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Sample records for rural agricultural area

  1. Industrial Development Bonds for Financing Projects in Rural Areas. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Stephen W.

    As one of several special reports on development possibilities for the agriculture and forestry sector of the Four Corners Economic Development Region, this monograph deals with the use of industrial development bonds as a means of resolving finance problems arising from inadequate or nonexistent credit in rural areas. Distinguishing between theÖ

  2. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  3. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  4. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility located... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility located... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility located... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility located... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility located... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  9. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

  10. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  11. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  12. Migrant Response to Industrialization in Four Rural Areas, 1965-70. Agricultural Economic Report No. 270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Duane A.; Kuehn, John A.

    Immigrants competed on a limited scale with residents for new jobs in four industrializing rural areas in Arizona, the Central Ozarks, Mississippi, and Arkansas during 1965-70. This study determined: (1) competition for jobs between residents and immigrants; (2) need for immigrants to staff industries; and (3) differences between attributes of…

  13. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  14. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... area that has a population density less than or equal to 1,000 persons per square mile, the land use...

  15. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... area that has a population density less than or equal to 1,000 persons per square mile, the land use...

  16. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... area that has a population density less than or equal to 1,000 persons per square mile, the land use...

  17. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... area that has a population density less than or equal to 1,000 persons per square mile, the land use...

  18. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... area that has a population density less than or equal to 1,000 persons per square mile, the land use...

  19. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  20. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (√ĘRBIC√Ę)...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (√ĘRBIC√Ę)...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (√ĘRBIC√Ę)...

  3. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  4. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  5. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  6. Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

  7. Notice on Organizing College Graduates to Help in Education, Agriculture, Medical Service, and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…

  8. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES... rural areas. In choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment...

  9. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES... rural areas. In choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment...

  10. Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

    2004-06-29

    The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

  11. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development. PMID:12292191

  12. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  16. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  17. The Educational Infrastructure in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safra, Martine

    The rural areas in the world are experiencing an identity crisis: for example, in France some areas are losing population, while those that are growing find that the population is changing from agricultural workers to retired persons and blue-collar and white-collar employees. This report, which summarizes discussion at a recent Organisation for…

  18. SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  20. Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger; And Others

    This curriculum guide, the second part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the final two units in a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the first unit are the following aspects of agricultural mechanics: selecting and…

  1. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  2. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  3. Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

    The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

  4. Rural Economic Development in the 1980s. A Summary. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 533.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Structural change in the economy is causing economic stress in rural America, especially in areas with a heavy dependence on agriculture, mining and energy, and manufacturing. This contrasts sharply with the 1970s, when widespread economic growth and vitality were the dominant rural themes. Rural economies in the 1980s are characterized by slow…

  5. Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger; And Others

    This curriculum guide, the first part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the first seven units of a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: educational and…

  6. Youth Migration from Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.; Monk, David H.

    The persistent net loss of young people from rural areas has potentially contradictory implications for educational policy. Believing that youth migration to urban areas is inevitable, one school board might feel obligated to prepare students for urban jobs. Another board might view such actions as community suicide and attempt to slow…

  7. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  8. Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, David H.

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

  9. Staff Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby

    Special education staff development activities in Maine are listed, and ways to serve Maine's rural areas are described. Long range goals in Maine's Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (as required by P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) are listed for collaboration, needs assessment, resource/data collection,…

  10. Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mental Health Centre, Peshawar (Pakistan).

    The document presents a series of 14 scripts focusing on families with disabled children, written in English for radio broadcast in translation to rural village areas in Pakistan. Intended to educate the public concerning disabilities and how families can help their handicapped children participate as fully as possible in community life, the…

  11. Addressing Personnel Needs for Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Irwin, Jill D.; Saceda, Rachelle G.

    2004-01-01

    A chronic shortage of early interventionists and special educators exists in rural areas. The authors argue that special rural knowledge and skills may be required for early interventionists and special educators to be satisfied and productive in rural areas. Both recruitment and retention of rural special educators can be challenging, leading in…

  12. An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

  13. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise theÖ

  14. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  15. Core II Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units A-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…

  16. Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    Although the problem varies across the United States, overall there is a shortage of rural teachers, especially in the subject areas of math, science, and special education. Recruiting teachers for rural settings requires targeting persons with rural backgrounds, attacking the negative stereotypes surrounding rural schools, and stressing the…

  17. Health care in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit. PMID:12288590

  18. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

  19. Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

    A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

  20. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  1. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development. Annual Report 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.

    This report describes the activities of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, for the year ending June 30, 1987. During this fiscal year, CARD conducted numerous projects including the following: (1) a policy evaluation on agricultural applications of pesticides and ground water quality for the…

  2. Rural and Urban Adult Knowledge and Perceptions of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Martin J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 456 rural and 428 urban adults found both groups most knowledgeable about animals, least about plants in agriculture. They were most positive about natural resources, least about agriculture policy. Higher levels of education were associated with higher knowledge levels. (SK)

  3. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent with Applicant's business plan, especially as the plan relates to the Applicant's ability to... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (√ĘRBIC√Ę)...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with Applicant's business plan, especially as the plan relates to the Applicant's ability to... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (√ĘRBIC√Ę)...

  5. A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

    The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

  6. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

  7. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for nine problem areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, a teacher guide, a competency inventory, an…

  8. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... curb property thefts. How prevalent is nonmedical prescription opioid use and abuse in rural communities? According to ... urban adults reported non-medical use of prescription opioids in the past year. A 2014 article found ...

  9. Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

    The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

  10. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  11. Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, J B

    1989-01-01

    Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas. PMID:2645250

  12. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  13. Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators sayÖ

  14. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China. PMID:22626850

  15. Agricultural and recreational impacts of the conservation reserve program in rural North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bangsund, Dean A; Hodur, Nancy M; Leistritz, F Larry

    2004-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), created in 1985, provides conservation benefits and agricultural supply control through voluntary, long-term retirement of crop land. While the effects of the CRP on the agricultural sector are well understood, the implications of its conservation benefits for rural economies remain largely undocumented. To quantify the effects on rural economies, this study addressed the net economic effects of decreased agricultural activity and increased recreational activity associated with the CRP in six rural areas of North Dakota from 1996 to 2000. Based on the level of economic activity that would have occurred in the absence of the program, net revenues from CRP land if returned to agricultural production in the six study areas were estimated at $50.2 million annually or $37 per acre of land currently enrolled in the CRP. Recreational (hunting) revenues as a result of the CRP in the study areas were estimated at $12.8 million annually or $9.45 per CRP-acre. The net economic effect of the CRP (lost agricultural revenues and gains in recreational expenditures) indicated that several areas of the state are not as economically burdened by the CRP as previous research has suggested. In addition, the net economic effects of the program would appear more favourable if revenues from all CRP-based recreation were included. The degree that recreational revenues offset agricultural losses might be further enhanced by enterprises that capitalize on the economic opportunities associated with expanded recreational activities on CRP lands. PMID:15217718

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Physicians in Very Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Carolyn M.; Sandefer, Ryan H.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Recruiting and retaining physicians is a challenge in rural areas. Growing up in a rural area and completing medical training in a rural area have been shown to predict decisions to practice in rural areas. Little is known, though, about factors that contribute to physicians' decisions to locate in very sparsely populated areas. Purpose:…

  17. Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

  18. Education in Rural Areas of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urch, Mary

    This paper provides a glimpse of the current picture of education in rural Scotland. Scotland has many small schools, and not all of these are in geographically isolated areas. Although Scotland's population has decreased in the past 20 years, the decline has been mostly in urban areas. Remote areas are becoming more cosmopolitan as highly…

  19. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide newÖ

  20. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  1. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demandÖ

  2. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  3. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  4. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  5. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  6. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  7. Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

    Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

  8. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    PubMed

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future. PMID:17854974

  9. Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

  10. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  11. Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests thatÖ

  12. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's rural areas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.

  13. Domestic satellite services for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    It is pointed out that rural areas can be served by a domestic satellite communications system in an efficient and economical manner. To accomplish such efficiency and economy, the engineering parameters of the satellite communications system must be analyzed and selected with a view toward achieving the desired performance at minimum total cost. The equipment for an entire rural satellite communication system serving 1200 communities can be acquired for approximately $200 million (1983 dollars). An identical system, however, could also be implemented at much lower capital costs by leasing space segment capacity from existing satellite systems (Briskman and Savage, 1983).

  14. Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, S.; Kuhlmann, B.; Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Bronstert, A.

    2008-04-01

    Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., in the context of cost-benefit analyses of detention measures). Flood risk is a combination of potential damage and probability of flooding. Losses in agricultural areas exhibit a strong seasonal pattern, and the flooding probability also has a seasonal variation. In the present study, flood risk is assessed for a planned detention area alongside the Elbe River in Germany based on two loss and probability estimation approaches of different time frames, namely a monthly and an annual approach. The results show that the overall potential damage in the proposed detention area amounts to approximately 40 000 € a-1, with approximately equal losses for each of the main land uses, agriculture and road infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of flooding (i.e., the frequency of operation of the detention area) has the largest impact on the overall flood risk.

  15. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  16. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  17. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  18. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areasÖ

  19. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  20. Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

  1. CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOLÖ

  2. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERSÖ

  3. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  4. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  5. Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy

    This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

  6. Early Childhood Education: Promising Practices in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Nora; And Others

    Intended to suggest types of early childhood education programs which may be implemented in rural areas at reasonable cost and which capitalize upon the rural environment's unique characteristics, this booklet describes 12 programs (many of which use Elementary and Secondary Education Title I or III funds) currently operating in rural areas. The…

  7. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

  8. Rural Areas Weaning Themselves from Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)

  9. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  10. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  11. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  12. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  13. Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

    In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural…

  14. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agriculturalÖ

  15. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  16. Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as aÖ

  17. Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

  18. Differences in Child Care Quality in Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…

  19. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research. PMID:10107682

  20. A Difficult Turning Point: A Review of Educational Reform in China's Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zaixin

    1990-01-01

    Claims scientific and technical education is the key factor in further development of village enterprises and notes that present "one-directional" education causes migration of rural youth to urban areas. Opposes this system's emphasis on providing students with goals of higher education rather than of agricultural or vocational education.…

  1. Gender and Quality of Life in Rural Areas: The Relevance of Training Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stella B.

    Developing nations could greatly improve the quality of life in rural areas by adequately involving women in agricultural extension and training programs. Policy objectives of many developing countries neglect the contributory role of girls and women and often constrain them from seizing opportunities for individual development. In Nigeria, theÖ

  2. Migration from rural to urban areas in China.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, K

    1990-12-01

    During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility. PMID:12285849

  3. Policy Study of Vocational and Adult Education in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    This study of the vocational and adult education system in isolated rural areas was designed to provide information that is necessary for the development of policy for vocational and adult education in isolated rural areas. The study consisted of a review of literature; unstructured interviews with representatives of the business, civic, and…

  4. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition‚ÄĒspecifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  5. Interactive Instructional Television: Education for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagal, Judy; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Project is a federally funded partnership between Kayenta Unified School District and Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Center for Excellence in Education that aims to prepare well qualified special education teachers to work in rural and reservation schools. The participants are Native American residents working…

  6. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  7. A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

  8. Importance of rural roads as source areas for runoff in mountainous areas of northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Alan D.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    1997-09-01

    Unpaved road surfaces have extremely low infiltration rates compared with other watershed land surfaces and, therefore, are significant source areas for erosion-producing Horton overland flow. The hydrologic role of roads is an important issue in mountainous areas of the tropics where erosion control efforts are predominately focused on deforestation and agricultural practices. We report on an investigation of soil physical properties that control excess rainfall (rainfall intensity in excess of infiltration capacity) on rural roads and surrounding lands in a mountainous watershed in northern Thailand. The results of our disk permeameter measurements indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity on unpaved roads is about one order of magnitude lower than on any other land-surface type. Median saturated hydraulic conductivities were not exceeded by measured rainfall intensity on any land use except road surfaces and roadside margins. By simulating excess rainfall, we found that in contrast with other areas of the watershed, the road surface tends to generate excess rainfall early in a rain event, and on nearly all of its area. Despite the relatively small areal extent of road-related surfaces (<0.5% of basin area), they contribute a large portion of basin-wide total excess rainfall during frequently occurring, small rainfall events. However, during larger events, agricultural, secondary vegetation, and forested areas assume greater importance because of their larger areal extent.

  9. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  10. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  11. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  12. Rural Development Progress: Fourth Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the Congress, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knebel, John A.

    The fourth annual secretary of agriculture report on rural development progress (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) presents the most recently available status data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities, discusses examples of federal efforts to improve or expand…

  13. Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breimyer, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

  14. Educational and Occupational Motivation and Adoption of Agricultural Technology among Rural Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunte, Christopher N.

    A random sample, predominantly black, of about 100 rural Louisiana residents was interviewed in 1979-80 to determine the extent to which rural residents' educational and occupational motivations were related to their adoption of agricultural technology. Published literature relevant to the subject was reviewed. With the exception of an "integrated…

  15. Television in Rural Areas; A Low Cost Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourret, Philip L.

    Arguments in favor of radio over television as a low cost alternative for reaching rural areas cite the fact that installation and programming costs for television are three to five times that of radio. But new technology can now bring television to rural audiences. The concept of decentralizing transmitting stations, so that each mini-station…

  16. Implications of Social and Economic Changes on Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.; Bradshaw, Ted K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses implications of population turnaround, reverse migration for societal polarization, human resources based economy, and rural/urban segmentation on the new socioeconomic role of rural areas. Identifies an interrelated public policy model composed of local community, human resources, technical inputs, and integrating institutions to…

  17. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  18. A decision support system for rainfed agricultural areas of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural inhabitants of arid lands lack sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. They do not have readily available technical information to support decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper, a computer model (...

  19. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes. PMID:12158008

  20. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒPrince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒPrince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒPrince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒPrince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒPrince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒWestern and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒSouthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒWestern and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒNorthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒNorthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒSouthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒSouthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒWestern and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒNorthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒSouthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒNorthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒNorthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒWestern and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒSouthern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒWestern and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  20. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  1. Analysis of population structure in rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study and analysis of the condition, problems, and opportunities of economic development in rural China. Major population problems and key issues in those areas are discussed and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Appropriate economic policies for rural areas are proposed. China's large population seriously impedes national economic development. The structure analysis method is a new way of studying the relationship of population, economy, society, natural resources, and the environment. Most of China's population problem is in its rural areas, where there is not enough cultivated land to support the population. The solution of the problem therefore depends heavily upon economic progress in those areas. Impeded economic development in rural China due to population and the structure of industry and production, the centrality of population and industrial structure in rural China, the distribution of personal wealth in rural China, the need to improve education and work skills in rural areas, and family structure changes and economic adjustment are discussed. PMID:12294557

  2. A conceptual model of suicide in rural areas.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Stark CR; Riordan V; O'Connor R

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Suicide is an important public health issue among rural communities although there is no single pattern of suicide in rural areas. Despite this, there are common themes in much of the research evidence on suicide in rural areas. From the published research in the area, a conceptual model of rural suicide has been developed which can be used by clinical and public health services when considering possible routes of intervention.ISSUE: A conceptual model can be defined as 'a type of diagram which shows a set of relationships between factors that are believed to impact or lead to a target condition'. The model presented here uses the 'Cry of pain/ Entrapment' model of suicide risk to build a framework of factors which are associated with suicide in rural areas. Cross-setting factors associated with suicide rates include gender, poverty, mental illness, substance use, biological factors including apparent genetic risk, coping skills and media coverage of suicide. There are, however, other factors that appear to have particular importance in rural areas. These include rural stressors, such as isolation and political and social exclusion; factors affecting support, including social support, cultural norms on help-seeking, stigma associated with mental illness service availability; factors affecting the decision to self-harm, including modelling and cultural views on self-harm, and issues affecting the likelihood of self-harm resulting in death, including method availability, norms on methods of self-harm and treatment availability after harm occurs. Identifying which of these areas are the greatest local priorities helps to target activity.LESSONS LEARNED: This model provides a way of considering suicide in rural areas. Local staff can use it to consider which issues are most relevant to their area. It allows classification of existing interventions, and deciding which other areas of work might be of local value. For researchers and service planners, it provides a way of classifying interventions and describing projects.

  3. Ethnoastronomical researches on te rural area of Valjevo mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BoŇĺińá, Nikola

    2002-04-01

    The results of ethnoastronomical investigations made by the Astronomical group of the Society of researchers "Vladimir Mandińá - Manda" (Valjevo) during the 1997-2000 period in the Valjevo rural area are presented.

  4. Journals Significant to Rural Development Received at the National Agricultural Library. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 48. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Dorothy A., Comp.

    This directory lists 227 journals in the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) collection that are related to social and economic aspects of rural development. The directory includes both United States and international journals. Each citation includes title, NAL call number, NAL holdings information, the International Standard Serial Number…

  5. Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

  6. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement¬ģ Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  7. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  8. Non-Human Loss in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Ralph

    This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World War II.…

  9. Developing Health Education Programs in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.

    If primary medical care is to be provided to remote rural populations in developing countries, alternative and innovative delivery systems emphasizing community participation, use of paraprofessionals, and health education programs must be considered. A recent American Public Health Association study of 180 health projects in developing countries…

  10. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  11. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50Ö

  12. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted intoÖ

  13. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  14. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities. PMID:21242153

  15. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Rad, J.; Fallah, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97%) and nine girls (10.84%). We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries. PMID:27158510

  16. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Fallah, F

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97%) and nine girls (10.84%). We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries. PMID:27158510

  17. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  18. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  19. Basketball injuries in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Prebble, T B; Chyou, P H; Wittman, L; McCormick, J; Collins, K; Zoch, T

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency and nature of basketball injuries occurring in a rural setting. More than 6000 patients with sports-related injuries presented to a rural emergency department between June 1, 1988 and June 1, 1994. Of these patients, 1189 (19% of the total) were injured playing basketball. A chart abstraction form was utilized to retrospectively review injuries noting demographics, types and sites of injuries, as well as referral and treatment plans. Approximately two-thirds (66.4%) of those injured were males, with most injuries (53%) occurring during school-related activities. Almost four-fifths (78%) of injuries occurred between the ages of 10 and 19. The ankle (33.1%) was the body site most commonly injured, followed in frequency by finger injuries (19.3%), sprains and strains, which accounted for the majority (55%) of injuries. The most common mechanism of injury was recorded in which no contact with other players occurred (37.4%). The vast majority (99%) of injuries were managed as outpatients. The majority of cases (72%) were expected to recover within 2 weeks. Similarities were noted regarding sites of injury and age of distribution of patients when compared to the previous studies. PMID:10638288

  20. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. PMID:25588899

  1. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  2. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Jing; Ma, Hai-Xia; Cui, Hui-Ying; Lu, Xu; Shao, Ming-Jun; Li, Shuo; Luo, Yan-Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Yu; Xu, Dong-Qun; Liu, Chuan-He; Chen, Yu-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing, China. Methods: Schools, communities, and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing. Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires. On-the-spot inquiries, physical examinations, medical records, and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children. Information on previous diagnoses, treatments, and control of symptoms was obtained. Results: From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires, 587 children were diagnosed as asthma. The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs. 3.68%, Ōá2 = 100.80, P < 0.001). The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs. 73.9%, Ōá2 = 34.6, P < 0.001). Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%), only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05). The use of bronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs. 66.4%, Ōá2 = 14.2, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing. A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas. PMID:26315071

  3. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

  4. Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partid√°rio, Maria Ros√°rio; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application of SA.

  5. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  6. Rural Development Progress, January 1977-June 1979. Fifth Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to The Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The fifth annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture on rural development (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) summarizes current rural conditions by presenting the most recently available statistical data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities and illustrates…

  7. Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eugene C.

    1913-01-01

    In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

  8. Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

    This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

  9. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  10. RIPARIAN AREAS OF AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agricultural area in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...

  11. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units F-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final three of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on soil science and conservation of natural resources are collecting soil samples and applying soil sample test results. Growing vegetables and…

  12. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). TwoÖ

  13. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  14. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  15. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  16. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  17. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  18. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  19. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,Ö

  20. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

  1. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting butÖ

  2. Spectral Characterization of Agricultural Burned Areas for Satellite Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, Erik J.

    Burned area detection with remotely sensed satellite data in agricultural landscapes is not only necessary for the estimation of global biomass burning emissions, but also has gained attention from managers interested in improved methods for the quantification of local scale emissions which affect air quality and human health. Mapping agricultural burned areas accurately, precisely and reliably, with methods that can be applied globally, is difficult because of the spectral and temporal characteristics of agricultural regions and prescribed cropland fires. These challenges have not been fully addressed by the scientific literature. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents an extensive literature review on the methods currently used for agricultural burned area mapping. Chapter 2 presents original research on the spectral characterization of agricultural burned areas, using field data and mixture models to analyze the response of spectral indices to the changes induced by fire and agricultural practices. The conclusions summarize the significance of the presented research for understanding the potential and limits of satellite data for agricultural burned area monitoring, and outline the directions for future work.

  3. [Impact of pesticides on biodiversity in agricultural areas].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Chen, Xin

    2004-02-01

    Large amount application of pesticides caused a lot of ecological and environmental problems, among which, the impact of pesticides on biodiversity was most important. In this paper, an overview of the impacts of pesticides on biodiversity in agricultural areas, including the community structure of insects, populations of soil invertebrates and microorganisms, and plant communities was provided, and the reasonable use of pesticides and the measures of protecting biodiversity in agricultural areas were also put forward. PMID:15146653

  4. Frontiers of the Mind: Serving Gifted Children in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Susan; Gage, Jim

    A summer institute trained 18 teachers to identify and plan curriculum for gifted minority and disadvantaged young children from culturally different and remote rural areas. Theory and practicum emphases were included in the program. Teachers were trained in the Structure of the Intellect (SOI) model. Sixty-eight children from the Alpine (Texas)…

  5. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  6. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  7. Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Phillip D.

    This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

  8. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  9. Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

    This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

  10. Delivering Nutrition Services in Early Intervention in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarr, Bethany; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses general issues in the provision of early intervention as well as nutrition services in rural areas and presents a case study to illustrate these issues. Barriers identified include transportation, long-distance travel, lack of specialized personnel, and poverty. Recommendations to overcome barriers are highlighted. (JDD)

  11. AIDS in Rural Areas: Challenges to Providing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Kathleen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the development and provision of social services to persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their families in rural areas and barriers to the delivery of care. Subjects (N=15) were persons who coordinated or provided services to AIDS victims. Found structural factors, confidentiality, fear of contagion, and homophobia…

  12. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  13. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300‚ÄĒAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  18. The Rural Disadvantage: Growing Income Disparities between Rural and Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barancik, Scott

    Growing income disparities between wealthy Americans and those in low or moderate income brackets are contributing to a widening income gap between rural and urban areas. Proposed federal tax policy changes would primarily benefit upper income brackets and would likely widen the gap further. An analysis of census data indicates that since the…

  19. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  20. Neighborhood Perceptions and Health-Related Outcomes among Latinos with Diabetes from a Rural Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S.; de Jaimes, Fatima Nunez; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Isiordia, Marilu; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood perceptions are related to diabetes outcomes among Latinos living in rural agricultural communities. Our objective was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood problems and diabetes outcomes. This is a cross-sectional survey study with medical record reviews of a random sample of 250 adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes. The predictor was a rating of patient ratings of neighborhood problems (crime, trash and litter, lighting at night, and access to exercise facilities, transportation, and supermarkets). The primary outcomes were the control of three intermediate outcomes (LDL-c <100 mg/dl, AlC < 9.0%, and blood pressure (BP) < 140/80 mmHg), and body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2. Secondary outcomes were participation in self-care activities (physical activity, healthy eating, medication adherence, foot checks, and glucose checks). We used regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, education, income, years with diabetes, insulin use, depressive symptoms, and co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent of patients perceived at least one neighborhood problem and out of the six problem areas, crime was most commonly perceived as a problem. Perception of neighborhood problems was independently associated with not having a BP < 140/80 (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 0.45; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.92), and BMI < 30 (AOR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.77), after controlling for covariates. Receipt of recommended processes of care was not associated with perception of neighborhood. Perception of neighborhood problems among low-income rural Latinos with diabetes was independently associated with a higher BMI and BP. PMID:24599665

  1. Business Occupational Profiles in an Agricultural Economy. An Investigation to Determine the Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Essential to Satisfactory Performance at the Job Entry Level as Office and Administrative or Management Trainee Personnel in Rural-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, R. Frank

    To aid the development of criteria to guide high school curriculum planners and teachers, data for 160 jobs covering six different positions with 112 employers were gathered in 428 executive-employee-supervisor interviews in a 21-county area in northern Mississippi. Based on an analyses of the activities and duties of the six positions according…

  2. Rural health and labour supplies: empirical evidence from the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Project in the Kwara State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeh, J C

    1991-01-01

    The efforts made in this study are in two areas. First, an effort has been made to determine whether there are any health or labour supply differences between ADP and non-ADP households. Second, an effort has also been made to determine whether differences in health, housing and nutrition, if any, have an effect on labour supply. All the efforts are attempts to focus research attention on the Nigeria's resource endowment factor and at the same time assess the impact of rural infrastructure capital and thus the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) on the rural Nigerian residents and their industry. Using 175 households, 50 from the ADP and 125 from the non-ADP areas, the discriptive statistic indicates strong mean significant differences for the descriptors of nutrition, housing and state of health among the two sample categories. The discriminant function strongly discriminates between the two sample groups while the multiple regression analysis establishes a causal relationship between the discriptors of rural healthy days and labour supply for the two sample data sets. The policy implication of the study is that the implementation of the ADP particularly the Ilorin, leads to the improvement of quality of life and greater infusion of high quality labour into the rural agricultural industry. Higher productivity and increased farm family income and enhanced rural life which results is a useful virile circle necessary for laying the bedrock for the rural development. PMID:1871606

  3. Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

  4. National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research and Development Lab Research Compliance ...

  5. The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Pe√Īa, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

    2010-05-01

    Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

  6. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values. PMID:26647953

  7. Schooling and Factors Affecting Decisions on Schooling by Household Members in the Rural Areas of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olgun, Akin; Gumus, Sevtap Guler; Adanacioglu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that rural education has always been one of the most important means of rural development, it has been ignored in many developing countries, with the result that rural development has not achieved great success. The problems of education in rural areas are not only related to the amount the country spends on education or to the…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  9. No Great Impact on Rural Areas Expected from Computers and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeten, Luther

    1987-01-01

    Questions if high technology will enhance comparative advantage of rural areas, alleviate difficulties facing local/rural public institutions, change traditional rural industries, give large farms greater advantage, create unequal distribution of benefits, depersonalize rural society. Concludes computers and telecommunications will impact rural…

  10. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  11. On the Development of Rural Youth in the GDR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sube, Heinz

    Rural youth have been active in the development of the German Democratic Republic's agricultural production program. Although those who reside in rural areas and commute to work in urban areas are also classified as "rural youth," the core of rural youth are those who work in agricultural primary production. Of the 778,639 permanent working…

  12. Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

    1996-03-01

    Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

  13. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Qui√Īonez, H.; Pineda, P.; G√°lvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological shocks, as well as for the participatory use of the models as decision support tools for the participatory design of sustainable solutions to the identified vulnerabilities in each system.

  14. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    √áakmur, H√ľlya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (‚Č•65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. Results The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%. The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70¬Ī7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ‚ȧ500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). Conclusions It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs. PMID:25925800

  15. Working in rural areas ‚Äď the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  16. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  17. National service in rural areas: the case of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thacker, S B; Banta, H D

    1976-01-01

    Sending new medical school graduates into rural areas does give underserved populations access to modern medical care, perhaps for the first time. However, these young physicians usually spend most of their time providing strictly clinical services and are generally eager to leave at the end of their assignment. Some have referred to this practice as "parachuting" a doctor into an underserved area. An alternative is to focus first on building up permanent health service facilities in rural areas that are staffed by appropriate paraprofessionals. The young physician can then play a much more important role, serving as an administrator, researcher, evaluator, and teacher of the local staff; his clinical activities would generally be confined to the more complicated medical problems that arise. Such a model has been implemented in Kenya and Tanzania. An informal field assessment in Colombia has indicated that this model could be effectively applied there as well; indeed, it has been the hope of Colombian policymakers that the rural intern would function in such a way. However, this would require developing the nation's system of health services, as well as providing specific training aimed at preparing the medical student to perform his assigned role. PMID:974304

  18. POISON CONTROL‚ÄĒOperation of an Information Center in a Rural and Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Bocian, J. J.

    1960-01-01

    The Fresno Community Hospital Poison Control Center has been in operation for about three years, under the sole directorship of the pathologist. All expenses are paid by the hospital. It has served a definite need in the community. As an agricultural and more or less rural community, it shows more poison cases having to do with plants, insecticides, kerosene and fertilizers than do urban communities. PMID:13801875

  19. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F X; Guardino, X; Rosell, M G

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Dräger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 microg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 microg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air. PMID:19143312

  20. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  1. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE...

  2. Agriculture and rural out-migration in Central Asia, 1960-91.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A

    1995-01-01

    "This article seeks to analyse agrarian structure and policy in the Soviet period and discuss their effect on migration from rural to urban areas. In the case of [Soviet] Central Asia, neither the various steps to bring down labour intensity in the farm sector, nor the falling standard of living in rural areas, could bring about migration from rural to urban areas. This was because in traditional societies economic mechanisms are not effective unless they are complemented by appropriate social and cultural policies. All policies were oriented towards the state's goal of vertical integration of regions with the central economy. In Central Asia in particular this policy resulted in serious distortions in the social and economic spheres." PMID:12291767

  3. Resolution No. 44/78. Improvement of the Situation of Women in Rural Areas, 8 December 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The UN General Assembly's December 1989 resolution No. 44/78, addresses Improvement of the Status of Women in Rural Areas. It begins with the recollecting of prior resolutions, an acknowledgement of the importance given to the problems of rural women in Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/29 of May 1988, in which the Council urged Governments and development agencies of the UN system to pay particular attention to the role of women in rural development, and it takes note with satisfaction of the results of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects." The resolution recognizes that the economic crises in many developing countries has severely affected the socio-economic status of women, especially in rural areas, requiring the urgent need to take appropriate measures aimed at improving the situation of women in rural areas. Beginning with praise for the Secretary-General's report on the national experience relating to the improvement of the situation of women in rural areas, it then calls upon Member states to make use of the report and the main conclusions and recommendations of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects" to endeavor to reflect them in national development strategies, paying special attention to 1) setting up or strengthening national machineries for the advancement of women in order to ensure effective execution, monitoring, and evaluation of national strategies in the field of rural development and to strengthen liaison with agricultural and rural development institutions, 2) identifying and formulating more comprehensive priority development projects aimed at improving the situation of rural women and integrating them into national development plans at all levels, 3) taking measures to give rural women broader access to material resources. The resolution also requests that the organizations of the UN system promote the realization of programs and projects aimed at the improvement of the situation of rural women and that the Secretary-General prepare a report on the implementation of the present resolution and submit it to the General Assembly at its 48th session, through the Economic and Social Council. PMID:12344084

  4. Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970‚Äď2005

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970‚Äď2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990‚Äď2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

  5. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the ‚Äúrurality‚ÄĚ scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, ‚Äútravelling time to next major hospital‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúon-call duty‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúregular peripheral clinic‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúon-call for major traumas‚ÄĚ had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding ‚Äúon-call duty‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúnext major hospital‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúmost distant boundary covered by your practice‚ÄĚ were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study‚Äôs participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

  6. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  7. Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

  8. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining‚ÄĒthe mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  9. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  10. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1972. Third Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  11. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1971. A Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this second annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  12. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1973. Fourth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As part 1 of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this fourth annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and county…

  13. Increasing mammography screening among African American women in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mary Edith; Carter, Vivian; Bonsi, Eunice; Johnson, Gwendolyn; Williams, Licia; Taylor-Smith, Lucile; Hayes, Quanita; Hull, Pamela C; Cain, Van A; Husaini, Baqar A

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a church-based breast cancer screening education program on mammography attainment by African American women 40 years old and older in rural Alabama. The sample consisted of 192 women who volunteered to participate in the study through 13 African American churches in a rural, economically-depressed Alabama county. The design was quasi-experimental and had some features of community-based participatory research. Churches were randomly assigned to three groups (full program, partial program and control). The full program (group educational session plus an in-home visit from a Home Health Educator) positively affected mammography attainment (38% increase from baseline to Time 2). In addition, barriers to mammography attainment were reduced for women who had not obtained a mammogram by follow-up. Community-based participatory projects in collaboration with churches and cooperative extension programs have the potential to reduce racial disparities in breast cancer in rural areas. PMID:16327093

  14. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.

  15. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  20. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas…

  1. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  2. A global map of irrigated agriculture in dry areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Linderman, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    With changing socio-economic environments and population growth, it is estimated that agricultural production levels need to double by 2050. One way to achieve this may be through agricultural expansion into drier regions, which cover about 41% of earth's land area. Currently, about 70% of freshwater withdrawals are used for irrigation, which in turn produces about 40% of global food. However, little is known about the global area under irrigated agriculture in these water-stressed, arid regions which host about 2 billion people. Here we estimate the global area under irrigation in the arid and hyperarid regions. To this end, we analyse the temporal signature of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) that was derived from the ~500m BRDF-adjusted reflectance data provided by the MODIS sensor since February 2000. This method does not rely on any external data sources and it allows to explore the temporal evolution of irrigation practices. Additionally, compared to other irrigation maps, our dataset can be quickly updated annually to provide the latest estimations. Initial results show that by using a combination of simple metrics quantifying each pixel's phenology we are able to clearly identify irrigated areas in these dry regions. Our results will be compared to existing global irrigation datasets as well as global land cover maps.

  3. What interventions do rural doctors think will increase recruitment in rural areas: a survey of 2778 health workers in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers’ perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. Results Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. Conclusions From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing. PMID:23964857

  4. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

  5. Object detection in rural areas using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Safak; Emre Esin, Yunus; Artan, Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Object detection has gained considerable interest in remote sensing community with a broad range of applications including the remote monitoring of building development in rural areas. Many earlier studies on this task performed their analysis using either multispectral satellite imagery or color images obtained via an aerial vehicle. In recent years, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has emerged as an alternative technique for remote monitoring of building developments. Unlike other imaging techniques, HSI provides a continuous spectral signature of the objects in the field of view (FOV) which facilitates the separation among different objects. In general, spectral signature similarity between objects often causes a significant amount of false alarm (FA) rate that adversely effects the overall accuracy of these systems. In order to reduce the high rate of FA posed by the pixel-wise classification, we propose a novel rural building detection method that utilizes both spatial information and spectral signature of the pixels. Proposed technique consists of three parts; a spectral signature classifier, watershed based superpixel map and an oriented-gradient filters based object detector. In our analysis, we have evaluated the performance of proposed approach using hyperspectral image dataset obtained at various elevation levels, namely 500 meters and 3000 meters. NEO HySpex VNIR-1800 camera is used for 182 band hyperspectral data acquisition. First 155 band is used due to the atmospheric effects on the last bands. Performance comparison between the proposed technique and the pixel-wise spectral classifier indicates a reduction in sensitivity rate but a notable increase in specificity and overall accuracy rates. Proposed method yields sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate of 0.690, 0.997 and 0.992, respectively, whereas pixel-wise classification yields sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate of 0.758, 0.983, 0.977, respectively. Note that the sensitivity reduction is due to sparseness of buildings in rural areas, however, increase in overall accuracy is considered more important in our study.

  6. Poverty and biodiversity in rural areas based on two investigations in Pujiang County, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bin

    2009-04-01

    This study presents an integrated framework for the analysis of options of agricultural development and natural resource management at the ecosystem level. Pujiang County in Zhejiang Province, China, is used as a case-study area. The IMGLP model is applied to maximize regional agricultural economic surplus and labor market conditions in Pujiang. The consequences of four poverty reduction strategies (intensification of production, diversification toward livestock production, land expansion, and exit from agriculture) are determined for a set of regional poverty and biodiversity indicators. Diversification seems to be the most promising poverty reduction strategy, but requires an efficient use of animal manure in cropping systems to avoid environmental problems. Improved nutrient management in cropping systems is effective in reducing the regional nitrogen surplus, but less effective in increasing per capita income. The exit strategy is beneficial for reducing poverty and achieving biodiversity, but may have important social consequences that are not addressed in this study. Further reduction of rural poverty is hampered by labor constraints during the harvesting period for high-value crops such as vegetables and fruits. These constraints can be overcome by intensive research and development in the field of agricultural mechanization. PMID:19232457

  7. Robust, multifunctional flood defenses in the Dutch rural riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.

  8. Capitated Medicaid Managed Care in a Rural Area: The Impact of Minnesota's PMAP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Sharon K.; Coughlin, Teresa A.; King, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Although states have had difficulty extending Medicaid managed care (MMC) to rural areas, rural models of capitated MMC are expected to grow in response to new federal regulations and the serious budget problems facing nearly all states. As such, understanding the effects of capitated MMC in rural settings is important for policy considerations.…

  9. Rural Sociology in the South: 1980. Proceedings of the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 3-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Wolfgang, Ed.

    A total of 47 papers representing the broad research and extension interests related to rural areas are included in this volume. The 13 sessions are entitled Rural Structure and Process, Industrialization, Migration, Health and Alcohol, Quality of Life, Occupations and Work, Applied Sociology, Education, Network Analysis, Poverty, Status…

  10. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  11. [Treatment of epilepsy in rural areas in Mali].

    PubMed

    Farnarier, G; Nimaga, K; Desplats, D; Doumbo, O

    2002-09-01

    Epilepsy is a public health problem in Africa due to prevalence and social exclusion. We report a follow-up protocol for epileptic patients treated at home in rural areas of Mali. The objectives were: education for the patient, family, and village leaders in orders to achieve good compliance, uninterrupted supply of generic phenobarbitol, follow-up visits once a month for one year then every two months if good compliance with a country physician with delivery of phenobarbitol in sufficient quantity to reach the next visit, verification of correct drug dosage and use, supervision of treatment effect. After two years, the follow-up visits showed that 57.4% of the patients had been seizure free for at least 24 months (more than 4 monthly seizures before treatment). Rate of seizures decreased in 15.7% of the patients. Results were excellent with no seizures, clear physical, psychic and social improvement (work, married life, school attendance). Very few side effects were observed. There were no cases of poisoning. The management scheme is very cost effective: 1.5 USD per month per patient, including phenobarbitol and implementation. There is a need for anti-epilepsy programs in Africa which should be implemented on the local (rural medicalisation), national and international level ("Epilepsy out of the shadows" campaign). PMID:12386526

  12. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes. PMID:25521131

  13. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities. PMID:27107746

  14. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC96 Rural Development Voucher... agency within the Rural Development mission area, is adding new regulations to implement its Rural Development Voucher Program (RDVP). Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, authorizes RDVP....

  15. 78 FR 41195 - Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... announcing the availability of funds under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas... Areas Program requirements, see the Final Rule published in the Federal Register (78 FR 19586) on...

  16. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the conceived areas.

  17. Implementing Housing First in Rural Areas: Pathways Vermont

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Melton, Hilary; Shin, Soo-Min; Lawrence-Gomez, Rebeka; Tsemberis, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of Pathways Housing First in addressing chronic homelessness for persons with severe mental illness have been well established. However, the implementation and effectiveness of such programs in rural areas has yet to be examined. We described the model‚Äôs adaptations in Vermont, including the use of hybrid assertive community treatment‚Äďintensive case management teams, which consisted of service coordinators with geographically based caseloads (staff/client ratio of 1:20) and regional multidisciplinary specialists. The program‚Äôs innovative and widespread inclusion of technology into operations facilitated efficiency and responsiveness, and a pilot telehealth initiative supplemented in-person client visits. The program achieved a housing retention rate of 85% over approximately 3 years, and consumers reported decreased time spent homeless, demonstrating that program adaptations and technological enhancements were successful. PMID:24148038

  18. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  19. Income and Employment Generation in Rural Areas in Relation to Alternative Farm Programs (with Special Emphasis on the North Central Region).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    Four alternative government farm policies were analyzed to determine their effect upon farm income and employment generation in rural areas and agriculturally related industries. A linear programming model of interregional competition was used to determine the impact of alternative farm policies on the quantity of major commodities produced, the…

  20. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  1. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty. PMID:21479559

  2. Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe√Īa Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

  3. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  4. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  5. 78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Federal Transit Administration Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions... implementation of the section 5311 Rural Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is...

  6. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, andÖ

  7. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in... low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This Section sets forth the requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth in paragraph (b) of this Section. This...

  8. The Feasibility and Value of Broadband Communications in Rural Areas. A Preliminary Evaluation, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, William; And Others

    The study was conducted to determine the feasibility and value of using broadband communications (transmission of many television, voice and/or data signals through a single system) to provide public services for rural areas. Applications of broadband communications to rural areas were divided into public services (health, education, law…

  9. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  10. Multiple Effects of Education in Rural Areas: Action Research for Development Strategies in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persuric, Anita Silvana Ilak; Gautier, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of development in rural areas of Croatia includes several factors. Among them is education. The education system in Croatia has a number of institutional, infrastructural and regional characteristics that are a frame of research for this article. Rural areas confront additional factors such as population migrations, poor…

  11. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in... low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This Section sets forth the requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth in paragraph (b) of this Section. This...

  12. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in... low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This Section sets forth the requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth in paragraph (b) of this Section. This...

  13. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in... low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This Section sets forth the requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth in paragraph (b) of this Section. This...

  14. Child Welfare Practice in Rural Areas and Small Communities. Research Capsule No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bill; O'Neill, John F.

    Within the field of child welfare a style of practice has evolved among social workers in small communities and rural areas that captures some of the essential elements of case management, prevention, and early intervention. The practice style represents an adaption to contextual factors in rural areas which include: (1) greater geographicÖ

  15. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  16. How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark

    To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

  17. Assessing health literacy in rural settings: a pilot study in rural areas of Cluj County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Pop, Oana M; Br√ģnzaniuc, Alexandra; Sirlincan, Emanuela O; Baba, Catalin O; Chereches, Razvan M

    2013-12-01

    Health literacy improves knowledge and builds skills to help individuals make appropriate decisions regarding their health. Over the past 20 years, several studies have described associations between health literacy and health outcomes. With respect to Romania, evidence is scarce on the level of health literacy, as well as on its determinants. Thus, the objectives of this study were to briefly screen functional health literacy levels in a sample of rural inhabitants, to assess the relationship between health literacy and reported health status, as well as to explore health literacy determinants within this population. Data were collected between September-November 2010, in four villages in Cluj County, Romania, using a cross-sectional survey. The mean age of respondents in the sample was 56 years, with roughly half of respondents being retired. The brief screening of health literacy suggested inadequate to marginal levels within the sample. Significant associations were observed between health literacy score and education, and self-perceived health status, whereas the relationship between health literacy and gender, and the presence of a chronic disease was not statistically significant. Limited health literacy has been shown to be common in people who rated their health as poor, those who attended only middle school, and individuals lacking basic information about their body. In order to minimize the adverse effects of low health literacy on health and health outcomes, efforts should be invested in identifying and addressing the health needs of adults with low and marginal health literacy, especially in underserved areas such as rural and remote settings, where access to health-related information is limited. PMID:24307167

  18. Watershed Modeling in areas with Intensive Agricultural Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, J. R.; Watson, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigation in agricultural intensive watersheds affects soil moisture content, plays a major role in the overall water balance and also influences the hydrologic regime. Historically, irrigation in watershed modeling has been very difficult to simulate and was simulated in one of three general ways. 1) irrigation water was withdrawan from the model and never applied to the land, 2) ignored and assumed insignificant and 3) input as a constant by modifying atmospheric forcing files. For the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) model developed for the Flint River Watershed in southwest Georgia, we received a summary report of a study conducted to determine irrigation application depth, as well as spatial mapping of irrigated fields in the state of Georgia. The summary report provided minimum, mean, and maximum irrigation depth for both surface water and groundwater sources and the spatial mapping provided over 10,300 irrigated fields located within the boundaries of the Flint River Watershed. With this information we were able to calculate irrigation volume applied to the land by source water type. We discuss how these data were incorporated into the LSPC watershed modeling effort and demonstrate the utility and function of the model for irrigation application. We also investigate impacts to water balance and the hydrologic regime through a series of scenarios in the agriculturally dominated landscape of Ichawaynochaway Creek (HUC 03130009). The scenarios compare and contrast our approach with 1) ignoring irrigation both application and water withdrawal, and 2) only withdrawing the water and not applying it back to the land. We demonstrate the importance of properly simulating irrigation application in heavily influenced areas. The approach we have taken is applicable in other areas in the southeastern United States or any area that is highly influenced by irrigation practices.

  19. Reading Maturity and Its Enhancement in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Gerald H.; Warner, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a study assessing reading maturity among 188 college-bound students in seven small rural schools and compares results to surveys of seventh graders and college freshmen. Describes the 15-minute reading survey completed by the students and lists 15 ways to develop reading maturity in small rural schools. (JHZ)

  20. Primary health care in rural areas: an agenda for research.

    PubMed Central

    DeFriese, G H; Ricketts, T C

    1989-01-01

    The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead. PMID:2645252

  1. Improving Service for Handicapped Students in Rural Areas: A Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    A 3-year cooperative program between the College of Saint Rose (Albany, New York) and surrounding rural school districts has two main goals: to help rural Chief School Officers (CSOs) design staff development activities to meet educational needs of mainstreamed handicapped students and to improve the college's preservice teacher education program…

  2. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Family Literacy Service Design and Delivery in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statewide Initiative News, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…

  4. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  5. Challenges of Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There have long been rural health care workforce shortages; however, the urgency to find real solutions has increased with the changing health care landscape. The evidence makes a compelling case to be intentional in the candidates we support and to align educational resources across multiple systems. Programs need to continually evolve, utilizing workforce data, best practices, and new technological advances. This leads the Office of Rural Health (ORH) to secure funding for therapists practicing in integrated settings and to expand loan repayment to general surgeons and providers creating access through telehealth. While access is ORH's core mission, North Carolina's rural health plan reframed the discussion around creating healthy rural communities. This will require further refinement of the critical workforce definition, and it brings to the forefront the fact that a variety of new partnerships will be key to achieving the objective of healthy rural communities. PMID:26961829

  6. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‚Äį, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‚Äį, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‚Äį, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average őī18O and őīD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‚Äį and -47.50‚Äį; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‚Äį and - 53.46‚Äį. In Hadong area, average őī18O and őīD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‚Äį and -49.80‚Äį; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater exhibited - 7.35‚Äį and -49.40‚Äį. The őī18O in function of őīD was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher őī18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, őī18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

  7. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  8. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1‚Äď7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  9. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (<18 years of age) from 2011. One state from each of the nine US census regions with substantial rural representation and varying degrees of community vulnerability was selected. An area deprivation index was constructed and used in conjunction with rurality to examine differences in the rate of ACSC hospitalizations among children in the sample states. A mixed model with both fixed and random effects was used to test influence of rurality and area deprivation on the odds of a pediatric hospitalization due to an ACSC within the sample. Of primary interest was the interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  10. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    PubMed

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger settlement of several hundred people could function in isolation, perhaps with a larger fraction of cereals in the diet, only with technological innovations, such as manure fertilizer and, most important, ard tillage. The ard radically relieves the extreme time pressure associated with soil preparation for sowing. It appears that very large settlements of a few hundred hectares in area, found in the CTU region, could function only if supported by satellite farming villages and stable exchange networks. In turn, this implies social division of labor and occupation, sufficiently complex social relations, stable exchange channels, and so on: altogether, a proto-urban character of such settlements. A model is proposed for the lifetime of a farming settlement, assuming that it is limited by the soil fertility (the depleted resources model), that provides a lifetime estimate consistent with the archaeological evidence available (100-150 years). The model shows that the lifetime strongly depends on the fraction of the arable land area kept fallow. We also discuss, quantify, and assess some strategies to mitigate the risks of arable agriculture associated with strong temporal fluctuations in the cereal yield, such as manure fertilization, and increased fraction of cereals in the diet combined with producing grain surplus for emergency storage. PMID:26932572

  12. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main services proposed. ‚ÄĘ rapid alert: individuation and fast location of fires, also eventually in their starting phase (fire start), carried out through use of satellite data to high and most very high cycle (every 15 minute) to concur and organize a more effective fighti to spread fire; ‚ÄĘ perimeter of the area burned by the fire, with generation of polygons (compatible scale with the cadastre maps and data) through photo interpretation of spectral images, colours and infrared, at highest resolution (50 cm), and through fine aerial missions purposely planned during summery season, in substitution or in integrate way of the relief in field for: big fires, zones difficult to reach, isolated uneven area (reference scale from 200 to 400 kmq) ‚ÄĘ validation activity: services for quality control and validation of the activities of covered detail and relief perimeter of the area burned by the fire carried out through the employment end integration of the acquired data from land/aerial/satellite reliefs in application of law 353/2000. Data supplied to the municipalities, the regions and the prefecture for institutional adoptions. ‚ÄĘ damage statistics: Services of support to the generation of statistics through analysis of the damage and the vegetation resumption in relation to the type of forest with the use of different platform: satellite, aerial and land observation, for a temporal analysis.

  13. Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon

    Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

  14. ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

    AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

  15. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2¬įC gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

  16. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NORTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA I--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, AN INTERVIEW SURVEY OF 233 AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES AND AGENCIES IN THE 10-PARISH AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN SECTION WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY FIRMS WITH EMPLOYEES NEEDING AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, (2) IDENTIFY AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR ENTRY AND…

  17. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    CharzyŇĄska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; GoŇļdziewska, MaŇāgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; GaŇāńôziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

  18. The Home and Family in Rural Saskatchewan. Report No. 10, Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Regina (Saskatchewan).

    Various aspects of rural homes and families in the changing environment of rural Saskatchewan were examined in terms of "level of living" (how they live) and "standard of living" (how they would like to live). Housewives, homemaker clubs, and other interested groups were questioned concerning certain features of family living which seem mostÖ

  19. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  20. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area. Funds... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area. Funds... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Recipient to finance financially viable economic development or job creation Projects in a Rural Area. Funds... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  3. Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

  4. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower RioÖ

  5. Economics and Education: Instrumentalism and the Dilemma of Learning in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    While most economists agree that educational attainment contributes to national economic performance, studies have not generally confirmed a similar conclusion with respect to rural areas. This paper examines the relationships between rural education and economics. The new aim of American education, restoration of national economicÖ

  6. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  7. The Delivery of Services to Mentally Retarded Persons Living in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles R.

    Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in rural areas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…

  8. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in... low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This section does not apply to a rural low-stress pipeline regulated under this part as a low-stress pipeline that crosses a waterway currently used...

  9. Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a functionÖ

  10. Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

  11. Building School-to-Work Systems in Rural Areas. Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin describes practitioner-identified strategies that can help build effective school-to-work systems in rural areas. The first section highlights these strategies for rural school-to-work partnerships: start early; identify educational and economic opportunities in the community; entrepreneurial experiences; community service-learning;Ö

  12. Into Another Kind of Country: The College Matriculation of Youth from Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sarah Armstrong

    2010-01-01

    Youth from rural areas are consistently under-represented in 4-year college institutions. This is particularly true for those whose parents did not go to college. Historically, a high school degree was sufficient for employment in rural communities. However, as blue-collar jobs continue to disappear, lesser educated residents are increasingly…

  13. The Periphery of Care: Emergency Services for Homeless People in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloke, Paul; Johnsen, Sarah; May, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, homelessness in rural areas has received little recognition because of overwhelming assumptions about the urban-centeredness of homeless people and their needs. This paper seeks to build on recent research that has begun to uncover some of the problems and characteristics of rural homelessness, by suggesting two significant…

  14. Science and Technology of Food Storage and Preservation. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, V. V.; And Others

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. This module dealsÖ

  15. Review and Synthesis of Research on Vocational Education in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griessman, B. Eugene; Densley, Kenneth G.

    The vocational needs of rural America are discussed in this 2-part research synthesis. Part 1 discusses the problem from a sociological point of view. The author of this section considers demographic and ecological factors, the economy of rural areas, educational patterns, racial and ethnic factors, and political and legal implications.…

  16. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  17. Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel G.

    Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

  18. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  19. Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

    2001-07-01

    Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

  20. [Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

    2010-01-01

    The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

  1. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

  2. Modern Agricultural Digital Management Network Information System of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Wei Dong; Yang, Hui

    To meet the need of agriculture management modernization of Heilongjiang reclamation area, further boost large-scale integration level of modern agriculture production and boost management level of agriculture production.On Red Farm, we have established the digital management network information system with the remote sensor technology, GIS technology, GPS technology, database technology, network technology, agriculture intelligent technology, multimedia technology, information auto acquired technology and control technology applied in the system. Modern agriculture digital information system of Red Star farm is composed of base construction of agricultural digital information, digital management system construction of agricultural production, digital technological equipment of agriculture etc. The digital and network management of agriculture can offer all management department the best convenient to master management information in time and boost the technological level of agricultural production, form the digital technological system of farmland, explore new way of agricultural production in information age and seek new production way of high efficiency, high production, high quality, low consumption.

  3. High Technology in Rural Settings. State-of-the-Art Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeten, Luther

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of high technology in rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural movement and the implications of this technology for agriculture and rural areas. The first section of the paper considers the impact of technology on agriculture in the United States over the past 50 years. Because U.S. agriculture has…

  4. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease ControlÖ

  5. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  6. THE RAPID GROWTH OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND THEIR ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELDRIDGE, DONALD A.

    THE COURSE OFFERINGS IN SOME JUNIOR COLLEGES FAIL TO MEET ADEQUATELY THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH. A STUDY IN 1964 REVEALED THAT ONLY TWENTY OF THE SEVENTY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA OFFERED TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, ALTHOUGH THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED "DIRECTORY OF JUNIOR COLLEGES" SHOWS AN INCREASE TO SIXTY. FURTHER STATISTICS REVEAL THAT 253…

  7. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  8. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affecting ¬ß 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... urban area. (a) General‚ÄĒ(1) Purposes. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(5)‚ÄĒ (i) For fiscal...

  9. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting ¬ß 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... urban area. (a) General‚ÄĒ(1) Purposes. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(5)‚ÄĒ (i) For fiscal...

  10. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

  11. Photovoltaic applications in rural areas of the developing world. World Bank technical paper energy series

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, G.

    1995-12-31

    The report examines the rural energy context within which PV programs must fit. The first chapter reviews the present position of PV technology and briefly describes the kit and systems commercially available for use in the rural areas of the developing world. The second chapter examines the rural energy background, describing how people manage to meet their energy needs across the huge areas of the developing world that remain untouched by conventional rural electrification programs. The next chapter looks at conventional rural electrification programs, their merits, and their inevitably limited scope. The fourth chapter looks at the potential niches for PVs, and how they compare in cost and level of service with their competition. A brief review of PV experience to date and the lessons learned is given in the fifth chapter, and the final chapter looks at the role of governments and funding agencies.

  12. [Peculiarities of practical nutrition in the rural area nearby conflict zone in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Darsaniia, T N; Zarnadze, Sh A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the research was to assess practical nutrition in the rural area nearby conflict zone in the Western and Eastern Georgia; to reveal the negative feature of regional nutrition; to work up recommendation in order to organize regular nutrition in the rural area. A special Questionnaire has been worked out. 70 individuals aged 20-55 living in the rural area were investigated. It was concluded that nutrition in the rural area nearby conflict zone is not balanced and adequate. It was found that nutrition and health not only depend on environmental condition, but mostly is regulated by it. In order to prevent alimented diseases, adequate policy of nutrition is required. The policy must be able to work out and finance programs aimed at creating favorable conditions for dissemination and foundation bases of rational and balanced nutrition with regard for regional peculiarities. PMID:19075350

  13. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  14. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economicÖ

  15. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

  16. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules ‚Äď clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills ‚Äď and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale. PMID:19017381

  17. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977-2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent-in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries-and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future. PMID:27146722

  18. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977‚Äď2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent‚ÄĒin accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries‚ÄĒand by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future. PMID:27146722

  19. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"Ö

  20. Education's Role in Rural Areas of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Kenneth P.

    1988-01-01

    Large rural surveys from Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay were used to examine education's role. Education has a consistently important effect that differs across countries. It is strongest in the modernizing environment context and consistently related to social differentiation, except in Guatemala. Productivity effects…

  1. Increased Diversity in Rural Areas: One School's Response to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the ways in which one rural Midwestern high school and its surrounding community responded to increased diversity. The purpose of the study was to explore how teachers, administrators, school staff, and community members in the district understood the character of the community's demographic changes and the…

  2. THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLACE, HELEN M.

    THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

  3. A Framework for Implementing Programs in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1978-01-01

    The Marshall Project is a federally funded demonstration program in the prevention of teenage alcohol abuse. It has been designed as a community-based project in which one rural community (Marshall, Wisconsin) is the client of the project's members (graduate student social workers from the University of Wisconsin). (AUTHOR)

  4. Basic Education and Social Development in China's Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Shunsong

    This case study examines the interaction between basic education (primary education, adult literacy, and nonformal adult education) and economic development needs in rural Zhuji County, Zhejiang Province, located in southeast China. In Zhuji, parents traditionally have endured hardships to send their children to school and otherwise encouraged…

  5. Treating Swallowing Disorders in Rural Areas: Preservice Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscello, Dennis M.; Werner, Jeffrey; Price, Kari; Williams, Diane

    2000-01-01

    A West Virginia preservice program prepares professionals in a variety of fields to work with rural children with swallowing disorders. Program features include graduate assistantships, interdisciplinary academic coursework, a practicum in a swallowing disorders clinic under supervision of a faculty mentor, and a technology project related to…

  6. Age, Trust, and Perceived Safety from Crime in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert E.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship of age and trust to perceived safety from crime among 891 rural residents from a statewide victim study. Trust was found to be a more important predictor of perceived safety than age, isolation, and income. Age had a direct, independent effect on perceived safety. (Author/NRB)

  7. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  8. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  9. 7 CFR 1948.81 - State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas. 1948.81 Section 1948.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  10. A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…

  11. A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employmentÖ

  12. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India. PMID:22295192

  13. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since ‚Äúhistoric landscape‚ÄĚ preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  14. Enhancing the Care Continuum in Rural Areas: Survey of Community Health Center-Rural Hospital Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Michael E.; Xirasagar, Sudha; Elder, Keith T.; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Community Health Centers (CHCs) and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) play a significant role in providing health services for rural residents across the United States. Purpose: The overall goal of this study was to identify the CAHs that have collaborations with CHCs, as well as to recognize the content of the collaborations and the…

  15. OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

    A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

  16. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  17. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  18. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  19. Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    AlShaafi, Maan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the distribution of light-curing units (LCU) used in an urban area (Riyadh) and a rural area (Kharj) of Saudi Arabia, and to compare their irradiance values. Methods The study involved three dental centers in urban areas and two in rural areas, all of which were parts of a single healthcare institution providing dental services. The light outputs (power mW) from 140 LCUs were measured by laboratory-grade spectrometry, and the irradiance (mW/cm2) was calculated from the tip area of each LCU. The minimum acceptable irradiance outputs for the quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units were set at 300 and 600†mW/cm2, respectively. The ages of these units and the protocol used to light-cure the resins were also determined. Results The total number of LCUs was 140, 112 (78%) in urban areas, and 28 (22%) in rural areas. In rural areas, only 7 of the 22 (32%) QTH units delivered irradiances greater than 300†mW/cm2 and were therefore considered clinically acceptable, whereas 4 of the 6 (66.7%) LED units delivered values greater than 600†mW/cm2. In urban centers, 43 of 61 (70.5%) LED units and 25 of 61 (49%) QTH units were considered clinically acceptable. Irradiance values for both QTH (P†<†0.01) and LED (P†<†0.05) units were significantly better in urban than in rural areas. Conclusions Urban areas had a greater distribution of LCUs than rural areas. Overall, irradiance values were significantly higher in urban areas. PMID:23960546

  20. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

  1. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1975. Sixth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A consolidated summary of information submitted by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agencies and State Rural Development (RD) Committees, this sixth annual report on USDA information and technical assistance includes USDA organizational arrangements for rural assistance, some assessments, research supporting RD information and technical…

  2. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks. PMID:25858761

  3. Size distributions and health risks of particulate trace elements in rural areas in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the airborne trace elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th and U) in rural areas in northeastern China, size-resolved aerosols were collected bi-weekly from March 2013 to February 2014 at two farmland sites in Shenyang (SHY) and Hailun (HLZ), a grassland site in Tongyu (TYU) and a forest site in the Changbai Mountain (CBS). The results showed that most trace elements (TEs) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at SHY than those at HLZ, TYU and CBS. All of the sites exhibited higher values in spring/winter than those in summer/autumn. Industrial imprints on the concentrations and size distributions of Pb and Cd were found at SHY, as supported by an air-mass backward-trajectory analysis and the abundance of sulfate and heavy metals. Due to the frequent influence of sand dust, the size distributions of Ca and Ba at the grassland site near Inner Mongolia had dominant peaks at 5.8-9 őľm, in contrast to the other agricultural and forest sites, which peaked at 4.7-5.8 őľm. In addition, the concentrations and the enrichment factors (EFs) of the TEs in this study increased as the size range decreased from coarse to fine particles, resulting in the highest carcinogenic (e.g., Pb) and non-carcinogenic (e.g., Mn) risks at 1.1-2.1 őľm. Overall, the results highlight the severe pollution of heavy metals in northeastern China, particularly in agricultural regions that are subject to anthropogenic influences. Mitigating atmospheric TEs in the studied region, an important commodity grain base in China, is urgently needed to protect the environment and human health from toxic metals.

  4. Evaluation of mercury level in waters, bottom sediments and soils in selected rural areas.

    PubMed

    UmiŇĄska, R

    1987-01-01

    The studies carried out aimed at evaluation of the mercury level in waters, bottom sediments and soils in selected rural areas, during the season of mercury biocides application and after their withdrawal from agricultural use. Generally, in the period between 1976-1980 the mercury level in 1268 environmental samples has been examined. Shallow dug wells of bad technical state and wrong location particularly exposed to contamination, have been selected for the studies. Mercury level has been determined after mineralization with concentrated acids by means of flameless method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results have been compared with standards for mercury level in drinking waters (1 microgram/l) and in surface waters (5 micrograms/l), with the Warren-Devault criterion for soils (0.25 mg/kg) and with the value 1 mg/kg adopted as maximum natural mercury level in bottom sediments. The results have also been the subject to statistical analysis by means of the Tsao-Fei method and t-test. Mercury level in well waters, surface waters, bottom sediments and soils varied according to the region and the year of study and were respectively: 0.08-26.00 micrograms/l; 0.00-25.20 micrograms/l; 0.02-91.91 mg/kg; 0.01-24.94 mg/kg. Mercury levels of several dozen micrograms/l (waters) and several dozen mg/kg (bottom sediments and soils) have been recorded only in a few cases. A statistically significant decrease of mercury level in the environment of the regions investigated coincided with mercury biocides withdrawal from agricultural practice in our country. PMID:3571971

  5. Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention. PMID:23034263

  6. Assessing preferences for wastewater treatment in a rural area using choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2012-04-01

    In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.

  7. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  8. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  9. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  10. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  11. Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most states in the U.S. have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles whereby frequently occurring storms have a given potential to in...

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in soil, surface water, and groundwater from rural areas in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Gai, Nan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Guo-Hui; Piao, Hai-Tao; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Little research on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been conducted in rural areas, although rural PFC sources are less complicated than in urban and industrial areas. To determine the levels and geographical distribution of 17 PFC compounds, samples of soil, surface water, and groundwater were collected from eight rural areas in eastern China. The total PFC concentrations (‚ąĎPFCs) in soils ranged from 0.34 to 65.8¬†ng/g ‚ąĎPFCs in surface waters ranged from 7.0 to 489¬†ng/L and ‚ąĎPFCs in groundwater ranged from 5.3 to 615¬†ng/L. Ratios of perfluorononanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFNA/PFOA), perfluoro-n-butyric acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA/PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFHpA/PFOA) in rainwater increased due to the fluorine chemical plants in the surrounding rural and urban areas, suggesting that atmospheric precipitation may carry PFCs and their precursors from the fluorochemical industrial area to the adjacent rural areas. PMID:26745397

  13. Prevalence of Goiter in Rural Area of Belgaum District, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, R; Bhat, Vinod; Rao, RSP; Das, Acharya; KS, Ganesh; Kamath, Asha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence of goiter and to study the factors influencing goiter among people of the rural community in Karnataka state, a community based study. Setting and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out to find out the prevalence of goiter in a rural community of Belgaum district. The study was conducted by house-to-house survey for a period of one month. Materials and Methods: Two villages (Handiganur and Gundwad) were selected randomly from Belgaum and Raibag taluks of Belgaum district. All the family members in each household were examined for the presence of goiter using WHO criteria. Iodine content of the salt sample obtained from each household was estimated by using spot testing kits. Information regarding the determinants of goiter was collected and recorded in a pre tested proforma. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical packages. Results: The prevalence of goiter among rural population was found to be 16.6%. Goiter of grade 1 was 15.7% and that of grade 2 was 0.9%. Prevalence among males and females were 7.2% and 21.8%, respectively. The prevalence of goiter was highest among adolescents. Estimation of iodine content in the salt sample revealed that 50% of samples had adequate iodine content (‚Č•15 ppm). Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that females of the age group 10-49 years were independently associated with goiter. Conclusion: Prevalence of goiter was relatively high and therefore constituted a public health problem in this region. PMID:19876455

  14. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

  15. Using VCDs to Promote Rural Educational Development in China: A Case Study in the Tianshui Hilly Areas of Gansu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Lee Chi Kin; Jiayi, Wang

    2005-01-01

    This case study is set in a remote rural area of China--the Tianshui area of Gansu Province. It examines a strategy involving the use of Video Compact Discs (VCDs) to enhance primary education in these areas. Firstly, the challenging context of Tianshui area is described. Secondly, strategies for promoting rural education using VCDs and the…

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999Ö

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

  18. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fluxes in Groundwater in Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg/L/yr. Reaction rates tended to be highest in aquifers with low recharge rates and thin unsaturated zones, resulting in shallow depths of NO3 contamination. At sites where the denitrification rate was lower and the recharge rate was higher, the anthropogenic NO3 tended to extend deeper into groundwater. In summary, the combination of hydrologic and geochemical factors at these sites results in a wide range of NO3 fluxes, with minimal NO3 contamination in shallow, reactive groundwaters, and extensive NO3 transport at sites with high recharge and low reaction rates. This 1D model can be quickly applied to multiple sites to facilitate the understanding of factors controlling N fluxes in groundwater based on existing hydrogeochemical data.

  19. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  20. Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients‚Äô vulnerability. Patients‚Äô perspectives also highlight rural culture‚Äôs potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable‚ÄĒthat is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient‚Äôs point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in ‚Äúreferral games‚ÄĚ between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

  1. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Pant, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies from high income countries (HIC) have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally. Method Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013) were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM) of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data. Results Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC). Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01). Conclusions Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss. PMID:26162093

  2. Information Technologies: Do They Have the Potential To Bring Change to U.S. Rural Areas? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    Rural communities have long experienced an outmigration of talented people to urban areas for better employment opportunities. The traditional rural economic model, especially prevalent in Appalachia and the rural South, involves outside capital promoting industrial development separated from community needs and culture. This, at worst, is…

  3. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... residential rates in rural areas of the state served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers to urban...-rural incumbent local exchange carriers are reasonably comparable to urban rates nationwide if the rates... Service is available for public inspection at the Commission's Reference Center at 445 12th Street,...

  4. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems. PMID:26915207

  5. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  6. Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban‚Äďrural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (őļ‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (‚Č•0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

  7. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  8. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  9. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:Ö

  10. Handbook for Rural Students: Finding Employment and Adjusting to Urban Areas. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, D. Lanette; Vaughn, Paul R.

    Designed to help rural students find employment and adjust to life in urban areas, the handbook provides basic information in six subject areas. Part I focuses on getting to know yourself by assessing past activities, preferences, abilities, personality, limitations, and values. Part II explores aspects of jobs and careers: being career oriented,Ö

  11. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  12. Private and public health care in rural areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many low and middle income countries, the private sector is increasingly becoming an important source of health care, filling gaps where no or little public health care is available. However, knowledge on the private sector providers is limited The objective of this study was to determine the type and number of different types of health care providers, and the quality, cost and utilization of care delivered by those providers in rural Uganda. Methods The study was carried out in three rural districts. Methods included (1) mapping of health care providers; (2) a household survey to determine morbidity and health care utilization; (3) a health facility survey to assess quality of care; (4) focus group discussions to get qualitative information on providers and provider choice; and (5) key informant interviews to further explore service characteristics. Results 95.7% of all 445 facilities surveyed were private while 4.3% were public. Traditional practitioners and general merchandise shops that sold medicines comprised 77.1% of all providers. They had limited infrastructure and skills but were often located in the villages and therefore easily accessible. Among the formal providers there were 4 times as many private for profit providers than public, 76 versus 18. However, most of the private units were one-person drug shops. In the household survey, 2580 persons were interviewed. 1097 (42%) had experienced illness during the preceding month. Care was sought in 54.1% of the cases. 35.6% were given self-treatment and in 10.3% no action was taken. Of the episodes for which people sought care at a health care facility, 37.0% visited a public health care provider, 39.7% a for profit provider, 11.8% a private not for profit provider, and 10.6% a traditional practitioner. Private for profit facilities were the most popular for ambulatory health care, while public facilities were preferred for more serious conditions and for hospitalization. Traditional practitioners were many but saw relatively few patients. They were mostly used for social problems and limited medical specific conditions. Conclusions Private providers play a major role in health care delivery in rural Uganda; reaching a wide client base. Traditional practitioners are many but have as much a social as a medical function in the community. The significance of the private health care sector points to the need to establish a policy that addresses quality and affordability issues and creates a strong regulatory environment for private practice in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21106099

  13. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  14. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growthÖ

  15. The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

  16. Maternal child-rearing behaviors and correlates in rural minority areas of Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Liu, J; Liu, F; Guo, G; Anme, T; Ushijima, H

    2000-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of maternal child-rearing behaviors was conducted in the rural minority areas of Yunnan, China. An interview of 2019 rural mothers of Hani, Yi, Hui, Miao, and Han and 544 urban mothers with children younger than 7 years of age showed that 51.7% of these rural mothers placed their infants in swaddling clothes. In the rural sample, exclusive breastfeeding occurred at frequency rates of 76.7% and 34.2% during 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively. Maternal training and playing behaviors were reported less frequently, whereas physical punishment for children's misbehavior was more commonly found in the child-rearing behavior of rural mothers. Maternal child-rearing behaviors differed significantly among ethnic groups as well as between urban and rural areas. Maternal child-rearing behaviors were significantly associated with maternal education level, family type, family income, maternal age at delivery, and number of children in the family. Children's gender had no significant association with maternal child-rearing behaviors. PMID:10791479

  17. Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes‚ÄĒone based on occupation and the other on educational level‚ÄĒat the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ50¬†m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic. PMID:23351567

  18. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  19. [Lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly from rural and urban areas].

    PubMed

    Araķjo, Joana; Ramos, Elisabete; Lopes, Carla

    2011-12-01

    The perception of health status is essential for better planning in health, not only due to its role as a determinant of health, but also because it is related with the adoption of health-promoting behaviours. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly, according to their residence in rural or urban areas. We evaluated 80 individuals from Rebordelo, TrŠs-os-Montes (rural area) and 383 from Porto (urban area), with 60 or more years and with four or less years of education. Data were collected by trained interviewers, through a structured questionnaire, to evaluate social, demographic, health and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometric measures were also obtained. Leisure-time physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and fruit and vegetable consumption were the lifestyles evaluated. To evaluate self-rated health, each person rated their health status, according to five options (excellent, very good, good, reasonable or poor), later grouped into two: poor versus the others. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression, after adjustment for sex and education. About 41% of the elderly from the rural area and 32% from the urban area rated their health status as poor. In multivariate analysis, in the rural area, poor self-rated health was inversely associated with the practice of leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.22, 95%CI 0.06-0.80). In urban area, alcohol consumption was associated with a lower probability of self-rating health as poor (considering not drinking as reference, >0-15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.24-0.72; >15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.32-1.11). In the rural area, a positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and poor self-rated health was found (? 5 vs. <5 portions/day: OR = 5.21, 95%CI 1.14-23.83), while in the urban area there was an inverse association (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.45-1.25). Poor Self-rated health was inversely associated with leisure-time physical activity in the rural area, and with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the urban area. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with self-rated health in both populations, but while in the rural area the consumption of 5 or more servings per day was associated with a poor perception of health, in the urban area this association was in the inverse direction. PMID:22849889

  20. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 √Ī 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  1. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  2. Rural-to-Urban Labor Migration, Household Livelihoods, and the Rural Environment in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua

    2010-10-01

    Rural migration and its relationship to the rural environment have attracted increasing research interest in recent decades. Rural migration constitutes a key component of human population movement, while rural areas contain most of the world's natural resources such as land and forests. This study empirically evaluates a conceptual framework incorporating rural household livelihoods as an integrative mediating factor between rural migration and the rural environment in the context of rural-to-urban labor migration in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. The analysis draws on data collected through household surveys and key informant interviews from four villages. Results confirm the hypothesis that labor-migrant and non-labor-migrant households differ significantly in livelihood activities including agricultural production, agricultural technology use, income and consumption, and resource use and management. Implications for the subsequent environmental outcomes of rural labor out-migration and corresponding natural resource management and policy in rural origin areas are discussed. PMID:22207776

  3. Policy implications of a financial incentive programme to retain a physician workforce in underserved Japanese rural areas.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Existing evidence supports the effectiveness of a financial incentive policy for medical students and early-career physicians in return for obligatory rural service. But whether the experience of contractual rural service affects the physician's choice of practice location after the service is completed remains unknown. This study analysed the practice location of Jichi Medical University (JMU) graduates. JMU is a Japanese medical education programme with a contract system under which all graduates have an obligation to serve in underserved areas for about six years in exchange for a 6-year undergraduate tuition waiver. 484 JMU graduates who were under rural service in 2000 and had completed the service by 2006 were included in the study. The rurality of the communities was determined by population density quintiles. The proportion of those practicing in the communities with the highest rurality quintile in 2000 (30.8%) decreased dramatically (8.7%) in 2006, but the geographic distribution of the participants after contract was still biased toward rural areas compared with the distribution pattern of all Japanese physicians. The flow of participants from rural to urban communities was largely unidirectional. In 2006, 452 (93.4%) practiced in places with the same or lower rurality than in 2000, while only 32 (6.6%) practiced in places with higher rurality as compared to the placements of 2000. Multivariate analysis showed that service experience in the communities of the first and second highest quintiles of rurality was associated with choosing such places after contract, independent of known predictors of rural practice, such as having a rural background and primary care specialty choice. Although the effect of contractual rural service substantially decreased after finishing the service, the experience of rural service early in the physician's career had a positive impact on the later choice of a rural practice. The results from this study support the use of a policy that attracts early-career physicians to practice in rural areas. PMID:20542362

  4. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  5. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (‚Č• 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  6. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Emma C.; Purdue, Laura M.; Jamieson, Rob C.; Yost, Chris K.

    2015-01-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (‚Č•100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  7. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HCR, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

  8. Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Ujevińá, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovińá, Zoran; Pantelińá, Sasa; Neljak, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253

  9. Online communities of practice to support collaborative mental health practice in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    The provision of quality mental health services in rural areas continues to be an ongoing challenge for nurses and the patients they serve. The use of computer mediated communication to construct collaborative learning environments similar to those suggested in Wenger's community of practice framework has the potential to mitigate a number of the difficulties faced by rural health care providers. The author presents a brief discussion of social learning theories, the communities of practice framework, and related concepts. Examples of current online communities of practice used as a means for knowledge construction in various professional disciplines are presented in building the case for the fit between online communities of practice and the needs of nurses in rural mental health. Nurses providing mental health care in rural areas have documented needs for interdisciplinary teamwork, access to a collaborative learning environment, and ongoing contact with expert resources. The construction of online communities of practice could potentially address a multitude of concerns identified by nurses practicing mental health care in rural areas. PMID:21247275

  10. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 őľg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 őľg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment. PMID:25794574

  11. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

  12. Mental Health and Family Life among Kindergarten Children in Rural Areas. Rural Early Childhood Brief, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives - Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief presents selected findings from a rural analysis of the Kindergarten Cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) by the National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives in collaboration with Child Trends. Comparisons of rural and non-rural young children in the baseline data of the Kindergarten Cohort of the…

  13. Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

    1986-01-01

    Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart L of... - Housing in Underserved Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... funds under Rural Housing Targeting Set Aside (RHTSA) to designated areas that have extremely...

  15. Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Robbins, F.V.; Barnes, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

  16. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to begin looking for alternative practices that ca...

  17. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA III--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, A TOTAL OF 443 FIRMS AND AGENCIES IN 12 PARISHES (EXCLUDING TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS) WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE (1) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO JOB TITLES, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, (3) CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF JOBS, AND (4) TRENDS IN…

  18. Clinical research for older adults in rural areas: the MINDED study experience.

    PubMed

    Fougère, Bertrand; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine; Demougeot, Laurent; Cluzan, Céline; Cesari, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Due to the growing need to make clinical decisions based on valid and objective scientific evidence, the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has increased over the last three decades. Nevertheless, evidence-based medicine has still limited applicability in older adults, because they are often excluded from clinical trials. Evidence-based medicine is even more challenging in rural areas, as its remote environment provides additional barriers. Nevertheless, given the high prevalence of older adults living in rural settings, research in this type of environment has become crucial. This can only be accomplished by considering the multiple additional challenges of these regions. In this paper, we examine potential environmental, procedural, and participants' barriers to the management of a RCT in a rural area. Possible solutions and suggestions are provided based on our experience-from the Multidomain Intervention to preveNt Disability in ElDers (MINDED) project. PMID:26891623

  19. The applications of mobile telecommunications in new rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xia; Lu, Ting-jie

    2009-07-01

    With the current popularity of information and telecommunication technologies, more and more farmers recognize the important role of information. The urgent need for Chinese farmers is how to make use of information to get rich. Contrast in the newspapers, television, radio and other traditional media, mobile information services have unmatched advantages, such as wide spread in very low cost, spread source of widely dispersed, and diverse forms of communication, simple and easy to operate, with strong participatory and interactive, and so on. The paper proposes that Mobile operators can supply different information in accordance with personalized demands of farmers with various agencies, such as government departments, supply and marketing cooperatives, hospitals, banks, veterinary clinics, agricultural stations. They can unite to supply a number of convenience people, rich people, and love for the people's business through the message, voice, WAP and other forms to meet the needs of farmers. Besides, the paper points out that those farmers can order information on personalized service.

  20. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    PubMed

    D√ľzg√ľneŇü, Ertan; Demirel, √Ėner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in SalacńĪk Village of Ak√ßaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  1. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Conclusion Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country. Opinions des √©tudiants sud-africains en optom√©trie sur la possibilit√© de travailler dans les zones rurales apr√®s l‚Äôobtention de leur dipl√īme. Contexte Les probl√®mes des yeux et de vision sont plus courants dans les zones rurales qu‚Äôen ville; et une forte proportion de Sud-africains vit dans les zones rurales. Objectif Examiner les opinions des √©tudiants sud-africains en optom√©trie sur la possibilit√© de travailler dans les zones rurales apr√®s avoir termin√© leur formation et identifier les facteurs pouvant influencer leur d√©cision. M√©thode C‚Äôest une √©tude quantitative transversale utilisant un instrument de sondage contenant des questions semi-structur√©es ferm√©e et ouvertes. R√©sultats Quatre cent trente-huit √©tudiants ont r√©pondu au questionnaire (un taux de r√©ponse de 85.4%). En g√©n√©ral, un grand nombre de r√©pondants ne voulaient pas ouvrir leur premier (66%) ou deuxi√®me cabinet (64.6%) dans les zones rurales. Cependant, la plupart des r√©pondants originaires de la campagne ont r√©pondu qu‚Äôils ouvriraient leur premier cabinet (77.2%) ou leur second (79.4%) dans les zones rurales. Les raisons principales cit√©es par les r√©pondants pour ne pas vouloir travailler dans les zones rurales √©taient des pr√©occupations financi√®res (81.2%), la s√©curit√© personnelle (80.1%) et les mauvaises conditions de vie (75.3%), avec un plus grand nombre (p < 0.05) de la part des r√©pondants urbains pour les deux derniers probl√®mes. Conclusion Beaucoup d‚Äô√©tudiants ne voulaient pas ouvrir de cabinet dans les zones rurales, mais √©taient pr√™ts √† travailler pour le gouvernement ou une organisation non-gouvernementale apr√®s l‚Äôobtention de leur dipl√īme. Il faudra s‚Äôoccuper des incitations financi√®res, de la s√©curit√© et des conditions de vie dans les zones rurales. Les r√©sultats de cette √©tude ont des implications pour le futur de la disponibilit√© et de l‚Äôaccessibilit√© des services de soins oculaires pour ceux qui vivent dans les zones rurales et les r√©gions recul√©es du pays. PMID:26245620

  2. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ‚Č•1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ‚Č•1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  4. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  5. Center for Support of Mental Health Services in Isolated Rural Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarlo, James A.

    In 1994, the University of Denver received a grant to develop and operate the Frontier Mental Health Services Resource Network (FMHSRN). FMHSRN's principal aim was to improve delivery of mental health services in sparsely populated "frontier" areas by providing technical assistance to frontier and rural audiences. Traditional dissemination methods…

  6. Capacity Building Needs of Rural Areas in Virginia. Executive Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Berkwood M.; And Others

    To assess the capacity building needs of rural areas brought on both by internal demands of local citizens for improvements in community assistance and services and demands placed on local communities by higher levels of government, information and data were obtained from personal interviews with 93 local officials and 344 community leaders in 8…

  7. An Evaluation of Ascertainment Data Collection Methods Appropriate to Rural Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    Five data collection techniques and two sampling methods were examined in terms of costs, rates of return, quality of the data collected, and degree of representativeness in assessing needs and interests of public television viewers in rural areas. Data collection techniques were (1) mail only, (2) mail incentive, (3) telephone only, (4) mail and…

  8. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  9. International Education Year, 1970: Education in Rural Areas in the Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickermane, D. V.; And Others

    A general review of the progress of education in rural areas in the Asian region precedes articles from various countries. It is noted that the physical geography of the Asian region as a whole and the social conditions which prevail therein make up a panorama of variety and complexity which taxes the imagination and the ingenuity of those who…

  10. [Final Resolutions Adopted by the Conference on Planning of Rural Areas in Europe, 7 October 1978].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Two final resolutions were adopted by the Council of Europe at the October 1978 European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning. Resolution 1 focused on guidelines for the planning of rural areas in Europe. Strategies and policies called for: a more balanced development which makes the living conditions of different regions as…

  11. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitka, MiloŇ°; Stachov√°, Katar√≠na; Bal√°Ňĺov√°, ŇĹaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  12. Population Change and Migration in Rural Areas. Bulletin Index, Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardwell, John M., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews two recent publications about the revival of rural population growth through net migration into nonmetropolitan areas, focusing on nonmetro population changes, age, educational attainment, labor force participation, occupational and industrial changes, income changes, and housing. Lists 34 relevant publications addressing general…

  13. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  14. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been fewÖ

  15. Assessing the Costs of Foster Family Care in Rural Areas - Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Barbara H.; And Others

    A request to develop instruments for assessing local foster care costs provided the impetus to examine family foster care in depth. Based on data from original studies done in Delaware and nationally during 1974-75 and on review of other research available, the study examined the history and connection of foster care to rural areas in the United…

  16. Social Change, Anomy and Alienation in Low-Income Areas of the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong I.; And Others

    Theories of social change suggest that both anomy and alienation should increase among low-income people experiencing rapid social change. To more sharply distinguish the causal relationship between social change and the state of peoples' minds in rural and semirural areas of the South, separate hypotheses were developed for anomy (Durkheim's…

  17. Web-Based Strategies for Professional Induction in Rural, Regional and Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan

    In regional, rural, and remote areas of Australia, geographic and professional isolation take their toll on professionals, particularly in the first 5 years of practice. The attraction and retention of human service professionals and paraprofessionals in regional Australia is a significant problem affecting the sustainability and social cohesion…

  18. Local Instruction Theory on Division in Mathematics GASING: The Case of Rural Area's Student in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra; Suwasti, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on learning mathematics for rural area's student indicate that students have difficulty in understanding the concept of division operation. Students are more likely to be introduced by the use of the formula without involving the concept itself and learning division separate the concrete situation of learning process. This…

  19. The TELEPAC Project: A Service Delivery Model for the Severely Handicapped in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Atkinson, Charles M.

    Described is Project TELEPAC, a telecommunications-based system which provides instructional packets to parents of severely handicapped children in rural areas of Utah. In addition to the parent involvement packets which outline teaching methods, correction procedures and behavior management practices for arithmetic, language arts, self help and…

  20. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  1. Policy Options for Serving Autistic-Like Children in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balow, Bruce; And Others

    The document reports several policy options that address the issue of educating autistic children in rural and sparsely populated areas. A description of autistic children relates numerous problems, confusions, and disagreements about the nature and course of the handicap including lack of agreement about definition and treatment. The mostÖ

  2. Adolescent Drinking in Two Rural Areas of Mississippi: 1964 and 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampe, Gary D.

    The study examined the increase of drinking from 1964 to 1975 among teenagers enrolled in two high schools in different sociocultural rural areas of Mississippi. The sample was composed of students in two high schools located in a "wet" county and a "dry" county. A questionnaire was administered to 525 students in 1964 and 793 in 1975. Both years,…

  3. Providing Services for Handicapped Persons in Rural/Sparsely Populated Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherman, Richard

    The experiences of the 3-year Minnesota Severely Handicapped Delivery System Project have led to a model which utilizes resources of regional systems as key elements of a differentiated system for educational service delivery to the handicapped in rural areas and involves state education agencies, statewide regional centers, local education units,Ö

  4. 76 FR 82212 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations under 38 CFR... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO01 Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY...) proposes to amend its regulations in part 17 to establish a new program to provide grants to...

  5. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.228 Section 22.228 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive...

  6. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ‚Č•1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ‚Č•1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  8. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If studentÖ

  9. Better Country: A Strategy for Rural Development in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The report of the 25-member National Advisory Council on Rural Development, appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, defines rural needs and sets forth strategies for rural development in the 1980's. A review of the decade between 1970 and 1980 discusses rapid economic growth of rural areas, social progress, and changes in public service, and…

  10. Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Findings Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. Conclusions This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs. PMID:24025429

  11. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  12. The Hmong in Rural Areas: Critical Issues in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Landa J.; Krabo, Judith J.

    This paper discusses differences between the Hmong culture and American culture and resulting implications for provision of special education services. The Hmong population in the Fresno County (California) area has consistently grown since 1977, reaching approximately 26,500 in 1990. The major reason that Hmong refugees settled in agricultural…

  13. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  14. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  15. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  16. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  17. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  18. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed women…

  19. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  20. Sociocultural Differences Among Three Areas in Kentucky as Determinants of Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Donald Wayne

    In an effort to determine whether there are differences in areas of residence that affect the aspirations and expectations of young people living therein, this study examined occupational and educational aspirations of 1,835 rural high school seniors from 3 sociocultural contexts in Kentucky: (1) a low-opportunity, rural-poverty area in central…

  1. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey wasÖ

  2. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; SzymaŇĄska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases. PMID:21736280

  3. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  4. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  5. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  6. Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebenow, J. Gus

    Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

  7. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causalÖ

  8. The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

  9. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  10. Optimal School Location in Rural Nevada. Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, B-35, February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Ronald A.; Ching, C. T. K.

    In order to investigate the interaction of cost, quality, and efficiency in the provision of educational services in rural Nevada, synthetic cost functions were developed using a linear programming transportation model to identify optimal school district organization. Optimal school district organization was defined for specific levels of…

  11. Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

  12. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

  13. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0 őľg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9 őľg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17¬Ī0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  14. Climate change assessment for Mediterranean agricultural areas by statistical downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatella, L.; Miglietta, M. M.; Paradisi, P.; Lionello, P.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we produce projections of seasonal precipitation for four Mediterranean areas: Apulia region (Italy), Ebro river basin (Spain), Po valley (Italy) and Antalya province (Turkey). We performed the statistical downscaling using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) in two versions: in one case Principal Component Analysis (PCA) filter is applied only to predictor and in the other to both predictor and predictand. After performing a validation test, CCA after PCA filter on both predictor and predictand has been chosen. Sea level pressure (SLP) is used as predictor. Downscaling has been carried out for the scenarios A2 and B2 on the basis of three GCM's: the CCCma-GCM2, the Csiro-MK2 and HadCM3. Three consecutive 30-year periods have been considered. For Summer precipitation in Apulia region we also use the 500 hPa temperature (T500) as predictor, obtaining comparable results. Results show different climate change signals in the four areas and confirm the need of an analysis that is capable of resolving internal differences within the Mediterranean region. The most robust signal is the reduction of Summer precipitation in the Ebro river basin. Other significative results are the increase of precipitation over Apulia in Summer, the reduction over the Po-valley in Spring and Autumn and the increase over the Antalya province in Summer and Autumn.

  15. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. ); Vassilieff, I. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

  16. Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  18. Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of ruralÖ

  19. Rural Development: Third Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    In response to Section 901(e) of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report on the availability of government and government assisted services to rural areas presents developments pertinent to the objectives of the Rural Development Act of 1972. Presented via narrative and tabular data, emphasis is on the following: (1) net rural to…

  20. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.