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The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and ruralareas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention
Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and ruralareas…
North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.
It is a significant historical task to build socialism new ruralareas in the modernization process. Although the relative importance of agriculture is decreasing, it is still serving as the economic base and playing important role in economic development. Whether the farmers can share the fruits of economic development or not will affect directly the build of socialism new rural
The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agriculturalareas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in ruralareas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.
Ruralareas dependent on agricultural income, are often among the poorest in developing countries. However, little distinction is generally made within the agricultural sector. This lack of distinction hinders targeting of agricultural investments towards...
Despite accord about the existence of multiple benefits of agriculture to society, there is a diversity of views when it comes to actual policy implications. This can be explained by differences in agricultural and rural economic structures, different positions in agricultural trade and different stages of societal and socio-economic development. In addition, it can be attributed to differences in epistemological
The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in ruralareas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…
Most rural households lack access to reliable and affordable finance for agriculture and other livelihood activities. Many small farmers live in remote areas where retail banking is limited and production risks are high. The recent financial crisis has made the provision of credit even tighter and the need to explore innovative approaches to rural and agricultural finance even more urgent.
This is an exploratory, descriptive study based on a convenience sample from a rural nursing service and in-country area farmers from The Gambia. The purpose of the study was to provide descriptive information about agricultural-related injury and illness from area farmers and to obtain data from rural nurses about the time they spent caring for and treating farmers. Employees of
Kennith Culp; Rex Kuye; Kelley J. Donham; Risto Rautiainen; Michelle Umbarger-Mackey; Shannon Marquez
Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in ruralareas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit. PMID:19924473
This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.
Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.
About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas. PMID:19382147
The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future.
Presented at the SCANUL-ECS Conference held in Kenya 23-26 July 1998. Examines the opportunities of information technology (IT) in improving access, transfer and use of agricultural information in the ruralareas of Kenya. This paper has used the term “information technology” to include CD-ROM, computer networks, desktop publishing, interactive video, packet radio, expert systems, geographical information systems and satellite communications.
The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in ruralagriculturalareas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier
Atin Adhikari; Moon M. Sen; Swati Gupta-Bhattacharya; Sunirmal Chanda
The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of ruralareas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in
This paper discusses elements of trust in ruralareas in terms of trust influencing business processes, economic sustainability and business innovation in a regional and rural network context. Contrasting globalisation and localisation, the paper starts with a brief overview of cluster and network formation in general and highlights federal and state governments' renewed interest in industry collaboration through clusters. The
This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting
Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in ruralareas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development. PMID:12292191
The ruralareas in the world are experiencing an identity crisis: for example, in France some areas are losing population, while those that are growing find that the population is changing from agricultural workers to retired persons and blue-collar and white-collar employees. This report, which summarizes discussion at a recent Organisation for…
The inability to deliver cancer prevention and treatment to the rural population poses a significant barrier in the national effort to reduce cancer mortality. Since 25 percent of the U.S. population lives in ruralareas and few ruralareas are readily accessible to cancer centers or Community Clinical Oncology Programs (CCOPs), the prospects for accomplishing the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Goals for the Year 2000 are limited unless substantive changes occur in rural cancer care delivery. This article reviews the problem of cancer risk and care in ruralareas and describes one effort to deliver state-of-the-art cancer treatment to rural patients in Virginia. It describes the needs and barriers to access in rural Virginia, the structural elements of the Rural Cancer Outreach Program, and the health policy issues that result when subspecialty care is exported to disadvantaged areas. PMID:10122367
Desch, C E; Smith, T J; Breindel, C L; Simonson, C J; Kane, N
Eight papers on rural sociology which were presented at the 1969 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are included in this volume. Titles of the papers are "A Regional, Longitudinal Study of Family Adjustments in Low-Income Areas of the South" by Charles L. Cleland, University of Tennessee; "Inter-State Differences in…
As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agriculturalrural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…
At this moment, many nations of the world are engaged in providing humanitarian assistance to the rural people of Afghanistan. This assistance is of special importance because of the recent intensification of the Soviet program to depopulate those areas o...
This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a ruralagricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…
It is a significant historical task to build socialism new ruralareas in the modernization process. Although the relative importance of agriculture is decreasing, it is still serving as the economic base and playing important role in economic development. Whether the farmers can share the fruits of economic development or not will affect directly the build of socialism new rural
In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in ruralareas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…
Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated ruralareas in the past. United States ruralareas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)
Agricultural abandonment reflects a post war trend in western Europe of rural depopulation to which isolated and poorer areas are most vulnerable. The commercialisation of agriculture, through technological developments, and the influence of Common Agricultural Policy have increased productivity and focused agricultural activity on more fertile and accessible land thus transforming traditional approaches to farming. In many areas this has
D MacDonald; J. R Crabtree; G Wiesinger; T Dax; N Stamou; P Fleury; J Gutierrez Lazpita; A Gibon
The concentration of dental health services in urban areas creates a problem for the rural population of America. The problem is analyzed in this document by looking at the population distribution today and the ratio of dental services per population, the location of dental education resources, and the concern of society for the quality of living.…
ABSTRACT When,is a farm a farm? When is ruralrural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociologyworked,itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the possibility of a phoenixlike revival, although in new form. Three cases—the success
With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in ruralareas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.
This briefing interrogates ways in which approaches to reduce rural poverty through agriculture in what has been called the ‘second green revolution’ will affect rural farmers, especially women. As African governments face pressure to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there are growing fears that the proposed technological approaches to poverty reduction may be implemented too hastily, without taking into
This online book contains the collected papers from the first conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Center for the Study of Rural America. The conference explored new economic policies that would help rural America enter the digital economy. The papers, which must be downloaded separately, fall into three main categories: Rural America at a Crossroad; Seizing New Opportunities in Rural America; and New Directions for Rural Policy. The book also contains a keynote address by Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, the comments of several noted economists, and the transcripts of the closing discussion.
This report describes the activities of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, for the year ending June 30, 1987. During this fiscal year, CARD conducted numerous projects including the following: (1) a policy evaluation on agricultural applications of pesticides and ground water quality for the…
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development.
The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…
The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…
The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…
Thailand has experienced steady economic growth and structural changes in the economy in the last four decades that enabled her to gain a position among the newly industrialized nations. The structural changes associated with economic growth reflect the changing role of agriculture in the economy. The share of agriculture in GDP declined from 44% in early 1960s to 10% in
A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in ruralareas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…
Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret
An operational definition for "ruralarea" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…
Tourism is a major industry in Pennsylvania, second only to agriculture. This paper examines their nexus, the ruralagricultural fair. The Bloomsburg Fair provides an opportunity to explore risk management for tourism. This event, now in its 150th year, inundates a town of 12,000 with 500,000+ visitors in an 8-day period. Employing a survey of fairgoer behavior, this study explored
This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a ruralagricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…
Migration is a major continuing phenomenon associated with national and subnational development. The past, present, and future significance of migration on rural development and agriculture are reviewed in this paper. Data are cited which appear to be at variance with popular beliefs. The complexity of interrelationships between migration…
During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in ruralareas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.
This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came
Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in ruralareas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in ruralareas.
This paper provides an overview and comparison of labour markets in agricultural and ruralareas in the three candidate countries for the EU membership: Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. We analyse and compare the labour market structures and the factors driving them. The analyses are based on the available cross-section and time-series data on agricultural labour
Development of household biogas digesters in ruralareas and integrated use of agricultural wastes has changed the structure of rural household energy consumption and greatly increased the application of highly efficient organic fertilizer, improved soil fertility and promoted sustainable agricultural development. This paper mainly discusses the influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in ruralareas based
Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's ruralareas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's ruralareas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.
The main objective of the study was to determine the attitude of the coastal rural youth towards some selected modern agricultural technologies. Data were collected from randomly selected 91 coastal rural youth of Patuakhali district using a pre-tested structured interview schedule during 15 May to 31 May 2007. Attitude of the coastal rural youth towards some selected modern agricultural technologies
Agricultural land use and management practices may affect soil properties, which play a critical role in sustaining crop production.\\u000a Since the late 1970s, several new agricultural land use types had been introduced in the ruralareas of China. The purpose\\u000a of this study is to evaluate the effect of these land use changes on the soil properties, nutrient absorption rate,
Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and ruralareas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the ruralareas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.
In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural…
Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.
The Secretary of Agriculture reports that the government is seeking to keep already congested urban areas from having to cope with the extra 100 million people who may be added to the Nation's population in the next 30 years. (Editor)
This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to ruralareas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…
We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in ruralareas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has provisions covering telephone service, telecommunications equipment manufacturing, cable television, radio and television broadcasting, and the Internet and on-line computer services. Most critical for ruralareas are universal service provisions that ensure reasonably priced services to all regions and…
Stenberg, Peter L.; Rahman, Sania; Perrin, M. Bree; Johnson, Erica
Recent Chinese economic reforms target both agrarian and urban sectors. This paper discusses employment structure change in ruralareas and the interindustry movement of labor, with particular attention to relevant institutional aspects. The residencies and population system and the employment-welfare-insurance system are reviewed. Socioeconomic structure and labor market mechanisms in ruralareas are considered as the basis for the movement of labor; forms of employment and labor market characteristics in ruralareas are identified; and factors influencing job-related behavior of the work force in agricultural households, as well as mechanisms regulating interindustry movement of the work force are quantified. These issues are investigated only for the Sunan area and suburban villages near Shanghai. Review suggests that labor force movement within China's ruralareas has gained momentum despite institutional limitations. The rural employment structure has changed to impact the entire national economy. Village and township enterprises have helped raise income levels of farming households, industrialize and urbanize ruralareas, and strengthen ties between rural and urban areas. To sustain growth in rural and national economies, however, greater differentiation is needed between the functions of administrative and economic sectors, competitive principles should be introduced in ruralareas, and institutional restrictions on population and labor force movements should be relaxed. PMID:12285850
The economic effects of Government spending at public installations in ruralareas was investigated. Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, was chosen because of its location in a low-income ruralarea with relatively high outmigration, a declining agricultural industry base, and few employment opportunities. All of the data relating to Government spending…
DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…
Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
Belize (formerly British Honduras) has achieved a good deal of success with its Rural Education and Agriculture Programme (REAP). REAP was initiated in 1976 to create the attitudes and provide the skills necessary for rural youth to make meaningful contributions to the country's agricultural development. Initiated by an intraministerial and…
This paper provides an overview of the impacts of rural land use on lowland streamwater phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations and P loads and sources in lowland streams. Based on weekly water quality monitoring, the impacts of agriculture on streamwater P and N hydrochemistry were examined along a gradient of rural–agricultural land use, by monitoring three sets of ‘paired’
H. P. Jarvie; P. J. A. Withers; M. J. Bowes; E. J. Palmer-Felgate; D. M. Harper; K. Wasiak; P. Wasiak; R. A. Hodgkinson; A. Bates; C. Stoate; M. Neal; H. D. Wickham; S. A. Harman; L. K. Armstrong
The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of ruralareas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…
Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in ruralareas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or ruralareas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and ruralareas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities.
Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C
This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…
Agricultural employment is the decisive factor for rural well-being in developing countries, like Africa, as well as in many eastern European transition countries. This is because, differently from Western Europe, there are, in many regions, almost no other employment opportunities than farming. Therefore, the decrease of agricultural employment opportunities yields social and economic distress, especially for the most vulnerable, the
Continued economic stagnation, civil unrest, rural-urban migration, and a series of natural disasters have impeded efforts in the Sudan to integrate women into the development process. Although the Four-Year (1988-1989 to 1991-92) Salvation, Recovery, and Development Programs Plan does not explicitly addresses women's issues, its emphasis on food security, appropriate technology for the agricultural sector, small-scale industries and handicrafts, balanced regional development, and the needs of the poorest 20% of the population guarantees that women will be major recipients. There remains a need, however, to increase women's participation in the development planning process and to base projects on reliable data on women's economic activities. More successful in defining women's needs have been community development projects--Western Savannah Development Corporation, Blue Nile Integrated Rural Development Project, Nuba Mountain Project, and Jebel Marra Rural Development Project--that combine income generation, social welfare, and agricultural research. It is recommended that all such large integrated rural development or agricultural projects allot funds specifically for women's activities and ensure coordination with women's organizations to avoid duplication and identify areas of greatest need. Also urged is the development of appropriate technologies that will alleviate women's double burden of poverty and household chores and address the inequitable distribution of income. Establishment of a women's bureau for women's affairs and development within the National Planning Department would facilitate project formulation and evaluation. In need of change if women in development projects in the Sudan are to be successful are laws that limit female land ownership and practices that deny women loans and credit. PMID:12319276
Discusses the future of libraries in ruralareas, the role of the community, and possible effects of changing technology in telecommunications. Topics include a historical background, including the Rural Electrification Administration; networking technology; an example of a RuralArea Network in Colorado; and new roles for libraries and…
This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and ruralareas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…
Examines the effect of the British educational scholarships created by the 1921 Corn Production Acts (Repeal). Points out that the act enabled sons and daughters of agricultural laborers to attend secondary schools in order to obtain agricultural education. Concludes that the scholarships helped the rural youth, the agricultural economy, and the…
This paper provides an overview of recent developments in rural labour markets in Bangladesh and also examines the trends and movements of agricultural productivity and real wages with annual data for the period 1950–2006. The paper links the movements of agricultural real wages to macroeconomic developments in general and agricultural development in particular. As part of empirical investigation, the paper
Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)
Land fragmentation can be an important drawback for the development of ruralareas. Due to the small size of the units, land management and planning are difficult from both the private and the public point of view. In some regions of Europe, land fragmentation can lead to the collapse of land-based activities such as agriculture and forestry. This process triggers
Francisco-J Ónega-López; Jose Antonio Puppim de Oliveira; Rafael Crecente-Maseda
This bibliography contains 137 entries of English-language materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database. Each of the bibliography's 137 entries pertains to some aspect of transportation services in ruralareas. Each entry, including books, reports, studies, and so forth, offers bibliographical information…
Developing nations could greatly improve the quality of life in ruralareas by adequately involving women in agricultural extension and training programs. Policy objectives of many developing countries neglect the contributory role of girls and women and often constrain them from seizing opportunities for individual development. In Nigeria, the…
Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for ruralareas must be regarded not as a…
This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in ruralareas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…
This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-ruralareas. We used representative child care survey data…
Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in ruralagricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices.
Although agriculture is the main occupation in rural Nepal, evidence suggests that households strive to diversify their sources of income. This paper investigates why this is the case. Using household data from the World Bank and information on rainfall for the various rural districts of Nepal, we find that occupational choice is highly correlated to the uncertainty associated with historical
Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
The fourth annual secretary of agriculture report on rural development progress (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) presents the most recently available status data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities, discusses examples of federal efforts to improve or expand…
Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in ruralareas. Rural regions take 50…
This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural
This paper explores issues in the development of linkages between tourism and agriculture in developing world situations, a key challenge for pro-poor tourism. It contributes to the limited literature on food sourcing by tourism accommodation establishments by analysing tourism–agriculture linkages in the food supply chains of 80 luxury African safari lodges (ASLs) in rural South Africa. The results disclose important
This paper explores issues in the development of linkages between tourism and agriculture in developing world situations, a key challenge for pro-poor tourism. It contributes to the limited literature on food sourcing by tourism accommodation establishments by analysing tourism–agriculture linkages in the food supply chains of 80 luxury African safari lodges (ASLs) in rural South Africa. The results disclose important
The capacity of agriculture to act as a familiar vehicle for development of young rural learners' literacy, numeracy, and other necessary life skills was examined through a literature review and case studies of the use of primary school agriculture (PSA) as a contextualizing subject in the following countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon,…
This paper provides a synthesis of the empirical literature on the key issues in agricultural and rural labour markets since the 1960s, drawing mainly upon studies from the United States and the European Union, but also including relevant material from developing countries. The contribution of this meta-analysis lies in its unique structure as it covers the main research questions that
A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…
[eng] From agricultural development to rural development . The case of semi-arid areas in Tunisia. . Development of ruralareas, when based only on promoting agricultural activities, often ends up in leaving large ruralareas less developped. This effect attest to the inability of agricultural activity alone to develop ruralareas, particularly those with low production potential, and to offer
This paper argues that efforts to develop community - based programs for the mentally retarded in ruralareas must address problems and issues that are somewhat different from those in urban areas. Such problems include a lack of services, facilities, dia...
Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-RuralAreas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart... Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300âAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-RuralAreas ER04NO09.012...
This study examined families' needs and expectations of child care services in a rural and remote area of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlighted the restricted number of child care options available in these rural and remote settings. Ways to best meet child care needs of these families were devised, based on findings. (JPB)
Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Morda, Romana; Clyde, Margaret
Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain ruralareas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…
The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…
This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…
In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…
This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World War II.…
Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722
These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in ruralagriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…
A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…
Research on rural life in Northern Nigeria was carried out through interviews with a stratified random sample of farmers in a district of Zaria Province. Among the findings were: roadside villages were more susceptible to accepting the use of fertilizer and other innovative agricultural practices than more remote settlements; women hold different…
This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…
Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.
While there is widespread agreement that the spread of new technology crops in India since the mid-1960s has affected rural wages, there is considerable disagreement over the nature of this effect. The existing literature has posed this problem in a demand–supply framework – with a rise in agricultural wages ascribed to increased labour demand caused by this technology change, and
Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…
Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.
The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agriculturalarea in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...
3 Abstract: A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau ruralarea of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of
Muna A. Abdalla; Saad A. Sulieman; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdul Gader H. Khattab
The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in ruralagriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.
In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…
Context: An implicit objective of a state's investments in medical education is to promote in-state practice of state educated physicians. Purpose: To present a tool for evaluating this objective by analyzing the "pipeline" from medical education to patient care, primary care, ruralareas, and underserved areas in Pennsylvania. Methods: AMA…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a market efficiency theoretical framework to analyse and postulate solutions to the challenges confronting China in engaging smallholders in higher value, specialty, agricultural product markets. A marketing experiment\\/trial to test these ideas is evaluated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case of fine-wool marketing is used to illustrate issues associated with specialty product
\\u000a A common reason for rural demographic change is peri-urban or peri-metropolitan in-migration. This pattern inevitably causes\\u000a the loss of farmland\\u000a on the edge of the city. Agricultural land reduction in this spatial context has received attention from a large body of\\u000a international literature. The focus of this chapter is the strategic value, in productive terms, that fringe farmland represents\\u000a as
Aiming at the problem of the low rate of land utilization, poor living conditions in rural residential area, this paper puts forward the concept of new rural residential area construction which of the characteristics such as clear aim, sustainable development, systematic construction, regional differences, urban-rural coordination, and diversity of subjects. It also analyzes the problems and the reasons of rural
The shortage of physicians is of great concern in Japan. We aim to assess the pediatrician workforce in ruralareas of Japan. Data were obtained from a governmental survey that included the number of physicians and child population in each municipality (i.e., 888 cities and 1,466 towns, villages, or ruralareas). The supply of pediatricians was evaluated by physician-to-child population ratios of pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice, and geographical distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini indices. Lorenz curves are drawn to visualize geographical mal-distribution of physicians and the Gini indices range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating larger inequity in physician distribution. Between 1996 and 2004, the numbers of pediatricians per 100,000 children increased from 69 to 84 and this increase was constantly observed both in cities, and towns/villages. Lorenz curves showed that both pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were relatively equally distributed in cities. The Gini indices in 1996 and 2004 were 0.337 and 0.321, respectively in pediatricians and 0.264 and 0.278, respectively in non-pediatricians in pediatric practice. In contrast, pediatricians were unequally distributed in ruralareas (the Gini indices; 0.723 and 0.703, respectively). In such areas, non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were more equally distributed than pediatricians (0.419 and 0.482, respectively). These results suggest that non-pediatricians in pediatric practice have played a significant role in supporting pediatric care in ruralareas. In conclusion, the absolute numbers of pediatricians increased in Japan between 1996 and 2004; however, they were mal-distributed in ruralareas. PMID:19346735
The use of the Child Care Development Block Grant (CCDBG) in combination with other funding has been an important factor in the development of initiatives to expand and improve child care services in ruralareas. Based on their personal knowledge, a technical advisory group and experts recommended states with innovative, unique, and successful…
Hybrid energy system is an excellent solution for power generation in ruralareas where the grid extension is difficult and uneconomical. It is a combination of two or several energy sources such as solar photovoltaic, wind, micro hydro or diesel generators. This offers the advantage that the strengths of each type of sources can be used to complement one another.
This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral ruralareas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…
In the experimental project reported, the U. S. Office of Economic Opportunity delegated its resources to the Pennsylvania Department of Community Affairs for the purpose of comparing public and private sector approaches to social planning in ruralareas. A private agency, Community Services of Pennsylvania, was designated by the Department of…
The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the ruralareas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…
A summer institute trained 18 teachers to identify and plan curriculum for gifted minority and disadvantaged young children from culturally different and remote ruralareas. Theory and practicum emphases were included in the program. Teachers were trained in the Structure of the Intellect (SOI) model. Sixty-eight children from the Alpine (Texas)…
Experience in the control of tetanus neonatorum (TN) in a ruralarea is presented. TN was reduced by training of dais, increasing the coverage of tetanus toxoid to pregnant women and distribution of presterilized delivery kits to pregnant ladies for use by birth attendants. The problems of untrained birth attendants, effectiveness of tetanus toxoid coverage and place of delivery are discussed. PMID:1937645
The main purpose of this paper is to assess the competitiveness of the SIRIUS1 Irrigation Project in the Cazasu RuralArea – North Braila Terrace. SIRIUS aims to establish innovative and new service capacities for the irrigation water management user community with the vision of bridging and integrating sustainable food production with fair economic competitiveness, and within wise water governance
The Social and Rehabilitation Service granted the Alaska Division of Public Welfare funds to train and employ qualified Native village people as paraprofessionals who could provide the social services needed while living right in the village. The RuralAreas Social Services Project (RASS), a demonstration and training project aimed at bringing…
...2009-10-01 false Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication...54.101 Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support....
...2010-10-01 false Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication...54.101 Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support....
Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.
Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice
Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention.
Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo
A study was conducted from April 1993 through April 1994 to describe and compare the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural and a small urban area in Colorado. Twenty-five water samples collected at least monthly at the mouths of two tributary streams of the South Plate River were analyzed for 47 pesticides. The results indicate that both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources for pesticides in streams. In the agriculturalarea, 30 pesticides were detected, and in the urban area, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more samples. Most often, the more frequently detected pesticides in both areas also were some of the more commonly used pesticides. In both areas, pesticide concentrations were higher during the summer (application period) with maximum concentrations generally occurring in storm runoff. The year-round detection of some pesticides in both areas at consistently low concentrations, regardless of season or streamflow volume, could indicate that these compounds persist in the shallow alluvial aquifer year-round.
Abstract Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in ruralareas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to ruralareas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes. Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital. The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country’s need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals.
Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in ruralarea to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in ruralarea often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time
Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for ruralareas. Results show minimal…
Endogenous entrepreneurship is nowadays seen as an important strategy for rural development and an important way to achieve competitiveness in rural and peripheral areas. However, ruralareas are characterized by low densities. In such circumstances entrepreneurship is particularly difficult. Nevertheless, innovative entrepreneurship can be found in these areas. The concept of innovation is discussed and the marketing concept is introduced
...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a ruralarea set forth...
...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a ruralarea set forth...
The new Rural Development Regulation of the EU reflects the shift of attention within ruralareas from agricultural production towards rural development and embraces both, farmers and non-farm residents. While agricultural production is required to comply with environmental standards, ruralareas also have to fulfil the growing demand for landscape, outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation. This paper develops a model
Purpose – After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The situation is worse in the ruralareas. There is, therefore, the need to better understand the constraints and challenges of water supply, especially in the ruralareas of
This paper discusses differences between the Hmong culture and American culture and resulting implications for provision of special education services. The Hmong population in the Fresno County (California) area has consistently grown since 1977, reaching approximately 26,500 in 1990. The major reason that Hmong refugees settled in agricultural…
Background In many countries, ruralareas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term ruralarea is often poorly defined. However ruralareas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify ruralareas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and ruralareas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and ruralareas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, ruralareas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage.
With the development of rural economy, consolidation of rural housing land has been focused on by officials and scholars. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts of rural household's willingness to use rural housing. This paper took Banan District in Chongqing as a case study and explored the impacts of the rural households’ willingness to moving to the
Xinyue Yang; Chaofu Wei; Yong Liu; Yan Ouyang; Longran Chang
An attempt to eradicate murine typhus fever by control of rats and rat-fleas in rural foci was carried out in Georgia between July 1953 and May 1954. Anticoagulant rat poisons and DDT powder were the principal agents used. Rats were eliminated from 89% of rat-infested premises and satisfactory flea reduction was achieved. Although premises cleared of rats have become reinfested at a rate of 25% 10-18 months after clearance, typhus fever has apparently been eliminated. On the results reported, the authors believe that eradication of murine typhus fever from ruralareas is economically and practically feasible, and that plague in commensal rats may also be eliminated by measures similar to those adopted in this experiment.
The findings of a study conducted in the ruralareas around Jajaigarh, Delhi to collect information about different indigenous preparations, practices and rituals which the rural population maintain have abortion-inducing effects are presented. The resource persons interviewed include indigenous midwives, private medical practitioners, old women of the villages, teachers and barbers. Also contacted were maternity and child health workers. The 9 abortion-inducing practices reported are described. Some of the techniques have been recorded and some have some scientific basis causing abortion. For example, the administration of quinine is known to cause abortion. No scientific evidence is available to substantiate the efficacy of some of the methods, yet the resource persons providing the information were absolutely confident regarding their favorite methods. The resource persons were known to practice their favorite methods successfully. PMID:6903341
The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.
...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in ruralareas? (a) General...section does not apply to a rural low-stress pipeline regulated under this part...
Migration into ruralareas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular ruralareas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…
Injury and illness among youth working on farms are important problems. The types of farm tasks performed by children and the ages at which they begin these activities have not been well characterized. This cross-sectional study characterized agricultural work performed by adolescents in a rural Iowa county to better understand the patterns and extent of exposures to agricultural risk factors. This information will help to develop prevention strategies for agriculture-related injury and illnesses for children working on farms. The Keokuk County Rural Health Study is a prospective cohort study of randomly selected households in Iowa. In Round 2, all youth, aged 12 to 17 years participating in this population-based study, were asked about their use of farm machinery, work with livestock, pesticide handling, and other farm activities. The age at which they actually began these activities, the age they believed youth should start these activities, and sources of health and safety training they received were also ascertained. Adults in the study were asked the same questions about youth. Matched parental reports and opinions were compared to their children's reports and opinions using McNemar's chi-square tests. A total of 143 youth and 684 adults with farming experience completed the interviews. There were 118 pairs of parents and youth. Fifty percent of male youth, and 18 percent of females had performed agricultural work at some time in their life. Twenty-five percent of all male youth, and 5 percent of females were currently working on farms. Close to 30 percent had driven tractors, all-terrain vehicles, and pick-up trucks. Despite the legal prohibition of hazardous work by children under age 16, several younger children reported that they had driven a self-propelled combine, worked in silos, or handled and applied fertilizers in the past 12 months. Youth began riding on tractors at a mean age of 7. The mean ages for driving tractors and all-terrain vehicles were 11 and 10, respectively. The mean age for driving a self-propelled combine was 13. Children began applying or handling fertilizers at the age of 12. There were discrepancies between parent and youth reports regarding the frequencies, starting age, and opinions relative to performing agricultural tasks. These results suggest the need for implementing guidelines, particularly for age appropriate agricultural tasks. PMID:12746065
Park, Hyesook; Reynolds, Stephen J; Kelly, Kevin M; Stromquist, Ann M; Burmeister, Leon F; Zwerling, Craig; Merchant, James A
Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in ruralareas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…
50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 11 Ç 2013-10-01 Ç 2013-10-01 Ç false Ç Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-RuralAreas Ç 5 Ç Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES Ç INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Ç...
Background A shortage of health professionals in ruralareas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers’ perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. Results Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. Conclusions From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing.
...2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... Â§ 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...
Development projects conducted in ruralareas in Honduras have not had the desired impact on rural dwellers' lives. The recently launched National Program of Sustainable Rural Development was created by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock with the intent of coordinating the interventions managed by a variety of projects in ruralareas, with the overall goal of assisting rural families
To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing ruralareas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…
Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in ruralareas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256
Photovoltaic (PV) applications for ruralareas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.
Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.
Agriculture is the basic industry of the national economy, and agriculture is a so important industry especially for China. Therefore, the healthy development of agriculture and rural economy affects the overall situation of our national economy. It has important practical significance to study modern logistics system in ruralareas. The core of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on modern rural logistics construction
Three progressively worsening injury scenarios were used to determine the influence of distance from medical services on the anticipated illness behaviour of rural and remote area residents. A total of 801 householders were interviewed in two ruralareas of Queensland. Australia (320 in a coastal area and 481 in an inland area). There was a consistent trend with distance of
Although 46% of the Romanian population lives in ruralareas, little is known about injuries and violence rural residents experience. Research worldwide consistently shows that farm related activities are a major cause of rural injuries. While such injuries can result in considerable suffering and financial losses, little data are available on the prevalence and potential causes of injuries, especially among
D Rus; R M Chereches; F Oprescu; I A Dirle; C Peek-Asa; A Stromquist
There is a growing interest in the potential contribution of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to rural economic development, as reflected in the Rural Development Commission's strategy for the 1990s. Using some evidence on the development of mature manufacturing SMEs in remoter ruralareas during the 1980s and comparing them with similar urban based firms, the paper shows that
USE OF PRIVATE LAND IN RURALAREAS FOR RECREATIONAL FACILITIES WOULD PROVIDE A NEW SOURCE OF INCOME TO THE RURAL POPULATION WHILE MEETING INCREASING RECREATIONAL NEEDS. IT IS THE ROLE OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE AT THE STATE AND LOCAL LEVELS TO EDUCATE THE RURAL POPULATION IN UTILIZATION OF RECREATIONAL RESOURCES. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN…
This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the conceived areas.
Background Seasonal variation in fruit and vegetable consumption has been documented in a limited number of previous investigations and is important for the design of epidemiologic investigations and in the evaluation of intervention programs. Objective This study investigates fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors among Hispanic farmworkers and non-farmworkers in a ruralagricultural community. Methods A larger study recruited 101 farmworker families and 100 non-farmworker families from the Yakima Valley in Washington State between December 2004 and October 2005. All families were Hispanic. An in-person administered questionnaire collected information on consumption of locally-grown fruits and vegetables and sources of obtaining fruits and vegetables. Data on dietary intake asked whether or not the respondent had consumed a given fruit or vegetable in the past month. Data were collected longitudinally coinciding with three agricultural seasons: thinning (June–July); harvest (September–October); and, non-spray (December–January). Statistical analyses performed Generalized estimating equations were used to test for statistical significance between proportions of the population who consumed a given fruit or vegetable across agricultural seasons. Multivariable logistic regression was performed and corresponding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results The proportion of respondents who ate apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, peppers, corn, and cucumbers was highest in the fall harvest season, whereas the proportions of those who ate cherries and asparagus were highest in the summer thinning season. Compared to non-farmworkers, a higher proportion of farmworkers reported having eaten peaches, apricots, cherries, green beans, carrots, peppers, corn, pumpkin, squash, and onions, in the past month. Conclusions Epidemiologic investigations and public health interventions that examine the consumption of fruits and vegetables ought to consider the seasonal variation in consumption patterns, especially in agricultural communities.
Locke, Emily; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Kuniyuki, Alan
Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional ruralagriculturalarea), Halton Region (an area characterized…
This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.
Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in ruralareas. This 22-hour…
National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India).
Setting—Thirteen provinces of Iran, with a total population of 11.3 million for 1993–94. Methods—A descriptive epidemiological study, which obtained information about all deaths using a questionnaire from 6267 Health Houses (rural health centres) for one year, 1993–94. Subjects were residents who died from unintentional injuries. Results—Crude mortality rate was 4.33 per 1000. The number of childhood deaths from unintentional injuries was 1832 (16.6% of all deaths), more among males than females (43.7 v 31.2 per 100 000). Those under 1 had the highest rate, 114.7 per 100 000. The top three causes of deaths were traffic accidents (37.5%), drowning (17.9%), and burns and scalds (12.1%). Conclusions—During the past decade there has been a marked decline in deaths from infectious diseases in Iran. However, at present, a high proportion of childhood deaths in ruralareas are from unintentional injuries. Because all age groups and both sexes are victims of unintentional injuries, and most injuries are preventable, they must be considered as a priority health problem in Iran.
The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.
Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.
The benefits of Pathways Housing First in addressing chronic homelessness for persons with severe mental illness have been well established. However, the implementation and effectiveness of such programs in ruralareas has yet to be examined. We described the model's adaptations in Vermont, including the use of hybrid assertive community treatment-intensive case management teams, which consisted of service coordinators with geographically based caseloads (staff/client ratio of 1:20) and regional multidisciplinary specialists. The program's innovative and widespread inclusion of technology into operations facilitated efficiency and responsiveness, and a pilot telehealth initiative supplemented in-person client visits. The program achieved a housing retention rate of 85% over approximately 3 years, and consumers reported decreased time spent homeless, demonstrating that program adaptations and technological enhancements were successful. PMID:24148038
Stefancic, Ana; Henwood, Benjamin F; Melton, Hilary; Shin, Soo-Min; Lawrence-Gomez, Rebeka; Tsemberis, Sam
This study on the role of energy in the development of ruralareas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when ruralareas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of ruralareas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.
The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)
Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)
Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agriculturalarea, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05).
Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.
Context: Approximately 20% of North Americans and 25% of Europeans reside in ruralareas. Planning and providing end-of-life (EOL) care in ruralareas presents some unique challenges. Purpose: In order to understand these challenges, and other important issues or circumstances, a literature search was conducted to assess the state of science on…
Wilson, Donna M.; Justice, Christopher; Sheps, Sam; Thomas, Roger; Reid, Pam; Leibovici, Karen
Based on a field study conducted in August 1993 by the author, this article discusses the experimental program of old-age insurance in ruralareas of China. The achievements made so far, the feasibility of old-age insurance in ruralareas, and the problems encountered by the program are discussed. Policy recommendations regarding maintenance of the value of the premium, legislation, management
Changes in market organisation, climatic conditions and societal demands on food quality, animal welfare and environmental quality have created new conditions for farming families as well as for researchers and policy makers. New social, technical and economic solutions are needed for farming and ruralareas. This book presents new perspectives for farms, farm products and ruralareas, many of which
Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in ruralareas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…
Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola
Since unification in 1990, living conditions in Germany’s “New Länder” have slowly converged to the conditions in the “Old Länder”. One can assume, however, that West–East differences persist more strongly in remote ruralareas neglected by economic development. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate and compare the living conditions of older adults in ruralareas in East and West Germany
Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in ruralareas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,
Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in ruralareas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,
Suicide rates in ruralareas are significantly higher than they are in urban areas for men of all ages and for young women.a Research shows that many people visit their primary care physician instead of a mental health provider for mental health problems....
We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40Crppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07Nippm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91Cdppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53Pbppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural
Or?owski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemys?aw; Wuczy?ski, Andrzej; Polecho?ski, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D
Loss of a general surgeon in a rural community cna alter the referral patterns, the image and utilization of the local hospital, and even the market share of local primary care physicians. Prior research has not defined the necessary and/or sufficient conditions for a rural county to be able to support a local general surgeon. Based upon empirical analysis of 96 rural Missouri counties and the limited literature available on rural surgeons and physician referral rates, a first approximation of those conditions are offered. We conclude that a rural county with a hospital, a population base of more than 15,000 people, and at least 11 potential referring physicians has sufficient conditions to enable it to support a local general surgeon. Among those rural Missouri counties not meeting the above conditions but having a general surgeon in 1984, we estimate that 8 to 10 potential referring physicians appear to be the minimum necessary condition for supporting a rural general surgeon through patient referral. From those conclusions, we argue that any rural hospital currently without a surgeon should re-examine its situation. To prepare for a competitive future, such a hospital should take every opportunity to expand the referral base necessary to support a full-time local surgeon rather than place long-term reliance upon itinerant general surgeons. PMID:10304467
Glenn, J K; Hicks, L L; Daugird, A J; Lawhorne, L W
The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead.
Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…
THE COURSE OFFERINGS IN SOME JUNIOR COLLEGES FAIL TO MEET ADEQUATELY THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH. A STUDY IN 1964 REVEALED THAT ONLY TWENTY OF THE SEVENTY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA OFFERED TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, ALTHOUGH THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED "DIRECTORY OF JUNIOR COLLEGES" SHOWS AN INCREASE TO SIXTY. FURTHER STATISTICS REVEAL THAT 253…
Today, less than 3% of the 250,000 plant varieties available to agriculture are in use. Sources of (agricultural) biodiversity are under threat and disappearing in many regions. Increasing industrialisation of agriculture and top-down agricultural research have contributed to this dependence on a relatively few plant varieties. This article argues that new approaches to agricultural development research are needed to conserve
During the transformation of the agro?technology extension system in rural China, many new policy experiments are emerging to rebuild the lost linkages and to improve technology transfer with the system and among systems. Applying the Triple Helix Model of academy?agriculture?government relations, this paper explores a new pattern of technology transfer with the case of BaojiCity. The authors interpret the mechanism
A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…
... rural territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www. ... Sources that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The ...
The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.
The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in ruralareas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the ruralareas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…
Studies of rural populations typically underrepresent lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This secondary analysis examined data from a nationwide sample of LGBT baby boomers (n = 1201). Geographic differences with respect to self-reported outness, acceptance of sexual identity, social and familial support, and household income were assessed with one-way analyses of variance. Guardedness about one's sexual identity and household asset levels were assessed with chi-square analyses. Rural individuals reported lower levels of outness, guardedness with people including siblings and close friends, and lower levels of household income. Providers should consider strategies for connecting older rural LGBT adults for potential care and support. PMID:23350566
Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress.
Most research on female sex workers is urban-based, emphasizing economic necessity and risk-taking. Few authors discuss sex workers and their children. The objective of the present study was to ethnographically explore the influence of street life on childrearing by women involved in sex work in agriculturalareas of the southeastern USA. Interviews took place with 38 women. Findings suggest that the sampled women followed the usual paths into substance use. Most began using substances before they began sex work, at which time use escalated to crack-cocaine. Children of 32 of the 34 women who were mothers were living separately from their mothers. None the less, mothers took an interest in children's wellbeing, and many visited them whenever possible. Their principal concern was assuring that children were raised in the best way available. One daughter followed her mother into sex work, and a few older children drank moderately. Several children had experienced abuse from persons other than parents, but the long-term effects of this abuse are unknown. PMID:16864221
Since the implementation of the economic reforms in 1978, there is a remarkable diversification trend in rural China characterized by an impressive development of rural enterprises. The main objective of this paper is to understand the forces driving this agro-industrial diversification which has important impact on the employment, incomes and welfare of rural residents. A particular attention has been paid
Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: 1) large metropolitan areas, 2) small metropolitan areas, 3) semi-ruralareas, and 4) ruralareas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and ruralareas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most ruralareas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-ruralareas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610
Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A
Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in ruralareas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…
The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…
Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta
Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…
Introduces a statewide child care resource-and-referral network that links programs together at the state level while linking parents and providers at the local level as a model for meeting child care needs in ruralareas. Suggests that the collaboration and creativity of rural community members and state-level leaders can ensure the best services…
Until recently, homelessness in ruralareas has received little recognition because of overwhelming assumptions about the urban-centeredness of homeless people and their needs. This paper seeks to build on recent research that has begun to uncover some of the problems and characteristics of rural homelessness, by suggesting two significant…
This study describes HIV education, prevention, and outreach activities, including barriers to providing these services, to clients in ruralareas of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. We present responses from 222 AIDS service and public health organizations. The questionnaire defined rural “as a town, village, or county with fewer than 50,000 people that is not part of
Miguel A. Zuniga; Robert J. Buchanan; Bonnie J. Chakravorty
The geographical remoteness of many rural communities from major centres of economic activity clearly affects the availability of public services, which tend to be concentrated in highly populated areas of industrial development. The potential benefits accruing from the use of remote, ICT-based services are therefore particularly apparent in more isolated rural communities, which are often characterised by weak physical service
Researchers, planners, and policymakers are becoming increasingly interested in the rural economic development potentials of outdoor recreation. Empirical evidence evaluating this economic development potential, however, is almost nonexistent. In this article, results of a study that examined local economic effects of spending associated with outdoor recreation in selected ruralareas are reported. Recreational expenditures were collected as part of the
John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Gregory A. Ashley; Alan E. Watson
Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in ruralareas. Chapter 1 of this…
Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in ruralareas. This module deals…
In an effort to estimate some of the components of the net social costs and benefits of rural-to-urban migration, 161 Lexington, Kentucky migrants (randomly selected via census data) who had migrated from the rural, economically depressed area of Eastern Kentucky were surveyed in 1971 to gather information re: their last year in Eastern Kentucky…
...consideration will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of...
...consideration will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to ruralareas and cities with large concentrations of...
Planners in multicounty ruralareas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for ruralareas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…
Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agriculturalareas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799
Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M
The authors attempt to identify factors affecting the infant mortality rate in India using data on registered births and deaths among a rural population of about 35,000 in Dayalpur in 1975. PMID:721277
This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in ruralareas, while that…
Meshed with the bio-physical and economic dimensions of rural land-use is a social dimension. Understanding the social and economic dimension of rural communities is critical if agencies are to develop effective policies and programs to improve natural resource outcomes. In this paper, we draw on research of the Boorowa community, located in the south-west slopes of New South Wales, to
Digby Race; Robert J. Farquharson; Jim Birckhead; Don Vernon; Andrew D. Bathgate
The degradation of water quality in many groundwaters of Europe is a major source of concern. Rises in turbidity and nitrate concentrations represent present or potential threats for the quality of drinking water in ruralareas. They are for the most part a consequence of agricultural intensification which has considerably affected land cover and land use in recent decades. In our case-study (a karstic catchment) the mechanisms which explain changes in water quality, as far as turbidity and nitrate are concerned, result from a strong continuity between surface and underground waters. The karstic system of the Brionne Basin can be considered as both the focus of rapid horizontal flows (runoff, a rapid process in which rainwater reaches the spring directly through sinkholes) and slow vertical flows (leaching, in which rainwater filters through the soil to the spring). A hierarchical approach to the water pollution problem of the basin suggests that turbidity or nitrate concentrations peak during heavy rain episodes and are short-term events. In terms of management, this implies that the solution to water pollution caused by such events is also short-term and can therefore be addressed at a local scale. The rise of nitrate concentrations during the past twenty years is the main concern. The solution can only be found at a global scale (all the catchment area must be taken in account: land plots and their spatial configuration), and by taking a long-term approach. PMID:11505765
To determine the short term effects of a large apparel plant on the economy of a relatively isolated, highly rural Ozark area (8 counties), characterized by low income and few employment opportunities, this study compared 1959 data on the study area and the state of Arkansas with similar post plant data (1960-1963). Data were compared on income…
A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity. PMID:12286961
Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agriculturalarea, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.
Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.
Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In ruralareas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863
In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in ruralareas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerni...
Objectives: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in ruralareas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Design: Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. Results: As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in ruralareas. Conclusions: Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash.
This guidebook provides guidelines and tools to help providers of transit in rural and small urban areas make employee compensation decisions. These decisions are critical to the economic health of your organization and can provide the key to good custome...
Inhabitants of ruralareas are not spared deprivation. In May 2013 Médecins du Monde created a Health and Coordination Support Network in Auvergne with the aim of reintegrating them into the general healthcare system. PMID:24881237
The Small Business Administration (SBA) and the Rural Development offices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture both work in ruralareas to foster economic development by promoting entrepreneurship and community development. This report discusses (1) the ...
Rural migration and its relationship to the rural environment have attracted increasing research interest in recent decades. Rural migration constitutes a key component of human population movement, while ruralareas contain most of the world's natural resources such as land and forests. This study empirically evaluates a conceptual framework incorporating rural household livelihoods as an integrative mediating factor between rural migration and the rural environment in the context of rural-to-urban labor migration in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. The analysis draws on data collected through household surveys and key informant interviews from four villages. Results confirm the hypothesis that labor-migrant and non-labor-migrant households differ significantly in livelihood activities including agricultural production, agricultural technology use, income and consumption, and resource use and management. Implications for the subsequent environmental outcomes of rural labor out-migration and corresponding natural resource management and policy in rural origin areas are discussed. PMID:22207776
Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development, and has become a development\\u000a tool for many ruralareas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new\\u000a economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s. Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has
The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan ruralareas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all ruralareas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC). The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC) and all Kashan ruralareas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC ruralareas and all Kashan ruralareas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage ruralareas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage ruralareas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan ruralareas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important. PMID:21913499
Miranzadeh, M B; Heidari, M; Mesdaghinia, A R; Younesian, M
Both eulogised and reviled as a development option, rural tourism is increasingly viewed as a panacea, increasing the economic viability of marginalised areas, stimulating social regeneration and improving the living conditions of rural communities. Less developed countries, afflicted by debilitating rural poverty, have considerable potential in attracting tourists in search of new, authentic experiences in areas of unexploited natural and
Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the
S. J. Vermeulen; P. K. Aggarwal; A. Ainslie; C. Angelone; B. M. Campbell; A. J. Challinor; J. W. Hansen; J. S. I. Ingram; A. Jarvis; P. Kristjanson; C. Lau; G. C. Nelson; P. K. Thornton; E. Wollenberg
Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong ruralarea (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by  in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.
THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…
A rural land use project originated in the early 1970s when a landowner approached the University of Montana's Department of Geography asking for assistance in planning the use of more than 10,000 acres. The planning process evolved into four phases; the first three phases (biophysical assessment, capability analysis, and master planning) have…
Replicating the work of others who hypothesized that status inconsistancy increases political liberalism, this study involved a random sample of rural Michigan population. Utilizing multiple regression analysis, respondents were scored on the variables of occupation, income, education, religion, and political party preference. Hypotheses tested…
This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…
Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew
This paper examines perceptions of Native American students regarding effective practices of non-Native teachers. A survey of students in grades 3-12 in 3 rural school districts on the Navajo Reservation (Arizona) questioned 148 Navajo students and 10 non-Native students. The sample included 28 special needs students (17.7 percent). The survey…
In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.
Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.
Context: Community Health Centers (CHCs) and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) play a significant role in providing health services for rural residents across the United States. Purpose: The overall goal of this study was to identify the CAHs that have collaborations with CHCs, as well as to recognize the content of the collaborations and the…
Samuels, Michael E.; Xirasagar, Sudha; Elder, Keith T.; Probst, Janice C.
Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in ruralareas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…
Due to market imperfections and sexual division of labour, this paper takes interest in gender specific values of agricultural labour products (or shadow wages) and the problem of aggregating agricultural production activities. The paper analyses two farming systems instead of using an aggregated agricultural harvest under the presumption that households are restricted in choosing crop patterns and consequently limited in
Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was
Hilary E. Berkman; Charles F. Rabeni; Terence P. Boyle
Summarizing an Economic Research Service (ERS) publication, this guide to a balanced rural-urban growth describes the results of a computer based ERS model which examined seven strategies to improve rural economic development. Based on 1960-70 trends, the model is described as asking how much would be required of each of the following strategies…
The significant changes in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of human resources in rural Macedonia can be explained by the continued trend of emigration from villages to urban areas and abroad. The intensity of emigration has altered the demographic structure and reproductive base of the rural population, along with the income of rural households. The rural and agricultural labour market
The report of the 25-member National Advisory Council on Rural Development, appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, defines rural needs and sets forth strategies for rural development in the 1980's. A review of the decade between 1970 and 1980 discusses rapid economic growth of ruralareas, social progress, and changes in public service, and…
This paper reviews recent developments in rural labour markets in Australia. It examines trends in employment and unemployment in labour markets in capital city and non-capital city areas, and employment trends in the agriculture industry in Australia.
Many old coal-mining corporations in East China were previously flatlands and farmlands in a dominant position. After mining, the agricultural ecosystem deteriorated severely, and problems such as farmlands subsiding, bridges and culverts breaking, farmhouses damaged by crevices and so on, can be observed everywhere. Agricultural ecosystem rehabilitation (AER) becomes an important issue for sustainable development in this area because land
AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, A TOTAL OF 443 FIRMS AND AGENCIES IN 12 PARISHES (EXCLUDING TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS) WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE (1) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO JOB TITLES, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, (3) CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF JOBS, AND (4) TRENDS IN…
A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…
This paper summarizes a 22-month ethnographic study of rural Shandon (California), a community that demonstrates the social and demographic changes resulting from agricultural intensification in rural California. Changes in the Shandon area's agricultural production have produced a demographic shift from the homogeneous Anglo-American farming and…
The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km(2) scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total (TP), Dissolved Hydrolysable (DHP) and Particulate (PP) forms correlated with effluent markers (sodium and boron) and SRP was generally dominant signifying the importance of sewage sources. Low flows were particularly enriched in SRP, TDP and TP for average SRP>100microg/l indicating low effluent dilution. At particularly low average concentrations, SRP increased with flow but effluent sources were still implicated as the effluent markers (boron in particular) increased likewise. For ruralareas, DHP had proportionately high concentrations and SRP+DHP concentrations could exceed environmental thresholds currently set for SRP. Given DHP has a high bioavailability the environmental implications need further consideration. PP concentrations were generally highest at high flows but PP in the suspended solids was generally at its lowest and in general PP correlated with particulate organic carbon and more so than the suspended sediment in total. Separation of pollutant inputs solely between effluent and diffuse (agriculture) components is misleading, as part of the "diffuse" term comprises effluents flushed from the catchments during high flow. Effluent sources of phosphorus supplied directly or indirectly to the river coupled with within-river interactions between water/sediment/biota largely determine pollutant levels. The study flags the fundamental need of placing direct and indirect effluent sources and contaminated storage with interchange to/from the river at the focus for remediation strategies for UK rivers in relation to eutrophication and the WFD. PMID:20097406
Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Withers, Paul J A; Whitton, Brian A; Neal, Margaret
Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agriculturalareas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg/L/yr. Reaction rates tended to be highest in aquifers with low recharge rates and thin unsaturated zones, resulting in shallow depths of NO3 contamination. At sites where the denitrification rate was lower and the recharge rate was higher, the anthropogenic NO3 tended to extend deeper into groundwater. In summary, the combination of hydrologic and geochemical factors at these sites results in a wide range of NO3 fluxes, with minimal NO3 contamination in shallow, reactive groundwaters, and extensive NO3 transport at sites with high recharge and low reaction rates. This 1D model can be quickly applied to multiple sites to facilitate the understanding of factors controlling N fluxes in groundwater based on existing hydrogeochemical data.
Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.
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Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.
Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
This case study is set in a remote ruralarea of China--the Tianshui area of Gansu Province. It examines a strategy involving the use of Video Compact Discs (VCDs) to enhance primary education in these areas. Firstly, the challenging context of Tianshui area is described. Secondly, strategies for promoting rural education using VCDs and the…
Previous studies have suggested that men and women in ruralareas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in ruralareas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…
Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in ruralareas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a ruralarea may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: ruralareas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided.
Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A
In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340
Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R
Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and ruralareas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep ruralareas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and ruralareas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research.
Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's ruralareas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan
This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…
Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…
This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…
Land consolidation of rural residential areas is an important step for dynamic equilibrium of the total cultivated land. As a case of Jiayu county in Hubei province, an evaluation model of land consolidation potential was established based on 3 factors of policy index, households' willingness and spatial distribution, analyzed the realistic potential of land consolidation in consolidating areas and planning
Background The potential for widespread exposure to agricultural pesticides through drift during application raises concerns about possible health effects to exposed children living in areas of high agricultural activity. Objectives We evaluated whether residence in a county with greater agricultural activity was associated with risk of developing cancer in children < 15 years of age. Methods Incidence data for U.S. children 0–14 years of age diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2001 were provided by member registries of the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. We determined percent cropland for each county using agricultural census data, and used the overall study distribution to classify agriculturally intense counties. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all ages and 5-year age groups for total cancers and selected cancer sites using logistic regression. Results Our study results showed statistically significant increased risk estimates for many types of childhood cancers associated with residence at diagnosis in counties having a moderate to high level of agricultural activity, with a remarkably consistent dose–response effect seen for counties having ? 60% of the total county acreage devoted to farming. Risk for different cancers varied by type of crop. Conclusions Although interpretation is limited by the ecologic design, in this study we were able to evaluate rarer childhood cancers across a diverse agricultural topography. The findings of this exploratory study support a continued interest in the possible impact of long-term, low-level pesticide exposure in communities located in agriculturally intense areas.
Carozza, Susan E.; Li, Bo; Elgethun, Kai; Whitworth, Ryan
Theoretical and empirical issues are explored as related to the extent to which population growth, particularly population redistribution through internal migration, may influence land use patterns and the deterioration of natural resources. Conceptual approaches are presented including a model of the relationships among population growth, migration, and the rural environment. Population growth has direct effects on increased demand for fuelwood and food and land fragmentation. Indirect effects exist through the demand for food which puts pressure on land extensification and intensification which affects soil quality and out migration which affect deforestation and desertification. The prevailing natural resource endowments affect the extent to which extensification of intensification of agriculture takes place in a given time period, the forms in which it occurs, and whether demographic factors play a significant role. Current trends are described for population growth and redistribution, agricultural expansion, and deforestation, desertification, and soil erosion in low-income counties. Data are for 1990 in Asia (23), Latin American (23), and Africa (39) for 85 countries with a population 1 million. Also described are cross-country relationships and the implications. In Africa population growth rates have not changed substantially and the pressure on resources is significant, while dramatic declines have occurred in east and southeast Asia, in Latin America, population growth has changed considerably. Consequences of socioeconomic development are declines in the % of gross domestic product from agriculture and the agricultural labor force. Only Thailand, Nepal, Indonesia, and North Korea out of 23 Asian countries had increases in the % of total land used for agriculture and this resulted in deforestation. Levels were already high in 1965, with 8 countries having 20% of land in agricultural use and 4 countries having 15% in agricultural use. In Bangladesh and Indian 50% of land is used for agriculture. Latin American has lower levels of agricultural land use; Bolivia and Paraguay increased land use by 100%, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Paraguay by 50%, and 8 others by 20-50%. Africa has a small amount of agricultural land, with only 10 countries having 15% in agriculture. Irrigation and fertilization patterns are also described. Scattergrams are used to express the relationship between deforestation and increase agricultural land. The policy implications are specifically identified, and in general better data within countries and micro data (household surveys) are needed on resource depletion; national accounts need to include an appropriate computation for this. PMID:12158965
This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta ruralareas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.
In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and ruralareas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding ruralareas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the ruralareas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the ruralareas. Thus ruralareas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.
The cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems, internal combustion engine generator units and extending the main electric utility network as sources of electric power for remote rural locations have been compared by means of mathematical model incorporating the principal technical and economic features of these systems. Plant investment and maintenance costs were determined for each of the systems by including all of the identifiable principal costs in the model. The model does not, however, take into account failure modes, mean time between failures and mean time for repairs which are very different for the three types of systems and can affect the results of the analysis. The results of the parametric analysis on the most significant parameters are presented in charts which permit quick comparison of the principal features of each of the three kinds of power sources.
A simplified method of area-measurement system of farm machineries was proposed through the study of field test data, and a dynamic vehicle field area-measurement system based on GPS-OEM was built. In the test, the system represented (presented) high speed of information collection and high area measure accuracy with the error rate lower than 2%. The portability and convenience of this
Training is a key tool for community development processes in ruralareas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the ruralareas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…
Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon
The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Land use in the YBWA consists of white and wild rice fields, seasonally flooded fallow agricultural fields, and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. A recent assessment of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) loads indicates that the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous MeHg entering the Delta, and that biota from the Yolo Bypass are considerably elevated in MeHg. The current study examines benthic MeHg production and biogeochemical controls on this process, as a function of YBWA land use, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007 rice growing season (June to October). Preliminary results indicate that in the week following initial flooding of agricultural fields, prior to the establishment of rice plants, the microbial community in the 0-2 cm surface sediment zone exhibited very little potential Hg(II)-methylation activity compared to the permanent wetland habitat (as assessed via the 203Hg(II)- methylation assay). Approximately 1 month after flooding, rice plants were established and the activity of the resident Hg(II)-methylating microbial community had increased substantially in all agricultural fields, although the observed rates of MeHg production were still much lower than those observed in the permanent wetland setting. Ongoing field sampling includes analysis of reactive Hg(II) in sediments and of iron and sulfur redox species in sediments and pore waters.
Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Windham-Myers, L.; Alpers, C. N.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M. H.; Kakouros, E.; Wren, S. L.
Natural Areas are biogeographical zones which reflect the geological foundation, the natural systems and processes, and the wildlife in different parts of England, and provide a framework for setting objectives for nature conservation. This paper argues, with particular reference to agro-ecosystems, that there is a need for an integrated, whole countryside approach to Natural Areas based on the principles of
summaryOne Size Fits All? Regional Differentiation and Rural Development Policy<\\/title>Since enlargement the European Union has become more diverse in many socio-economic, demographic and agricultural respects. A recent research project sponsored by DG Agriculture (SERA - Study on Employment in RuralAreas) carried out a review of a broad range of regional statistics relating to rural labour markets. The results were
Andrew K. Copus; Mats Johansson; Ronald W. McQuaid
Large areas and the low per-area requirement of high speed digital data communications circuits have left and remote areas devoid of these services. Current available technology was designed to operate over relative short distances and requires that the client be situated within a certain distance (typical 7 km) of a central exchange. The most trivial solution to this problem must
A simple, easily operated, portable diagnostic kit, employing coagglutination reagents, has been developed for the rapid, bedside diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis. Field trials using this kit were conducted in a ruralarea of sub-Saharan Africa for identifying the etiological agents of meningitis outbreaks. West African village medical attendants were taught to use this kit and succeeded in making rapid specific diagnoses of meningitis cases. Other acute infections such as cholera and typhoid fever can also be rapidly diagnosed in a similar manner. This rapid diagnostic system offers appropriate technology in support of primary health care delivery in the ruralareas of developing countries. ImagesFig. 1
A manual on the production and use of biogas in the ruralareas of China is presented. The importance of biogas production for improving the agricultural level is stressed and its properties are explained. The basic principles in the construction and main...
Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and ruralareas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and ruralareas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and ruralareas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253
Ujevi?, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Sasa; Neljak, Boris
Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM)--similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in ruralareas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392
Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B
Intimate partner violence is a major health care issue, affecting nearly 6% of U.S. women annually. Multiple mental and physical health problems are associated with intimate partner violence, and billions of health care dollars are spent in trying to address the consequences. Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are roughly the same in rural and nonrural areas, rural survivors face distinct barriers in obtaining help and services. Because rural women routinely access health care services in nonrural as well as rural settings, it's essential that all providers understand the issues specific to rural survivors. Routine screening for intimate partner violence would create opportunities for women to disclose abuse and for providers to help victims obtain assistance and support that may keep them safer. This in turn would likely decrease serious health sequelae and lower health care costs. This article describes the unique aspects of intimate partner violence in rural populations. It also describes a simple screening tool that can be used in all settings, discusses ways to approach the topic and facilitate disclosure, and addresses interventions; relevant resources are also provided. PMID:24727408
This paper criticises the neo-classical assumptions of perfect factor markets and of complete information, which constitute central elements in labour market theory. Based on a literature review and on economic reports from transition economies, as well as developing countries and more advanced economies, this deliverable focuses on the structural impediments and imperfections that often characterise rural labour markets and that
In order to investigate the interaction of cost, quality, and efficiency in the provision of educational services in rural Nevada, synthetic cost functions were developed using a linear programming transportation model to identify optimal school district organization. Optimal school district organization was defined for specific levels of…
The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…
Meeting the health needs of individuals in rural communities involves addressing the challenges of complex multifaceted health problems, limited local health resources and services, isolation, and distance. Interdisciplinary collaboration can create solutions to health care problems that transcend conventional, discipline-specific methods, procedures, and techniques. This paper reports on the four-pronged approach of the Western Maryland Area Health Education Center used to prepare allied health students to be interdisciplinary team members in ruralareas. It describes the development of four interdisciplinary instructional team member training venues (in-class instruction, Web-based modules, service-learning programs, and faculty development workshops) that integrate opportunities to develop and practice interdisciplinary health promotion skills in rural communities. Challenges to implementing the model are described, including developing faculty and student training participation, integrating training venues into existing programs at participating institutions, and designing a unified program evaluation. PMID:16252679
Fertman, Carl I; Dotson, Suzanna; Mazzocco, Gail O; Reitz, S Maggie
Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0) x (1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1) x (0,1,1)24 has been developed for the ruralarea. In both sampling points, predictions of hourly ozone concentrations agree reasonably well with measured values. However, the prediction of hourly ozone concentrations in the rural point appears to be better than that of the urban point. The performance of ARIMA models suggests that this kind of modelling can be suitable for ozone concentrations forecasting. PMID:15975626
Dueñas, C; Fernández, M C; Cañete, S; Carretero, J; Liger, E
A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201
In northeast Texas, 47% of the adults over the age of 25 have not graduated from high school. Areaagricultural businesses are rapidly implementing new technologies and quality control measures, both of which require literate and highly trainable workers. To meet these needs, a partnership project was undertaken between Northeast Texas Community…
The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.
While much of traditional remote sensing in agricultural research was limited to the visible and reflective infrared, advances in thermal infrared remote sensing technology are adding a dimension to digital image analysis of agriculturalareas. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) an airborne sensor having six bands over the nominal 8.2 to 12.2 m range, offers the ability to calculate land surface emissivities unlike most previous singular broadband sensors. Preliminary findings on the utility of the TIMS for several agricultural applications and related atmospheric considerations are discussed.
Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week
T. M. Wilson; J. W. Cole; C. Stewart; S. J. Cronin; D. M. Johnston
This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa.
W. Andriesse; K. Boone; Bont de C; J. Brouwers; M. Hack-Ten Broeke; G. Migchels; O. Oenema; Peet van de G; I. Pinxterhuis; A. Smit; M. Stuiver; W. Sukkel; W. Verkerke; S. Verzandvoort; A. Visser; K. Zwart; M. Damen
This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…
One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to ruralarea residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…
North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.
The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to ruralarea residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…
North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.
The purpose of the Agricultural Waste Disposal Group was to increase knowledge on the key elements related to agricultural disposal in the recovery process following a wide area catastrophic incident. This workshop brought together multi-interests of the ...
The rural community mental health center tends to serve a large geographic area, have decentralized service delivery, require its professionals to function as generalists, and coordinate closely with other agencies. The last decade has seen an increasing strain placed on this pattern. As block grant and fee-for-service shifts resulting from the…
Wagenfeld, Morton O.; Murray, J. Dennis; Mohatt, Dennis F.; DeBruyn, Jeanne C.
Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in ruralareas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…
A case–control study was conducted in a ruralarea of Achaia in western Greece to examine the risk factors of brucellosis. The participants in the study were 414 (7.5% of the whole population of the investigated municipality). The cases (n = 140) were defined by clinical symptoms and confirmed by a positive standard agglutination test (SAT). All cases have been
Abstract The lack of health workers in remote and ruralareas is a worldwide concern. Many countries have proposed and implemented interventions to address this issue, but very little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions and their sustainability in the long run. This paper provides an analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to attract and retain health workers in remote and ruralareas from an impact evaluation perspective. It reports on a literature review of studies that have conducted evaluations of such interventions. It presents a synthesis of the indicators and methods used to measure the effects of rural retention interventions against several policy dimensions such as: attractiveness of rural or remote areas, deployment/recruitment, retention, and health workforce and health systems performance. It also discusses the quality of the current evidence on evaluation studies and emphasizes the need for more thorough evaluations to support policy-makers in developing, implementing and evaluating effective interventions to increase availability of health workers in underserved areas and ultimately contribute to reaching the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals.
The overall goal of this study is to review the state of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS), and to determine how far transit should go in implementing new technologies in rural and small urban areas. The objectives of this study are to: Provid...
An interdisciplinary team from the University of Kentucky did a three-year study (1965-1968) of the OEO-sponsored community action programs in a rural Appalachian area of southeastern Kentucky, Knox County. They delimited the population of the study, samp...
In 1994, the University of Denver received a grant to develop and operate the Frontier Mental Health Services Resource Network (FMHSRN). FMHSRN's principal aim was to improve delivery of mental health services in sparsely populated "frontier" areas by providing technical assistance to frontier and rural audiences. Traditional dissemination methods…
Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a ruralarea of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a
Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang
This manual focuses on the start-up and operation of low-cost transportation in ruralareas. A principal focus is the use of volunteers and/or the consolidation of rides through a brokerage program. Chapter One provides an overview of what financial and operating decisions must be made to design a volunteer system. Chapter Two describes easy…
Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor ruralareas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…
A request to develop instruments for assessing local foster care costs provided the impetus to examine family foster care in depth. Based on data from original studies done in Delaware and nationally during 1974-75 and on review of other research available, the study examined the history and connection of foster care to ruralareas in the United…
This cross-sectional study explored the incidence of farm injuries and the relationship between agricultural exposures and injury among 2053 adolescents aged 13-19 years in Macheng, China. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire was given to adolescents. The cumulative incidence rate of farm injury was 19.8%. Adolescents who were male, aged 10-15 years, left behind, working more days each month and living on the plains, reported higher rates. Specific agricultural exposures, such as large animals, pesticides and operating farm machinery were associated with higher injury rates. Prevention programmes are needed to reduce farm injuries. PMID:22936700
Purpose – Since the start of the twenty-first century China has stepped into a new stage of harmonious urban-rural development. Based on the brief review of policy changes since the new century, the purpose of this paper is to figure out the comprehensive policy framework, and analyze its background and reasons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, this paper offers a brief review
Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Findings Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. Conclusions This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs.
It has mainlv been the large landowners in Gondosari who have been in a position to take advantage of the modernisasi of agricultural production. Long before the seventies they enjoyed a dominant economic, social and political position in the village. Closely linked by family ties, they have occupied all the important positions (such as village head and members of the
Comparative statistics and the interaction of a group of experts provide the base for this study of occupational and geographic mobility of agricultural manpower. The countries studied were Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Emphasis was placed upon the transfer…
The adament refusal of Turkey to admit to a Kurdish question is a major source of human rights violations, social tension, political and economic instability, and an irritant in Turkey's relations with neighboring countries and the European Union. In the 1980s and 1990s Turkey, and in particular the areas predominantly populated by Kurds, was the scene of an increasingly bitter
In areas where the cold chain is non-existent or unreliable, Newcastle disease (ND) can be con- trolled in village chickens using thermostable ND vaccines. In order for ND control programs to be sustainable, the technical, social, cultural, administrative and economic issues such as community participation, gender sensitive extension activities, facilitating government policies, training of staff and farmers, cost recovery, and
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURALAREAS OF THE…
Help-seeking for emotional problems addressed to priests was compared with help-seeking addressed to general practitioners (GPs), psychiatrists and psychologists in two demographically different areas of Norway. Only small differences were found between the rural and the urban area, and a substantial proportion of people contacted priests for personal\\/emotional problems. This contact was not related to dissatisfaction with the mental health
K. W. Sørgaard; T. Sørensen; J. Sandanger; G. Ingebrigtsen; O. S. Dalgard
Objectives: Unmet mental health care needs of older people (aged 65 and over) have been identified as a serious problem internationally, particularly in ruralareas. In this study we explored the views of health and social care providers of the barriers to effective mental health care for older people in a rural region in Australia.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 participants from 13 organisations providing care and support to older people in a rural region of Australia. A framework analysis approach was used to thematically analyse the data.Results: Two main themes were identified: 'Recognising the Problem' and 'Service Availability and Access'. In particular the participants identified the impact of the attitudes of older people and health professionals, as well as service inadequacies and gaps in services, on the provision of mental health care to older people in a rural region.Conclusion: This study supports previous work on intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to older people with mental health problems accessing mental health services. The study also offers new insight into the difficulties that arise from the separation of physical and mental health systems for older people with multiple needs, and the impact of living in a rural region on unmet mental health care needs of older people. PMID:24499436
Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…
In the study, urban-suburban/rural vapour pressure and relative humidity differences at fixed hours in the Belgrade area were analysed and compared. The data from one urban, two suburban and one rural stations (0700, 1400 and 2100 hours LTC), for the period 1976-1980 were used. It has been found, on the basis of the vapour pressure differences that the atmosphere in urban areas is more humid than that in the suburban and ruralareas at 0700 and 2100 hours, in the period from September to February, while from February to September the urban atmosphere is drier. At 1400 hours, urban atmosphere is drier throughout the year. However, relative humidity differences indicate that urban air is less humid than the air in suburban and ruralareas throughout the year. Relationships between urban-suburban/rural vapour pressure differences and heat island intensity revealed that the local effects could be significant.
Whites benefit more than blacks from rural economic growth according to the findings of a 1982 survey of over 75,000 households in 10 rural counties in southern Georgia, selected to represent fast growing nonmetro areas with mixed manufacturing and commercial agriculture-based economies with substantial minority populations. From 1976 to 1981, a…
Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.
Background Doctors’ scarcity in ruralareas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors’ stated preferences for rural jobs. Methods and Findings A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho’s capital) and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54). Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a ruralarea, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. Conclusions Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.
Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Lema, Claudia; Lescano, Andres G.; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Huicho, Luis
Under the condition of market economy, market competition has shown unprecedented pressure on agricultural producers with family as a production unit. Agricultural producers are at a relatively weak position. Agricultural production having the characteristics of small scale can hardly adapt to market competition effectively and agricultural production is facing a huge market risk. Therefore, farmers urgently need a wide range
Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in ruralareas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…
Land-use change is the main component of regional environmental change, while protected areas represent a direct land use policy to prevent its potentially negative effects on biodiversity and environmental services. We combined an analysis of trends in land use and human demography with trends in creation of protected areas during the last three decades in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region including a wide range of environments. The eighty nine administrative analysis units of the region were classified into four ecological groups based on their percentage of cover by the six eco-regions of the study area: (1) "Dry valleys"; dominated by Middle-elevation deserts; (2) "Highlands", dominated by High-elevation alpine zones and plateaus; (3) "Humid ecosystems", dominated by Foggy grasslands and Humid forests, and (4) "Dry forests". Between 1970 and 2002, human population became concentrated in urban areas and land use trends varied greatly among the four ecological groups. Agriculturalarea decreased in the Highlands and increased in the other regions, particularly in the Dry forests. Domestic animals decreased in Humid ecosystems, Highlands and the Dry valleys; and remained constant in the Dry forests. Several protected areas were created, but most of them were established in regions undergoing a decreasing intensity of land use. Overall, the analysis shows that agricultural production is becoming concentrated in the areas more suitable for modern agriculture while marginal agricultureareas and, particularly, extensive grazing are decreasing. The creation of protected areas reflects the decreasing opportunity costs of marginal areas and is failing to protect the eco-regions most threatened by current land-use trends. PMID:18439743
There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28?gm(-3) in the mining area; 48?gm(-3) in the ruralarea and 45?gm(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300?gm(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and ruralareas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921
Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D
Landscape changes during 1954–1998 in the districts of Toholampi, Nurmijärvi and Liperi, in west, south and east Finland, are described in relation to agricultural modernization. The following landscape indices are used to analyze development in these areas from the viewpoint of landscape ecology: Shannon’s evenness (SHEI), patch density (PD), edge density (ED) and percentages of land use composition (%LAND). Variables
The variability of soil nutrients and sampling was investigated in the Everglades AgriculturalArea (EAA), on a Lauderhill muck (euic, hyperthennic Lithic Medisaprist), Pahokee muck (euic, hyperthennic Lithic medisaprist), Okeelanta muck (euic, hyperthennic Terric Medisaprist), and Torry muck (euic, hyperthennic Typic Medisaprist). Soils in adjacent fields at the same location under either sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), sweetcorn (Zea mays L.), or
TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…
Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agriculturalareas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two herbicides (atrazine and prometon), and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine). Samples from the urban/residential water-supply well network contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), and three herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor, and prometon). Pesticides were detected in samples from depths of less than 2 to more than 70 m. Pesticides were detected in samples with nitrate concentrations ranging from less than the detection limit of 0.05 mg/L to 16 mg/L. These results indicate that pesticides are detected most frequently in shallow ground water beneath agriculturalareas, and that pesticides can be detected in wells with a wide range of depths and nitrate concentrations.
Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and ruralareas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis. Chi-square test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. Total of 900 individuals were studied in both areas. As per Asian criteria, obesity (BMI 27.5–30.0?kg/m2) was observed to be significantly high (P = 0.00) as 13.7% in tribal area as compared to 5.5% in ruralarea. Normal level of TC (<200?mg/dL) and LDL (<130?mg/dL) was observed in the majority of the population of both areas, whereas, at risk level of HDL (<40?mg/dL) was present in half of the population of both rural and tribal areas. The prevalence of borderline to high level of TGs was observed to be 60.2% and 55.2% in rural and tribal (P = 0.10) area, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalent abnormal lipid profile in tribal area demands establishment of an effective surveillance system for development of chronic diseases.
This article describes an interdisciplinary continuing education approach for health professionals in a rural remote area implemented by the Northern Educational Centre for Aging and Health (NECAH) at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The article discusses issues of rural health care practice and the implications for practitioners’ educational needs. The key components involved in delivering interdisciplinary education and
One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in ruralareas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…
The purpose of this paper is to study the linkage between type of habitat and mortality from all causes in small areas of Southern Spain. An ecological study was conducted on 99,870 people who died between 1985 and 1999. The municipality was taken as the unit of analysis. Data analysis was carried out through hierarchical spatio-temporal bayesian models. Results show a 13.3% reduction in mortality rates among men and 14.1% among women in the most ruralareas compared to more urban environments. The study demonstrates the usefulness of socio-demographic indices in small-area geographical analyses. PMID:16647792
Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Fernández-Ajuria, Alberto
This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.
Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…
Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species. PMID:24260328
Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species.
To assess the role of risk factors for chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) by multiple logistic models, the data of the first cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the unpolluted ruralarea of the Po River Delta were analyzed (n=2382; 20–64 years). Each subject filled out a standardized questionnaire; 94% of the subjects were also able to perform forced expirograms. Dependent variables
G. Viegi; L. Carrozzi; F. Di Pede; S. Baldacci; M. Pedreschi; P. Modena; P. Paoletti
Accurate knowledge of the quality and environmental impact of the highway runoff in Pear River Delta, South China is required\\u000a to assess this important non-point pollution source. This paper presents the quality characterization and environmental impact\\u000a assessment of rainfall runoff from highways in urban and ruralarea of Guangzhou, the largest city of Pear River Delta over\\u000a 1 year’s investigation. Multiple
In this research, we consider the planning of community health schemes by non-governmental or faith-based organisations in ruralareas of developing countries, from both top-down and ground level viewpoints. We conclude that both types of planning approach are valid and necessary for sustainability of such developments. With top-down planning in mind, we describe our hierarchical models especially designed for location
Honora K. Smith; Paul R. Harper; Chris N. Potts; Ann Thyle
Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for
C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996-2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and ruralareas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs significantly between rural (1.59%) and urban (0.48%) schools in eastern Poland. Children between 8 and 12 years old were most frequently infested. Pediculosis was observed most frequently in girls both in the urban (63.5%) and rural (75.3%) schools and this was related with hairstyles. The prevalence of pediculosis decreased with increasing life standards, i.e. with high income, accessibility and consumption of water and better health care systems. Our findings showed that prevalence of pediculosis capitis depends on the age and sex of the schoolchildren and their living conditions. Hygienic controls of schoolchildren by nurses are important in the elimination of Pediculus humanus capitis. Our results confirmed pediculosis capitis is still a problem in different environments, particularly with lower life standards and poorer economic conditions of health care. PMID:15233324
The possibility of fulfilling part of the energy demand of an agriculturalarea in a Northern Italy region (Piedmont) by means of non-conventional sources is being studied. The research is mainly intended to give the local community government a means for a correct energy planning of the whole system and closely parallels other investigations performed on the energy system of
Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in ruralarea of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in ruralareas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a ruralarea of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups.
Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in ruralareas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in ruralareas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a ruralarea of Korea.
Aims: To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours in different geographical areas, urban and rural. Methods: Patients aged 20–80 years, living in the middle part of Sweden, and diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000 were included. One control matched for sex and age in five year age groups was selected for each case. Use of different phone types was assessed by a questionnaire. Results: The number of participating cases was 1429; there were 1470 controls. An effect of rural living was most pronounced for digital cellular telephones. Living in ruralareas yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 1.4 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.0), increasing to 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 8.4) with >5 year latency time for digital phones. The corresponding ORs for living in urban areas were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.2) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6 to 1.4), respectively. This effect was most obvious for malignant brain tumours. Conclusion: In future studies, place of residence should be considered in assessment of exposure to microwaves from cellular telephones, although the results in this study must be interpreted with caution due to low numbers in some of the calculations.
Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or ‘ash storms’.\\u000a The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash\\u000a storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study
T. M. Wilson; J. W. Cole; C. Stewart; S. J. Cronin; D. M. Johnston
Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658
Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics of the clustered groups are consistent with the geology of the area. The samples collected from the area where a thick silt bed overlies the sand aquifer are clustered into Group II and show water quality that is only slightly affected by the contaminants originating from the land surface. However, groundwaters of this group are very high in Fe and Mn levels due to strong anoxic condition caused by the thick silt bed. In contrast, Group I shows water quality largely influenced by agricultural activities (i.e., fertilization, liming) and occurs in the area adjacent to the river where the silt bed is not observed and the sand aquifer is covered with sandy soils. Group III mostly occurs in the upgradient of Group I where a thin, silty soil covers the sand aquifer. In overall, the results show that the clustered groups closely reflect the groundwater susceptibility to the contaminants originated from the land surface. This suggests that groundwater clustering based on water chemistry could be applied to the contamination susceptibility assessment for groundwaters in the agriculturalarea. PMID:14987935
Chae, Gi-Tak; Kim, Kangjoo; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Soon-Oh; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Rhee, Chul Woo
Background: Uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of vision impairment in school-aged children. The current study focuses on the effectiveness of school eye screening in correcting refractive errors. Objectives: 1. To study the magnitude of visual impairment among school children. 2. To assess the compliance of students for refraction testing, procurement and use of spectacles. Materials and Methods: An intervention study was conducted in schools of the north- west district of Delhi, in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Students studying in five government schools in the field practice area were chosen as the study subjects. Results: Out of 1123 students enrolled, 1075 (95.7%) students were screened for refractive errors. Low vision (visual acuity < 20/60) in the better eye was observed in 31 (2.9%) children and blindness (visual acuity <20/200) in 10 (0.9%) children. Compliance with referral for refraction was very low as only 51 (41.5%) out of 123 students could be tested for refraction. Out of 48 students, 34 (70.8%) procured spectacles from family resources but its regular use was found among only 10 (29.4%) students. The poor compliance among students stems out of various myths and perceptions regarding use of spectacles prevalent in the community. Conclusion: Refractive error is an important cause of avoidable blindness among rural school children. Behavior change communication among rural masses by spreading awareness about eye health and conducting operational research at school and community level to involve parent's teachers associations and senior students to motivate students for use of spectacles may improve utilization of existing eye health services in ruralareas.
The literature of social work and rural sociology lacks conceptualization of the term "rural" and treats the term imprecisely. According to a 1960 survey, authors dealing with rural/urban differences do not agree on the attributes of "rural." However, if the rural concept is to be a useful analytical tool and guide to social work practice, its…
Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…
Intensive agricultural practices are recognized as significant sources of metal pollution in soils and pasture. This study investigated metal contamination in cattle offal from an agriculturalarea in Zambia, where inorganic fertilizers, agricultural lime, and pesticides are routinely applied. The highest median values (mg/kg, wet weight) of Cu (40.9), Zn (35.2), Cr (1.35) and Ni (0.594) were recorded in the liver, whereas the highest median values of Pb (0.061) and Cd (0.049) were found in kidneys. Maximum levels of Hg, As and Co were under 0.2 mg/kg in both organs. Pb and Cd did not exceed the benchmark values in cattle offal for human consumption and did not pose immediate health risks. Concentrations of Ni and Cr could present a public health concern. Monitoring of metal accumulations in offal of cattle, not only from well-known polluted environments but also agriculturalareas, should be done regularly for the health of human consumers. PMID:22672843
Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Umemura, Takashi
In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the ruralarea of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564
Quality drinking water is scarce in many ruralareas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...
Use of community health workers (CHWs) has been implemented the same way in urban and ruralareas despite differences in availability of health providers and sociodemographic characteristics. A household survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in eastern Uganda, and all children who were febrile in the previous two weeks were assessed for their symptoms, treatment received at home, and when and where they first went for treatment. Rural children were more likely to use CHWs than urban children. Urban children received outside treatment more promptly, and used herbs at home less. Symptoms and proportion of children being taken out for treatment were similar. Children from the poorest households used CHWs less and private providers more than the middle quintiles. Drug shops and private clinics should be included in the community case management to cater for the poorest in ruralareas and persons in urban areas.
Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kadobera, Daniel; Katureebe, Sheila; Kalyango, Joan N.; Mworozi, Edison; Pariyo, George
Many overseas healthcare researchers have advocated the importance of inter-professional education (IPE). However, to what extent laypersons, who reside in Japanese ruralareas, understand IPE is not well known. To clarify this issue, we interviewed laypersons regarding their perception of IPE. We selected one ruralarea in Japan, where over 40% of the residents were more than 65 years old. Participants, who had an interest in their community healthcare system, were nominated. Semi-structured interviews of approximately 60 minutes were performed and topics focused on were: 1. laypersons' perception of IPE, 2. laypersons' views on educating future medical professions, and 3. what laypersons could contribute to the educating of future medical professionals. Nine participants (58 to 88 years, 1 female and 8 males, mean 76 years) took part. We found three common themes among the interviewees. These were: 1. little knowledge about IPE, 2. positive attitudes towards educating future medical professionals, 3. original ideas concerning how to educate medical professionals. We also found that laypersons in this rural region did not fully understand IPE. As one potential educational method, we should promote IPE involving laypersons. For future study, we plan to explore medical professionals' opinions, and compare them with those of laypersons'. PMID:24490317
Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.
This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.
This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in ruralareas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.
Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))
One of the major sequelae following traumatic brain injury is a change in employment status. This poses significant challenges for rehabilitation services. Several studies have investigated the longer-term outcome after traumatic brain injury. Longer-term outcome in an economically disadvantaged rural environment with limited rehabilitation services has not been studied extensively. A group of individuals (n = 65) who sustained a traumatic brain injury were compared regarding pre- and post-employment status. The moderate and severely injured sub-groups showed a significant change in employment status. Ideally rehabilitation programs should target re-employment as an outcome. Limited employment opportunities in ruralareas may make this more difficult to achieve. PMID:12121413
India's 6th plan accords top priority to rural development with emphasis on development of agriculture and allied activities and rural industries. Rural growth has been slow and rural proverty has been increasing, because most of the low income groups in the ruralareas depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood. Primary constraints in the development of rural residents arise from their dependence on agriculture for livelihood, the importance of nonagricultural sources of income, and the compounding effects of natural calamities. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest residents of ruralareas -- small farmers, tenants, landless, rural artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Rural development must be designed to increase production and raise productivity. India's 6th plan has recognized that the distribution of unemployment and poverty as well as the potential for development of agriculture and related activities varies both among and within regions. Efforts have now been made to make the programs area specific. The new approach aims at integrating field programs reflecting the economic activity of the rural family whose employment and development is the primary objective. Policy directed at ensuring a flow of new field-tested technical knowledge relevant to small holder production is essential for rural development success. A strong commitment to rural development policies at the national level is necessary if the impact on the problems of rural poverty is to be effective and broad-based. PMID:12336058
People in ruralareas are less likely to obtain broadband Internet access due to a combination of economic disadvantage, technical difficulties, and lack of service providers. There is a great need to develop robust, low-cost and easy-to-maintain network management platform for Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) in ruralareas. The goal of this project is to partner with a small
While some ruralareas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of\\u000a metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services\\u000a of many rural landscapes occur in the context of agricultural economies. As these economies respond to international trade,\\u000a international policy, notably policies of the World Trade Organization
As the second annual report on policies and programs designed to improve the quality of life in U.S. rural and nonmetropolitan regions, this report: (1) presents tentative qualitative goal statements; (2) sets forth results-oriented quantitative goals for programs funded under provisions of the Rural Development Act of 1972; (3) describes the…
Paddy fields surrounded by forests are characteristic of the rural landscapes in East Asia. These characteristic landscapes\\u000a are maintained by agricultural activities; recently, however, local and regional changes in economic and social systems have\\u000a resulted in their deterioration. In order to conserve these landscapes, the diversity of land-use systems should be documented,\\u000a and the human impact on landscape structure should
Michiro Fujihara; Keitarou Hara; Liangjun Da; Yongchuan Yang; Xiangkun Qin; Noritoshi Kamagata; Yi Zhao
The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.
The results of a survey aimed at testing the hypothesis that the lichen Evernia prunastri, when transplanted in an agriculturalarea with high atmospheric NH3 concentrations, would respond to NH3 air pollution accumulating nitrogen in its thalli and showing changes in the concentration of assimilation pigments are presented.\\u000a The results confirmed the hypothesis and showed that all lichen transplants accumulated
\\u000a The degradation of the unique wetland ecosystem of the Everglades can be characterized as a nonpoint-source pollution (NSP)\\u000a problem that has a large number of emitters. A significant proportion of these emitters is from the farming enterprises located\\u000a in the Everglades’ AgriculturalArea (EAA) of South Florida. Under plans to restore the ecosystem of the Everglades, phosphorus\\u000a concentrations in water
Stream salinity management is of prime importance for ensuring environmental sustainability of rivers, streams, lakes and\\u000a other water bodies. Saline groundwater inflows are the main cause of deteriorating quality of stream flows; especially during\\u000a periods of low flows. The Murray-Darling Basin is a good example for reducing groundwater recharge from irrigated agricultural\\u000a areas with successful implementation of land and water
Muhammad Nadeem Asghar; Muhammad Kaleem Ullah; Muhammad Mohsin Hafeez
The paper considers global rural electrification based on electric power from power stations, built in geosynchronous orbit out of lunar materials. These materials are distributed to individual villages and rural electric cooperatives via microwaves for a cost of about 6-45 cents per kilowatt-hour. Power would be available in modular increments of 25-100 kilowatts with an average capital cost as low as $5000 per kilowatt. The global rural electrification program is aimed at providing electric power from space at competitive costs, relative to current costs, to rural and agriculturalareas and diverting resources from weapons development to infrastructure development. 16 refs.
Leonard, R.S. (Ad Astra, Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States))
Economic reforms since the late 1970s have brought about significant changes in rural China. A large number of surplus rural labourers have been released from the agricultural sector and there has been a massive transition of rural residents from agricultural to non-agricultural employment. These changes will be analyzed by examining the changes in the employment structure of rural residents. Rural
Using a common format outlining program settings, agencies, children/families served, staff, services, delivery strategies, and program costs, descriptions of four cost-effective rural service delivery programs for young handicapped children provide evidence that good rural programs are affordable. The Early Lifestyle Program at King's Daughters'…
Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and ruralareas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to ruralarea. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and ruralareas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas.
To assess the knowledge and attitudes about dengue and practice of prevention followed by the residents of a ruralarea and an urban resettlement colony of East Delhi, an interview based cross sectional KAP study was undertaken in Jan 97 to Feb 97, a few months after the dengue epidemic in ruralarea and urban areas of East Delhi. A pre-structured and pre-tested format containing the relevant questions was administered to the subjects. A total of 687 subjects (334 rural and 353 urban) were interviewed. Nearly four fifth (82.3%) of these were aware of Dengue. Audiovisual media was the most common source of information in both the areas. Knowledge about the disease was fair to good. Fever was the commonest symptom of the disease known to 92% urban and 83% rural respondents followed by symptoms of bleeding and headache. Mosquito was known to spread the disease to 71% rural and 89% urban respondents. More than two third respondents in urban and two fifth in ruralareas had used some method of mosquito control or personal protection during the epidemic. PMID:9914677
Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and ruralareas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to ruralarea. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and ruralareas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099
The modernization of agriculture has a well-established theoretical basis from Capitalist, Marxist and Keynesian approaches. These approaches have different bases of departure: market mechanisms and state planning. But these different approaches require an identical exogenous path of development for ruralareas based on 'modern' processes of specialization, concentration and integration. Instead, the endogenous approach to rural development did not initially
Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agriculturalareas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agriculturalareas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agriculturalareas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292
Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agriculturalareas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agriculturalareas.
Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania ruralareas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.
Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and ruralareas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and ruralareas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability.
Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to ruralareas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.
This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the ruralareas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.
"The present study considers data on all pregnancies that ended in a stillbirth or live birth in a ruralarea of Bangladesh during the years 1982 to 1984. It considers the relationships of both biological and socio-economic factors to perinatal mortality....[Results show a] lack of association with any measure of socio-economic status.... Our study has confirmed that survival of the perinatal period is separately related to both maternal age and primiparity. Once maternal age is taken into account, high parity shows no evidence of decreasing survival chances." PMID:12319485
Extending the reach of medical professionals in ruralareas is one of the goals using mobile health technologies. This paper illustrates the results of a survey conducted in 2008 in Turkey asking medical professionals about their current ICT usage and opinions about using mobile technologies in order to help patients with diabetes. The goal is to reduce the information gap between patients and medical professionals by allowing sending the information electronically using mobile technologies. This will improve both the interaction between various actors and also improve the treatment, as important trends of this chronic disease can be discovered on time.
Purpose The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution analysing the levels and\\u000a temporal variations of surface ozone in two ruralareas situated in central-southern Spain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method The study is based on ozone hourly data recorded during the overall period between January 2008 and November 2009. The seasonal\\u000a and daily ozone cycles as well
Alberto Notario; Yolanda Díaz-de-Mera; Alfonso Aranda; José Antonio Adame; Alfonso Parra; Eugenio Romero; Jesús Parra; Fernando Muñoz
Rural learners represent a diverse and significant part of the student population. Although research shows that the overall percentage and types of students with disabilities are similar in rural and non-rural school districts, greater proportions of rural students live in poverty, which places them at higher risk for disability. This article…
Sutton, Joe P.; Nowacek, E. Jane; Capone, Angela M.; Hausman, Ralph M.; Stoiber, Karen C.; Tindal, Gerald A.
Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027
Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta
Saline wetlands in the Monegros Desert, NE Spain, are situated in an agricultural landscape which is undergoing significant changes. Agricultural intensification in recent decades and current installation of new irrigation systems threaten these valuable habitats, set to be included in the Natura2000 network. Their preservation and successful management depend on the information available regarding the transformation of surrounding areas. When soil and vegetation maps at adequate scale are not available, remote sensing is an alternative means to obtain needed data. We have used SAR data, taking advantage of the soil surface characteristics perceived in SAR images. The objective of this work is to explore the capability of multitemporal SAR data to characterize the land covers of these wetlands and their environment. We have developed specific contextual classifications which take into account the statistical properties of the radar distribution. Moreover, we tested the contribution of radar in Landsat classification. PMID:18387730
Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Background Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the
Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye
Children in northern Nigeria and elsewhere in the hot, arid western Sahel, are at risk of having their lung function compromised by a variety of factors, including undernutrition, environmental factors (e.g. airborne pollutants such as dust and smoke from wood fires), chronic upper-respiratory tract infections, and low socioeconomic class. We were interested in using spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of Nigerian children and adolescents aged 6-18 years who were living in urban and rural settings with the corresponding standards for African-American children. A total of 183 boys and girls in the rural village of Sabon Fobur on the Jos Plateau and another 128 boys and girls in the city of Jos were tested to determine their forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC at 1 s (FVC1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The nutritional status of the subjects was determined by measuring the body mass index (BMI), triceps skin-fold thickness, and mid-arm circumference, and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. According to the results of anthropometry, the subjects in Sabon Fobur and Jos were lean but generally adequately nourished. The mean FVC, FVC1 and PEF values for the rural males were 1.851,1.761, and 3.521, and for the urban males they were 1.971,1.791, and 3.471, respectively. The corresponding values for the rural females were 1.791,1.701, and 3.371, and for the urban females they were 1.761,1.671, and 3.091. These values were approximately 100 per cent of the corresponding values for African-American children. In general, strong correlations were found between each of the three lung function parameters and age, weight, height (only for the males), BMI, MAC, and FFM. These results show that: (1) the lung function of Nigerian children and adolescents living in either rural or urban areas were similar and compared favorably with African-American standards, and (2) weight was as important as height in determining pulmonary function. The inclusion of FFM as an explanatory variable did notfurther increase the accuracy of the prediction, even in a population where malnutrition may be prevalent. Therefore, we conclude that measurements of height and weight are all that are required for the assessment of lung function using spirometry in Nigerian children. PMID:15357559
Glew, R H; Kassam, H; Vander Voort, J; Agaba, P A; Harkins, M; VanderJagt, D J
This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 ?m) and coarse (2.5-10 ?m) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 ?m). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.
In this essay we develop a framework for analysing the major institutions governing the production and exchange of output and the primary factors of production in ruralareas. The analysis incorporates general considerations of risk and information constraints jointly with the principal material attributes of agriculture and of agricultural production factors. The framework is used to analyse barriers to the
The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a ruralarea whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber.
The daily practice of Community Health Agents (CHAs) is permeated with educational interventions aimed at preventive care and health promotion. The sociocultural universe of these professionals can affect the dynamics of their practice within the community, particularly in ruralareas, where there is evidence that the population expects to obtain information relative to their health and/or disease by means of cultural rites. Based on a case study, we sought to analyze the influence of the cultural practices of the agents working in a ruralarea in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais. The analysis revealed the presence of a strong connection between the culture and their activities. Religious beliefs and knowledge developed from the fusion of biomedical information and values based on family tradition regarding the health-disease process have a direct effect on their practices. It is emphasized that they have an important role as facilitators in the practice of health care, with a positive effect stemming from the similarity of their life experiences and inherited cultures with those of the clients, thus making it possible to develop effective interventions. PMID:22773489
Lara, Maristela Oliveira; Brito, Maria José Menezes; Rezende, Lilian Cristina
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of tinea pedis and manuum (dermatophyte infections of the hands and feet) in adults in ruralareas of Turkey, the risk factors and self-administered treatment options. A total of 2,574 people living in a ruralarea were enrolled in the study. Participants were asked demographic data, hygienic habits in a questionnaire. KOH preparations and culture were performed from suspicious lesions. Medical and alternative therapy methods and former dermatophytosis diagnosis history were taken from the respondents with suspicious lesions. Microbiological samples were taken from 285 (11.1%) participants. Culture was positive in 109 (4.2%) of those. The most common agent was Trichophyton rubrum. The predisposing factors were found as age older than 40, male gender and obesity. Forty-nine (44.9%) of patients had taken a medical therapy, 56 (51.4%) had performed non-medical methods (cologne, Lawsonia inermis-Henna and softener creams). Patient's education about the treatment compliance is important. PMID:20853199
The rural district of the Meuse (East France) has a high number of elderly patients for whom prognosis of ischaemic strokes is poor with high-haemorrhagic transformation risk of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). This disadvantage is made worse by the distances a patient has to travel to the nearest stroke unit. We set out to assess the effectiveness of a telestroke system implemented in this area. Between October 2010 and February 2012, data from each "tele-expertised" patient were collected. 53 patients were examined. Diagnosis of ischaemic stroke was confirmed in 43 cases (81 %), and intravenous rt-PA treatment performed in 21 cases (40 %). In the treated patient group, median age was 73 years, with 29 % of octogenarians. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 16, with 29 % ? 20. The median onset to needle time was 169 min, and the median door to needle time was 69 min. Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 3 cases (14 %), and was symptomatic in two (10 %). At 3 months, median NIHSS was 6, 6 patients (29 %) presented a favourable outcome (modified Rankin scale ?1) and 3 (14 %) had died. In ruralareas, for elderly patients with severe ischaemic strokes, telemedicine appears to be a way of improving accessibility and benefits of rt-PA treatment. PMID:24277200
The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)
Two related numerical codes, 3DFEMWATER and 3DLEWASTE, are presented sed to delineate wellhead protection areas in agricultural regions using the assimilative capacity criterion. DFEMWATER (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) ...
The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the ruralareas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the ruralarea due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.
Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…
The objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote ruralarea in Thailand. Stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. Standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. Campylobacter, Plesiomonas, Salmonella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were commonly isolated from cases and controls (22% versus 25%, 10% versus 11%, 6% versus 9%, and 10% versus 6%, respectively). Only Shigella, rotavirus, and adenovirus were identified significantly more frequently in cases than controls (9% versus 0%, 18% versus 3%, and 16% versus 2%, respectively), whereas Giardia lamblia was detected less often in cases than controls. Most pre-school children were infested with enteric pathogens; laboratory-based studies are important to understand the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in remote areas among marginal populations. PMID:21036846
The objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote ruralarea in Thailand. Stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. Standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. Campylobacter, Plesiomonas, Salmonella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were commonly isolated from cases and controls (22% versus 25%, 10% versus 11%, 6% versus 9%, and 10% versus 6%, respectively). Only Shigella, rotavirus, and adenovirus were identified significantly more frequently in cases than controls (9% versus 0%, 18% versus 3%, and 16% versus 2%, respectively), whereas Giardia lamblia was detected less often in cases than controls. Most pre-school children were infested with enteric pathogens; laboratory-based studies are important to understand the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in remote areas among marginal populations.
Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; McDaniel, Philip; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Mason, Carl J.
Landscape changes over a period of 25 years were assessed for a catchment basin in Normandy, France. Landscape attributes, i.e. land use, land cover and natural habitat, were obtained from aerial photographs (1964, 1989) and soil maps, to define a landscape typology. Data were aggregated on a 500 m×500 m grid system and treated by multivariate analysis. Results of these
The study here reported aimed to: i) evaluate the prevalence of childhood asthma at a Portuguese ruralarea with high ozone concentrations through lung function tests, validating the previously estimated one assessed through questionnaires (similar to those of the ISAAC); ii) compare the achieved prevalence with the one reported at an unexposed area (with low ozone concentrations), aiming to evaluate
S. I. V. Sousa; C. Ferraz; M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; F. G. Martins; L. G. Vaz; M. C. Pereira
In assessing impacts of rural industrial development, it is important to include not only economic impacts but the interface between organizational, political, and behavioral aspects with economic aspects. Though effects depend on a variety of economic and institutional circumstances, several observations can be made about how new manufacturing…
Background Rural residents face numerous barriers to healthcare access and studies suggest poorer health outcomes for rural patients. Therefore we undertook a systematic review to determine if cardiovascular medication utilization and adherence patterns differ for rural versus urban patients. Methods A comprehensive search of major electronic datasets was undertaken for controlled clinical trials and observational studies comparing utilization or adherence to cardiovascular medications in rural versus urban adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Two reviewers independently identified citations, extracted data, and evaluated quality using the STROBE checklist. Risk estimates were abstracted and pooled where appropriate using random effects models. Methods and reporting were in accordance with MOOSE guidelines. Results Fifty-one studies were included of fair to good quality (median STROBE score 17.5). Although pooled unadjusted analyses suggested that patients in ruralareas were less likely to receive evidence-based cardiovascular medications (23 studies, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.98), pooled data from 21 studies adjusted for potential confounders indicated no rural–urban differences (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91, 1.13). The high heterogeneity observed (I2?=?97%) was partially explained by treatment setting (hospital, ambulatory care, or community-based sample), age, and disease. Adherence did not differ between urban versus rural patients (3 studies, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.39, 2.27, I2?=?91%). Conclusions We found no consistent differences in rates of cardiovascular medication utilization or adherence among adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes living in rural versus urban settings. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine if differences truly exist between urban and rural patients in the use of, and adherence to, evidence-based medications.
70-90% of Africans still live in ruralareas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in ruralareas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of economic power, limited educational opportunities, and policies that place industry in urban areas. Social development that reduces illiteracy and poverty should be encouraged. PMID:12346826
The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in ruralareas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in ruralareas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in ruralareas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs.
Background and Aims Metabolic syndrome (MS) is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the ruralareas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. Methods and Results The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007–2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18–74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.91). Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day) had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48–0.91), compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15–2.84) in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25–1.95) in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. Conclusion MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.
The effectiveness of trichlorophenol (TCP), chlorhexidine gluconate plus cetrimide (Savlon) and Izal in inhibiting the growth of bacterial isolates from guinea worm ulcers was investigated. Using an adaptation of the method of Russell and Furr (Russell, A.D., Furr, J.R., 1977. The antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 43, 253-260) the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three anti-microbial agents for each of the isolated bacteria was determined. Water drawn from the rural guinea worm endemic sites was autoclaved and used for the various dilutions of the anti-microbial agents. At the manufactures' recommended use-dilutions in cases of wounds/cuts/sores, Savlon showed greater effectiveness than Izal and TCP in this order. Probable organic and inorganic inhibitors in water that is usually employed in diluting anti-microbial agents in the ruralareas for the dressing of guinea worm ulcers very likely had greatest effect(s) on TCP and least effect(s) on Savlon. PMID:10643905
Ogunniyi, T A; Oni, P O; Juba, A; Asaolu, S O; Kolawole, D O
paper addresses the coverage enhancement for broadband wireless access (BWA) at 800 and 3500 MHz in a rural scenario in north Germany using multi-hop relay concepts. The investigation is divided into two phases: In phase I, the coverage of a single BWA system in a ruralarea is predicted and verified with measurement data. In phase II, the coverage from the BWA system is analyzed and enhanced through the deployment of relay stations. The number of relay stations required for each carrier frequency is determined, and the positions of the relay stations are identified via three different relay placement algorithms, namely path-loss-based, distance-based, and hybrid algorithms. At 800 MHz, the path-loss-based algorithm requires seven relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 95%. The hybrid and distance-based algorithms require 11 and 14 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. At 3500 MHz, path-loss based and hybrid algorithms require 19 and 16 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. The distance-based requires 20 relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 82%. Further increase of relay stations has led to higher interference. Lastly, the transmit power of the relay station is optimized via an intelligent power allocation scheme. The results show that 20% of the total transmit powers from 14 relay stations can be saved at 800 MHz whereas 18% of the total transmit powers from the 20 relay stations can be saved at 3500 MHz.
This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess anthropometric characteristics and estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among older persons in rural Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. A total of 948 participants aged 60 years and above were examined. Their weight, arm span, mid-upper-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference were measured using standard techniques. The prevalence of undernutrition was estimated to be 53.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.5-56.9). Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors independently associated with undernutrition. In the assessment of anthropometric characteristics, the strongest correlation was observed between body mass index and mid-upper-arm circumference (r = 0.88; P < .0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that mid-upper-arm circumference has a higher ability (area under curve = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.96) of detecting undernutrition among older persons than triceps skinfold thickness and calf circumference. The high prevalence of undernutrition among older persons in rural India warrants major public health interventions. PMID:23728770
We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in ruralareas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477
OBJECTIVE To determine the main clinical indications for surgical removal of the eye in ruralareas in Cameroon. DESIGN Retrospective non-comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS A total of 253 patients presenting to the Manna eye clinic Nkongsamba who underwent destructive eye surgery (DES) between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Age, gender, occupation, prior medication, visual acuity, operation indications, and type of operation. RESULTS There were 58.10% (n = 147) men and 41.90% (n = 106) women. Median age was 29 years (interquartile range: 14–69 years); age ranged from 10 to 88 years. A total of 67.19% (n = 170) of participants were farmers and lived in rural zones. In all, 79.05% (n = 200) confessed to have trying a medication before the presentation. Surgical indications included infective causes (perforated corneal ulcer 33.20% (n = 84) and endophthalmitis 18.20% (n = 46)), trauma 17.40% (n = 44), painful blind eyes 11.50% (n = 29), malignancy 10.70% (n = 27), and others 9.10% (n = 23). CONCLUSION The most common causes of DES in this series could be avoided. Therefore, preventive measures including extensive health education of the public and traditional healers on the risks linked to the use of traditional medicines in ophthalmology and the late presentation of eye disease, quality control of the campaigns that offer free cataract operations in the country.
Kagmeni, Giles; Noche, Christelle Domngang; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Wiedemann, Peter
The 1992 Census of Agriculture is the 24th nationwide agricultural census of the United States. The first U.S. agricultural census data were collected in 1840 as a part of the sixth decennial census. From then to 1920, an agricultural census was taken as ...
This document contains a compilation of articles that have been assembled because of their potential for enhancing understanding of rural health care issues and for their unwavering high standards. The articles promote high quality research in an area which is rapidly becoming a legitimate and recognized field of inquiry among scholars. Besides…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
An attempt was made to study the sociodemographic characteristics of tubectomy acceptors in a rural community of West Bengal (Singur), India from 1960-76. The study was conducted during the 1975-77 period in the service area of the Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, the field practice area of the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health in Calcutta. There were 1326 tubectomies recorded in the area from 1960-76. They were divided into 3 groups based on their period of operation, i.e., 1960-72 as Group A, 1973-75 as Group B, and 1976 as Group C. A 33.3% random sample was drawn from each group. 439 cases were drawn in the sample, of which 401 cases (91.1%) could be interviewed through a structured, pretested schedule. It was observed that disproportionately fewer Muslim women than Hindu women chose to have a tubectomy. Muslims constituted 11% of the total population in the area, whereas only 0.8% in Group A, 1.3% in Group B, and 1.2% in Group C were Muslims. Although the proportion of scheduled caste/tribe population in the area remained more or less constant around 23%, the tubectomy acceptance rate increased from 2.9% in Group A to 19.8% in Group C. This was a statistically significant difference. The illiteracy rate among the females in the area was 64%. The proportion of illiterates among the tubectomy acceptors was 67.4% in Group A and 61.7% in Groups B and C. Acceptance of tubectomy among the agricultural laborers increased from 21.9% in Group A to 30.9% in Group C, showing an overall increase of 9% over the years. The mean age at marriage among acceptors increased from 14.7 in earlier years to 15.2 and 15.4 in recent years. The average number of live births declined from 5.3 to 4.4 and 4.3 in recent years. None of the couples in Group B, only 0.4% of the couples in Group A, and 3.7% of couples in Group C accepted sterilization as a birth control method without a male child. The majority accepted tubectomy when they had at least 1 male child. 55.6% of acceptors in Group C were operated within 10 days of delivery compared to 35.5% in Group A and 30.8% in Group C. The average family size of the acceptors was higher than the national average, i.e., 7.04 in Group A, 6.47 in Group B, and 6.55 in Group C. 92.8% of the acceptors had 3 or more living children of whom 43.2% already had 5 or more children. It appears that tubectomy will fail to have much effect on population growth unless mothers are motivated to accept sterilization with a smaller number of living children. PMID:7347318
In June 1996-June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM 0.1). Ten sample pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03-15 ?m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was higher at the rural site (520 ng/m 3) than at the urban site (490 ng/m 3). The average chemical composition of UFP was similar at the two sites. The most abundant of the measured components were sulphate (32 and 40 ng/m 3 for the urban and rural sites, respectively), ammonium (22 and 25 ng/m 3), nitrate (4 and 11 ng/m 3) and the Ca 2+ ion (5 and 7 ng/m 3). The most important metals at both sites were Ca, Na, Fe, K and Zn with concentrations between 0.7 and 5 ng/m 3. Of the heavy metals, Ni, V, Cu, and Pb were important with average ultrafine concentrations between about 0.1 and 0.2 ng/m 3. Also the organic anions oxalate (urban 2.1 ng/m 3 and rural 1.9 ng/m 3) and methanesulphonate (1.3 and 1.7 ng/m 3) contributed similarly at both sites. The measured species accounted for only about 15-20% of the total ultrafine mass. The fraction that was not measured includes mainly carbonaceous material and water. It was estimated that the amount of water was about 10% (50 ng/m 3) and that of carbonaceous material about 70% (350 ng/m 3) at both sites. Aitken modes were observed for most components with the average mass mean mode diameters being between about 0.06 and 0.12 ?m. The average concentrations in the Aitken mode differed clearly from those in the UFP for several components. The average contribution of ultrafine mass to the fine particle mass (PM 2.5) was about 7% at the urban site and 8.5% at the rural site. At both sites the contribution of ultrafine to fine was especially high for Se, Ag, B, and Ni (10-20%) and at the rural site also for Co (20%), Ca 2+ (16%) and Mo (11%). Enrichment in the ultrafine particles suggests that local sources may exist for these elements. Aitken modes turned out to be useful indicators of local sources for several components. The Aitken modes of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr were similar in several samples, suggesting a common local combustion source for these elements, possibly traffic exhaust. Co, Fe, Mo and Ni formed another group of elements often having similar Aitken modes, the likely source being combustion of heavy fuel oil.
Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Korhonen, Christina H.; Hillamo, Risto E.; Aarnio, Päivi; Koskentalo, Tarja; Maenhaut, Willy
Two urban Australian nursing students' stories of their experiences in clinical placements in rural and Aboriginal communities indicate their interest in and enthusiasm for returning to rural nursing after graduation. Unfortunately, many urban students are disadvantaged financially by the added expense of their rural clinical rotation. Assisting…
BACKGROUND: While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention.
Monique Van Dormael; Sylvie Dugas; Yacouba Kone; Seydou Coulibaly; Mansour Sy; Bruno Marchal; Dominique Desplats
In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…
Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.
Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above-average temperatures in the future. Even though both study areas are close together Großfahner area was found to be the least affected one by changes indicating that small spatial scale differences matter. These developments were found in all examined simulation runs. This study highlighted the regional differences in the vulnerability to water surplus or deficit risks in a temperate system which emphasizes the need in impact studies to focus on proper consideration of local and regional environmental conditions as well as adaption and mitigation of management for agriculture.
Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.
Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agriculturalareas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 ?g/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 ?g/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 ?g/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 ?g/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.
Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agriculturalarea, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agriculturalarea. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.
Allen, L. H., Jr. (principal investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.
The process of urbanisation taking place in most developing countries is creating favourable conditions for an increase in prevalence of infections, especially with intestinal parasites, in the marginal areas of the towns. The present study was implemented in 1996 to assess the varying prevalence and intensity of infection among young workers in urban and ruralareas of the same Governorate (Alexandria, Egypt). The sample comprised 408 male subjects, 8 to 19 years of age, in various occupations: 308 from urban areas, 67 from an industrialised village close to the desert, and 33 from a rural village. A quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections was made using the Kato-Katz technique, with a double reading of each slide. The results showed a higher prevalence (> 50%) and intensity of infection (indirectly measured as number of eggs per gram of faeces) than in previous studies. Furthermore, a higher prevalence and intensity of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was detected in urban districts, as compared to ruralareas. This difference was statistically significant. High crowding index, latrine shared with other families and no piped water inside the household, were more common in urban areas as compared with rural settlements and also associated with a higher intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths. The trend toward urbanisation seems to have caused deterioration of living conditions and sanitation standards in some areas of Alexandria city, with the most vulnerable people experiencing an increase in intestinal parasitic infections. PMID:10376279
Curtale, F; Shamy, M Y; Zaki, A; Abdel-Fattah, M; Rocchi, G
This article explores the role of agro-ecological factors associated with agricultural growth and poverty outcomes in India. Using a new operationalisation of agro-ecological factors and incorporating within-State variations in poverty and other variables we show that agricultural growth and poverty reduction appear to depend on underlying agro-ecological conditions which are favourable to the spread of irrigation and hence agricultural development,
One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in ruralareas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…
\\u000a Ruralareas throughout the developed world are undergoing significant restructuring due to a number of socio-economic factors.\\u000a One aspect of recent rural change has to do with demographic\\u000a shifts and in-migration to ruralareas formerly dominated by agricultural enterprises and other types of working landscapes.\\u000a Since ownership is a major determinant of land use, and different cohorts of owners interact
The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a ruralarea, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of wildfires on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14??m, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time—before, during, and after the passing of the smoke plume from the wildfires—shows that the mean geometric diameter of the fine mode in the measurements affected by the fire is smaller than the one obtained in the measurements carried out immediately before and after (0.14??m) and presents average values of 0.11??m.
Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; Fraile, R.; Castro, A.
We utilize a portable flow cytometer, which allows for absolute counts of particle concentration, along with specific staining to analyze the waters of the ruralarea of Matlab, Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, in the month of January 2012. Such period is interepidemic, as conditions for V. cholerae survival are less apt, because of low temperature; the presence of the bacterium in surface waters of inland reservoirs is debated and has been acknowledged rarely in literature. The hydrologic system is composed by a river and a succession of ponds; the latter constitute the basic water reservoir of each human community. We run a survey of each possible habitat to understand whether local reservoirs can host V. cholerae populations in interepidemic periods, which contrasts the common hypothesis which assumes that bacteria are brought inland by coastal water intrusion. We also analyze the relation of bacteria survival with environmental quantities and the variations in bacterial community structure in different samples.
Righetto, L.; Islam, S.; Mahmud, Z. H.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Blokesch, M.; Rinaldo, A.
The status of Babesia spp. infection in dogs from ruralareas of São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. For this, 150 animals were examined by blood smears and by PCR; the presence of tick infestation was also investigated. By the blood smear examination, 3 animals (2%) were detected positive and by PCR for Babesia spp. 12 (8%) were positive, with bands visualized in 450 bp. Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Amblyomma spp. were found on 36 (24%) of the 150 dogs. Amblyomma species found were A. cajennense (9/36-25%) and A. ovale (9/36-25%). It was not possible to correlate the presence of R. sanguineus and the infection with Babesia spp. The sequencing of four positive samples demonstrated close identity with B. canis vogeli already characterized in Brazil. PMID:19602312
O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Lopes, Viviane Von Ah; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina Dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins
The use of photovoltaic power is more and more attractive to supply small loads located in remote and ruralareas. A program was developed to optimize the photovoltaic array and battery sizes, bearing in mind their unit costs, the load characteristics, battery self-discharge and maximum depth of discharge, the site solar radiation data and latitude. The tilt of the arrays is also made to change to obtain the minimum cost solution. A voltage regulator was made to avoid overcharge and loss of electrolyte of the batteries which works in shunt with the load, thus avoiding any voltage drop. The voltage regulator has a very small stand-by power consumption, with a current drain of 300..mu..A. An Ampere-hour meter was also developed to monitor the energy flows from the photovoltaic arrays and into loads.
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a state of deranged metabolic and anthropometric status. It is considered a precursor to various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Objectives: (1) To determine the prevalence of MS in adults aged 20 years and above in the ruralarea of Ambala district, Haryana. (2) To determine the sociodemographic factors associated with MS. Materials and Methods: In a community-based cross-sectional study, a total of 1200 subjects aged 20 years and above were studied, using multi-stage random sampling. Results: The prevalence of MS was estimated by using criterion given by the International Diabetes Federation. MS was found in 110 (9.2%) subjects, being more prevalent in females: 73 (66.36%) when compared to 37 males (33.63%). Sedentary occupation and age were significantly associated with MS. Conclusions: MS is a major health problem in the region and it should be given proper attention in order to prevent and control it.
In the ruralareas of Teresina, 129 triatomines were captured distributed in (a) artificial ecotopes; a house with one Triatoma brasiliensis, one Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pictipes, and one Rhodnius prolixus and in a uninhabited chicken house (7 Rhodnius nasutus). (b) Natural ecotopes; Pahus Orbignya martiana (41 Rhodnius neglectus, 33 Rhodnius prolixus and 41 Rhodnius nasutus) and Copernicia cerifera (3 Rhodnius neglectus). The 22.6% of captured triatomines were infected by flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. Twenty-eight sylvatic mammals were captured and examined. Seven Didelphia albiventris, 2 Rattus rattus and a Tamandua tetradactyla were infected with flagellates. The flagellates found in both triatomines and mammals were morphologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi. Serology by the indirect immunofluorescence test for Chagas disease revealed two positive seroreactions of positivity among 123 inhabitants examined. PMID:1308066
Eight trace elements were determined using ICP-MS in 78 fruiting body samples of 22 edible mushroom species. The mushrooms were collected from four sites in a ruralarea, unpolluted by human activity. Median values (dry matter) were as follows: Arsenic (As) 1.45 mg kg(-1), barium (Ba) 1.41 mg kg(-1), cobalt (Co) 0.28 mg kg(-1), copper (Cu) 47.0 mg kg(-1), rubidium (Rb) 130 mg kg(-1), silver (Ag) 2.95 mg kg(-1), thallium (Tl) 0.02 mg kg(-1) and vanadium (V) 0.25 mg kg(-1). Higher trace element accumulation was observed in samples of Macrolepiota procera, Macrolepiota rhacodes, Lycoperdon perlatum, Lycoperdon gigantea and Xerocomus chrysenteron for As and Cu, and in samples of Cantharellus cibarius and of genera Boletus and Suillus for Rb. PMID:17852381
The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.
Research on the problem of decreasing numbers of rural veterinarians has identified that rural practice employment periods following graduation are getting shorter and replacing the graduates who leave is becoming increasingly difficult. One way of addressing these problems would be to develop a Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) curriculum that motivates young graduates to seek work in rural and remote communities and ensures they are more 'practice-ready' as soon as they leave university and start working. Developments in a series of curriculum initiatives to address this strategy are discussed, including: encouraging deeper learning in livestock health and production, provision of extramural rotations in rural locations in the final year, offering opportunities to study abroad and emphasising the global impact of farm animal medicine, developing rural support enhancements for students on rural placements, and adjusting admission requirements to increase access for rural students. PMID:20128480
Objective: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the ruralarea of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu), covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27%) females and 769 (39.73%) males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50%) were Hindus. 1220 (63.%) had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62%) belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50%) were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73%) indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91%) had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64%) individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI). Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60) IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusions: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.
Background: The most recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract. Cataract has been documented to be the most significant cause of bilateral blindness in India. The most recent estimates from WHO reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract and in south Asia region which includes India, 51% of blindness is due to cataract. In India cataract is the principal cause of blindness accounting for 62.6% cases of blindness. The key to the success of the Global Vision 2020: The right to sight initiative is a special effort to tackle cataract blindness which includes estimation of magnitude of the problem and understanding factors associated with it. Therefore, a study was conducted in the hospital to estimate the magnitude of cataract and study various epidemiological factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary health center in ruralarea. Total 746 patients who availed services from ophthalmology department during study period were included in the study and relevant data was collected from them. Data analysis was done by percentages, proportions, and tests of significance (Chi-square test). Results: Out of 746 patients, 400 (53.6%) were suffering from cataract. Senile cataract was the most common cause (54%). Fifty-five percent patients were in the age group of 60-80 years and majority of them were from low socioeconomic strata. Conclusion: The prevalence of cataract in a medical college hospital in ruralarea was 53.6%. Age, sex, and educational status were significantly associated with cataract.
Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and ruralareas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in ruralareas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to ruralareas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in ruralareas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325
Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C
The majority of farmers in sub-Saharan African are small-scale entrepreneurs whose farm operations are performed with low input agricultural technologies. Many of these technologies are supported with low input farm power and simple machines. Essentially, low input agricultural technologies are embodied in the refined indigenous knowledge systems. Thes e includ e technologie s fo r land preparation , us e
In a population-based case-control study in California's intensely agricultural Central Valley (2005–2006), the authors investigated relations between environmental pesticide/fungicide exposure and prostate cancer. Cases (n = 173) were obtained from a population-based cancer registry, and controls (n = 162) were obtained from Medicare listings and tax assessor mailings. Past ambient exposures to pesticides/fungicides were derived from residential history and independently recorded pesticide and land-use data, using a novel geographic information systems approach. In comparison with unexposed persons, increased risks of prostate cancer were observed among persons exposed to compounds which may have prostate-specific biologic effects (methyl bromide (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.59) and a group of organochlorines (odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.63)) but not among those exposed to other compounds that were included as controls (simazine, maneb, and paraquat dichloride). The authors assessed the possibility of selection bias due to less-than-100% enrollment of eligible cases and controls (a critical methodological concern in studies of this kind) and determined that there was little evidence of bias affecting the estimated effect size. This study provides evidence of an association between prostate cancer and ambient pesticide exposures in and around homes in intensely agriculturalareas. The associations appear specific to compounds with a plausible biologic role in prostate carcinogenesis.
Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711
Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad
Paracoccidiodomycosis and histoplasmosis are endemic diseases in the south of Venezuela, representing a public health problem. Prevalence of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Histoplasma capsulatum infections were estimated in Monte Ralo, a rural community area of Bolivar state using paracoccidiodine and histoplasmine skin tests. Paracoccidiodine was intradermically injected to 173 persons and readings were made at 24 and 48 h afterwards to 167 persons (97.85%). Reaction was positive in 8.5% (n = 14) at 24 h post-injection and 13.2% (n = 20) at 48 h. Farmers showed the higher percentage of positivity at 24 and 48 h. One hundred-seventy five persons were intradermically injected with histoplasmine but 167 and 157 of them attended for reading of the dermal reaction at 24 and 48 h post-injection respectively. Tests were positive in 25.7% (n = 43) at 24 h and 42.7% (n = 67) at 48 h. Further studies are needed in surrounding places to delimit the endemic area of these mycosis in the Bolivar state. However, epidemiological vigilance of PCM and H should be considered by local health authorities. PMID:15074575
In this paper an efficient method for automatic road extraction in rural and semi-urban areas is presented. This work seeks the GIS update starting from color images and using preexisting vectorial information. As input data only the RGB bands of a satellite or aerial color image of high resolution is required. The system includes four different modules: data preprocessing; binary
Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a ruralarea of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…
This agenda item provides a progress report on the Commission's advisory committee that is examining community college services in rural and remote areas of the state. Two policy solutions under consideration by the committee are discussed. The item also describes a focus-group research protocol that is being developed to elicit student input.
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007
This report provides an update on the California Postsecondary Education Commission's advisory committee that is examining community college services in rural and remote areas. Three initial challenges have been identified and are discussed. These challenges are related to (1) student needs, (2) community college funding, and (3) administrative…
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006
Australian nurses (n=202) participated in mental health continuing education delivered via distance methods and regional workshops in ruralareas. The majority increased content knowledge and thought audio- and videotapes were effective despite technical difficulties; 90% felt the experiential learning workshops and distance modules integrated…
A study of health care needs in the ruralareas and small towns within a 100-mile radius of Spokane, Wash., is documented. The study sought to determine whether the seven eastern Washington counties around Spokane would be appropriate settings for prepari...
The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and ruralareas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…