cross the vertebrobasilar (VB) junction. Here, we introduce an alternative method using a Snare system to overcome the acute-angled VB junction after repeated failures using other techniques. The Snare system was navigated to the proximal basilar artery via the ipsilateral VA. A guidewire was introduced in the contralateral VA and gently advanced to the basilar artery in order to pass through the loop of the Snare system. Following this, the Snare system caught the guidewire and it was very carefully pulled down to the ipsilateral VA crossing the VB junction. We suggest this technique as a method to cross the acute-angled VB junction after failure of all other attempts to overcome this challenge. PMID:25207903

Shin, Hee Sup; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Koh, Jun Seok; Lee, Seung Hwan

2014-09-15

248

Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.  

PubMed

Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P2 into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. PMID:25299335

Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

2014-10-01

249

Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films.  

PubMed

Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal. PMID:20535206

Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A

2010-06-10

250

Factors Controlling Stress Rupture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful application of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) depends strongly on maximizing material rupture life over a wide range of temperatures and applied stresses. The objective of this paper is to examine the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control the high-temperature stress rupture of CMC for stresses below and above those required for cracking of the 0 C plies (Regions I and II, respectively). Using creep-rupture results for a variety of ceramic fibers and rupture data for CMC reinforced by these fibers, it is shown that in those cases where the matrix carries little structural load, CMC rupture conditions can be predicted very well from the fiber behavior measured under the appropriate test environment. As such, one can then examine the intrinsic characteristics of the fibers in order to develop design guidelines for selecting fibers and fiber microstructures in order to maximize CMC rupture life. For those cases where the fiber interfacial coatings are unstable in the test environment, CMC lives are generally worse than those predicted by fiber behavior alone. For those cases where the matrix can support structural load, CMC life can even be greater provided matrix creep behavior is properly controlled. Thus the achievement of long CMC rupture life requires understanding and optimizing the behavior of all constituents in the proper manner.

DiCarlo, J. A.; Yun, H. M.

1999-01-01

251

Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

2014-05-01

252

Cough and spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen.  

PubMed

Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen was recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. The pathogenesis is debated in the absence of external trauma or predisposing disease. It has been reported in association with apparently trivial insults such as vomiting. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen. Interestingly, it was observed after severe coughing. PMID:16162801

Toubia, Nagib T; Tawk, Maroun M; Potts, Robyn M; Kinasewitz, Gary T

2005-09-01

253

TachoSil for postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture.  

PubMed

Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall rupture has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil patching to achieve free wall rupture repair, has been described. PMID:22419793

Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco

2012-06-01

254

TachoSil® for postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture  

PubMed Central

Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall rupture still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil® (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall rupture has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil® patching to achieve free wall rupture repair, has been described. PMID:22419793

Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco

2012-01-01

255

Ruptured femoral pseudoaneurysm presenting as a lateral abdominal wall hematoma.  

PubMed

Lateral abdominal wall hematomas are rare. We describe a patient with a delayed rupture of a femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, who presented with such a hematoma. In contrast to other types of abdominal wall hematomas, which are often managed conservatively, a ruptured femoral artery pseudoaneurysm frequently requires emergent surgical intervention. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm can be catastrophic. Due to the rising incidence of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and shorter hospital stays, it is useful for the emergency physician to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms and their potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:16029823

Ma, Marek; Snook, Curtis P

2005-08-01

256

Rupture Propagation beyond Fault Discontinuities: Significance of Thermal Pressurization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of thermal pressurization (TP) on rupture processes over unconnected fault segments has not been investigated at all. In this study, we show that TP causes various rupture propagation beyond fault discontinuities by 3-D numerical simulations for spontaneous ruptures with TP. We put two vertical strike-slip square faults in a semi-infinite, homogenous, and elastic medium. The second fault (Fault 2) is parallel to the first one (Fault 1). We examine compressional and extensional cases with some values of stepover width. Both faults reach the free surface. The lengths of Faults 1 and 2 are 6 and 3 km, respectively. The numerical algorithm is based on the finite-difference method by Kase and Kuge (2001). Rupture is initiated in a small patch close to a side edge of Fault 1, and then proceeds spontaneously, governed by a slip-weakening law with the Coulomb failure criteria. The friction coefficients and initial stresses are uniform and the same on the two faults. On a fault with TP, we allow effective normal stress to vary with pore pressure change by the formulation of Bizzarri and Cocco (2006). We examine three cases; TP works on neither of the faults ('drain- drain'), on only Fault 2 ('drain-TP'), and on only Fault 1 ('TP-drain'). In the 'drain-drain' case, rupture jumps to Fault 2 near the free surface, and the rupture cannot jump when the stepover width is larger than a certain value. This observation is consistent with Harris and Day (1999) and Kase and Kuge (2001). In the 'drain- TP' case, TP on Fault 2 quickly accelerates propagation of small rupture triggered on Fault 2. In the 'TP- drain' case, the stress drop on Fault 1 is larger and off-fault stress changes drastically. Then, rupture is triggered sometimes near the free surface, as well as rupture triggered at the bottom, and sometimes at a deeper part. Due to these effects of TP, the maximum of stepover width that rupture can jump becomes larger. The effects of TP are observed in both extensional and compressional cases. Therefore, TP has a significant role on whether or not, and where rupture can jump from one fault to another. Moreover, our results imply that the existence and nature of fluid on faults may be diagnosed by comparing rupture jumps between our numerical simulations and real earthquakes.

Urata, Y.; Kuge, K.; Kase, Y.

2008-12-01

257

Minimum Energy Path to Membrane Pore Formation and Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and rupture. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated rupture may be an important factor for the low rupture strains observed in lipid membranes.

Ting, Christina L.; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang

2011-04-01

258

Transient achromatopsia in vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Es wird ein 54jähriger Mann beschrieben, bei welchem Attacken von Achromatopsie, zeitweise mit und zeitweise ohne gleichzeitige\\u000a „drop attacks“ auftraten. Bei der Untersuchung konnte kein eigentlicher Visusausfall nachgewiesen werden und Hilfsuntersuchungen\\u000a waren negativ. Es wird angenommen, daß eine Durchblutungsinsuffizienz im vertebrobasilären Gebiete mit vorübergehender Ischämie\\u000a der entsprechenden Sehrinde für die vorübergehende Störung der Farbwahrnehmung verantwortlich sei.

J. Lapresle; R. Metreau; A. Annabi

1977-01-01

259

Transient achromatopsia in vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es wird ein 54jähriger Mann beschrieben, bei welchem Attacken von Achromatopsie, zeitweise mit und zeitweise ohne gleichzeitige „drop attacks“ auftraten. Bei der Untersuchung konnte kein eigentlicher Visusausfall nachgewiesen werden und Hilfsuntersuchungen waren negativ. Es wird angenommen, daß eine Durchblutungsinsuffizienz im vertebrobasilären Gebiete mit vorübergehender Ischämie der entsprechenden Sehrinde für die vorübergehende Störung der Farbwahrnehmung verantwortlich sei.

J. Lapresle; R. Metreau; A. Annabi

1977-01-01

260

Endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Endovascular management of supra-aortic atherosclerotic vascular disease is becoming relatively common in the innominate,\\u000a subclavian, and carotid arteries. However, revascularization of vertebral artery disease is an infrequently used treatment\\u000a option due to several reasons: 1) stroke etiology and prevention is generally considered with respect to carotid disease as\\u000a posterior circulation ischemia is poorly defined; 2) the limited success and

J. Stephen Jenkins; Rajesh Subramanian

2002-01-01

261

Transcranial sonography and vertebrobasilar insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to discuss a case illustrating the role of transcranial Doppler sonography in the screening and treatment of a patient with intermittent vertebral artery brainstem ischemia. Clinical Features: A 28-year-old woman had neck pain, arm pain, headaches, and dizziness. Her symptoms occurred intermittently over several years. Past care had provided little relief. De Kleyn's test, transcranial Doppler

Thomas Terenzi

2002-01-01

262

Extracellular Matrix Dynamics and Fetal Membrane Rupture  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536

Strauss,, Jerome F.

2013-01-01

263

Dynamic rupture along bimaterial interfaces in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform numerical simulations of dynamic rupture propagation on a plane in a model consisting of two different elastic half spaces connected via a planar frictional interface governed by regularized Coulomb friction. Therefore, ruptures in this study are purely driven by the presence of a material contrast. Ruptures are nucleated on the fault using a circular symmetric expanding increase of pore-pressure in a limited source region. We show how a wrinkle-like rupture pulse can mature also in the 3D case where we have a mixing of in-plane and anti-plane modes, the instability specific of a bimaterial interface acting only for the in-plane mode. The pulse develops inside a cone-shaped region with its axis aligned with the direction of displacement in the softer material, its tip being at the nucleation region.

Brietzke, G. B.; Cochard, A.; Igel, H.

2007-06-01

264

Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach.

SMITH, K.E.

1998-11-03

265

Arterial helium embolism from a ruptured intraaortic balloon.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man sustained a sudden global neurological deficit immediately following rupture of an intraaortic balloon catheter. Considerable improvement in his neurological function occurred during and after three hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:3196106

Frederiksen, J W; Smith, J; Brown, P; Zinetti, C

1988-12-01

266

Controls on earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms in subduction zones  

E-print Network

Large earthquake rupture and triggering mechanisms that drive seismicity in subduction zones are investigated in this thesis using a combination of earthquake observations, statistical and physical modeling. A comparison ...

Llenos, Andrea Lesley

2010-01-01

267

Subcutaneous Peroneus Longus Tendon Rupture Associated with OS Peroneum Fracture  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon rupture associated with os peroneum fracture. Three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful to understand this disorder. We treated the patient with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the ruptured peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus. Key points In order to understand a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon rupture associated with os peroneum fracture, three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful. The patient was treated with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the ruptured peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus. PMID:24149615

Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Kokubu, Takeshi; Makino, Takeshi; Nagura, Issei; Maeda, Toshihisa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Okuno, Hiroaki; Yamagiwa, Tokuyoshi; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi

2009-01-01

268

Lateral approach to laparoscopic repair of left diaphragmatic ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-assisted repairs of traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures have been described where thoracoscopy or laparoscopy in the supine\\u000a position were used. This study aims to validate a new lateral laparoscopic approach for left diaphragmatic repairs. Six consecutive\\u000a patients were operated on for left diaphragmatic rupture using a lateral approach (Gagner’s position). A series of 362 consecutive\\u000a patients presenting with abdominal or thoracic

Pierre Goudet; Nicolas Cheynel; Loïc Ferrand; Frédérique Peschaud; Jean-Philippe Steinmetz; Bernard Letourneau; Jean-Paul Isnardon; Marie-Thérèse Noirot; Laurencia Poli; Marc Freysz; Patrick Cougard

2001-01-01

269

Iliopsoas hematoma due to muscular rupture following defibrillation.  

PubMed

We describe a 62 year old patient who presented with acute anterior ischemia and subsequently developed an iliopsoas hematoma. The patient was treated surgically due to rapid progression and femoral neuropathy, and the iliopsoas muscle rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. The rupture was related to the external electrical defibrillation the patient had on admission. This was a rare case, and we hope the report would help to raise physicians' awareness regarding this complication and treatment. PMID:24347218

Jahollari, Artan; Cavolli, Raif; Tavlasoglu, Murat; Sallahu, Ferat; Muriqi, Shkelzen

2013-11-01

270

Successful patching of iatrogenic rupture of the fetal membranes.  

PubMed

Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common, but potentially serious complication of invasive fetal procedures. Quintero described a technique to seal the fetal membrane defect by means of a bloodpatch, usually called 'amniopatch' in this application. The successful use in two consecutive patients with ruptured membranes after a fetoscopic intervention at respectively 17 and 22 weeks' gestational age is described, together with a literature review of published experience. PMID:15028428

Lewi, L; Van Schoubroeck, D; Van Ranst, M; Bries, G; Emonds, M-P; Arabin, B; Welch, R; Deprest, J

2004-04-01

271

[Massive hemoperitoneum from rupture of an intra-peritoneal varix].  

PubMed

Rupture of an intra-abdominal varix in a patient with portal hypertension is a rare but severe cause of massive hemoperitoneum. The authors report the case of a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis that presented to the emergency department with hypovolemic shock. Imaging showed massive hemoperitoneum, severe portal hypertension and suggested the diagnosis of spontaneous rupture of an intra-abdominal varix, confirmed at laparotomy. PMID:12469017

Léauté, F; Frampas, E; Mathon, G; Leborgne, J; Dupas, B

2002-11-01

272

Macrophage Activation in Atherosclerosis: Pathogenesis and Pharmacology of Plaque Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is still an important disease. It accounts for 39% of deaths in the U.K. and 12 million U.S citizens have atherosclerosis-associated disease. Atherosclerosis may exert clinical effects by slow narrowing, producing stable angina or dramatic rupture, producing acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and death. Macrophages are abundant in ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Macrophages are innate

J. J. Boyle

2005-01-01

273

A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is modelled by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dynamic earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further dynamic rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.

Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard

2009-06-01

274

A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling

Geoffrey P. Ely; Steven M. Day; Jean-Bernard Minster

2009-01-01

275

Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to ˜2×103 hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs.

Stephens, John J.

1991-01-01

276

Dynamic rupture modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When rupture nucleation is artificially forced at fixed rupture velocity, rupture models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier rupture models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic rupture following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with rupture nucleation. -from Author

Okubo, P.G.

1989-01-01

277

Rupture of a Biomembrane under Dynamic Surface Tension  

E-print Network

How long a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before rupture? Or conversely, how high the surface tension should be to rupture a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we have developed a theoretical framework that allows description and reproduction of Dynamic Tension Spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane rupture under ramps of surface tension is described as a combination of initial pore formation followed by Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we have studied the membrane lifetime (or inverse of rupture rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at rupture as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce main features of the experimental data, particularly, the pore nucleation and pore size diffusion controlled limits of membrane rupture dynamics. This approach can also be applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion).

D. J. Bicout; E. I. Kats

2011-12-19

278

Shear rupture under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A grain based Distinct Element Method and its embedded Grain Based Method are used to simulate the fracturing processes leading to shear rupture zone creation in a calibrated massive (non-jointed) brittle rock specimen deformed in direct shear under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions. Under these boundary conditions, shear rupture zone creation relative to the shear stress versus applied horizontal displacement (load-displacement) curve occurs pre-peak, before the maximum peak shear strength is reached. This is found to be the result of a normal stress feedback process caused by the imposed shear displacement which couples increases in normal stress, due to rupture zone dilation, with shear stress, producing a complex normal-shear stress-path that reaches and then follows the rock's yield (strength) envelope. While the yield envelope is followed, the shear strength increases further and shear stress oscillations (repeated stress drops followed by re-strengthening periods) in the load-displacement curves occur due to fracture creation as the rupture zone geometry smoothens. Once the maximum peak strength is reached (after a series of shear stress oscillations) the largest stress drops occur as the ultimate or residual shear strength is approached. The simulation results provide insight into the fracturing process during rupture zone creation and improve the understanding of the shear stress versus applied horizontal displacement response, as well as the stick-slip behaviour of shear rupture zones that are being created under constant normal stiffness boundary conditions.

Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.

2014-11-01

279

The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake rupture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the rupture than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of rupture. These findings suggest a variation in the style of rupture related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.

Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.

1994-01-01

280

Rupture of a biomembrane under dynamic surface tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How long will a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before rupture? Or conversely, how high should the surface tension be to rupture such a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we developed a theoretical framework that allows for the description and reproduction of dynamic tension spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane rupture under ramps of surface tension is described as a succession of an initial pore formation followed by the Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and a derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we study the membrane lifetime (or inverse of rupture rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at rupture as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure, and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce the main features of DTS experiments, particularly the pore nucleation and pore-size diffusion-controlled limits of membrane rupture dynamics. This approach can be adapted and applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion).

Bicout, D. J.; Kats, E.

2012-03-01

281

In-reactor creep rupture of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an experiment designed to measure in-reactor stress-to-rupture properties of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel are reported. The in-reactor rupture data are compared with postirradiation and unirradiated test results. In-reactor rupture lives were found to exceed rupture predictions of postirradiation tests. This longer in-reactor rupture life is attributed to dynamic point defect generation which is absent during postirradiation

A. J. Lovell; B. A. Chin; E. R. Gilbert

1981-01-01

282

STS-93 SSME Nozzle Tube Rupture Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-93 was launched on July 23, 1999. There was an anomaly at the end of the launch in that the main engines shut down 0.16 second early because sensors detected a low level of oxidizer in the LOX tank (actually the duct from the tank to the vehicle). This resulted in a cutoff velocity for the vehicle that was 16 ft/sec low. It should have been 25872 ft/sec. The OMS engines were subsequently used to achieve the proper orbit. An investigation was immediately initiated into the cause of this LOX tank low level cutoff. It was noticed during the launch that the turbine temperatures for Main Engine 3 (E2019) were approximately 100 F higher than the preflight prediction. Linear Engine Model matching of the data indicated that a nozzle leak best fit the data. Post launch review of the data showed, that at approximately five seconds into the start, numerous parameters indicated small anomalous shifts. These shifts were all consistent with a rupture of nozzle tubes. Post launch review of the films showed that just after Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ignition and just prior to liftoff a streak is seen in the exhaust plume of E2019. Just after liftoff the streak can be seen emanating from the nozzle wall. This photo confirmed that a leak was coming from the nozzle tubes. Based on the photo, the axial location of the leak was estimated to be 28 in. from the aft end of the nozzle and in line with nozzle coolant feed line #1. The streak continued to be visible during the launch.

Romine, W. Dennis

1999-01-01

283

Dissecting Aneurysm of Vertebral Artery Manifestating as Contralateral Abducens Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Isolated abducens nerve paresis related to ruptured vertebral artery (VA) aneurysm is rare. It usually occurs bilaterally or ipsilaterally to the pathologic lesions. We report the case of a contralateral sixth nerve palsy following ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. A 38-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a 6-day history of headache. Abnormalities were not seen on initial computed tomography (CT). On admission, the patient was alert and no signs reflecting neurologic deficits were noted. Time of flight magnetic resonance angiography revealed a fusiform dilatation of the right VA involving origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient suddenly suffered from severe headache with diplopia the day before the scheduled cerebral angiography. Neurologic examination disclosed nuchal rigidity and isolated left abducens nerve palsy. Emergent CT scan showed high density in the basal and prepontine cistern compatible with ruptured aneurismal hemorrhage. Right vertebral angiography illustrated a right VA dissecting aneurysm with prominent displaced vertebrobasilar artery to inferiorly on left side. Double-stent placement was conducted for the treatment of ruptured dissecting VA aneurysm. No diffusion restriction signals were observed in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem. Eleven weeks later, full recovery of left sixth nerve palsy was documented photographically. In conclusion, isolated contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with ruptured VA aneurysm may develop due to direct nerve compression by displaced verterobasilar artery triggered by primary thick clot in the prepontine cistern. PMID:23634273

Jeon, Jin Sue; Son, Young-Je; Chung, Young Seob

2013-01-01

284

Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

1984-01-01

285

Hemodynamic-Morphologic Discriminants for Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To identify significant morphologic and hemodynamic parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture status using 3D angiography and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods 119 IAs (38 ruptured, 81 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D angiographic images and CFD. Six morphologic and seven hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating ruptured from unruptured aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis in 3 predictive models—morphology only, hemodynamics only, and combined—to identify independent discriminants, and the AUC-ROC of the predicted probability of rupture status was compared among these models. Results Morphologic parameters (Size Ratio [SR], Undulation Index, Ellipticity Index, and Nonsphericity Index) and hemodynamic parameters (Average Wall Shear Stress [WSS], Maximum intra-aneurysmal WSS, Low WSS Area, Average Oscillatory Shear Index [OSI], Number of Vortices, and Relative Resident Time) achieved statistical significance (p<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated SR to be the only independently significant factor in the morphology model (AUC=0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.91), whereas WSS and OSI were the only independently significant variables in the hemodynamics model (AUC=0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.93). The combined model retained all three variables, SR, WSS, and OSI (AUC=0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96). Conclusion All three models—morphological (based on SR), hemodynamic (based on WSS and OSI), and combined—discriminate IA rupture status with high AUC values. Hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status. PMID:21106956

Xiang, Jianping; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Tremmel, Markus; Ma, Ding; Mocco, J; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui

2010-01-01

286

Morphological Parameters Associated with Ruptured Posterior Communicating Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The rupture risk of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is known to be dependent on the size of the aneurysm. However, the association of morphological characteristics with ruptured aneurysms has not been established in a systematic and location specific manner for the most common aneurysm locations. We evaluated posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms for morphological parameters associated with aneurysm rupture in that location. CT angiograms were evaluated to generate 3-D models of the aneurysms and surrounding vasculature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate morphological parameters including aneurysm volume, aspect ratio, size ratio, distance to ICA bifurcation, aneurysm angle, vessel angles, flow angles, and vessel-to-vessel angles. From 2005–2012, 148 PCoA aneurysms were treated in a single institution. Preoperative CTAs from 63 patients (40 ruptured, 23 unruptured) were available and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that smaller volume (p?=?0.011), larger aneurysm neck diameter (0.048), and shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance (p?=?0.005) were the most strongly associated with aneurysm rupture after adjusting for all other clinical and morphological variables. Multivariate subgroup analysis for patients with visualized PCoA demonstrated that larger neck diameter (p?=?0.018) and shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance (p?=?0.011) were significantly associated with rupture. Intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with smaller volume, larger maximum height, and smaller aneurysm angle, in addition to lateral projection, male sex, and lack of hypertension. We found that shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance is significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture. This is a new physically intuitive parameter that can be measured easily and therefore be readily applied in clinical practice to aid in the evaluation of patients with PCoA aneurysms. PMID:24733151

Ho, Allen; Lin, Ning; Charoenvimolphan, Nareerat; Stanley, Mary; Frerichs, Kai U.; Day, Arthur L.; Du, Rose

2014-01-01

287

Generation of microcracks by dynamic shear rupture and its effects on rupture growth and elastic wave radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and field observations suggest that dynamically propagating earthquake faults generate a large number of tensile microcracks in their vicinity, which will contribute to the formation of fault zones. Intense interactions are expected to occur between such microcracks and a dynamically propagating fault, which will complicate the fault growth. Near-field seismic waves will also be affected by the generation of microcracks. We numerically study how such tensile microcracks are generated and how dynamic growth of a macroscopic shear rupture and near-field elastic waves are affected by the distribution of generated microcracks. It is essential to consider a large number of microcracks in such studies, so that it is impractical to consider each microcrack individually from the viewpoint of computation time and memory. We overcome this difficulty by representing the microcrack distribution by anisotropic properties of the overall elastic coefficients on the basis of Hudson's (1980) study. Our simulations show that the decrease in the microcrack density is approximated well by a logarithmic function of the distance from the rupture plane. Microcracks on the dilational side of the rupture plane are shown to make larger angles to the rupture plane than on the compressive side. These are consistent with field and laboratory observations. It is also shown that dynamically generated microcracks tend to reduce the rupture-tip shear stress. This implies that the dynamic growth of a shear rupture is more decelerated when microcracks are generated than when the shear rupture is isolated in an isotropic and homogeneous medium. If the dynamic rupture growth is arrested suddenly, an abrupt expansion of the distribution zone of microcracks is shown to occur near the arrested rupture tip. Aftershocks are expected to cluster in this zone because of the shear stress enhancement there and the high density of distributed microcracks, which facilitates aftershock occurrence due to dynamic coalescence of microcracks. Our simulations also show that the component of radiated displacement waves perpendicular to the rupture plane is much more affected by the generation of microcracks than the parallel component.

Yamashita, Teruo

2000-11-01

288

Earthquake Rupture Complexity Evidence from Field Observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations provide strong evidence for four intriguing aspects of rupture process complexity for the 4 April 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah - Indiviso earthquake. First, the southern “fork” of the rupture exhibits two splays just to the northwest of the event epicenter, both with nearly pure right-lateral faulting. Teleseismic source modeling by others indicates normal slip on deep fault surface preceded the shallow strike-slip faulting, and our field observations from the fork area indicate that the earliest phase of strike-slip faulting did not involve a significant normal faulting component. Second, as rupture propagated to the northwest along the Pescadores fault, slip ended abruptly on this fault and transferred across a complex zone to the Borrego fault (although the Pescadores fault continues farther and would have seemed an easier route to follow). This stepover is called the Puerta Accommodation Zone (PAZ) which extends 11 km along-strike within an elevated portion of the Cucapah massif and accommodates a left step (transpressional) that measures less than 2 km across-strike. Though partly obscured by rockfalls in the steep terrain here, only discontinuous faulting of up to one meter reached the ground surface, yet imagery differencing by others indicates several meters of continuous subsurface slip throughout this section. This 11 km region of reduced and discontinuous slip is one of the longest surface rupture jumps ever observed, with lengthy and continuous surface faulting on either side. The SE end of the stepover coincides spatially with the Canon Rojo embayment where the M7.2 1892 surface rupture propagated onto a second fault forming an abrupt corner in its surface trace. Hence, the surface rupture and slip distribution pattern in 2010 appears to have been influenced by stress changes induced by the 1892 event. Thirdly, from the NW end of the transition section, the Borrego fault continues to the NNW with strong east-down slip obliquity. Along this same reach of fault, the Laguna Salada fault was re-activated with minor west side down slip. Along the Paso Inferior accommodation zone, splays trending NNW to N had strong east-down slip, with right-lateral oblique motion. It was along this portion of the rupture that an eyewitness observed the rupture propagating from N to S, instead of in the expected S to N direction. Back-rupture may have resulted from triggered slip having raced ahead of the slower main rupture front, or may indicate a place where contiguous deep rupture ran out in front of shallow slip, or may result from the involvement here of the detachment fault system. Finally, in the northwestern portion of the rupture, from Paso Superior to the northwest of Cerro Centinela, a pattern of NE - SW oriented “cross faults” and N-S faults broke at the surface, in a manner similar to rupture that occurred in the Elmore Ranch Fault Zone during the Superstition Hills earthquake sequence of 1987. Unlike the Elmore Ranch event, however, there was no known main shock sub-event or any large aftershock that can be readily associated with the extensive cross-faulting that is observed in this case.

Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Teran, O.; Akciz, S. O.

2010-12-01

289

DEM Simulation of Direct Shear: 1. Rupture Under Constant Normal Stress Boundary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particle-based distinct element method and its grain-based method are used to generate and simulate a synthetic specimen calibrated to the rupture characteristics of an intact (non-jointed) low-porosity brittle rock deformed in direct shear. The simulations are compared to the laboratory-generated ruptures and used to investigate rupture at various normal stress magnitudes. The fracturing processes leading to shear rupture zone creation and the rupture mechanism are found to be normal stress dependent (progressing from tensile splitting to shear rupture) and show partial confirmation of rupture zone creation in nature and in experiments from other materials. The normal stress dependent change is found to be due to the orientation of the major principal stress and local stress concentrations internal to the synthetic specimens being deformed. The normal stress dependent rupture creation process results in a change to the rupture zone's geometry, shear stress versus horizontal displacement response, and thus ultimate strength.

Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.; Bahrani, N.

2014-09-01

290

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

2009-01-01

291

Rupture of an evaporating liquid bridge between two grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines rupture of evaporating liquid bridges between two glass spheres. Evolution of the bridge profile has been recorded with the use of high-speed camera. Geometrical characteristics of the bridge were then used to calculate evolution of the variables during the process: Laplace pressure, capillary force, and surface tension force. For the purpose of reference, the bridge evolution is followed also during kinematic extension. During both processes the diameter of the neck decreases, with an acceleration of about 1-2 ms before the rupture. Two distinct rupture modes are observed, depending on the bridge aspect ratio. After the rupture, the mass of liquid splits, forming two separate oscillating drops attached to the spheres, and a suspended satellite droplet. Just before the rupture, an increasing repulsive Laplace pressure, and decreasing negative surface tension force develop. Capillary force follows the trend of the surface tension force, with an accelerating decline. Duration of the whole process and liquid mass stabilization is from 10 to 60 ms.

Mielniczuk, Boleslaw; El Youssoufi, Moulay Said; Sabatier, Laurent; Hueckel, Tomasz

2014-10-01

292

Mucus Rupture in A Collapsed airway: An Experimental Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mucus plugs can completely obstruct an airway. Difficulty in mucus clearance results in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Non-Newtonian properties of mucus, yielding stress and shear-thinning, play significant roles in mucus clearance. We use aqueous carbopol 940 as a mucus stimulant to study clearance of a mucus plug with properties of yielding stress and shear-thinning in a bench-top experiment. A collapsed airway of the 12^th generation in a human lung is simulated in a two-dimensional PDMS channel. A stable pressure drop is set along the plug to drive rupture. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during the rupture process. A yielding pressure drop (initiating plug yielding) is nearly independent of initial plug length. Plug rupture can occur by focused deformation along the centerline or by total plug propagation where the trailing film is thicker than the precursor film. Maximum velocity appears at the rupture moment, and increases at higher pressure drop or smaller plug length. The wall shear gradient can undergo a rapid reversal when rupture occurs, possibly an injurious event to underlying airway epithelial cells.

Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, James B.

2011-11-01

293

Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  

PubMed

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

2014-01-01

294

Stress-rupture behavior of small diameter polycrystalline alumina fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous length polycrystalline alumina fibers are candidates as reinforcement in high temperature composite materials. Interest therefore exists in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, obtaining possible insights into underlying mechanisms, and understanding fiber performance under long term use. Results are reported on the time-temperature dependent strength behavior of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Below 1000 C and 100 hours, Nextel 610 with the smaller grain size had a greater fast fracture and rupture strength than Fiber FP. The time exponents for stress-rupture of these fibers were found to decrease from approximately 13 at 900 C to below 3 near 1050 C, suggesting a transition from slow crack growth to creep rupture as the controlling fracture mechanism. For both fiber types, an effective activation energy of 690 kJ/mol was measured for rupture. This allowed stress-rupture predictions to be made for extended times at use temperatures below 1000 C.

Yun, Hee Mann; Goldsby, Jon C.; Dicarlo, James A.

1993-01-01

295

Robustness Tests for Reliably Determining the Earthquake Rupture Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems related to the determination of the earthquake rupture process details from analysis of body-wave seismograms was first discussed by Kostrov in 1974. We discuss how to use robustness tests to identify the reliable properties of the rupture process obtained from inversion of broadband body wave data (Das and Kostrov, JGR 1990; PEPI 1994). We then interpret the results for the following submarine subduction zone earthquakes: the Mw 8.0 Andreanof Islands earthquake (Das and Kostrov, ibid.), the Mw 8.2 Biak, Indonesia earthquake (Das et al., JGR, 2000) and the Mw 8.4 2001 Peru earthquake (Robinson et al., Science, 2006), in terms of subducting seafloor features and its influence on the earthquake rupture process. In particular, subducting seamounts appear to be affecting the rupture process of all these great earthquakes. The question of how much of a seamount still remains after it is subducted to be able to affect the earthquake rupture on the subduction plane will be addressed.

Das, S.; Robinson, D.

2007-12-01

296

Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral Rupture in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the disease mechanism underlying the arthropathy. PMID:25254499

Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter

2014-01-01

297

Complicated malaria and a covert ruptured spleen: a case report.  

PubMed

Spontaneous splenic rupture in complicated malaria is an uncommon cause of hemoperitoneum in the tropics. The exact incidence of splenic rupture is unknown, largely due to under-reporting, but has been estimated at ?2%. Its pathophysiology is linked to the formation of a subcapsular hematoma. Upon rupture, patients present with features of shock and peritonitis and in most cases (95%), computed tomography (CT) scan detects the splenic injury. Patients should be managed conservatively with splenectomy reserved for patients with shock and hemoperitoneum due to risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with severe malaria who presented with fever, chills and abdominal pains. A CT scan abdomen failed to reveal splenic parenchymal injury or any splenic extravasation of contrast. Conservative management was unsuccessful. Exploratory laparatomy confirmed the spleen as the site of bleeding necessitating a splenectomy. PMID:25395608

Waweru, Peter; Macleod, Jana; Gikonyo, Anthony

2014-01-01

298

Complicated malaria and a covert ruptured spleen: a case report  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous splenic rupture in complicated malaria is an uncommon cause of hemoperitoneum in the tropics. The exact incidence of splenic rupture is unknown, largely due to under-reporting, but has been estimated at ?2%. Its pathophysiology is linked to the formation of a subcapsular hematoma. Upon rupture, patients present with features of shock and peritonitis and in most cases (95%), computed tomography (CT) scan detects the splenic injury. Patients should be managed conservatively with splenectomy reserved for patients with shock and hemoperitoneum due to risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. We report the case of a 38-year-old man with severe malaria who presented with fever, chills and abdominal pains. A CT scan abdomen failed to reveal splenic parenchymal injury or any splenic extravasation of contrast. Conservative management was unsuccessful. Exploratory laparatomy confirmed the spleen as the site of bleeding necessitating a splenectomy.

Waweru, Peter; Macleod, Jana; Gikonyo, Anthony

2014-01-01

299

Emergency Stenting of a Ruptured Infected Anastomotic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm  

SciTech Connect

A 74-year-old man presented with a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Due to severe medical comorbidities he was considered unsuitable for conventional surgical management and underwent an emergency endovascular repair with a balloon-expandable covered stent. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded successfully and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery with long-term suppressive antimicrobials. He remained well for 10 months after the procedure with no signs of recurrent local or systemic infection and finally died from an acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, emergency endovascular treatment of a free ruptured bleeding femoral artery pseudoaneurysm has not been documented before in the English literature. This case illustrates that endovascular therapy may be a safe and efficient alternative in the emergent management of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms when traditional open surgery is contraindicated.

Klonaris, Chris, E-mail: chris_klonaris@yahoo.com; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Tsigris, Chris; Papadopouli, Katerina ['LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division (Greece); Tsiodras, Sotiris [Attikon Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 4th Academic Department of Internal Medicine (Greece); Bastounis, Elias ['LAIKON' Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 1st Department of Surgery, Vascular Division (Greece)

2007-11-15

300

Cecal rupture in foals -- 7 cases (1996-2006)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors and describe clinical signs in 7 foals with cecal rupture; none of the foals survived. Six foals had undergone general anesthesia; 5 for orthopedic procedures. Six of the foals were receiving nonsteriod anti-inflammatory drugs. Most foals started showing colic signs on day 2 after surgery, preceded in 3 cases by dullness. Cecal rupture occurred between 4 hours and 2 days after the first signs of colic were noticed. Intestinal motility was decreased or absent in all foals for which it was recorded. Foals undergoing general anesthesia should be closely monitored for any sign of dullness, prolonged recumbency, reduced fecal output, and signs of abdominal discomfort for 3 days postoperatively, especially in cases following orthopedic surgery. If any of the above occurs, cecal impaction should be considered as a differential diagnosis. A prompt exploratory laparotomy may be a reasonable diagnostic option before the cecum ruptures with fatal consequences. PMID:19337616

Tabar, Juan J.; Cruz, Antonio M.

2009-01-01

301

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Stress Rupture Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports stress rupture testing of Kevlar(TradeMark) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) at NASA White Sands Test Facility. This 6-year test program was part of the larger effort to predict and extend the lifetime of flight vessels. Tests were performed to characterize control parameters for stress rupture testing, and vessel life was predicted by statistical modeling. One highly instrumented 102-cm (40-in.) diameter Kevlar(TradeMark) COPV was tested to failure (burst) as a single-point model verification. Significant data were generated that will enhance development of improved NDE methods and predictive modeling techniques, and thus better address stress rupture and other composite durability concerns that affect pressure vessel safety, reliability and mission assurance.

Greene, Nathanael J.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Leifeste, Mark R.; Yoder, Tommy B.; Keddy, Chris P.; Forth, Scott C.; Russell, Rick W.

2010-01-01

302

Cognitive impairments after surgical repair of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the frequency and severity of neuropsychological impairments associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and associated with repair of intracerebral aneurysms.?METHODS—Two groups of patients who underwent repair of intracerebral aneurysms were studied: patients with unruptured aneurysms (n=20) and patients with ruptured aneurysms (n=27). All patients were administered a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests about 3 months after surgery. A subset of 12 patients with unruptured aneurysms were administered the battery both before and after elective repair of the aneurysm(s). A subset of six patients with ruptured aneurysms were given the test at both 3 months and 1year after surgery.?RESULTS—As previously reported for patients with ruptured aneurysms, patients with both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms performed, as a group, significantly below published norms on many of the neuropsychological tests after surgery. However, there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative performance in the unruptured aneurysm group only on a few tests: measures of word fluency, verbal recall, and frontal lobe function. Performance of patients with ruptured aneurysms was significantly below that of patients with unruptured aneurysms only on a few tests of verbal and visual memory. In addition, group differences compared with published norms reflected severely impaired performance by a minority of patients, rather than moderately impaired performance in a majority of patients.?CONCLUSIONS—Although patients who undergo repair of ruptured aneursyms perform, as a group, below published norms on many neuropsychological tests, significant impairments are seen in a minority of patients. Some of the impairments are associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, whereas others (found in patients who underwent repair of unruptured aneurysms) are due to general effects of neurosurgery and perioperative management. Finally, some of the postoperative deficits are merely a reflection of premorbid weaknesses.?? PMID:11032612

Hillis, A.; Anderson, N.; Sampath, P.; Rigamonti, D.

2000-01-01

303

Ruptured Valsalva Sinus Aneurysm to Pericardium Simulated Aortic Root Dissection  

PubMed Central

Ruptured valsalva sinus aneurysm to pericardium is a rare condition. Here, we described a case presented with tamponade. Initially, hemopericardium was partially drained and then, imaging evaluations were done. Transesophageal echocardiography showed limited dissection of aortic sinus and CT angiography of the ascending aorta showed deformed dilated right coronary sinus. Besides, surgery showed that windsock tract of the right coronary sinus had ruptured into the pericardium with avulsed right coronary aortic cusp. This case indicated a rare cause of cardiac tamponade and insufficiency of imaging modalities for making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24936486

Davarpasand, Tahereh; Hosseinsabet, Ali; Abassi, Kumars; Arzhan, Sorya

2014-01-01

304

Prepatellar continuation rupture: Report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

In anatomical studies the deepest soft tissue layer, related to the deep rectus femoris tendinous fibers, has been described as the "prepatellar quadriceps continuation". We present an unusual case of an isolated prepatellar continuation rupture, which to our knowledge is the first described case in the literature. Injuries to the extensor mechanism may include isolated rupture of the prepatellar continuation with intact quadriceps and patellar tendons. Diagnosis may be difficult with ultrasound scan and requires MRI scan for confirmation. Appropriate clinical assessment and regular physiotherapy lead to a full functional recovery. PMID:25086901

Majeed, Haroon; Remedios, Ian Dos; Datta, Praveen; Griffiths, David

2014-10-01

305

Ruptured valsalva sinus aneurysm to pericardium simulated aortic root dissection.  

PubMed

Ruptured valsalva sinus aneurysm to pericardium is a rare condition. Here, we described a case presented with tamponade. Initially, hemopericardium was partially drained and then, imaging evaluations were done. Transesophageal echocardiography showed limited dissection of aortic sinus and CT angiography of the ascending aorta showed deformed dilated right coronary sinus. Besides, surgery showed that windsock tract of the right coronary sinus had ruptured into the pericardium with avulsed right coronary aortic cusp. This case indicated a rare cause of cardiac tamponade and insufficiency of imaging modalities for making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:24936486

Davarpasand, Tahereh; Hosseinsabet, Ali; Abassi, Kumars; Arzhan, Sorya

2014-04-01

306

Ruptured hemiarch and descending thoracic aorta aneurysm: hybrid treatment  

PubMed Central

Ruptured aortic arch aneurysm is a life threatening disease. Surgical repair has an high perioperative mortality rate and totally endovascular treatment is a challenge. Hybrid repair has been proposed as a valuable approach. We report the case of a patient with a contained rupture of aortic arch aneurysm. We treated him with a debranching of supraortic vessels with carotid-carotid and carotid-subclavian bypass and deployment of two enodgrafts in two different times. We consider hybrid treatment for arch and hemiarch a feasible option for aortic arch aneurysms in non emergent and in an emergency setting with an improvement in perioperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:22781493

2012-01-01

307

Ruptured hemiarch and descending thoracic aorta aneurysm: hybrid treatment.  

PubMed

Ruptured aortic arch aneurysm is a life threatening disease. Surgical repair has an high perioperative mortality rate and totally endovascular treatment is a challenge. Hybrid repair has been proposed as a valuable approach. We report the case of a patient with a contained rupture of aortic arch aneurysm. We treated him with a debranching of supraortic vessels with carotid-carotid and carotid-subclavian bypass and deployment of two enodgrafts in two different times. We consider hybrid treatment for arch and hemiarch a feasible option for aortic arch aneurysms in non emergent and in an emergency setting with an improvement in perioperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:22781493

Settembrini, Alberto; Mazzaccaro, Daniela; Stegher, Silvia; Occhiuto, Maria Teresa; Malacrida, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni

2012-01-01

308

Seminoma presented as testicular rupture: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Rupture of the testis as a result of blunt trauma is rarely seen in daily urological practice. We report an unusual case of incidental seminoma diagnosed after surgical exploration and subsequent orchidectomy of a severed testis following testicular injury as a result of trivial blunt trauma. This case highlights the inability of investigative tools, such as a scrotal ultrasound, in distinguishing an underlying tumour in the presence of testicular parenchymal damage. We therefore advocate a high index of clinical suspicion for co-existing pathology in cases of testicular rupture secondary to an insignificant blunt trauma to the scrotum.

Lunawat, Rahul; Craciun, Marius; Omorphos, Savvas; Weston, Philip M.T.; Biyani, Shekhar C.

2014-01-01

309

Aortocaval fistula associated with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is a well-known but uncommon complication of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Even with attentive care, oversight of ACFs may occur in emergency cases. Because mortality due to ACF is high, a rapid multidirectional analysis of the preoperative state leading to a correct diagnosis is essential. Here, we report the case of an 82-year-old man with a ruptured AAA and ACF. He presented with multiple organ failure that was initially attributed to congestive heart failure. He underwent emergent surgery and was diagnosed intraoperatively as having an AAA with ACF. He left the hospital 1 month after the operation without complications. PMID:24698772

Nakazawa, Seshiru; Mohara, Jun; Takahashi, Toru; Koike, Norimasa; Takeyoshi, Izumi

2014-10-01

310

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Rupture and Entrapment  

PubMed Central

Intra-aortic balloon pump is used frequently to support a failing myocardium in cardiac patients. Due to the invasive nature of this device, usage is accompanied by consistent risk of complications. Balloon rupture, although it occurs rarely, may lead to entrapment if diagnosis delays. A 78-year male who underwent cardiac surgery experienced balloon rupture and entrapment in the right femoral artery during the postoperative follow-up. Surgical extraction under local anesthesia was performed and the patient had an uneventful course. Fast and gentle solution of the problem is necessary to prevent further morbidity or mortality related to a retained balloon catheter in these delicate patients. PMID:24707435

Jahollari, Artan; Sarac, Atilla; Ozal, Ertugrul

2014-01-01

311

Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

Ritter, C. O., E-mail: ritter@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Wartenberg, M.; Mottok, A. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Steger, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of General, Visceral, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery (Germany); Goltz, J. P.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology (Germany)

2012-02-15

312

Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and geometry input for dynamic rupture propagation in terms of rupture path and dynamics. On the other hand, it will provide the opportunity to compare slow earthquake akin events developing in quasi-static geodynamic model to fully dynamic ruptures in terms of coseismic displacements and stress changes. Gabriel, A.-A. (2012), J.-P. Ampuero, L. A. Dalguer, and P. M. Mai, The transition of dynamic rupture modes in elastic media, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B9), 01480227. Gerya, T., and D. Yuen (2007), Robust characteristics method for modelling multiphase visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical problems, Phys. Earth Planet In., 163(1-4), 83-105. Pelties, C. (2012), J. De la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. B. Brietzke, and M. Käser Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture, Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, J. Geophys. Res., 117(B2), B02309. van Dinther, Y. (2013a), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, F. Corbi, F. Funiciello, and P.M. Mai, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models, J. Geophys. Res., 118(4), 1502-1525. van Dinther, Y. (2013b), T.V. Gerya, L.A. Dalguer, P.M. Mai, G. Morra, and D. Giardini, The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: insights from seismo-thermo-mechanical models, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6183-6202.

Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona

2014-05-01

313

Spontaneous postpartum rupture of an intact uterus: a case report.  

PubMed

Rupture of uterus is an obstetrical complication characterized by a breach in the uterine wall and the overlying serosa. We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vaginally after 2 days, giving birth to a male neonate of 3,020 g with normal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute. Her uterus was intact and gynecological examination after delivery was normal without any potential signs or symptoms of pathology. However, the day following her labor, patient complained of left iliac fossa pain. Her blood tests revealed a CRP value at 27.6 mg/L, whereas the X-rays revealed an extensive impacted fecal mass in the colon. MRI revealed that the left lower myometrial part of the uterus was depicted abrupt, with simultaneous presence of hemorrhagic stuff. The decision of laparotomy was therefore made in order to further evaluate rupture of uterus and properly treat patient. And subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Postoperative follow-up period was not characterized by any complications and patient was finally discharged 4 days after hysterectomy. PMID:25368704

Mavromatidis, George; Karavas, George; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Petousis, Stamatios; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Rousso, David

2015-01-01

314

Spontaneous Postpartum Rupture of an Intact Uterus: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Rupture of uterus is an obstetrical complication characterized by a breach in the uterine wall and the overlying serosa. We report an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in a 33-year-old woman, a day after her third successful vaginal delivery. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, gravid 3, para 3, was referred to our department at 39 gestational week because of rupture of membranes. Despite tocolysis administration, her pregnancy was delivered vaginally after 2 days, giving birth to a male neonate of 3,020 g with normal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute. Her uterus was intact and gynecological examination after delivery was normal without any potential signs or symptoms of pathology. However, the day following her labor, patient complained of left iliac fossa pain. Her blood tests revealed a CRP value at 27.6 mg/L, whereas the X-rays revealed an extensive impacted fecal mass in the colon. MRI revealed that the left lower myometrial part of the uterus was depicted abrupt, with simultaneous presence of hemorrhagic stuff. The decision of laparotomy was therefore made in order to further evaluate rupture of uterus and properly treat patient. And subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Postoperative follow-up period was not characterized by any complications and patient was finally discharged 4 days after hysterectomy. PMID:25368704

Mavromatidis, George; Karavas, George; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Petousis, Stamatios; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Rousso, David

2015-01-01

315

Magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose breast implant rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a method to discover an implant rupture in patients with breast augmentation or reconstruction. From January 1997 to February 1998, 20 breast implants in 12 patients (mean age 52.5 years) were removed surgically. Indications included local pain after reconstructive breast surgery (n=5

V. Wedler; C. Meuli-Simmen; R. Kubik-Huch; W. Künzi; V. Meyer

2002-01-01

316

Examining Structural Control on Earthquake Rupture Directivity in Subduction Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features associated with fore-arc basins may strongly influence the rupture processes in large subduction zone earthquakes. Previous studies (Wells et al., 2003; Song and Simons, 2003) demonstrated that a significant percentage of the seismic moment release is concentrated beneath the gravity lows resulting from fore-arc basins. To better determine the nature of this correlation and to examine its effect

A. L. Llenos; J. J. McGuire

2005-01-01

317

Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting

John J. Stephens

1991-01-01

318

Gouge formation by dynamic pulverization during earthquake rupture  

E-print Network

in a South African gold mine. We used these observations to bound the energetics of an earthquake of the texture of gouge from the San Andreas fault-zone and from rupture zones in South African mines. Further-size reduction occurs by systematic grain crushing due to amplified grain-con- tact stresses [4] enhanced

Ze'ev, Reches

319

Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

2010-01-01

320

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

2013-01-01

321

Percutaneous and Endovascular Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

A 72-year-old woman presented with an intraperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured intrahepatic arteryaneurysm, with an associated pseudoaneurysm developing a high-flow arteriovenous fistula. Persistent coagulopathy and a median arcuate ligament stenosis of the celiac axis further complicated endovascular management. Aneurysm thrombosis required percutaneous embolization with coils, a removable core guidewire and polyvinyl alcohol particles.

Little, Andrew F.; Lee, Wai Kit [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

2002-06-15

322

Mechanics of shear rupture applied to earthquake zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of shear slippage and rupture in rock masses are reviewed. The essential ideas in fracture mechanics are summarized emphasizing the interpretation and relation among the fracture parameters in shear cracks. The slip-weakening model is described. The general formulation of the problem of nonuniform slip distribution in a continuum is covered.

Li, Victor C.

1986-01-01

323

Occupational fatigue and preterm premature rupture of membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the relationship between occupational fatigue and spontaneous preterm delivery segregated into the etiologically distinct categories of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and indicated preterm delivery. Study Design: A total of 2929 women with singleton pregnancies at 22 to 24 weeks’ gestation were enrolled in a multicenter (10

R. B. Newman; R. L. Goldenberg; A. H. Moawad; J. D. Iams; P. J. Meis; A. Das; M. Miodovnik; S. N. Caritis; G. R. Thurnau; M. P. Dombrowski; J. Roberts

2001-01-01

324

Microdamage: a cell transducing mechanism based on ruptured osteocyte processes.  

PubMed

As a result of underlying pathological diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, or due to altered loading after joint replacements, bones become more susceptible to microdamage accumulation than those of normal human beings, as are those of athletes who undertake strenuous exercise [Stromsoe, 2004. Fracture fixation problems in osteoporosis. Injury 35, 107-113]. Experimental evidence has linked bone adaptation to microdamage, and to increased cell activity. In this work, we investigated whether microcrack detection is related to rupturing of the cellular material itself due to crack face displacements. Using specific cell staining techniques, it was confirmed that relative crack displacements are capable of tearing cell processes between neighbouring osteocytes. No ruptured cell processes were found near the crack tip where the displacements are less. Rupturing of cell processes due to crack opening and shear displacement is a feasible new mechanism by which bone can detect and estimate the size of a microcrack. Ruptured cell processes may directly secrete passive and active components in the extracellular matrix, triggering a repair response. PMID:16112124

Hazenberg, Jan G; Freeley, Michael; Foran, Eilis; Lee, Thomas C; Taylor, David

2006-01-01

325

Magnitude scaling of the near fault rupture directivity pulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ground motion models all assume monotonically increasing spectral amplitude at all periods with increasing magnitude. However, near fault recordings from recent earthquakes confirm that the near fault fault-normal forward rupture directivity velocity pulse is a narrow band pulse whose period increases with magnitude. This magnitude dependence of the period of the near fault pulse is expected from theory, because

Paul G. Somerville

2003-01-01

326

Spontaneous hepatic rupture: a report of five cases  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous hepatic rupture is a well recognised but rare condition. Because of the difficulty in diagnosis, it is often associated with a high mortality rate. Pregnant women with HELLP syndrome are more prone to hepatic rupture, but it can also occur with other liver pathology. Different modalities of treatment, including liver resection, packing, hepatic artery ligation and even liver transplantation have been described for this condition. Patients and results We report a series of five cases, three of which were associated with pregnancy and two with no identifiable pathology. Pre-operative diagnosis was not made in any of these cases.Two of the five patients had hepatic resection, two had peri-hepatic packing and one was treated with laparoscopic drainage. Discussion From our experience we conclude that no single form of treatment is applicable to all cases of hepatic rupture.The treatment should be individualised,depending on the extent of hepatic rupture and the expertise available, to obtain best outcome. PMID:18332948

Mascarenhas, R; Mathias, J; Varadarajan, R; Geoghegan, J

2002-01-01

327

Epidural hematoma secondary to a rupture of a synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contentWith modern advances in imaging studies, synovial cysts are becoming more evident as a common component of erosive lumbar degenerative disc disease causing spinal stenosis and radiculopathy. Whereas hemorrhage can occur inside the cyst and is reported, rupture causing epidural hematoma is a rare complication and finding of this disorder.

Christopher Brown; Jeffery L. Stambough

2005-01-01

328

Maternal and neonatal outcomes after uterine rupture in labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is significant controversy about the risks related to attempted vaginal birth after cesarean and the implications for informed consent of the patient. Recent data suggest that women who deliver in hospitals with high attempted vaginal birth after cesarean rates are more likely to experience successful vaginal birth after cesarean, as well as uterine ruptures. We conducted a study

O. W. Stephanie Yap; Eleanore S. Kim; Russell K. Laros

2001-01-01

329

Axial creep-rupture time of boron-aluminum composites  

SciTech Connect

Axial creep tests of a 10vol% boron-aluminum hotpressed monolayer composite were carried out under several constant loads at 300 C in air. The composite behaved with slight primary creep, but did not show appreciable secondary creep. Several specimens encountered a momentary increase of strain during the creep test which separated the creep curve into two regions, because of the individual fiber breaks in the composite. And then, almost all the specimens suddenly fractured without tertiary creep. From the viewpoint of reliability engineering the statistical properties of the creep-rupture time were investigated. The average creep-rupture time decreased with an increase in the applied stress, and the relatively large coefficient of variation was estimated in every case, being around 1,000%. However, these scatters were estimated to be smaller than the scatter of creep-rupture time in the boron fiber itself. That means, the reliability of the fiber`s creep-rupture time is improved by compositing with matrix material.

Goda, Koichi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hamada, Jun`ichi [Nippon Steel Co., Hikari, Yamaguchi (Japan). Hikari R and D Lab.

1995-11-01

330

Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes complicated by oligohydramnios.  

PubMed

Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes complicated by oligohydramnios may have significant impact and sequelae on pregnancy outcome. In this article the role of amniotic fluid in fetal development, especially lung development, is reviewed; complications resulting from oligohydramnios are outlined; and the evaluated therapeutics and management schemes are delineated. PMID:11817187

Spong, C Y

2001-12-01

331

Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

Zoutendyk, John A.

1993-01-01

332

Dynamic Rupture Activation of Backthrust Fault Branching Shiqing Xua  

E-print Network

thrust fault. Simulations with slip- weakening fault friction and homogeneous initial stress show several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved

Ben-Zion, Yehuda

333

Symptomatic chronic long head of biceps rupture: Surgical results  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Chronic rupture of the long head of biceps (LHB) tendon is usually asymptomatic. However, some active patients suffer with long-term cramping pain associated with repetitive biceps use. The aim of this study is to review the outcomes of biceps tenodesis performed for chronic LHB ruptures. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 11 consecutive patients who underwent biceps tenodesis for symptomatic chronic LHB ruptures over a 4-year period. Results: There were 10 men and one woman with an average age at surgery of 41 years (range 23-65). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 6-60). In five cases a tendon was still identifiable and suitable for repair with an ‘in-bone’ interference screw. However, in six cases the tendon was not possible to tenodese with an interference screw. In these cases we used an ‘on-bone’ technique with suture anchors. All, except one, patients reported improvement in their arm pain (78%), strength (74%) and appearance. All, except one, were glad to have had the surgery. Conclusions: Symptomatic chronic LHB ruptures improve with a biceps tenodesis procedure. Due to the chronicity of the injury and possible degeneration of the tendon, a suitable tendon for ‘in-bone’ tenodesis may not be possible. In these cases an ‘on-bone’ footprint repair with suture anchors achieves good results. Level of Evidence: IV (retrospective case series). PMID:23493581

Ng, Chye Yew; Funk, Lennard

2012-01-01

334

Uterine Rupture during Second Trimester Abortion with Misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Data are limited regarding the use of misoprostol in the midtrimester, therefore few cases with uterine rupture during the second trimester with a previous uterine scar have been reported in the literature. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman with a prior low transverse cesarean section presented at 26 weeks’ gestation for pregnancy termination for a fetal abnormality. She was given

Umit Nayki; Cuneyt Eftal Taner; Tolga Mizrak; Cenk Nayki; Gulsen Derin

2005-01-01

335

Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization  

SciTech Connect

This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

Ham, J.E.

1996-01-04

336

Visual outcome following posterior capsule rupture during cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo determine the relative risk of a poor visual outcome following posterior capsule rupture during cataract surgery.METHODSProspective data were collected on consecutive eyes undergoing cataract extraction. The patient's age, preoperative visual acuity, ocular comorbidity, grade of surgeon, and operative complications were documented. The best spectacle corrected visual acuity was recorded at discharge from the hospital service.RESULTSFrom a total of 1533

Alexander Ionides; Darwin Minassian; Stephen Tuft

2001-01-01

337

Silent rupture of unscarred uterus: an unusual presentation at second trimester abortion.  

PubMed

Rupture of unscarred uterus during the second trimester is rare. A case of ruptured uterus in a multiparous woman is presented. To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case in the English literature of uterine rupture during second trimester termination of pregnancy using ethacridine lactate. This case is also rare as uterine rupture is presented with an insidious course rather than acute, thus delaying the diagnosis. PMID:16957913

Malhotra, Neena; Chanana, Charu

2007-04-01

338

Silent rupture of unscarred uterus: an unusual presentation at second trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of unscarred uterus during the second trimester is rare. A case of ruptured uterus in a multiparous woman is presented.\\u000a To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case in the English literature of uterine rupture during second trimester\\u000a termination of pregnancy using ethacridine lactate. This case is also rare as uterine rupture is presented with an insidious

Neena Malhotra; Charu Chanana

2007-01-01

339

Contralateral Cruciate Survival in Dogs with Unilateral Non-Contact Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNon-contact cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR) is an important cause of lameness in client-owned dogs and typically occurs without obvious injury. There is a high incidence of bilateral rupture at presentation or subsequent contralateral rupture in affected dogs. Although stifle synovitis increases risk of contralateral CrCLR, relatively little is known about risk factors for subsequent contralateral rupture, or whether therapeutic

Peter Muir; Zeev Schwartz; Sarah Malek; Abigail Kreines; Sady Y. Cabrera; Nicole J. Buote; Jason A. Bleedorn; Susan L. Schaefer; Gerianne Holzman; Zhengling Hao; Alejandro Lucia

2011-01-01

340

Near-Source Ground Motions from Simulations of Sustained Intersonic and Supersonic Fault Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the long-period near-source ground motions from simu- lations of M 7.4 events on a strike-slip fault using kinematic ruptures with rupture speeds that range from subshear speeds through intersonic speeds to supersonic speeds. The strong along-strike shear-wave directivity present in scenarios with sub- shear rupture speeds disappears in the scenarios with ruptures propagating faster than the shear-wave speed.

Brad T. Aagaard; Thomas H. Heaton

2004-01-01

341

Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar to those of the main traces. In contrast, when the L/W < 2, the vertical slip is either increased or decreased as the horizontal slip is decreased, depending on the maturity of the linking zone. Thus, we argue that slip patterns at linking damage zones may be controlled by the LW-ratio of linking damage zones and hence structural maturities of the segmented fault systems. In conclusion, slip patterns at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures are various depending on the maturity of linkage zones and/or the rupture propagation direction. Therefore, the consideration of slip compensation as well as damage structures along surface ruptures must be very useful to understand fault evolution and, hence, to assess seismic hazards around active fault systems.

Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

2013-12-01

342

Seismic waves radiated during dynamic rupture of granite laboratory samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using arrays of piezoelectric sensors, we analyze the way that seismic waves are radiated during dynamic rupture of saw-cut faults in granite laboratory samples. We compare stick-slip events generated on a on a 0.15 m-long fault in a triaxial apparatus at 70 to 200 MPa normal stress with those on a 2 m-long fault in a large-scale biaxial apparatus at 1 to 7 MPa normal stress. The two machines have different values of unloading stiffness and produce stick-slip events with significantly different properties. Events on the triaxial apparatus have greater overall slip (400 to 1600 ?m) and larger sample-average shear stress changes (25 to 110 MPa) but shorter overall slip duration (200 to 400 ?s) compared to those on the large biaxial apparatus (50 to 150 ?m slip, 0.1 to 0.4 MPa stress changes, and 2 to 4 ms overall slip duration). As a result, the average slip speeds are much larger for events on the triaxial apparatus (2 to 4 m/s) compared to those on the large biaxial apparatus (15 to 75 mm/s). To explore the consequences of these differences, and how they relate to differences in dynamic rupture modes and seismic radiation, each sample is instrumented with at least 15 piezoelectric sensors which are used to study the timing, location, amplitude, and frequency content of radiated seismic waves. In addition, an array of strain gages on the 2 m samples allows us to explore how the local distribution of shear stress along the fault affects the way that fault rupture occurs. We find that at low stress levels fault slip along the 2 m fault occurs as brief bursts of rapid, seismic slip followed by slowly expanding (5 to 200 m/s) fronts of largely aseismic afterslip (80 to 500 ?m/s slip rates). Higher stress levels on the same fault produce ruptures that propagate close to the shear wave speed and continuously radiate seismic waves near the rupture front. In some cases we observe the rapid termination of seismic radiation on the 2 m fault when a rupture front propagates into a low stress region. Finally, we evaluate which of our observations are controlled by the boundary conditions and elastic properties of the apparatus and which are controlled by the elastic and frictional properties of the rocks and are most relevant to dynamic rupture processes that generate natural earthquakes.

Mclaskey, G.; Kilgore, B. D.; Lockner, D. A.; Beeler, N. M.

2013-12-01

343

Response Of Building Structures To Scaled Laboratory Earthquake Ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a unique framework to study the response of building structures to earthquakes using a laboratory earthquake setup. Specifically, we are interested in assessing the damage done to near-fault structures by sub-Rayleigh and supershear earthquake ruptures. The laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and coworkers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005a, 2005b; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007) is deployed. Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) particle velocity ``ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. A key element for the applicability of this study is a proper scaling relationship between laboratory and natural earthquakes. We use the 2002 Denali earthquake ground motion recorded at Pump Station 10 as a benchmark to develop a scaling relationship between laboratory data and natural earthquakes. This scaling relationship then enables us to examine hypothetical rupture scenarios on the Denali fault. Previous work (Mello et al. 2010) has demonstrated unique ground motion signatures associated with supershear earthquake ruptures, specifically the leading shear Mach front characterized by a dominant fault parallel component followed by a trailing Rayleigh disturbance with a dominant fault normal component. Using a finite element code, FRAME3D, developed by Krishnan et al. 2009, we present a three-dimensional analyses of buildings subjected to scaled particle velocity records derived from laboratory data. We examine the cumulative effect of the shear Mach field and the trailing Rayleigh disturbance on hypothetical structures. We also quantify the damage on such structures as a function of increased fault normal distance subject to the attenuation properties of sub-Rayleigh and supershear velocity fields.

Mello, M.; Bhat, H.; Krishnan, S.; Rosakis, A.; Kanamori, H.

2010-12-01

344

Arthroscopic treatment of ruptures of the rotator cuff.  

PubMed

566 patients with shoulder disease were treated at the Clinic of Orthopaedics at the University Hospital Olomouc. Of these, 181 were operated for ruptures of the rotator cuff (RC). They were categorised according to the Gschwend classification, age and gender(1). Laterality of the operated limb was also evaluated. Patients with ruptures larger than 4 cm were treated by open operation. 84 shoulders with ruptures classified as Gschwend I, II and IIIa -52 males and 32 females-were treated arthroscopically. The age of the operated patients ranged from 40-60 years. In both genders, the right shoulder was more often affected. Two operating techniques were used: 1) Transosseal refixation of the RC muscle tendons, using RC MITEK anchor implants, 2) "End to end" sutures, without implants(2-4). Operating time was reduced to 30-40 min. The operating results were evaluated according to the UCLA criteria- University of California Shoulder Rating Score(2). 45 patients achieved excellent results (53 %), 35 patients had good results (42 %), and 4 patients (5 %) obtained satisfactory results. None of the patients obtained poor results- a score of less than 20 was poor. Patients felt comfortable following the operation and none had any post-operational complications. The author is convinced, along with others, that arthroscopic suturing of RC ruptures classified I-IIIa allows for rupture treatment that in the past had to be treated by open technique(2-5). The deltoid muscle is not affected by arthroscopy. There is normalisation of the patient's movement, pain, force, and rotational stability is comparable to the healthy limb. Treatment time is reduced to a minimum and the patient may soon return to normal daily life. PMID:16601771

Holibka, Radomír; Kalina, Radim; Pach, Miroslav; R?zicková, Katherine

2005-12-01

345

Effect of multiaxial stresses on the high-temperature behavior and rupture of advanced alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution and effect of multiaxial stress states on the high temperature deformation and rupture behavior of materials with non-uniform microstructures has been investigated. Through a detailed description of the role that multiaxial stresses play on damage evolution and rupture, the abundant existing data for uniaxial rupture can be used to more successfully design for the life of high temperature

Nancy Louise Johnson

1998-01-01

346

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman  

E-print Network

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

Allen, Richard M.

347

Ischemic Uterine Rupture and Hysterectomy 3 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact frequency and extent of complications after uterine artery embolization (UAE) have yet to be documented in the literature. Ischemic necrosis and rupture of the uterus is a theoretical concern of this procedure. Rupture of the uterus from any cause is a very serious gynecologic complication requiring immediate surgical intervention to prevent death. Ischemic necrosis and rupture of the

Abraham R. Shashoua; Nelson H. Stringer; Julie B. Pearlman; Behnaz Behmaram; Erica A. Stringer

2002-01-01

348

Inelastic strain distribution and seismic radiation from rupture of a fault kink  

E-print Network

, seismic radiation, and near-fault strain distribution. We find that high-frequency radiation from a kink yielding into a dynamic earthquake rupture model. We simulate rupture for models of faults with a kink (a. Introduction [2] It has long been recognized that an abrupt change in earthquake rupture speed results in high

Duan, Benchun

349

A Study on Ground Motion and Fault Rupture Due to Subsurface Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the difference in ground motion and fault rupture characteristics between subsurface fault events and surface rupture events in this study. Ground motion caused by subsurface rupture in the period range around one second is stronger than the average for all earthquakes, e.g. as represented by the empirical ground motion model of Abrahamson and Silva (1997). On the other

T. Kagawa; K. Irikura; P. G. Somerville

2001-01-01

350

Risk of rupture analysis for advanced level of AAA under combined physiological and physical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of rupture for advanced level of aneurysm is very much investigated by medical practitioners and researchers. Numerical modelers have also been contributing to the prediction of this rupture. In this study, the effect of various physiological and physical conditions to the increased of the risk rupture is investigated. This study uses simplified model of aneurysm based on actual

Ishkrizat Taib; Kahar Osman; M. Kadir; M. H. Padzillah

2009-01-01

351

Dynamic rupture processes on two parallel faults connected by a different striking segment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake faults sometimes have bends, and the bends act as geometrical barriers and initiation points of earthquake rupture. It is important to predict whether a rupture can propagate beyond bends, but the rupture process depends on not only fault geometry but stress condition. In this study, we investigate a rough standard whether two fault segments connecting by a short and

Y. Kase

2008-01-01

352

3D Shape Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysms Using the Writhe Number as a Discriminant for Rupture  

E-print Network

. Increased detection of incidental aneurysms by non-invasive imaging has created a need for rupture risk aneurysms rupture, whereas some large aneurysms never do.16 Cerebral aneurysms present in many shapes3D Shape Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysms Using the Writhe Number as a Discriminant for Rupture

Miller, Eric

353

Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part I: Structure and Rupture of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa  

E-print Network

Tona Mine, South Africa V. HEESAKKERS,1,2 S. MURPHY,1,3 and Z. RECHES 1 Abstract--We analyze the structure of the Archaean Pretorius fault in TauTona mine, South Africa, as well as the rupture-zone that recently, South Africa 2011, this volume). Key words: Brittle faulting, fault reactivation, earthquake mechanics

Ze'ev, Reches

354

Biomedical Engineering Analysis of the Rupture Risk of Cerebral Aneurysms: Flow Comparison of Three Small Pre-ruptured Versus Six Large Unruptured Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between blood flows in cerebral aneurysms and their rupture remains obscure. In clinical practice, the size\\u000a of aneurysms is one of the important factors for determining a strategy of treatment, but in our database three small aneurysms\\u000a became ruptured during follow-up. Here, we aim to study their pre-ruptured hemodynamics, and differentiate them with those\\u000a of six large unruptured

A. Kamoda; T. Yagi; A. Sato; Y. Qian; K. Iwasaki; M. Umezu; T. Akutsu; H. Takao; Y. Murayama

355

Near-source ground motions from simulations of sustained intersonic and supersonic fault ruptures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examine the long-period near-source ground motions from simulations of M 7.4 events on a strike-slip fault using kinematic ruptures with rupture speeds that range from subshear speeds through intersonic speeds to supersonic speeds. The strong along-strike shear-wave directivity present in scenarios with subshear rupture speeds disappears in the scenarios with ruptures propagating faster than the shear-wave speed. Furthermore, the maximum horizontal displacements and velocities rotate from generally fault-perpendicular orientations at subshear rupture speeds to generally fault-parallel orientations at supersonic rupture speeds. For rupture speeds just above the shear-wave speed, the orientations are spatially heterogeneous as a result of the random nature of our assumed slip model. At locations within a few kilometers of the rupture, the time histories of the polarization of the horizontal motion provide a better diagnostic with which to gauge the rupture speed than the orientation of the peak motion. Subshear ruptures are associated with significant fault-perpendicular motion before fault-parallel motion close to the fault; supershear ruptures are associated with fault-perpendicular motion after significant fault-parallel motion. Consistent with previous studies, we do not find evidence for prolonged supershear rupture in the long-period (>2 sec) ground motions from the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake. However, we are unable to resolve the issue of whether a limited portion of the rupture (approximately 10 km in length) propagated faster than the shear-wave speed. Additionally, a recording from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake does appear to be qualitatively consistent with locally supershear rupture. Stronger evidence for supershear rupture in earthquakes may require very dense station coverage in order to capture these potentially distinguishing traits.

Aagaard, B. T.; Heaton, T. H.

2004-01-01

356

Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

2013-01-01

357

First trimester spontaneous uterine rupture in a young woman with uterine anomaly.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency carrying a high risk for the mother and the fetus. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy is very rare complication and it occurs usually in scarred uterus. Uterine anomalies are one of the reasons for spontaneous unscarred uterine rupture in early pregnancy. Obstetricians must consider this diagnosis when a pregnant patient presented with acute abdomen in early pregnancy. We present a case of spontaneous uterine rupture at 12 weeks of gestation in 24-year-old multigravida who had uterine anomaly presenting as an acute abdomen. Our preoperative diagnosis was ectopic pregnancy. Emergency laparotomy confirmed a spontaneous uterine rupture. Uterine anomaly is a risk factor for spontaneous uterine rupture in the early pregnancy. Clinical signs of uterine rupture in early pregnancy are nonspecific and must be distinguished from acute abdominal emergencies. PMID:24551467

Tola, Esra Nur

2014-01-01

358

Management Considerations in Ruptured Isolated Radiculopial Artery Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Little is known on the natural history of ruptured isolated aneurysms of the posterior spinal artery (PSA). To date, only a few of such cases have been described in the literature. This paper aims to assess the most appropriate management strategy, based on the available literature and two new cases. In one of these, treatment was postponed until day 33, when angiography showed slight growth of the aneurysm. In the other, conservative treatment, requested by the patient, was successful. From these data, we conclude that treatment strategies for ruptured PSA aneurysms may vary. Aside from the recommendation by others to perform prompt surgical treatment, we suggest an alternative clinical paradigm allowing for the evaluation of the early clinical course. This may preclude the unnecessary treatment of spontaneously regressing lesions and still allows for appropriate treatment for persistent lesions. PMID:23472725

van Es, A.C.G.M.; Brouwer, P.A.; Willems, P.W.A.

2013-01-01

359

Venous thrombosis and splenic rupture in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

PubMed

A patient with an 11 year history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria presented with severe abdominal pain. On admission, the hematocrit value was 30 per cent and unchanged from repeated measurements during the previous three years. Abdominal angiography identified extensive thromboses of the splenic and portal venous systems. After initial improvement on heparin therapy, the patient experienced additional abdominal crises. A ruptured and multifragmented spleen was removed at the time of exploratory laparotomy. Postoperatively, after a several days' interval of improvement, the patient experienced additional thrombotic episodes of the abdomen, upper extremities and cerebral cortex. The latter was associated with disabling nerve paralysis. With continuous intravenous heparin plus steroid therapy, the patient's condition improved progressively. Despite the numerous thrombotic episodes during the prolonged hospital course, no hemolytic episodes were observed. This is the first report of documented splenic rupture in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. PMID:7355897

Zimmerman, D; Bell, W R

1980-02-01

360

Rheology and rupture of homogeneous silicate liquids at magmatic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous silicate liquids have a Newtonian rheology under conditions of modest stress, but under relatively high stress or otherwise imposed high rates of deformation their viscosity may become non-Newtonian before the onset of rupture. This behavior has been discussed semi-empirically as well as in terms of the Maxwell model liquid. Here it is shown that the configurational entropy theory for the occurrence of the glass transition can also explain this non-Newtonian rheology of silicate liquids ranging in composition from silica-rich to silica-poor. The pressure and temperature dependence of the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow is discussed qualitatively. Geological applications are indicated. Fragmentation of silicate liquids takes place when the glass transition is crossed and the liquid has become solid like. Experimental evidence indicates that the rupture strength is only slightly larger than the stress needed to cause the onset of non-Newtonian rheology.

Bottinga, Y.

1994-05-01

361

Dynamic rupture process of the great 1668 Anatolian earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Anatolian fault system (NAFS) gives us the well-preserved evidences of multi-segment earthquakes. During the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, surface ruptures extended along the Resadiye segment. The surface ruptures during the 1942 earthquake appeared on two segments, the eastern Niksar and the western Erbaa segments which are to the west of the Resadiye segment. On the other hand, paleoseismological evidences show that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake including the Resadiye, Niksar, and Erbaa segments (Kondo et al., 2009). The fault geometry, however, does not make us imagine a single multi-segment occurring. The distance along strike and step-over width between the Resadiye and Niksar segments is 17 and 11 km, respectively. This fault discontinuity is much larger than the previously-known threshold of a multi-segment rupture, 5 km, shown in observations of historical earthquakes (Matsuda, 1990; Wesnousky, 2006) and numerical studies (Harris and Day, 1999; Kase and Kuge, 2001). In this study, we construct dynamic rupture models for the North Anatolian earthquakes based on seismological data of the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes and the present stress condition, and then we investigate possibility of a single multi-segment earthquake in agreement with the paleoseismological data of the 1668 earthquake. A fault model is assumed, based on the surface traces, hypocenter distribution and source mechanisms of the 20th century earthquakes on the NAFS. Using the source mechanism of the 1939 earthquake (McKenzie, 1972) and the stress inversion results along the NAFS (Bellier et al., 1997; Fuenzalida et al., 1997), we adopt a regional stress field that is resolved onto all fault segments. We perform preliminary simulations to determine a hydrostatic stress condition and coefficient of friction producing surface slip distribution consistent with the observed surface slips during the 1939 and 1942 earthquakes (Barka, 1996; Emre et al., 2009; Kondo et al., 2009). We use a finite-difference method with a conventional grid formulated by Kase and Day (2006). Under the stress condition mentioned in the previous paragraph, a rupture initiating on the Erbaa segment propagates on the Niksar segment, but cannot jump across the 11-km-wide discontinuity between the Niksar and Resadiye segments. The result shows that the discontinuity acts as a geometrical barrier during ‘usual' earthquakes like ones in the 20th century earthquake sequence. In the Niksar segments, paleoslips of up to 8 m are observed as the 1668 earthquake. The paleoseismological data also show that the last earthquake before the 1668 earthquake was during the 6th century; thus, the interval between these was much longer than the 274 years between the 1942 and 1668 earthquakes. The 1668 earthquake following a long quiescent period had the capability for accumulating large strain. We thus assume larger values of stress drop for the Niksar and Erbaa segments, and simulate dynamic ruptures. When the stress drop is twice as large as in the 1942 earthquake, a rupture can jump across the 11-km-wide discontinuity and propagates onto the Resadiye segment. The maximum surface slip on the Niksar segment is 6.65 m. Although the simulated slip is less than the observed one, the rupture jump succeeds. The numerical result shows the possibility that the 1668 earthquake was a single multi-segment earthquake, therefore, it suggests that the 11 km-width jump in the 1668 earthquake was caused by large stress drop releasing the vast accumulation of strain during the preceding long quiescence.

Kase, Yuko; Kondo, Hisao; Emre, Ömer

2010-05-01

362

Rupture of Aortic Sinus Valsalva Aneurysm and its Management  

PubMed Central

Here, we present successful management of a patient with rupture of right sinus valsalva and ventricular septal defect. Aneurysm of the aortic sinus also known as sinus of valsalva (ASOV) is a rare cardiac defect which can be congenital or acquired. Right coronary sinus (most common) usually ruptures into the right ventricle causing left to right shunt as seen in our patient. Unruptured aneurysms cause obstruction to right ventricular outflow tract. A 29-year-old male patient presented with dyspnea, palpitations, easy fatigability and severe limitation of physical activity. Transthoracic echocardiography showed membranous out pouching of the right coronary cusp (RCC) into the right ventricle. Patient was medically managed with drugs. Under general anaesthesia, after instituting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgical repair with pericardial patch, closure of subpulmonic ventricular septal defect was performed. Patient vitals were stable after surgery and he was asymptomatic on the first follow-up after discharge. PMID:25177579

Peddinti, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gattu, Vijayalakshmi; Karuturi, Manikumari; Ramathoti, Pratap

2014-01-01

363

Rupture of the peroneus tertius tendon in 27 horses  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use. PMID:16048009

2005-01-01

364

Dynamic effects on the formation and rupture of aneurysms.  

PubMed

Dynamic analysis of an axially stretched arterial wall with collagen fibers distributed in two preferred directions under a suddenly applied constant internal pressure along with the possibility of the formation and rupture of aneurysm are examined within the framework of nonlinear dynamics. A two layer tube model with the fiber-reinforced composite-based incompressible anisotropic hyper-elastic material is employed to model the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall. The maximum amplitudes and the phase diagrams are given by numerical computation of the differential relation. It is shown that the arterial wall undergoes nonlinear periodic oscillation and no aneurysms are formed under the normal condition. However, an aneurysm may be formed under such abnormal conditions as the stiffness of the fibers is deduced or the direction of the fibers is oriented towards the axial direction. Furthermore, the possibility for the rupture of aneurysm is discussed with the distribution of stresses. PMID:21141675

Ren, J S

2010-12-01

365

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis.  

PubMed

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-05-01

366

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis  

PubMed Central

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-01-01

367

Instabilities at frictional interfaces: Creep patches, nucleation, and rupture fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength and stability of frictional interfaces, ranging from tribological systems to earthquake faults, are intimately related to the underlying spatially extended dynamics. Here we provide a comprehensive theoretical account, both analytic and numeric, of spatiotemporal interfacial dynamics in a realistic rate-and-state friction model, featuring both velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening behaviors. Slowly extending, loading-rate-dependent creep patches undergo a linear instability at a critical nucleation size, which is nearly independent of interfacial history, initial stress conditions, and velocity-strengthening friction. Nonlinear propagating rupture fronts—the outcome of instability—depend sensitively on the stress state and velocity-strengthening friction. Rupture fronts span a wide range of propagation velocities and are related to steady-state-front solutions.

Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

2013-12-01

368

Myotendinous rupture of temporalis muscle: A rare injury following seizure  

PubMed Central

Seizures are one of the most common pediatric neurologic disorders. Many complications secondary to seizures have been described in the literature including head trauma, fractures, drowning and burns. However, to the best of our knowledge, rupture of the myotendinous insertion of the temporalis muscle on the mandible secondary to a seizure has never been described in the literature. We report the case of a unilateral temporalis muscle rupture in a 16-year-old boy who developed unilateral facial swelling following new onset tonic-clonic seizures. We emphasize on the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in this case report. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain such an injury. The favored mechanism in our patient is a pull on the temporalis myotendinous insertion on the mandible following vigorous and brisk deviation of the head and neck during seizure. Radiologists should be familiar with this type of injury following seizures in order to prevent misdiagnosis and subsequently mistreatment. PMID:24976940

Naffaa, Lena N; Tandon, Yasmeen K; Rubin, Michael

2014-01-01

369

Myxoglobulosis of the Appendix: A Case Associated with Ruptured Diverticulum  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of the extremely rare entity of myxoglobulosis of the appendix from a 45-year-old white man who was operated urgently with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Sectioning of the appendix revealed the presence in the dilated appendiceal lumen of numerous whitish opaque globules ranging in size from 0.2 to 0.7?cm in diameter. A ruptured diverticulum and several smaller ones were also found. On microscopic examination, the globules consisted of faintly eosinophilic laminations of mucin surrounding an amorphous granular core. The mucin was identified by positivity with histochemical mucin stains. After thorough microscopic examination of the appendix, our case was diagnosed as myxoglobulosis due to mucosal hyperplasia, associated with ruptured diverticulum and acellular extra-appendiceal mucin deposits. PMID:20885941

Aroukatos, Panagiotis; Verras, Dionysios; Vandoros, Gerassimos P.; Repanti, Maria

2010-01-01

370

Myxoglobulosis of the appendix: a case associated with ruptured diverticulum.  

PubMed

We describe a case of the extremely rare entity of myxoglobulosis of the appendix from a 45-year-old white man who was operated urgently with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Sectioning of the appendix revealed the presence in the dilated appendiceal lumen of numerous whitish opaque globules ranging in size from 0.2 to 0.7?cm in diameter. A ruptured diverticulum and several smaller ones were also found. On microscopic examination, the globules consisted of faintly eosinophilic laminations of mucin surrounding an amorphous granular core. The mucin was identified by positivity with histochemical mucin stains. After thorough microscopic examination of the appendix, our case was diagnosed as myxoglobulosis due to mucosal hyperplasia, associated with ruptured diverticulum and acellular extra-appendiceal mucin deposits. PMID:20885941

Aroukatos, Panagiotis; Verras, Dionysios; Vandoros, Gerassimos P; Repanti, Maria

2010-01-01

371

Rupture modes in laboratory earthquakes: Effect of fault prestress and nucleation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic inversions show that earthquake risetimes may be much shorter than the overall rupture duration, indicating that earthquakes may propagate as self-healing, pulse-like ruptures. Several mechanisms for producing pulse-like ruptures have been proposed, including velocity-weakening friction, interaction of dynamic rupture with fault geometry and local heterogeneity, and effect of bimaterial contrast. We present experimental results on rupture mode selection in laboratory earthquakes occurring on frictional interfaces, which were prestressed both in compression and in shear. Our experiments demonstrate that pulse-like ruptures can exist in the absence of a bimaterial effect or of local heterogeneities. We find a systematic variation from crack-like to pulse-like rupture modes with both (1) decreasing nondimensional shear prestress and (2) decreasing absolute levels of shear and normal prestress for the same value of nondimensional shear prestress. Both pulse-like and crack-like ruptures can propagate with either sub-Rayleigh or supershear rupture speeds. Our experimental results are consistent with theories of ruptures on velocity-weakening interfaces, implying that velocity-weakening friction plays an important role in governing the dynamic behavior of earthquake ruptures. We show that there is no measurable fault-normal stress decrease on the fault plane due to the nucleation procedure employed in experiments, and hence, this is not a factor in the rupture mode selection. We find that pulse-like ruptures correspond to the levels of nondimensional shear prestress significantly lower than the static friction coefficient, suggesting that faults hosting pulse-like ruptures may operate at low levels of prestress compared to their static strength.

Lu, Xiao; Rosakis, Ares J.; Lapusta, Nadia

2010-12-01

372

Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

2013-12-01

373

Bladder Rupture following Conversion to Enteric Drainage after Pancreatic Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Complications associated with bladder-drained pancreatic transplant are not uncommon and include urinary tract infections and reflux pancreatitis. Bladder rupture with peritoneal leak is a rare complication after pancreatic transplantation and can present as an acute abdomen with rapidly deteriorating renal function. We describe the first case of a urine leak into the peritoneal cavity occurring after conversion from bladder to enteric drainage. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose such a complication. PMID:23197947

Srivastava, Vikas; Passaris, George; Juneja, Rajiv; Siddins, Mark; Barbara, Jeffrey A.J.

2012-01-01

374

Ruptured giant right coronary artery aneurysm percutaneously plugged.  

PubMed

The endovascular management of a patient with a ruptured giant coronary aneurysm presenting with chest pain followed by anterior chest wall ecchymosis and shock is described. The inflow to a large, acutely leaking right coronary aneurysm was successfully sealed with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug device. The patient was estimated to be at very high risk for surgical intervention. The use of this device to seal an acutely leaking coronary aneurysm has not been previously described. PMID:17341782

Hillegass, William B; Gupta, Himanshu; Katragadda, Raghunath; Knoblauch, Johnnie; Coghlan, Cecil; Misra, Vijay K

2007-03-01

375

Imaging coseismic rupture in far field by slip patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the 1970s, teleseismic waves are used routinely to infer the first-order characteristics of the event (location, depth, duration, focal mechanism), but finding the second-order kinematic parameters (spatial distribution of slip, rupture velocity and more basically the discrimination between the fault plane and the other nodal plane) of distant events remains a difficult task. Classically, these events

M. Vallée; M. Bouchon

2004-01-01

376

Spontaneous splenic rupture during Pringle maneuver in liver surgery  

PubMed Central

During liver resection clamping of the hepato-duodenal ligament (the Pringle maneuver) is performed to reduce intraoperative blood-loss. During this maneuver acute portal hypertension may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture requiring rapid splenectomy in order to control blood loss. We present 2 case of patients with hemorrhage from the spleen during clamping for liver surgery. A review of the literature with an emphasis on the pathophysiology of splenic hemorrhage is presented. PMID:21161004

van Buijtenen, Jesse M; Lamme, Bas; Hesselink, Erik J

2010-01-01

377

High-grade Angiosarcoma Associated with Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Summary: Since the serendipitous discovery that implanted polymers cause sarcomas in rats, much research has been conducted to prove or disprove a link between silicone breast implants and/or polymer-based materials and breast cancer. In light of an initial report that 35% of rats implanted with a variety of polymers developed fibrosarcomas, we report a case of primary angiosarcoma found in a patient presenting with bilateral rupture of gel-filled breast implants.

Smoll, Nicolas R.; Farhadieh, Ross D.; Ferguson, Ross; Findlay, Michael W.

2013-01-01

378

Ruptured gastric artery aneurysm: An uncommon manifestation of microscopic polyangiitis  

PubMed Central

Gastric artery aneurysm is a rare and lethal condition, and is caused by inflammatory or degenerative vasculopathies. We describe herein the clinical course of a patient with a ruptured gastric artery aneurysm associated with microscopic polyangiitis. Absence of vasculitic changes in the aneurysm resected and negative results of autoantibodies interfered with our diagnostic process. We should have adopted an interventional radiology and initiated steroid therapy promptly to rescue the patient.

Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kadota, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shuhei; Arimoto, Akira; Nishioka, Eiko

2014-01-01

379

Deformation across the rupture zone of the 1964 Alaska earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear array of 15 geodetic monuments was installed in 1993 across the rupture zone of the 1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw=9.2). The array extends from Middleton Island (at the edge of the continental shelf and 80 km from the Alaska-Aleutian trench) to north of Palmer, Alaska (380 km from the trench), in the approximate direction of Pacific-North American plate convergence

J. C. Savage; J. L. Svarc; W. H. Prescott; W. K. Gross

1998-01-01

380

A Case of a Ruptured Sclerosing Liver Hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors found in the liver, typically asymptomatic, solitary, and incidentally discovered. Although vascular in nature, they rarely bleed. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman with a previously stable hemangioma who presented to our hospital with signs and symptoms indicative of spontaneous rupture. We review the literature, focusing on diagnosis and management of liver hemangiomas. PMID:21994877

Papafragkakis, Haris; Moehlen, Martin; Garcia-Buitrago, Monica T.; Madrazo, Beatrice; Island, Eddie; Martin, Paul

2011-01-01

381

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of ruptured cerebral aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) as pre-operative angiography for the detection of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. MRA was performed on 1.5 tesla system using the 3-dimensional time of flight (3D-TOF) method. The field of view was 16 cm or 20 cm and matrix size was 192×256 or 256×512. Twenty patients

K. Houkin; T. Aoki; A. Takahashi; H. Abe; M. Koiwa; T. Kashiwaba

1994-01-01

382

A reassessment of the rupture characteristics of oceanic transform earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the long-period source spectra of oceanic transform earthquakes and find that previously proposed slow rupture components can be explained as artifacts generated by the modeling procedure. We use low-frequency (?20 mHz) Rayleigh and Love waves to calculate the amplitude spectra of five earthquakes on the Romanche and Chain transform faults in the equatorial mid-Atlantic Ocean. We find that errors and approximations in the centroid depth, focal mechanism, and earth structure at the source have significant effects on the shape of the source spectra. If global catalog values and an average crustal model are assumed, the spectra exhibit apparent anomalous energy at long periods which has previously been interpreted as a result of slow rupture. We recalculate the source spectra using precise, independently determined depths and moment tensors and a more realistic oceanic crustal structure in the source region. The resulting source spectra are flat at long periods with no indication of anomalous long-period energy. Our results imply that oceanic transform earthquakes do not commonly have detectable slow rupture components.

Abercrombie, Rachel E.; EkströM, GöRan

2003-05-01

383

Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic cells are often characterized by specific morphological abnormalities of the nuclear envelope (NE), which have been used for cancer diagnosis for more than a century. The NE is a double phospholipid bilayer that encapsulates the nuclear genome, regulates all nuclear trafficking of RNAs and proteins and prevents the passive diffusion of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. Whether there is a consequence to the proper functioning of the cell and loss of structural integrity of the nucleus remains unclear. Using live cell imaging, we characterize a phenomenon wherein nuclei of several proliferating human cancer cell lines become temporarily ruptured during interphase. Strikingly, NE rupturing was associated with the mislocalization of nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins and, in the most extreme cases, the entrapment of cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclear interior. In addition, we observed the formation of micronuclei-like structures during interphase and the movement of chromatin out of the nuclear space. The frequency of these NE rupturing events was higher in cells in which the nuclear lamina, a network of intermediate filaments providing mechanical support to the NE, was not properly formed. Our data uncover the existence of a NE instability that has the potential to change the genomic landscape of cancer cells. PMID:22567193

Vargas, Jesse D.; Hatch, Emily M.; Anderson, Daniel J.; Hetzer, Martin W.

2012-01-01

384

Kinematic earthquake rupture inversion in the frequency domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a frequency-based approach to earthquake slip inversion that requires no prior information on the rupture velocity or slip-rate functions. Because the inversion is linear and is performed separately at each frequency, it is computationally efficient and suited to imaging the finest resolvable spatial details of rupture. We demonstrate the approach on synthetic seismograms based on the Source Inversion Validation Exercise 1 (SIV1) of a crustal Mw 6.6 strike-slip earthquake recorded locally. A robust inversion approach is obtained by applying a combination of damping, smoothing and forcing zero slip at the edge of the fault model. This approach achieves reasonable data fits, overall agreement to the SIV1 model, including slip-rate functions of each subfault, from which its total slip, slip time history and rupture velocity can be extracted. We demonstrate the method's robustness by exploring the effects of noise, random timing errors, and fault geometry errors. The worst effects on the inversion are seen from errors in the assumed fault geometry.

Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Gerstoft, Peter

2014-11-01

385

Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

2014-08-01

386

Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)

2002-08-15

387

Long-term creep-rupture failure envelope of epoxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accelerated testing methodology based on the time-temperature superposition principle has been proposed in the literature for the long-term creep strength of polymer matrices and polymer composites. Also, it has been suggested that a standard master curve may be a feasible assumption to describe the creep behavior in both tension and compression modes. In the present research, strength master curves for an aerospace epoxy (8552) were generated for tension and compression, by shifting strength data measured at various temperatures. The shift function is obtained from superposition of creep-compliance curves obtained at different temperatures. A standard master curve was presented to describe the creep-rupture of the polymer under tension and compression. Moreover, long-term creep-rupture failure envelopes of the polymer were presented based on a two-part failure criterion for homogeneous and isotropic materials. Ultimately, the approach presented allows the prediction of creep-rupture failure envelopes for a time-dependent material based on tensile strengths measured at various temperatures, considering that the ratio between tensile and compressive strengths is known.

Melo, José Daniel D.; de Medeiros, Antonio M.

2014-02-01

388

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for newborns with gastric rupture.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been recognized to be beneficial to overcome not only persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, but also cardiopulmonary distress due to neonatal sepsis. However, few papers have reported on the efficacy of ECMO for surgical sepsis in neonates with underlying diseases. This paper reports our experience with ECMO in three newborns with gastric rupture, one of the most serious causes of surgical sepsis in the neonatal period. Over the past 12 years, 14 newborns had gastric rupture; 3 developed lethal cardiopulmonary distress that conservative strategies, including aggressive intensive care, failed to manage, and were selected for ECMO. The clinical data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The onset time and duration of ECMO varied from 23 to 143 h of age and 72 to 294 h, respectively. In case 3, complicated by massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage during ECMO, anticoagulants were changed from heparin alone to combined use with nafamostat mesilate, a thrombin inhibitor with a very short half-life. Ultrafiltration or hemodialysis was added in two cases to regulate massive volume overload associated with renal failure. Despite major hemorrhagic complications in two cases, all patients survived. Thus, ECMO may be beneficial in managing neonates with therapy-resistant gastric rupture. PMID:11294265

Nagaya, M; Kato, J; Niimi, N; Tanaka, S

2001-01-01

389

Inflation of an artery leading to aneurysm formation and rupture.  

PubMed

Formation and rupture of aneurysms due to the inflation of an artery with collagen fibers distributed in two preferred directions, subjected to internal pressure and axial stretch are examined within the framework of nonlinear elasticity. A two layer tube model with a fiber-reinforced composite based incompressible anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive material is employed to model the stress-strain behavior of the artery wall with distributed collagen fibers. The artery wall takes up a uniform inflation deformation, and there are no aneurysms in the artery under the normal condition. But an aneurysm may be formed in arteries when the stiffness of the fibers is decreased to a certain value or the direction of the fibers is changed to a certain degree towards the circumferential direction. The aneurysm may expand to much large extent and become complex in shape. One portion of the aneurysm becomes highly distended as a bubble while the rest remains lightly inflated. The rupture of the aneurysm is discussed along with the distribution of stresses. Critical pressures and the rupture pressures are given for different collagen fiber orientations or stiffness. Furthermore, the stability of the solutions is discussed to explain the formation of aneurysm. PMID:17879771

Ren, J S

2007-03-01

390

Altered Loading in the Injured Knee after ACL Rupture  

PubMed Central

Articular loading is an important factor in the joint degenerative process for individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Evaluation of loading for a population that exhibits neuromuscular compensation for injury requires an approach which can incorporate individual muscle activation strategies in its estimation of muscle forces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knee joint contact forces for patients with ACL deficiency using an EMG-driven modeling approach to estimate muscle forces. Thirty (30) athletes with acute, unilateral ACL rupture underwent gait analysis after resolving range of motion, effusion, pain and obvious gait impairments. Electromyography was recorded bilaterally from 14 lower extremity muscles and input to a musculoskeletal model for estimation of muscle forces and joint contact forces. Gait mechanics were consistent with previous reports for individuals with ACL-deficiency. Our major finding was that joint loading was altered in the injured limb after acute ACL injury; patients walked with decreased contact force on their injured knee compared to their uninjured knee. Both medial and lateral compartment forces were reduced without a significant change in the distribution of tibiofemoral load between compartments. This is the first study to estimate medial and lateral compartment contact forces in patients with acute ACL rupture using an approach which is sensitive to individual muscle activation patterns. Further work is needed to determine whether this early decreased loading of the injured limb is involved in the development of osteoarthritis in these patients. PMID:23097309

Gardinier, Emily S.; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

391

Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs.

Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M.

1997-02-01

392

Prepapillary Vascular Loops Complicated by Suspected Macroaneurysm Rupture  

PubMed Central

We present a case of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). A 62-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and myodesopsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.6 in the left eye. Fundus examination disclosed an elevated, round, and reddish lesion, retinal hemorrhage at the superior aspect of the optic disc, retinal opacification along the superior branch retinal artery, and a small vitreous hemorrhage. Optical coherence tomography showed a serous retinal detachment, and indocyanine green angiography demonstrated prepapillary vascular loops and a hypofluorescent area with hyperfluorescent margins. These findings suggested the presence of a macroaneurysm. No filling of the dye in the aneurysm-like dilatation suggested a blockage of the lumen with a thrombus which might be associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). A diagnosis of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO was made. Because of a persistent serous retinal detachment, IVB was performed. One month later, the BCVA improved to 1.0. Fundus examination disclosed an organized yellowish-white macroaneurysm and resolution of the serous retinal detachment. We recommend careful monitoring of patients with prepapillary vascular loops because of complications such as macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO. PMID:25328734

Katome, Takashi; Naito, Takeshi

2014-01-01

393

Prepapillary vascular loops complicated by suspected macroaneurysm rupture.  

PubMed

We present a case of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). A 62-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and myodesopsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.6 in the left eye. Fundus examination disclosed an elevated, round, and reddish lesion, retinal hemorrhage at the superior aspect of the optic disc, retinal opacification along the superior branch retinal artery, and a small vitreous hemorrhage. Optical coherence tomography showed a serous retinal detachment, and indocyanine green angiography demonstrated prepapillary vascular loops and a hypofluorescent area with hyperfluorescent margins. These findings suggested the presence of a macroaneurysm. No filling of the dye in the aneurysm-like dilatation suggested a blockage of the lumen with a thrombus which might be associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). A diagnosis of prepapillary vascular loops complicated by a suspected macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO was made. Because of a persistent serous retinal detachment, IVB was performed. One month later, the BCVA improved to 1.0. Fundus examination disclosed an organized yellowish-white macroaneurysm and resolution of the serous retinal detachment. We recommend careful monitoring of patients with prepapillary vascular loops because of complications such as macroaneurysm rupture and BRAO. PMID:25328734

Akaiwa, Kei; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Katome, Takashi; Semba, Kentaro; Egawa, Mariko; Naito, Takeshi

2014-01-01

394

[Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon--an unusual occurrence].  

PubMed

We present the clinical case of a sixty-four-year-old man with bilateral spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon having a multiple disseminated oesophagus carcinoma. After immobilisation due to metastases of the 2nd lumbar vertebra, there was a spontaneous, painless rupture of the Achilles tendon while the patient was mobilised wearing a Hohmann spine brace. Afterwards we carried out a thorough case history with the help of clinical examination, sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging. The bilateral rupture has been treated conservatively with the Adipromed Shoe. With regard to the 2nd lumbar vertebra fracture and metastases, a Hohmann spine brace was given to the patient. Because of the described circumstances, no surgery had been carried out. Furthermore, the patient experienced much more independence and an improved quality of life in his last couple of months. Surgery would have not been recommended and could have caused the complete immobilisation and loss of patient's quality of life. With this case report we would like to point out the consequences of an unwise therapeutic decision to a patient who only has a few more months to live. This case report is discussed with regard to the possible aetiopathology and the current literature. PMID:16991068

Schikora, N; Delank, K-S; Gärtner, J; Eysel, P

2006-01-01

395

Crustal structure across the coseismic rupture zone of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake, the central Nankai Trough seismogenic zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the coseismic rupture process between the 1944 Tonankai and the 1946 Nankaido earthquakes have been studied by many fault models. To understand what factors control coseismic rupture zones, it is important to investigate differences in deep crustal structures of the rupture zones between the 1944 and 1946 earthquakes. The previously published crustal structure of the rupture zone of

Ayako Nakanishi; Narumi Takahashi; Jin-Oh Park; Seiichi Miura; Shuichi Kodaira; Yoshiyuki Kaneda; Naoshi Hirata; Takaya Iwasaki; Masao Nakamura

2002-01-01

396

Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elaz?? and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karl?ova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with our results. Results were compared with those of similar size earthquakes around the world and a new empirical relationship was proposed between seismic moment and rupture area. We expect our findings provide usefull information to resolving rupture mechanisms and triggering of the events in Eastern Anatoion Region. Key Words: Rupture Process, Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

2012-04-01

397

Splay fault surface rupture triggered by the 2010 Chile earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults that splay from megathrusts have been imaged at several active plate boundaries and observed on exposed fossil sections. Due to their steep dip, slip along such structures triggered by a megathrust earthquake may enhance near-field tsunami waves and shorten arrival times. However, motion of splay faults and their role on seismotectonic segmentation has remained elusive due to their predominant offshore location and few historical accounts. Though splay fault slip has been inferred during the 2004 Sumatra and other events, surface ruptures triggered by the 1964 M9.2 Alaska earthquake have been the only documented so far. Here we use field, geodetic and InSAR data to document surface fault rupture and coastal tilting at Isla Santa Maria (ISM; 37S) during the M8.8 earthquake of February 27, 2010. We integrate the observed deformation with previous knowledge of the regional structure to propose triggering of a splay fault. ISM is 75 km inland from the trench, at the intersection of the Arauco Bay and Santa María fault systems (SMFS), both consisting of blind reverse faults that propagate folds. The SMFS is associated to a cluster of microseismicity extending from the plate interface at 15 km to 2 km depth. An offshore seismic reflection profile across this cluster images a main reverse fault with a flat-ramp-flat structure shortcutting to the footwall. The 2010 surface breaks extend across the entire northern part of the island for 900 m, divided in two domains of ENE-WSW oriented structures separated by an E-W striking transfer zone. Each domain consists of faults and fractures with en echelon patterns, with a maximum normal vertical displacement of 80 cm. The geometry of surface ruptures is consistent with dextral transtensional kinematics. We associate the surface breaks to transpressional growth of the fault-cored anticline northeast of ISM; transtension at the surface relates to fold bending. Surface rupture was accompanied by 1.6-2.2 m of coastal uplift and a northward tilt revealed by ALOS InSAR data, biomarkers, campaign GPS, and leveling of a benchmark. This pattern of tilting mimics that of emerged late Holocene beach ridges, and is rather associated to motion along the Arauco Bay fault. Both systems may have been triggered by the megathrust event. Alternatively, it could arise at the sharp edge of a patch of high megathrust slip. Prominent rush of fluids from the rupture started during the Maule earthquake and continued for weeks. A small lake adjacent to the rupture, dry during summer droughts, became filled by the offspring. The flat morphology leads to small drainage basins with barely sufficient water to supply inhabitants during dry summer months suggesting that fluids rose through the fault from deeper levels in the crust. The SMFS is associated to the position of a paleo backstop structure, which limited an older deformable domain from the stable continental framework. The SMFS branches upward near the updip limit of the seismogenic zone, where fluids are expelled from mineral transformations. The Maule earthquake may have released trapped fluids at depth, which migrated through the splay fault reducing its friction and facilitating fault slip and surface rupture.

Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.; Motagh, M.; Cisternas, M.

2010-12-01

398

Rupture speed dependence on loading conditions: Insights from glacier and laboratory stick-slip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most earthquakes rupture at a rate approaching, and occasionally surpassing, the shear wave speed, Cs, of the rocks through which they propagate. Recent data have, however, revealed that faults also fail with rupture velocities significantly below Cs. The processes controlling such slow rupture are poorly understood. Surprisingly, glacial slip events generate a variety of rupture velocities at a single location, therefore velocity is not simply controlled by the local material properties. Laboratory experiments suggest that rupture velocities may be controlled by the stresses imposed along a frictional interface prior to the rupture. Moreover, the onset of slip is not governed by a characteristic stress condition (e.g. a static friction coefficient). We compare data from a large Antarctic ice stream, Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), to analogous laboratory measurements. The WIP undergoes bi-daily stick-slip seismic events that displace an ice mass over 100km long. We demonstrate that in both systems, average rupture velocities increase systematically with the pre-rupture stresses, with local rupture velocities exhibiting large variability that correlates well with local interfacial stresses. This analogous behavior indicates that local pre-stress may control rupture behavior in frictional failure events like earthquakes and suggests that fault failure conditions are not controlled by a well-defined threshold value of applied stress.

Fineberg, J.; Walter, J. I.; Svetlizky, I.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Carter, S. P.

2013-12-01

399

How Did the Two Faults Rupture during the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 11, 2011, the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred in southeast of Fukushima prefecture, northeast Japan. This event is thought to be induced by the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0). Toda and Tsutsumi (2012) found two surface ruptures on the Itozawa and the Yunodake faults. The hypocenter determined by JMA is located west of the Itozawa fault and it is thought the Ynodake fault ruptured after the Itozawa fault did. Previous studies (Hikima, 2012; JMA, 2012; Shiba and Noguchi, 2012) estimated the source rupture process using strong motion data with two fault models (the Itozawa and the Yunodake faults). They used different fault models, rupture starting points of the Yunodake fault, and rupture delays of the Yunodake fault. They got different slip distributions on the Yunodake fault. In this study we firstly estimate the source rupture process using strong motion data and two fault models based on the source fault model inferred from InSAR information by Fukushima et al. (2013). We test 108 combinations of the rupture starting point and rupture delay of the Yunodake fault for the kinematic waveform inversion and get the best set of parameters. Then, we calculate the temporal ?CFF by the obtained spatio-temporal slip model to know whether the Itozawa fault rupture triggered the Yunodake fault rupture. The inversion method is the multiple time window linear source inversion (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We try nine different rupture starting points, in strike direction north, middle and south side and in dip direction shallow, middle and deep side, and twelve cases of the rupture delay, 3.0~8.5s. The synthetic and observed waveforms fitting is best when the rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault is north deep side and the rupture delay is 5.0s. The large slip is found in northeastern shallow part on the Itozawa fault and around the rupture starting point and shallow part on the Yunodake fault. They match the surface displacement distribution. We then evaluate the effect of the Itozawa fault to the Yunodake fault rupture. Hikima (2012) calculated static ?CFF using his final slip model on the Itozawa fault and showed a positive large area on the Yunodake fault including his rupture starting point when he assumed the apparent friction coefficient was 0.8. We calculate temporal ?CFF while Hikima (2012) calculated static ?CFF. That is because in our result the Yunodake fault rupture starts during the Itozawa fault rupture and it is important to calculate temporal ?CFF. We calculate temporal stress change in a homogeneous half-space medium using 3D-FDM (GMS, Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The rupture process we use is our temporal slip model on the Itozawa fault. The temporal ?CFF is calculated with the apparent friction coefficient 0.8. We find there is more than 1.5 MPa positive peak of ?CFF on and around our rupture starting point of the Yunodake fault 5.0~7.0s after the starting of the Itozawa fault rupture, and there is no significant increase before 5.0s. This result supports the Itozawa fault rupture changes stresses on the Yunodake fault and the Yunodake fault starts to rupture at northern deep point at 5.0s after the Itozawa fault ruptured. Acknowledgements: We thank the NIED, Japan for providing data and GMS tool and JMA for providing data.

Tanaka, M.; Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

2013-12-01

400

Systematic Underestimation of Earthquake Magnitudes from Large Intracontinental Reverse Faults: Historical Ruptures Break Across Segment Boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because most large-magnitude earthquakes along reverse faults have such irregular and complicated rupture patterns, reverse-fault segments defined on the basis of geometry alone may not be very useful for estimating sizes of future seismic sources. Most modern large ruptures of historical earthquakes generated by intracontinental reverse faults have involved geometrically complex rupture patterns. Ruptures across surficial discontinuities and complexities such as stepovers and cross-faults are common. Specifically, segment boundaries defined on the basis of discontinuities in surficial fault traces, pronounced changes in the geomorphology along strike, or the intersection of active faults commonly have not proven to be major impediments to rupture. Assuming that the seismic rupture will initiate and terminate at adjacent major geometric irregularities will commonly lead to underestimation of magnitudes of future large earthquakes.

Rubin, C. M.

1996-01-01

401

Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress Rupture Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS Main Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress rupture, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress rupture life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress rupture model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress rupture life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-rupture degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress rupture study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.

Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph

2007-01-01

402

Creep and rupture behavior of a special grade Hastelloy-X in simulated HTGR helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep and rupture tests were conducted for Hastelloy-XR (a modified version of the conventional Hastelloy alloy X) at 800, 900, and 1000°C in simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium. Creep testing machines with special control of helium chemistry were used. As a result, the scatter of creep-rupture data could be reduced, and the variability of creep-rupture behavior due to manufacturing history

Y. Kurata; T. Kondo; Y. Ogawa

1984-01-01

403

Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures: a case-report of a soccer player  

PubMed Central

Background Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. Case presentation A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. Conclusion From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play. PMID:23693119

2013-01-01

404

Rupture process of the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from tsunami waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is estimated using tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges and the coseismic vertical deformation observed along the coast. The average rupture speed of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is estimated to be 1.7 km\\/s from tsunami waveform analysis. The rupture extends about 1200 km toward north-northwest along the Andaman trough. The largest slip of

Yuichiro Tanioka; Yudhicara; T. Kususose; S. Kathiroli; Y. Nishimura; S.-I. Iwasaki; K. Satake

2006-01-01

405

Accelerogram evidence for southward rupture propagation on the Imperial Fault during the October 15, 1979 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake caused the Imperial fault to rupture 10 to 15 km southeast of the epicenter, in addition to the well documented rupture to the northwest. This is established from the properties of the initial S-wave arrival at strong-motion stations in Mexico at the southern end of the rupture zone. First, the amplitude of this S—velocity pulse

John G. Anderson; Paul G. Silver

1985-01-01

406

Accelerogram evidence for southward rupture propagation on the imperial fault during the October 15, 1979 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake caused the Imperial fault to rupture 10 to 15 km southeast of the epicenter, in addition to the well documented rupture to the northwest. This is established from the properties of the initial S-wave arrival at strong-motion stations in Mexico at the southern end of the rupture zone. First, the amplitude of this S-velocity pulse

John G. Anderson; Paul G. Silver

1985-01-01

407

Acute Simultaneous Ruptures of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon  

PubMed Central

Acute simultaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon is a rare injury. We present a case report of a 32-year-old male patient with ruptured ACL and ipsilateral patellar tendon rupture sustained while playing baseball. Surgery was performed on the patellar tendon and the ACL simultaneously. The clinical and radiological outcomes of the treatment were successful. We present this case with a review of the literatures. PMID:24639949

Lee, Gwang Chul; Park, Sung-Hae

2014-01-01

408

Incidence of Major Tendon Ruptures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in US Army Soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although a rare event, the prevalence of major tendon rupture has increased in recent decades. Identification of risk factors is important for prevention purposes.Hypothesis: Race is a risk factor for major tendon ruptures.Study Design: Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: All patients admitted for surgical management of a rupture of a major tendon at Womack Army Medical Center,

Daniel W. White; Joseph C. Wenke; Dan S. Mosely; Sally B. Mountcastle; Carl J. Basamania

2007-01-01

409

Imaging a slow bilateral rupture with broadband seismic waves: The September 2, 1992 Nicaraguan tsunami earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal rupture history of the September 2, 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Ms=7.2; Mw=7.6) is analyzed using long-period (157–288 s) Rayleigh and Love wave spectral inversions and an empirical Green function analysis of very broadband (10–250 s) body and surface waves. The event has a rupture duration exceeding 110 s with a slow (0.6–2.3 km\\/s) rupture velocity, and involves shallow

Aaron A. Velasco; Charles J. Ammon; Thorne Lay; Jiajun Zhang

1994-01-01

410

Thrust-type subduction-zone earthquakes and seamount asperities: A physical model for seismic rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thrust-type subduction-zone earthquake of Mw 7.6 ruptures an area of ˜6000 km2, has a seismic slip of ˜1 m, and is nucleated by the rupture of an asperity ˜25 km across. A model for thrust-type subduction-zone seismicity is proposed in which basaltic seamounts jammed against the base of the overriding plate act as strong asperities that rupture by stick-slip

Mark Cloos

1992-01-01

411

Recanalization Rates after Endovascular Coil Embolization in a Cohort of Matched Ruptured and Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the recanalization rate, factors associated with and time taken for recanalization to occur in a matched ruptured and unruptured aneurysm population that were treated with endovascular coiling. Ruptured and unruptured aneurysms treated between 2002 and 2007 were matched for aneurysm location, diameter and neck size. Recanalization rate, time to recanalize, re-treatment rate and clinical outcome were analysed. Ninety-eight matched ruptured and unruptured aneurysms (49 aneurysms in each group) were studied. 46.8% of aneurysms in the ruptured group achieved complete obliteration on the initial post treatment angiogram versus 34.7% in the unruptured group. The ruptured group had a higher rate of recanalization (40.4% versus 20.4%). 25.5% of aneurysms had significant recanalization in the ruptured group versus 6.1% in the unruptured group (p=0.009). The retreatment rate was higher in the ruptured group (21.3% versus 6%). Ruptured aneurysms took a shorter time to recanalize with a mean time of 5.3±3.8 months versus 12.4±7.7months (p=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found neck size (p=0.0098), wide neck morphology (p=0.0174), aneurysm diameter (p< 0.0001) and ruptured aneurysms (p=0.0372) were significant predictors of recanalization. The majority of patients in both groups had a good outcome with GOS=5 (85.7% and 83.7%) but two deaths occurred in the ruptured group. Ruptured and unruptured aneurysms showed significant differences in rate, degree and timing of recanalization, thus requiring different protocols for imaging follow-up post endovascular treatment. Earlier and more frequent imaging follow-up is recommended for ruptured aneurysms. PMID:21561556

Tan, I.Y.L.; Agid, R.F.; Willinsky, R.A.

2011-01-01

412

Inelastic strain distribution and seismic radiation from rupture of a fault kink  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend an elastodynamic finite element method to incorporate off-fault plastic yielding into a dynamic earthquake rupture model. We simulate rupture for models of faults with a kink (a sharp change in fault strike), examining how off-fault plastic yielding affects rupture propagation, seismic radiation, and near-fault strain distribution. We find that high-frequency radiation from a kink can be reduced by

Benchun Duan; Steven M. Day

2008-01-01

413

Spontaneous splenic rupture associated with thrombolytic therapy and\\/or concomitant heparin anticoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of spontaneous splenic rupture in connection with thrombolytic therapy and concomitant heparin anticoagulation are\\u000a reported. One patient was being treated for peripheral arterial graft occlusion using intraarterial urokinase, the other received\\u000a intravenous infusion of streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. Neither patient had a condition predisposing to splenic\\u000a rupture. Although rare, previous reports of spontaneous splenic rupture associated with

Garry W. Lambert; Philip S. Cook; Geoffrey A. Gardiner; James R. Regan

1992-01-01

414

Treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A short report.  

PubMed

We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093

Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio

2014-01-01

415

Small and large earthquakes: evidence for a different rupture beginning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the real-time magnitude estimate two Early Warning (EW) parameters are usually measured within 3 seconds of P-wave signal. These are the initial peak displacement (Pd) and the average period (?c). The scaling laws between EW parameters and magnitude are robust and effective up to magnitude 6.5-7 but a well known saturation problem for both parameters is evident for larger earthquakes. The saturation is likely due to the source finiteness so that only a few seconds of the P-wave cannot capture the entire rupture process of a large event. Here we propose an evolutionary approach for the magnitude estimate, based on the progressive expansion of the P-wave time window, until the expected arrival of the S-waves. The methodology has already been applied to the 2011, Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake records and showed that a minimum time window of 25-30 seconds is indeed needed to get stable magnitude estimate for a magnitude M ? 8.5 earthquake. Here we extend the analysis to a larger data set of Japanese earthquakes with magnitude between 4 and 9, using a high number of records per earthquake and spanning wide distance and azimuth ranges. We analyze the relationship between the time evolution of EW parameters and the earthquake magnitude itself with the purpose to understand the evolution of these parameters during the rupture process and to investigate a possible different scaling for both small and large events. We show that the initial increase of P-wave motion is more rapid for small earthquakes that for larger ones, thus implying a longer and wider nucleation phase for large events. Our results indicate that earthquakes breaking in a region with a large critical slip displacement value have a larger probability to grow into a large size rupture than those originating in a region with a smaller critical displacement value.

Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo

2014-05-01

416

Static friction and the dynamics of interfacial rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onset of frictional motion for elastic sliders with extended rough surfaces is governed by the rupture dynamics of the interfacial contacts. In these systems significant variations of static friction coefficient have been found for the same materials. Here we propose a model for understanding how and why the values of static friction coefficient can vary within wide limits. We establish a relationship between measured values of static friction and preslip stress profiles at the frictional interface and predict how the range of variation of the static friction depends on material properties and on the size of the slider.

Capozza, Rosario; Urbakh, Michael

2012-08-01

417

Delayed diaphragmatic rupture presenting with acute gastric volvulus.  

PubMed

Gastric volvulus is a rare complication of diaphragmatic rupture. We report the case of an 82-year-old man who presented following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography revealed an acute gastric volvulus and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia containing transverse colon and abdominal viscera. He had complained of retching and associated epigastric pain prior to collapse, and had sustained a motorcycle accident approximately 60 years earlier. Insertion of a nasogastric tube was unsuccessful (completing Borchardt's diagnostic triad) and his condition prevented both operative and endoscopic reduction of his volvulus. He died soon afterwards. PMID:25245717

Williamson, Jml; Macleod, R; Hollowood, A

2014-10-01

418

Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented. PMID:23259148

Alhamzawi, Hazim H.; Abdelrahman, Husham M.; Abdelrahman, Khalid M.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

2012-01-01

419

Penile fracture with bilateral corporeal rupture without urethral involvement  

PubMed Central

Concomitant urethral injury is rare in penile fracture. We report the case of a 34-year-old male who presented to the emergency department 12 hours after a blunt self-injury of the penis. Physical examination revealed a swollen, ecchymotic, and deviated circumcised penis without blood at the meatus. The fracture line extending along the bilateral corpora without urethral involvement was seen intraoperatively. The fracture side was repaired primarily. The patient healed and recovered without complication. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of bilateral corporeal rupture without urethral involvement. PMID:24454602

Yonguc, Tarik; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Ors, Bumin; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Arslan, Burak; Yonguc, Nilufer Goksin

2014-01-01

420

Successful Emergency Stenting of Acute Ruptured False Iliac Aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

A 75-year-old man complaining of acute abdominal pain, 1 month after elective surgical repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by an aortabi-iliac bypass graft, was referred and admitted to the emergency room. Imaging by sonography and computed tomography scan revealed a ruptured iliac pseudoaneurysm at the right iliac anastomotic site with associated large retroperitoneal hematoma. We inserted a self-expanding covered Z-stent graft by a transfemoral approach and the iliac anastomotic pseudoaneurysm was successfully excluded. Our case demonstrates the possibilities of an endovascular approach for providing a fast, efficient and less aggravating procedure in order to treat these life-threatening conditions.

Bierdrager, Edwin; Lohle, Paul N.M.; Schoemaker, Cees M.; Lampmann, Leo E.H. [Department of Radiology, St. ElisabethHospital, Hilvarenbeekse weg 60, 5022 GC, Tilburg (Netherlands); Berge Henegouwen, Dennis P. van; Hamming, Jaap F. [Department ofSurgery, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Hilvarenbeekse weg 60, 5022 GC, Tilburg (Netherlands)

2002-01-15

421

Large earthquake rupture process variations on the Middle America megathrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The megathrust fault between the underthrusting Cocos plate and overriding Caribbean plate recently experienced three large ruptures: the August 27, 2012 (Mw 7.3) El Salvador; September 5, 2012 (Mw 7.6) Costa Rica; and November 7, 2012 (Mw 7.4) Guatemala earthquakes. All three events involve shallow-dipping thrust faulting on the plate boundary, but they had variable rupture processes. The El Salvador earthquake ruptured from about 4 to 20 km depth, with a relatively large centroid time of ˜19 s, low seismic moment-scaled energy release, and a depleted teleseismic short-period source spectrum similar to that of the September 2, 1992 (Mw 7.6) Nicaragua tsunami earthquake that ruptured the adjacent shallow portion of the plate boundary. The Costa Rica and Guatemala earthquakes had large slip in the depth range 15 to 30 km, and more typical teleseismic source spectra. Regional seismic recordings have higher short-period energy levels for the Costa Rica event relative to the El Salvador event, consistent with the teleseismic observations. A broadband regional waveform template correlation analysis is applied to categorize the focal mechanisms for larger aftershocks of the three events. Modeling of regional wave spectral ratios for clustered events with similar mechanisms indicates that interplate thrust events have corner frequencies, normalized by a reference model, that increase down-dip from anomalously low values near the Middle America trench. Relatively high corner frequencies are found for thrust events near Costa Rica; thus, variations along strike of the trench may also be important. Geodetic observations indicate trench-parallel motion of a forearc sliver extending from Costa Rica to Guatemala, and low seismic coupling on the megathrust has been inferred from a lack of boundary-perpendicular strain accumulation. The slip distributions and seismic radiation from the large regional thrust events indicate relatively strong seismic coupling near Nicoya, Costa Rica, patchy zones of strong seismic coupling in the shallowest megathrust region along Nicaragua and El Salvador, and small deeper patchy zones of strong seismic coupling near Guatemala, which can be reconciled with the geodetic observations as long as the strong coupling is limited to a small fraction of the megathrust area.

Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

2013-11-01

422

Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis  

SciTech Connect

Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin, E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Papiewski, Andrzej [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Clinic of Vascular Surgery (Poland)

2013-06-15

423

Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

2013-01-01

424

A molecular theory of elastomer deformation and rupture.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical properties of elastomers, including rupture and its time dependence, can be semiquantitatively predicted from nine molecular parameters which are characteristic for a given species, from the initial molecular weight of a sample before cross-linking and from the effective chain concentration (which must still be determined for each vulcanizate). Only two empirical quantities are involved - the Plazek retardation function for entanglement slippage and a related constant which serves to locate this function on the time scale. The theory leads to a new method of estimating fatigue lifetimes from short-time data.

Landel, R. F.; Fedors, R. F.

1972-01-01

425

A Rare Case of Upper Ureter Rupture: Ureteral Perforation Caused by Urinary Retention  

PubMed Central

Perforation of the ureter is a rare condition that causes a series of problems including retroperitoneal urinoma, urosepsis, abscess formation, infection, and subsequent renal impairment. There are causative factors that induce ureteric rupture, including malignancy, urinary calculi, idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, recent iatrogenic manipulation, external trauma, degenerative kidney conditions, urography with external compression, and spontaneous causes. We report a rare case of ureteric rupture caused by urinary retention. The patient was treated with temporary percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. The present case illustrates that urinary retention can induce not only bladder rupture, but also ureteric rupture. It is thus of paramount importance to effectively manage patients with voiding problems. PMID:22379594

Choi, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Solmin; Kim, Sunchan; Kim, Tae Gu; Yoo, Koo Han; Lee, Hyung-Lae

2012-01-01

426

Diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture after myocardial infarction: value of colour flow mapping.  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients with ventricular septal rupture after myocardial infarction were investigated by cross sectional echocardiography with integrated pulsed and continuous wave Doppler and colour flow mapping. Confirmatory cardiac catheterisation was performed in 12 patients. Eighteen patients had surgical repair with inspection of the defect. Six patients in whom recurrent ventricular septal rupture developed were also investigated by Doppler echocardiography and colour flow mapping. Cross sectional echocardiography correctly predicted the infarct territory in all cases but visualised the septal rupture in only seven (35%). Pulsed and continuous wave Doppler detected a disturbance of right ventricular systolic flow that was diagnostic of a ventricular septal rupture in 19 (95%), but this only accurately predicted the site in 14 (70%). Colour flow mapping studies showed a mosaic jet traversing the interventricular septum in all 20 cases, and this accurately predicted the site of rupture. In addition colour flow mapping defined three sites of ventricular septal rupture: apical, posterior, and anterior trabecular. Five of the six patients with recurrent rupture were correctly diagnosed by pulsed and continuous wave Doppler and all six were diagnosed by colour flow mapping. Cross sectional echocardiography with colour flow mapping is a highly sensitive and rapid technique for the assessment of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture before and after operation. It was more informative about the site of the rupture than pulsed and continuous wave Doppler echocardiography. Images Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 5 PMID:2803871

Smyllie, J; Dawkins, K; Conway, N; Sutherland, G R

1989-01-01

427

Spontaneous splenic rupture associated with thrombolytic therapy and/or concomitant heparin anticoagulation.  

PubMed

Two cases of spontaneous splenic rupture in connection with thrombolytic therapy and concomitant heparin anticoagulation are reported. One patient was being treated for peripheral arterial graft occlusion using intraarterial urokinase, the other received intravenous infusion of streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. Neither patient had a condition predisposing to splenic rupture. Although rare, previous reports of spontaneous splenic rupture associated with thrombolytic therapy and/or anticoagulation have been reported. Splenic rupture as a complication of thrombolytic therapy and/or anticoagulation should be considered when unexplained abdominal symptoms, hypotension, or blood loss is encountered. PMID:1628284

Lambert, G W; Cook, P S; Gardiner, G A; Regan, J R

1992-01-01

428

Evaluation and establishment of a canine model of delayed splenic rupture using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to establish a canine model of delayed splenic rupture (DSR). A total of 15 mongrel dogs were anesthetized and laparotomized. The hematomas were observed following an injection of heparin. The hematomas were ruptured. The severity of the spleen rupture was evaluated and the intra-abdominal free liquid was measured. The splenic hematomas in the dogs continued to form and the hematoma area gradually increased. The hematomas were ruptured after impacting the abdominal wall. The spleens were damaged, and conventional ultrasonography showed intra-abdominal free liquid. These conditions were demonstrated via computed tomography scanning. A DSR canine model was established successfully. PMID:22710316

Tian, Jiangke; Xie, Xia; Lv, Faqin; Yu, Tengfei; Wu, Rong; Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jie

2012-09-01

429

14 CFR 25.1453 - Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...Located where the probability and hazards of rupture in a crash landing are...

2010-01-01

430

Ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva into the right atrium. An uncommon congenital heart defect.  

PubMed

Rupture of an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva is an uncommon heart defect. A continuous murmur may be the first clinical sign of this rupture. Additional imaging techniques, and in the first place echocardiography, can be used to confirm the diagnosis. We present a case where, at the age 53 years, the diagnosis was made of a ruptured sinus of Valsalva into the right atrium, with a typical windsock image on echocardiogram. Although several cases of a ruptured sinus of Valsalva are reported in the literature, it is still an underdiagnosed condition because it is frequently missed during physical examination. PMID:12836495

Budts, W; Moons, P; Mertens, L; Van de Werf, F

2003-01-01

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