Sample records for rural agricultural area

  1. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas

  2. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...

  8. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...

  9. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...

  10. `The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development: Europe

    E-print Network

    `The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development: Europe investing in rural areas'. FarmSafeNet is funded through the Northern Ireland Rural Development Programme and delivered through the Countryside for farming groups `The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development: Europe investing in rural areas

  11. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section 1980.312...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section 1980.312...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section 1980.312...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section 1980.312...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section 1980.312...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  16. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  17. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  3. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND RURAL CREDIT: STATUS, ISSUES AND REFORM AGENDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. ACHARYA

    This paper is a part of a larger study aimed at strengthening policy reforms in the area of agriculture, food security and rural development. In countries like India, strengthening of agriculture is critical for facing the challenges of rural poverty, food insecurity, unemployment and sustainability of natural resources. But, there is a need to redefine agriculture as the science and

  4. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture...of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

    The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

  10. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. In choosing among...

  11. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. In choosing among...

  12. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. In choosing among...

  13. The Educational Infrastructure in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safra, Martine

    The rural areas in the world are experiencing an identity crisis: for example, in France some areas are losing population, while those that are growing find that the population is changing from agricultural workers to retired persons and blue-collar and white-collar employees. This report, which summarizes discussion at a recent Organisation for…

  14. Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

  15. Notice on Organizing College Graduates to Help in Education, Agriculture, Medical Service, and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…

  16. Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger; And Others

    This curriculum guide, the second part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the final two units in a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the first unit are the following aspects of agricultural mechanics: selecting and…

  17. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  18. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  19. Addressing Personnel Needs for Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Irwin, Jill D.; Saceda, Rachelle G.

    2004-01-01

    A chronic shortage of early interventionists and special educators exists in rural areas. The authors argue that special rural knowledge and skills may be required for early interventionists and special educators to be satisfied and productive in rural areas. Both recruitment and retention of rural special educators can be challenging, leading in…

  20. Impact on food security and rural development of transferring water out of agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W Rosegrant; Claudia Ringler

    2000-01-01

    The competition for limited water resources between agriculture and more highly valued domestic and industrial water uses is rapidly increasing and will likely require the transfer of water out of agriculture. This paper reviews and synthesizes the available evidence of the effects of water transfers from agricultural to urban and industrial areas on local and regional rural economies; and analyzes

  1. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  2. Cogeneration opportunities in rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.; Hochstetler, T.

    1981-01-01

    Five papers report the opportunities for using waste heat from municipal power plants and pipeline pumping stations or biogas from animal wastes in cogeneration projects suitable for the rural areas of Kansas. The papers address economical and convenient ways to supply process energy for ethanol production using waste heat from an internal combustion engine powerplant, using waste heat to dry small grains in Kansas, the application of cogeneration concepts to farm biogas energy systems, a survey of the potential of using power plant waste heat for kiln drying wood, and an emerging cogeneration technology using waste heat from natural gas pumping stations to produce electricity.

  3. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 49. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This document lists 248 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1995, which is available online from the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  4. Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D MacDonald; J. R Crabtree; G Wiesinger; T Dax; N Stamou; P Fleury; J Gutierrez Lazpita; A Gibon

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural abandonment reflects a post war trend in western Europe of rural depopulation to which isolated and poorer areas are most vulnerable. The commercialisation of agriculture, through technological developments, and the influence of Common Agricultural Policy have increased productivity and focused agricultural activity on more fertile and accessible land thus transforming traditional approaches to farming. In many areas this has

  5. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  6. Agricultural and Rural Development in China: Achievements and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    China has made great advances in its agricultural and rural development since the reforms and opening-up that began in 1978. It has not only fed its population of 1.3 billion, but has also contributed to international agricultural development and food security. Agricultural production registered great development, providing sufficient food and clothes for 21 per cent of the world's population with

  7. Effects of the 1924 Agricultural Recession on Rural Missouri Hebdomadals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Steven D.; Kahan, Robert S.

    A study was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between the agricultural slump of 1924 and the economic vitality of rural weekly newspapers in Missouri. "Rural weekly newspaper" was defined as any weekly newspaper in a predominantly agrarian locale with a city population of fewer than 5,000 and a county population of fewer than…

  8. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

  9. RURAL AND URBAN ADULT KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF AGRICULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Frick; Robert J. Birkenholz; Krissana Machtmes

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and perception of rural and urban adults in a midwestern state regarding agriculture, food, and natural resources. Since this study was a pilot project, these two subgroups of the United States population were assessed to provide baseline data reflecting the knowledge and perceptions of United States residents regarding agriculture and the food

  10. Recruiting and Retaining Physicians in Very Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Carolyn M.; Sandefer, Ryan H.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Recruiting and retaining physicians is a challenge in rural areas. Growing up in a rural area and completing medical training in a rural area have been shown to predict decisions to practice in rural areas. Little is known, though, about factors that contribute to physicians' decisions to locate in very sparsely populated areas. Purpose:…

  11. The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP): Belize's New Approach to Rural Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…

  12. Business Productivity and Area Productivity in Rural England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Webber; Nigel Curry; Anthony Plumridge

    2009-01-01

    Webber D., Curry N. and Plumridge A. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England, Regional Studies. Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) definition of ‘rural’. Labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less

  13. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  14. Agricultural Trade Liberalization, Globalization and Rural Economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Blandford

    The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), which resulted from the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), created a major change in the international policy environment for agriculture. The signing of the Agreement in 1994 effectively meant that domestic agricultural and trade policies were brought under international discipline for the first time since the

  15. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  16. Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Marsden; Roberta Sonnino

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on

  17. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  18. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  19. The Relationship between Government on One Side and the Market and Society on the Other in China's Agricultural and Rural Development: An Analytical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Jianxing; Gao Xiang

    2010-01-01

    ??????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????“??”???????????? ?\\/?????????????????\\/?????????\\/????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????: ???????????????The integrated development of urban and rural areas requires that the government take responsibility for the overall development of the countryside. Chinese agricultural and rural policies characterized by state intervention and government leadership have played an important role in promoting agricultural development and increasing farmers' incomes as well

  20. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers at national level. PMID:20442830

  1. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  2. Approaches to controlling erosion in rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Fleming

    The intensive utilization of rural areas for the settlement of expanding populations and for the increased production of food and timber can lead to acute sediment erosion problems when careful planning is not implemented. The conservation of soil resources, while at the same time permitting their maximum develop­ ment for man, calls for research which integrates all the factors relating

  3. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas

  4. Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Yifu Lin

    1992-01-01

    This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came

  5. Analyzing cogeneration opportunities for rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstetler, T.; Lovel, G.

    1982-06-01

    Cogeneration can be used in rural areas to cut energy costs. In Burlingame, Kansas, waste exhaust heat from municipal power plants is utilized for grain drying, for example. A heat exchanger for grain drying is schematicized. Space heating and cooling, wood drying, and industrial process heat also offer opportunities for small scale cogeneration. A formula is developed to allow one to identify high potential locations for cogeneration quickly. Large differences between various energy costs give rise to cogeneration opportunities.

  6. Small Towns in a Rural Area: A Study of the Problems of Small Towns in Idaho. Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin No. 91, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, J. R.; And Others

    Using aggregate data from several Idaho counties and towns, the study examined the economic forces which pressure small town people and merchants--pressures which ultimately shape and will shape small towns in areas like Idaho. Six towns chosen for intensive study were Priest River, Cottonwood, Riggins, Shoshone, Oakley, and Malad. Focusing on…

  7. Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.

    PubMed

    Salehi-isfahani, D

    1993-04-01

    "In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model. PMID:12345244

  8. Building an Information Ecosystem for Public Transport in Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Pete

    Building an Information Ecosystem for Public Transport in Rural Areas Peter Edwards, David Corsar, John Nelson, Nagendra Velaga, Mark Beecroft, Jeff Pan, Somayajulu Sripada dot.rural Digital Economy Hub transport users; however, in many rural areas, for various reasons, such sys- tems do not exist. As part

  9. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas...

  10. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas...

  11. AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004

    E-print Network

    AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY 34 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004 #12;Currents No. 34 August 2004 In this issue Agriculture Today 4 Flashback: Fifty Years of Donor Aid to African Agriculture Executive summary of Conference

  12. 911 Best Call for Heart Attack Victims in Rural Areas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152330.html 911 Best Call for Heart Attack Victims in Rural Areas: Study But many drive ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many rural residents with severe heart attacks drive or are driven to the hospital, but ...

  13. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumin Yao; Xiaodong Zhu; Yingbi Xu; Haiyan Yang; Xian Wu; Yangfan Li; Yanfeng Zhang

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River.\\u000a It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region\\u000a possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality\\u000a of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public

  14. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other underserved...

  15. Reliable Routing for Roadside to Vehicle Communications in Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Tang, Jian "Neil"

    Reliable Routing for Roadside to Vehicle Communications in Rural Areas Shen Wan, Jian Tang (QoS). In this paper, we study reliable routing for Roadside to Vehicle (R2V) communications in rural based on OPNET Modeler and the rural roadways in the Yellowstone National Park show that the proposed

  16. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  17. Strategic approaches to rural tourism and sustainable development of rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. ŠIMKOVÁ

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the role of rural tourism for the sustainable development of rural areas and stresses out the importance of strategic approach in the planning of their development. The author identifies core problems, which elimi - nate their use and disable individual strategies set by some entrepreneurs in rural tourism. Concretely it is the absence of developing projects and

  18. Differences in Child Care Quality in Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…

  19. Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    -economy Agricultural productivity analysis economic returns to agricultural research in Africa Institutional and policyDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships (Two positions) With support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation the Department of Agricultural

  20. Published in: Agricultural Systems 59:193-214 (1999) Community History and Rural Development: Why Some

    E-print Network

    Walters, Bradley B.

    1999-01-01

    Published in: Agricultural Systems 59:193-214 (1999) Community History and Rural Development: Why, Philippines 6206 Key Words: Philippines, rural development, reforestation, soil conservation, community participation, research-extension methods #12;ABSTRACT Past explanations of why rural people respond as they do

  1. Belize's Rural Education and Agriculture Programme: Some Factors that Have Contributed to Its Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne D.; Edmond, Daniel

    Belize (formerly British Honduras) has achieved a good deal of success with its Rural Education and Agriculture Programme (REAP). REAP was initiated in 1976 to create the attitudes and provide the skills necessary for rural youth to make meaningful contributions to the country's agricultural development. Initiated by an intraministerial and…

  2. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural

  3. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  4. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009 [74 FR...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 [74 FR...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 [74 FR...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 [74 FR...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009 [74 FR...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 [74 FR...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Part 300—Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.011 [74 FR...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 [74 FR...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 [74 FR...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Part 300—Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.011 [74 FR...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012 [74 FR...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 [74 FR...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 [74 FR...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 [74 FR...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012 [74 FR...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009 [74 FR...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009 [74 FR...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012 [74 FR...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Part 300—Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.011 [74 FR...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009 [74 FR...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 [74 FR...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...Part 300—Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.011 [74 FR...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 [74 FR...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012 [74 FR...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 [74 FR...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013 [74 FR...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008 [74 FR...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife...of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012 [74 FR...

  12. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  13. Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Sudan in Eastern Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. However, its remotely isolated rural areas pose problems to rural energy management and development because of poor road links with the urban centres, and remoteness from the national electrical transmission grid. Development of renewable energy sources, therefore, has a vast potential in Sudan. Solar

  14. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  15. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Blueprints for Your

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Graduate Student Extension Rural Agricultural Economics Development Specialist Gerald Doeksen Jack Frye Extension Rural Area Extension Rural Development Specialist Development Specialist Stan Ralstin Area Extension Rural Development Specialist Interest in local economic development has focused on cluster

  16. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  17. Analysis of population structure in rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study and analysis of the condition, problems, and opportunities of economic development in rural China. Major population problems and key issues in those areas are discussed and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Appropriate economic policies for rural areas are proposed. China's large population seriously impedes national economic development. The structure analysis method is a new way of studying the relationship of population, economy, society, natural resources, and the environment. Most of China's population problem is in its rural areas, where there is not enough cultivated land to support the population. The solution of the problem therefore depends heavily upon economic progress in those areas. Impeded economic development in rural China due to population and the structure of industry and production, the centrality of population and industrial structure in rural China, the distribution of personal wealth in rural China, the need to improve education and work skills in rural areas, and family structure changes and economic adjustment are discussed. PMID:12294557

  18. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes. PMID:12158008

  19. List of subject area codes 01 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    .7 Animal Husbandry 01.8 Tropical/Subtropical Agriculture 01.9 Others ­ Agricultural Sciences 02 Sciences 12.1 Medicine 12.2 Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 12.3 Dentistry 12.4 Veterinary Medicine 12List of subject area codes 01 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 01.0 Agricultural sciences 01.1 Agriculture 01

  20. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiming Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon

  1. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  2. Non-Human Loss in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Ralph

    This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World War II.…

  3. The Effects of Agricultural Market Liberalization and Commercialization on Household Food Security in Rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine R. Baylis; Linlin Fan; Lia Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    China underwent tremendous agricultural market reforms in the 1990s prior to its accession to the WTO, drastically decreasing domestic market distortions. We ask whether these reforms have led to agricultural commercialization and have improved the welfare of rural Chinese households measured by household average share of calories from non-staples. We identify the effect of local market liberalization by calculating the

  4. Agricultural groundwater use and rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa: A first-cut assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Giordano

    2006-01-01

    The rapid expansion in agricultural groundwater use in the last few decades has transformed rural economies in large parts of the developing world, in particular South Asia and North China. There has been no such “Groundwater Revolution” in most of sub-Saharan Africa and little is known about the actual role of groundwater use in supporting agricultural livelihoods in the region

  5. Civil agronomy: a new dimension of agricultural extension to invoke poverty issues for sustainable rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thilak T. Ranasinghe

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural

  6. Prospect of a Pico Hydro power plant based on irrigation pump in perspective of rural areas in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musaddeque Anwar Al-Abedin Syed; M. M. Naushad Ali; Fakir Sharif Hossain; Shah Ahsanul Haque; Abdul Hasib Siddique

    2011-01-01

    This Paper presents the design aspects of a Pico Hydro power plant (PHP) using the water from conventional irrigation pumps, which are widely used for agricultural purposes in the rural areas of Bangladesh. In addition, it also presents the viable prospects of PHP as an electricity generating system in perspective of Bangladesh. Bangladesh, being a developing country with perpetual shortage

  7. The Physician Pipeline to Rural and Underserved Areas in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    Context: An implicit objective of a state's investments in medical education is to promote in-state practice of state educated physicians. Purpose: To present a tool for evaluating this objective by analyzing the "pipeline" from medical education to patient care, primary care, rural areas, and underserved areas in Pennsylvania. Methods: AMA…

  8. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

  9. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture

    E-print Network

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

  10. Rural Conditions and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

  11. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  12. Asthma and Allergies in Rural Areas of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika von Mutius

    2007-01-01

    A large number of studies have consistently shown that growing up on a farm in various rural areas in Europe confers protection from the development of hay fever, atopic sensitization, and less consistently of asthma fromchildhood into young adulthood. Expo- sures to livestock as well as consumption of unpasteurized milk are likely to be distinct and relevant sources of protective

  13. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  14. Special Education in Rural Areas: An Unsolved Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Stanley

    Presented is a review of literature on the provision of special education services to handicapped children in rural areas. The inadequacy of such provisions is seen to be due to problems in transportation, unavailability of special equipment and teaching materials, and administrative problems. Cooperative programing is reported as the key…

  15. Adaptive needs formation for public transportation service in rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keishi Tanimoto; Shuhei Maki

    2007-01-01

    The needs satisfaction as an information basis for planning the public transportation service may be arbitrary if a person adapts to the poor transportation accessibility and thereby compromise the level of needs for the service. The mechanism of this adaptation is called adaptive needs formation. In rural areas, the service level is so low such that the person may adapt

  16. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  17. Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

    This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

  18. NEWS RELEASEUnited States Department of Agriculture Rural Development 8000 Midlantic Drive Suite 500N Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    NEWS RELEASEUnited States Department of Agriculture · Rural Development 8000 Midlantic Drive'Grady (856) 787-7723 USDA Rural Development and United States Senators Announce Funding To Create Jobs Throughout the Garden State MT. LAUREL, NJ - February 9, 2012 ­ USDA, Rural Development State Director Howard

  19. CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AUGUST 2002 PARTICIPATION -WHERE IS IT HEADING?

    E-print Network

    28 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY interested in rural development in developing countries. Issues related to national and international aid Study on agricultural extension in Kenya 50 Rural development Professionals abroad On the illustrations

  20. Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eugene C.

    1913-01-01

    In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

  1. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive...rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in...

  2. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section...to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive...rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in...

  3. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...certification for areas served by non-rural carriers. 54.316 Section 54.316...certification for areas served by non-rural carriers. (a) Certification. ...the comparability of residential rates in rural areas of the state served by...

  4. An innovation on agricultural insurance mode in the development of new-style rural cooperative economy — Creating “Six in one” mode to extricate agricultural insurance from trouble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan Wang; Jing Tan

    2011-01-01

    The new rural cooperative economy is quite helpful in optimizing the allocation of resources and promoting the development of agricultural modernization, while it also faces more centralized and more kinds of operating risk than it did ever before. Using the experiences of the previous agricultural insurance pilots, this paper proposes a new mode of agricultural insurance, which is \\

  5. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  6. Schooling and Factors Affecting Decisions on Schooling by Household Members in the Rural Areas of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olgun, Akin; Gumus, Sevtap Guler; Adanacioglu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that rural education has always been one of the most important means of rural development, it has been ignored in many developing countries, with the result that rural development has not achieved great success. The problems of education in rural areas are not only related to the amount the country spends on education or to the…

  7. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population. PMID:23507738

  8. 78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...Administration [Docket No. FTA-2013-0023] Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and...implementation of the section 5311 Rural Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed...result of changes made to the Rural Area Formula Program by the Moving Ahead for...

  9. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive...Bidding Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive...exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74...and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990)...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74...and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990)...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74...and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990)...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74...and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990)...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74...and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed...insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990)...

  15. The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

    2010-05-01

    Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

  16. The Teaching of Rural Economics in U.S. Departments of Agricultural Economics: Some Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, David W.; Weber, Bruce A.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 76 agricultural economics departments received 57 replies indicating that 25 departments teach 35 courses in rural economics/development; 10 years ago, 31 departments taught 44 courses. Slow enrollment growth and emphasis shifts were possible causes. More attention is now paid to community economics and less to social issues and…

  17. Contrasting Welfare Impacts of Health and Agricultural Shocks in Rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shubham Chaudhuri; Hideyuki Nakagawa

    Rural households are exposed to high risks of agricultural and health shocks, which can have sizeable impacts on their welfare. Compared to the amount of attention that the testing of risk sharing has received in the empirical literature, relatively little research has been done on understanding what types of shocks are more important in terms of frequency and welfare impacts.

  18. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  19. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  20. Agricultural Nonpoint Source Control: Experiences from the Rural Clean Water Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Maas; Sarah L. Brichford; Michael P. Smolen; Jean Spooner

    1988-01-01

    In response to the growing awareness that agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution can only be effectively addressed on a watershed\\/water resource level, the Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) has become a major source of practical information on how to conduct a successful NPS control project. This paper highlights “lessons learned” on NPS control projects in their planning or early implementation

  1. The Farmland and Rural Improvement Project budget under the Agriculture Basic Law in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Motosugi

    2003-01-01

    The Farmland and Rural Improvement Project (FRIP) system met socioeconomic needs during the time the Agriculture Basic Law (ABL) was in effect. Four hundred and forty publications and revisions of project execution guidelines between fiscal years (FY) 1960 and 1995 addressed the need to modify the FRIP systems. From the viewpoint of budgets, the budget share of the Farmland Improvement

  2. Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area Elise V. Pearlstine, Michelle L to growers and public #12;Lake Okeechobee Everglades Agricultural Area #12;Sugarcane Characteristics · Grown · Limited access Sugarcane Edge Water Road #12;ARM Loxahatchee NWR Interior Water Edge Road · Managed

  3. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

  4. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  5. [Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

  6. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  7. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...residential rates in rural areas of the state served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers to urban rates nationwide...areas served by non-rural incumbent local exchange...reasonably comparable to urban rates nationwide if...

  8. Neighborhood perceptions and health-related outcomes among latinos with diabetes from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S; Nuñez de Jaimes, Fatima; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Isiordia, Marilu; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood perceptions are related to diabetes outcomes among Latinos living in rural agricultural communities. Our objective was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood problems and diabetes outcomes. This is a cross-sectional survey study with medical record reviews of a random sample of 250 adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes. The predictor was a rating of patient ratings of neighborhood problems (crime, trash and litter, lighting at night, and access to exercise facilities, transportation, and supermarkets). The primary outcomes were the control of three intermediate outcomes [LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 100 mg/dl, AlC < 9.0 %, and blood pressure (BP) < 140/80 mmHg], and body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m(2). Secondary outcomes were participation in self-care activities (physical activity, healthy eating, medication adherence, foot checks, and glucose checks). We used regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, education, income, years with diabetes, insulin use, depressive symptoms, and co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent of patients perceived at least one neighborhood problem and out of the six problem areas, crime was most commonly perceived as a problem. Perception of neighborhood problems was independently associated with not having a BP < 140/80 [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.22, 0.92], and BMI < 30 (AOR = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77), after controlling for covariates. Receipt of recommended processes of care was not associated with perception of neighborhood. Perception of neighborhood problems among low-income rural Latinos with diabetes was independently associated with a higher BMI and BP. PMID:24599665

  9. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...section does not apply to a rural low-stress pipeline regulated under this part...

  10. Training Special Educators to Teach in Rural Areas: Special Problems and Recommendations for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polloway, Edward A.; Tolbert, Merrill P.

    A review of the existing literature on preparation of rural teaching personnel focuses on the problems of education and specifically, special education, in rural areas and reports various solutions to those problems. Characteristics of many rural areas (such as high non-enrollment rates, rising service costs, resistance to outside interference,…

  11. Developing and Evaluating Routing Protocols for Rural Areas That Communicates Via Data Mules

    E-print Network

    Blake, Edwin

    Developing and Evaluating Routing Protocols for Rural Areas That Communicates Via Data Mules traces for multiple data mules for rural-like areas the existing protocols ad hoc on-demand distance vector protocol (AODV) and optimal relay path (ORP) were compared. The results show that a rural route

  12. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  13. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

  14. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

  15. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

  16. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

  17. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

  18. Economic Integration, Rural Hardship, and Conservation on Guatemala's Agricultural Frontier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avrum J. Shriar

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of attention by conservationists, deforestation remains a critical problem in Latin America, particularly in agricultural frontiers like the Amazon and the lowlands of Central America. The limited impact of conservation initiatives in such regions stems partly from a poor understanding of the socioeconomic and land use dynamics that typify frontiers. Moreover, conservation organizations tend to disregard the economic

  19. Conditioning trends shaping the agricultural and rural landscape in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinwumi A. Adesina

    2010-01-01

    African countries continue to face deepening food crises that have been accentuated by the global food, energy, and financial crises. This situation is part of a long-term structural problem: decades of under-investments in agricultural sector and poor policies of support for smallholder farmers who form the bulk of the farming population. The inability of these farmers to achieve a supply

  20. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  1. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

  2. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  3. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  4. What interventions do rural doctors think will increase recruitment in rural areas: a survey of 2778 health workers in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers’ perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. Results Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. Conclusions From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing. PMID:23964857

  5. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

  6. Effects of Population Density on Smallholder Agricultural Production and Commercialization in Rural Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milu Muyanga; Thomas S. Jayne

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the implications of increasing population density in Kenya’s rural areas on smallholder production and commercialization. Using data from five panel surveys on 1,146 small-scale farms over the 1997-2010 period, we use econometric techniques to determine how increasing rural population density is affecting farm household behavior and its implication to smallholder commercialization. We find that farm productivity and

  7. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.

  8. Free Preconceptual Screening Examination Service in Rural Areas of Hubei Province, China in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Sun, Rong-ze; Zhang, Hui-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aims to collect and summarize the outcomes on free preconceptual screening examination in rural areas of Hubei Province in 2012. Moreover, this review promotes further understanding of the status of this activity to provide the Family Planning Commission valid scientific data upon which to construct effective policies. Methods Couples, who complied with the family planning policy and were the residents in agricultural areas or lived in a local rural area for more than six months, were encouraged to participate in the free preconceptual screening examination service provided by the Hubei Provincial Population and Family Planning Commission. This service included 19 screening tests. All the data, including forms, manuals, and test results, were collected from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in rural areas in Hubei Province. Results A total of 497,860 individuals participated in the free preconceptual screening examination service, with a coverage rate of 97.1%. 4.0% and 4.8% of the participants exhibited with abnormal blood levels of ALT and creatinine, respectively; 0.36% of the participants tested positive for syphilis; 0.44% and 3.6% of the female participants tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively; and 0.84% and 1.8% of the female participants tested positive for cytomegalovirus (IgM) and Toxoplasma gondii (IgM), respectively. After risk assessment, 59,935 participants might have high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 2012, the prevalence of birth defects among the parturient who participated in the preconceptual screening examination service was 0.04%, while the prevalence was 0.08% among those who did not participate in the service. Conclusion Preconceptual screening examination service may help to address the risk factors that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. More studies on the relationship between preconceptual screening examination service and prevalence of birth defect or other adverse pregnancy outcomes should be conducted. PMID:25375642

  9. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

  10. Agricultural Areas Under Metropolitan Threats: Lessons for Perth from Barcelona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerià Paül; Fiona Haslam McKenzie

    \\u000a A common reason for rural demographic change is peri-urban or peri-metropolitan in-migration. This pattern inevitably causes\\u000a the loss of farmland\\u000a on the edge of the city. Agricultural land reduction in this spatial context has received attention from a large body of\\u000a international literature. The focus of this chapter is the strategic value, in productive terms, that fringe farmland represents\\u000a as

  11. Income and Employment Generation in Rural Areas in Relation to Alternative Farm Programs (with Special Emphasis on the North Central Region).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    Four alternative government farm policies were analyzed to determine their effect upon farm income and employment generation in rural areas and agriculturally related industries. A linear programming model of interregional competition was used to determine the impact of alternative farm policies on the quantity of major commodities produced, the…

  12. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological shocks, as well as for the participatory use of the models as decision support tools for the participatory design of sustainable solutions to the identified vulnerabilities in each system.

  13. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the conceived areas.

  14. The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing…

  15. 41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

  16. ANALYSIS OF WATER CONVERSION FROM AGRICULTURAL TO URBAN USE AT THE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayek Farag

    2007-01-01

    In the arid west of The United States, there has been a redistribution of water from agriculture to municipal, industrial, recreational, and environmental uses due to population growth. A growing municipality in search for new water resources usually leads to a rural-to-urban conversion of water uses, affecting irrigated agriculture. The transition of irrigated water to municipal and industrial water usage

  17. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  18. Critical indicators for assessing the contribution of infrastructure projects to coordinated urban–rural development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyin Shen; Shijie Jiang; Hongping Yuan

    It is widely recognized that the coordinated development between urban and rural areas can not only narrow gaps in infrastructure between urban and rural areas, promote balanced development in rural areas in terms of society, economy and environment, but is also an effective way to address issues facing agriculture, rural areas and farmers. In line with this, development of infrastructure

  19. Planning and Providing End-of-life Care in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna M.; Justice, Christopher; Sheps, Sam; Thomas, Roger; Reid, Pam; Leibovici, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Context: Approximately 20% of North Americans and 25% of Europeans reside in rural areas. Planning and providing end-of-life (EOL) care in rural areas presents some unique challenges. Purpose: In order to understand these challenges, and other important issues or circumstances, a literature search was conducted to assess the state of science on…

  20. The Feasibility and Value of Broadband Communications in Rural Areas. A Preliminary Evaluation, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, William; And Others

    The study was conducted to determine the feasibility and value of using broadband communications (transmission of many television, voice and/or data signals through a single system) to provide public services for rural areas. Applications of broadband communications to rural areas were divided into public services (health, education, law…

  1. Study on the Test of Arsenic Removal for Drinking Water in the Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Xi; Yue Li; Fanlong Kong; Jie Lu

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a kind of substance with high toxicity. Arsenic pollution exists in the drinking water of rural areas, which would be harmful for human health. Based on adsorption methods, this article designed a water treatment system to remove arsenic from drinking water in the rural areas. The water treatment system uses a stabilized waste material as the adsorption material

  2. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  3. BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water, and propose predefined variables to analyze some Colombian small communities located in rural areas in order to develop model based in actors and roles. It shows how the government can support this management

  4. Priority option of photovoltaic systems for water pumping in rural areas in ESCWA member countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad Kordab

    2007-01-01

    Many rural areas in ESCWA member countries are still suffering from a lack of access to energy services, especially electricity supply. Photovoltaic (PV) applications could supply electrical energy needed in rural, remote, and deserted areas for water pumping to supply the Bedouins and their herds as well as the villagers and their livestock with their needs of potable water. In

  5. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  6. United States Agricultural Information Network (USAIN) National Preservation Program for the History of Agriculture and Rural Life: Texas Preservation Project 1820-1945, Texas A&M University: Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Gyeszly, Suzanne D.; McGeachin, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This final report and bibliography of the Texas Preservation Project of the United States Agricultural Information Network (USAIN) National Preservation Program for the History of Agriculture and Rural Life 1820-1945, can ...

  7. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

  8. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  9. Neotropical Forest Conservation, Agricultural Intensification, and Rural Out-migration: The Mexican Experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Luis García-Barriosâ?? (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México; Departamento de Sistemas de Producción Alternativos)

    2009-11-01

    Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin Americaâ??namely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agricultureâ??have helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.

  10. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  11. Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

  12. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  13. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. PMID:24270102

  14. The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

    The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.

  15. Characterization of agricultural tasks performed by youth in the Keokuk County Rural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyesook; Reynolds, Stephen J; Kelly, Kevin M; Stromquist, Ann M; Burmeister, Leon F; Zwerling, Craig; Merchant, James A

    2003-06-01

    Injury and illness among youth working on farms are important problems. The types of farm tasks performed by children and the ages at which they begin these activities have not been well characterized. This cross-sectional study characterized agricultural work performed by adolescents in a rural Iowa county to better understand the patterns and extent of exposures to agricultural risk factors. This information will help to develop prevention strategies for agriculture-related injury and illnesses for children working on farms. The Keokuk County Rural Health Study is a prospective cohort study of randomly selected households in Iowa. In Round 2, all youth, aged 12 to 17 years participating in this population-based study, were asked about their use of farm machinery, work with livestock, pesticide handling, and other farm activities. The age at which they actually began these activities, the age they believed youth should start these activities, and sources of health and safety training they received were also ascertained. Adults in the study were asked the same questions about youth. Matched parental reports and opinions were compared to their children's reports and opinions using McNemar's chi-square tests. A total of 143 youth and 684 adults with farming experience completed the interviews. There were 118 pairs of parents and youth. Fifty percent of male youth, and 18 percent of females had performed agricultural work at some time in their life. Twenty-five percent of all male youth, and 5 percent of females were currently working on farms. Close to 30 percent had driven tractors, all-terrain vehicles, and pick-up trucks. Despite the legal prohibition of hazardous work by children under age 16, several younger children reported that they had driven a self-propelled combine, worked in silos, or handled and applied fertilizers in the past 12 months. Youth began riding on tractors at a mean age of 7. The mean ages for driving tractors and all-terrain vehicles were 11 and 10, respectively. The mean age for driving a self-propelled combine was 13. Children began applying or handling fertilizers at the age of 12. There were discrepancies between parent and youth reports regarding the frequencies, starting age, and opinions relative to performing agricultural tasks. These results suggest the need for implementing guidelines, particularly for age appropriate agricultural tasks. PMID:12746065

  16. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations...What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations...special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large...

  17. Science and Technology of Food Storage and Preservation. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, V. V.; And Others

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. This module deals…

  18. Pediculosis Capitis among Schoolchildren in Urban and Rural Areas of Eastern Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicja Buczek; Dorota Markowska-Gosik; Dorota Widomska; Iwona Monika Kawa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996–2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs

  19. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  20. Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

  1. Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

  2. Cardiovascular risk levels in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in rural and urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wan; Mark F. Harris; Gawaine Powell-Davies; Upali W. Jayasinghe; Jeff Flack; Andrew Georgiou; Joan R. Burns; Danielle L. Penn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of cardiovascular risk factor from 2000 to 2002 in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in urban and rural areas, and the association between cardiovascular risk (both single risk factors and coronary heart disease absolute risk (CHDAR)) and rurality in three years. Methods: In total, 6305 patients were extracted from 16 Divisions (250 practices).

  3. Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

  4. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

  5. A global map of irrigated agriculture in dry areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Linderman, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    With changing socio-economic environments and population growth, it is estimated that agricultural production levels need to double by 2050. One way to achieve this may be through agricultural expansion into drier regions, which cover about 41% of earth's land area. Currently, about 70% of freshwater withdrawals are used for irrigation, which in turn produces about 40% of global food. However, little is known about the global area under irrigated agriculture in these water-stressed, arid regions which host about 2 billion people. Here we estimate the global area under irrigation in the arid and hyperarid regions. To this end, we analyse the temporal signature of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) that was derived from the ~500m BRDF-adjusted reflectance data provided by the MODIS sensor since February 2000. This method does not rely on any external data sources and it allows to explore the temporal evolution of irrigation practices. Additionally, compared to other irrigation maps, our dataset can be quickly updated annually to provide the latest estimations. Initial results show that by using a combination of simple metrics quantifying each pixel's phenology we are able to clearly identify irrigated areas in these dry regions. Our results will be compared to existing global irrigation datasets as well as global land cover maps.

  6. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rural territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www. ... Sources that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The ...

  7. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  8. Seasonal dimensions of energy protein malnutrition in rural bangladesh: The role of agriculture, dietary practices, and infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lincoln C. Chen; A. K. M. Alauddin Chowdhury; Sandra L. Huffman

    1979-01-01

    The influence of seasonal variations in agriculutral practices, dietary intakes and illness on the nutritional status of preschool children was examined in this longitudinal study of approximately 200 woman?child pairs in rural Bangladesh. The seasonal nature of cropping patterns was associated with varying levels of rice prices, agriculture wage rates, and household food stocks. Rice prices were highest, household food

  9. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  10. Refugee Reintegration in Rural Areas: Land Distribution in Ban Pha Thao, Lao PDR

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Brett M.

    The successful reintegration of refugee groups in rural areas often depends on people’s access to and control over productive land resources. The acquisition of land and the preservation of secure use rights depend on ...

  11. Impacts of e-collaboration tools for development of rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklós Herdon

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a powerful driver for economy-wide productivity, growth and jobs - and are arguably Europe's best-bet investment for the future. The ICT in innovation processes and acts play more and more important role in rural areas. The regional innovation performance is different in regions and lower in rural areas.The regional innovation performance is different in

  12. A satellite telecommunication system for remote and rural areas in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufenberg, W.

    The development of satellite telecommunication services for remote and rural areas in Africa is discussed in the framework of GLODOM, where a global satellite system is to provide domestic services for the rural areas of the developing world. Emphasis is placed on basic requirements, satellite system characteristics, services, and cost. It is noted that the special features of the rural environment necessitate a specially designed satellite system: i.e., a system with higher sensitivity and EIRP for the satellite transponders to allow small, fully transistorized, low-power-consumption earth stations to be employed. The use of the 4/6 GHz band is also a necessity.

  13. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale. PMID:19017381

  14. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

  15. L'agriculture durable, lment de stratgie pour le dveloppement rural communal Cas de la Commune d'Ampitatafika-District d'Antanifotsy-Rgion du Vakinankaratra

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le développement rural communal Cas de la Commune,S., Ramananarivo, R., Aubert Gilon, S. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 L'AGRICULTURE DURABLE, ELEMENT DE "ISDA 2010, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le

  16. Rural America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made a rural development publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Rural Development Perspectives, issued three times annually, "track... economic and social trends in rural America," and present "nontechnical articles on the results of new rural research,." Selected archives of the publication is available, and articles can be downloaded individually.

  17. Telecommunications satellites for developing countries - Extension of satellite use to rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinglier, A.

    1980-02-01

    The potential of telecommunications satellites to improve communications in developing nations, particularly the rural areas, is considered. Requirements for improved telephone, television and radio service in developing nations are indicated, and it is argued that satellites would provide one of the most efficient means of developing networks for telephony, television and radio both for intercity trunk routes and for rural areas. The forms such satellite systems could take for rural telephony and direct, semidirect and redistributed television broadcasting are examined, and an approach to the integration of telephone and television services is proposed. Telephony and television capacity requirements for a typical sub-Saharan country are estimated, and the financial aspects of the systems are considered. It is concluded that satellites can considerably improve the general communications situation in many developing nations, giving vast rural areas access to telecommunications for the first time and with comparatively low funding requirements.

  18. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India. PMID:22295192

  19. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas of Northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula V. S. Queiroz; Glória R. G. Monteiro; Virgínia P. S. Macedo; Maria A. C. Rocha; Leopoldina M. M. Batista; José W. Queiroz; Selma M. B. Jerônimo; Maria F. F. M. Ximenes

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory profiles of canine leishmaniasis in two distinct areas. Dogs from urban and rural areas were examined. The population studied in the metropolitan area included 54 dogs. Of these, 20 (37%) animals did not present with any signs suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Among these, only eight were confirmed

  20. Kristin Juliar, Director Montana Area Health Education Center and Office of Rural Health

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    AHEC Host Kristin Juliar, Director Montana Area Health Education Center and Office of Rural Health Area Health Education Center (AHEC) at Montana State University in Bozeman. She is the Chair Dean for Regional Affairs, Dr. Allen helps with the WWAMI program and Area Health Education Centers

  1. Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

  2. VillageCell: Cost Effective Cellular Connectivity in Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    ] and efficient health care [24]. The unique disposition of African villages, characterized by low population densities and low income rural ar- eas of the developing world, where big telecoms often defer from density and low-income communities, along with the specific cultural context represented by a mix

  3. Anecdotes and Personal Reflections About Psychotherapy in a Rural Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianne C. Kadushin; Lewis R. Kadushin

    1992-01-01

    A wife and husband psychotherapy partnership will narratively describe their lives' work on Ihe rural Eastern Shore of Maryland. In 1990 they will celebrate the 25th anniversary of their marital partnership and 18 years of a professional partnership. They still feel they have a great deal to offer each other and to the many folks who avail themselves of their

  4. Education's Role in Rural Areas of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Kenneth P.

    1988-01-01

    Large rural surveys from Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay were used to examine education's role. Education has a consistently important effect that differs across countries. It is strongest in the modernizing environment context and consistently related to social differentiation, except in Guatemala. Productivity effects…

  5. THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLACE, HELEN M.

    THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

  6. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  7. Wireless Networks in Rural Areas: Challenges and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    in the rural environment very well. Therefore, two new technologies--WiMAX and VANET-- are proposed to solve keep the cost low. We show resource allocation problems in the WiMAX relay and VANET networks for the future research. The expected research achievements are discussed for both WiMAX and VANET problems

  8. Georgia AHEC Librarians Deliver Consumer Health Information to Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Poorbaugh; Mary V. Fielder; Lisa Smith

    2004-01-01

    AHEC librarians are forming traditional and nontraditional partners to deliver consumer health information. Through alliances with public libraries, public health departments, and hospitals\\/ clinics in 15 rural and four urban counties, training to locate quality consumer health information was provided to patrons, clients, and patients. This article will explain how funding was obtained, secrets to the programs' successes, and the

  9. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

  10. Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention. PMID:23034263

  11. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas. PMID:23759062

  12. Identifying In-service Needs of Secondary Agricultural Teachers by Content Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Ewing; Bart E. Gill

    This study focused on the in-service needs of agricultural teachers in Pennsylvania. Data was collected utilizing an instrument based on Pennsylvania's department of education description of certification requirements for agricultural education. Teachers certified to teach agricultural education in Pennsylvania are expected to have knowledge and skills in the following nine areas of agriculture; (1) Management, Economics, and Marketing, (2) Leadership

  13. Assessing preferences for wastewater treatment in a rural area using choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2012-04-01

    In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.

  14. Using VCDs to Promote Rural Educational Development in China: A Case Study in the Tianshui Hilly Areas of Gansu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Lee Chi Kin; Jiayi, Wang

    2005-01-01

    This case study is set in a remote rural area of China--the Tianshui area of Gansu Province. It examines a strategy involving the use of Video Compact Discs (VCDs) to enhance primary education in these areas. Firstly, the challenging context of Tianshui area is described. Secondly, strategies for promoting rural education using VCDs and the…

  15. CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES SEPTEMBER 2006 AGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES · SEPTEMBER 2006 40/41 AGRICULTURE ­ emerging and revisited issues #12;2 Currents No.40/41 · September 2006 In this issue is published by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala Grafiska AB Cover Photo JohanToborn ISSN No.1403-6304 Agriculture ­ emerging and revisited issues 4

  16. Information Technologies: Do They Have the Potential To Bring Change to U.S. Rural Areas? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    Rural communities have long experienced an outmigration of talented people to urban areas for better employment opportunities. The traditional rural economic model, especially prevalent in Appalachia and the rural South, involves outside capital promoting industrial development separated from community needs and culture. This, at worst, is…

  17. Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

  18. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  19. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Pant, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies from high income countries (HIC) have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally. Method Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013) were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM) of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data. Results Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC). Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01). Conclusions Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss. PMID:26162093

  20. Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

  1. Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

  2. [Tuberculosis morbidity in a male population by the climatic, geographic and administrative rural areas of Dagestan].

    PubMed

    Mamaev, I A; Khachirov DzhG; Guse?nov, G K

    2000-01-01

    The epidemiological features of tuberculosis among rural males in Daghestan were studied. Its mortality in males was found to greatly vary by climatic and geographic areas by the east-west and north-south axes. 1990 to 1997 were marked by a rise in tuberculosis morbidity by both ecological and administrative areas. The data are given in the paper. PMID:10838899

  3. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative. PMID:16295915

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  5. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  6. Policy implications of a financial incentive programme to retain a physician workforce in underserved Japanese rural areas.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Existing evidence supports the effectiveness of a financial incentive policy for medical students and early-career physicians in return for obligatory rural service. But whether the experience of contractual rural service affects the physician's choice of practice location after the service is completed remains unknown. This study analysed the practice location of Jichi Medical University (JMU) graduates. JMU is a Japanese medical education programme with a contract system under which all graduates have an obligation to serve in underserved areas for about six years in exchange for a 6-year undergraduate tuition waiver. 484 JMU graduates who were under rural service in 2000 and had completed the service by 2006 were included in the study. The rurality of the communities was determined by population density quintiles. The proportion of those practicing in the communities with the highest rurality quintile in 2000 (30.8%) decreased dramatically (8.7%) in 2006, but the geographic distribution of the participants after contract was still biased toward rural areas compared with the distribution pattern of all Japanese physicians. The flow of participants from rural to urban communities was largely unidirectional. In 2006, 452 (93.4%) practiced in places with the same or lower rurality than in 2000, while only 32 (6.6%) practiced in places with higher rurality as compared to the placements of 2000. Multivariate analysis showed that service experience in the communities of the first and second highest quintiles of rurality was associated with choosing such places after contract, independent of known predictors of rural practice, such as having a rural background and primary care specialty choice. Although the effect of contractual rural service substantially decreased after finishing the service, the experience of rural service early in the physician's career had a positive impact on the later choice of a rural practice. The results from this study support the use of a policy that attracts early-career physicians to practice in rural areas. PMID:20542362

  7. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    containing, from the north, the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), Water Conservation Areas (WCA) 1, 2 canals toward the water conservation areas at the north end of the remaining Everglades. Along the way to entering the water conservation are

  9. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

  10. THE CHALLENGE OF SUPPORTING RURAL YOUTH FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL LIVELIHOOD: A CASE OF UGANDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kibwika; A. R. Semana

    The youth are the strength of any nation the world over. However, many developing countries like Uganda are yet to recognize the potential of the youth particularly in rural development where the majority of the population live. A survey of 200 youth and 34 key informants in two districts of Uganda revealed a diver gence in understanding of who the

  11. Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yair; G. Binshtok; C. Price

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes\\/km2\\/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the

  12. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  13. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    PubMed

    Düzgüne?, Ertan; Demirel, Öner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in Salac?k Village of Akçaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  14. Beyond urban places: responding to intimate partner violence in rural and remote areas.

    PubMed

    Neill, Karen S; Hammatt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health problem impacting the lives of women, families, and communities. Women in rural and more remote areas who experience IPV face unique barriers and challenges to accessing healthcare services to support healthy outcomes. Resources, access to services, presence of compassionate and informed healthcare providers, and environmental circumstances influence effective responses to this issue in rural and more remote areas. In a public health approach to this problem, prevention efforts, victim-centered responses, and the support of safety are imperative to improve outcomes for women. Forensic nurses play an important role in effective response by building linkages across health, human, and social systems through collaboration, partnership, activism, advocacy, and sensitivity to the issue across the rural landscape. PMID:25996433

  15. Radio in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshishoglou, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the role that radio can play in keeping in touch with people in rural areas, motivating them to sustain or even increase agricultural productivity through the use of modern techniques, and addressing problems in nutrition, family health and the like. (Author)

  16. Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Vermeulen; P. K. Aggarwal; A. Ainslie; C. Angelone; B. M. Campbell; A. J. Challinor; J. W. Hansen; J. S. I. Ingram; A. Jarvis; P. Kristjanson; C. Lau; G. C. Nelson; P. K. Thornton; E. Wollenberg

    Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the

  17. Building Development, Food and Population Issues in the Field of Agriculture with Rural Development in the Arab Countries (16-21 January 1993). Panel discussion (seminar).

    PubMed

    Morcos, M E

    1993-01-01

    The UN Organization for Food and Agriculture bureau held a panel discussion during January 16-21, 1993, to stress the importance of the joint relation between population issues, food, and nutrition in the fields of agriculture and rural development. Policymakers and individuals responsible for activities and programs on population, food, nutrition, and rural development in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan participated in the seminar. The seminar was also attended by academic institutions and participants from the ministries of agriculture and health, the National Population Council, and the committees of the countries involved. Synopses of panel proceedings are presented. PMID:12179789

  18. How does intimate partner violence differ depending on level of rurality of residential area in Spain?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Nevot-Cordero, Adela

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a worldwide public health problem. Most theories ascribe IPV to individual, family, or cultural factors. Authors analyzed different residential areas in Spain in terms of IPV frequency as well as its impact on health and the use of services. A standardized self-administered cross-sectional survey was administered to ever-partnered adult women ages 18 to 70 years receiving care at primary health care centers (N = 10,322). Logistic regression analyzed the association between the level of rurality and health indicators, IPV, and use of services. The lowest frequency of IPV among women is reflected in higher rurality. Women of medium and low rurality presented a poorer self-perceived health and more physical health problems. Women from medium and low rurality areas declared seeking health services more frequently. These results show the importance of the environment in health and indicate the need for research on urban-rural differences in health problems to develop specific public health programs for each country. PMID:26027419

  19. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  20. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  1. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount and...

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE FOR RECREATIONAL PLANNING OF RURAL AREAS; CASE STUDY OF MU?LA PROVINCE, TURKEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Topay

    In recent years, alternative tourism activities have gained significance in the world and in Turkey. For this reason, the rural areas which have a lot of opportunities for recreational activities have become more important for the Turkish tourism industry. In this context, planning decisions should ensure optimal usage of these rural areas. The aim of Landscape Planning is to provide

  3. Financing and Sustaining Mobility Programs in Rural Areas: A Manual. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Theodore A.; Kidder, Alice

    This manual focuses on the start-up and operation of low-cost transportation in rural areas. A principal focus is the use of volunteers and/or the consolidation of rides through a brokerage program. Chapter One provides an overview of what financial and operating decisions must be made to design a volunteer system. Chapter Two describes easy…

  4. Web-Based Strategies for Professional Induction in Rural, Regional and Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan

    In regional, rural, and remote areas of Australia, geographic and professional isolation take their toll on professionals, particularly in the first 5 years of practice. The attraction and retention of human service professionals and paraprofessionals in regional Australia is a significant problem affecting the sustainability and social cohesion…

  5. A Household Survey of Source, Availability, and Use of Antimalarials in a Rural Area of Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. D. Nsimba; Marian Warsame; Göran Tomson; Amos Y. Massele; Zebwe A. Mbatiya

    1999-01-01

    The source, availability, and use of antimalarial drugs in a rural community in the Kibaha district of Tanzania were assessed. Using questionnaires, the heads of households and mothers\\/guardians of children under five years of age in 1000 randomly selected households were interviewed, and an inventory of antimalarials at all drug stores and shops in the area was carried out. The

  6. What Is Well Yield? Private wells are frequently drilled in rural areas to

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    1 What Is Well Yield? Private wells are frequently drilled in rural areas to supply water to individual homes or farms. The maximum rate in gallons per minute (GPM) that a well can be pumped without lowering the water level in the borehole below the pump intake is called the well yield. Low-yielding wells

  7. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  8. Energy-efficient communication in next generation rural-area wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veljko Pejovic; Elizabeth M. Belding

    2010-01-01

    White space frequencies are highly attractive for long-distance communication due to greater signal propagation. The lack of standards and licensing issues with increased flexibility provided by the cognitive radio allow for sophisticated customized solutions for white spaces. Rural-area networks are seen as the main beneficiaries and white spaces communication is expected to outperform current wireless solutions in this domain. However,

  9. Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    1 Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates (1990, 2000, 2010, 2100://sedac.uservoice.com/knowledgebase/topics/21155 This document outlines the basic methodology and datasets used to construct the Low Elevation Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University. 2012. Low Elevation Coastal Zone: Urban

  10. Dropping out: Why are students leaving junior high in China's poor rural areas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Yi; Linxiu Zhang; Renfu Luo; Yaojiang Shi; Di Mo; Xinxin Chen; Carl Brinton; Scott Rozelle

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few independent, survey-based studies regarding dropout rates in

  11. Social Studies in Rural Areas: A Selected Topics Bibliography of ERIC Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    This compilation of publications dealing with social studies in rural areas is one of a series of selected topics bibliographies of ERIC documents. The 40 citations, published between 1963 and 1976, are drawn from "Resources in Education" (RIE), a monthly publication containing abstracts of research, research-related reports, and resource…

  12. Perspectives of Faculty and Staff Regarding College Access for Underrepresented Students in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Tynisa

    2012-01-01

    Compared to urban/suburban secondary school students, traditionally underrepresented students in rural areas often do not enroll or attend 4-year colleges and universities because of limited high school resources. To address this problem, higher education experts have suggested that high school faculty may serve as catalysts to encourage increased…

  13. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  14. An anthropometric and hematological comparison of sickle cell disease children from rural and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Nikhar, H. S.; Meshram, S. U.; Shinde, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disorder in India and the rural and urban areas experience distinctly different healthcare facilities. In view of this, a comparative study of SCD-SS pattern children of age 8–15 years from rural and urban areas of Wardha district of Central India was carried out using anthropometric and hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected using standard methods and the results showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the mean values for body weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood corpuscles (WBC). Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS 18.0 software. Individuals were screened by solubility test method. Sickle cell patterns (AS and SS) were determined by using electrophoresis technique. RESULT: The SCD-SS children from rural were significantly underweight than those from the urban area of Wardha district. BMI is a good indicator of nutritional status and BMI values of SCD children have less than desired. CONCLUSION: The study highlights an urgent need to conduct integrated investigations for SCD population of rural areas covering clinical, nutritional, and social aspects. PMID:22754219

  15. Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

    1999-01-01

    Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

  16. Returns to Education in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Litao

    2007-01-01

    Based on one of the most widely used datasets by foreign-based sociologists, this paper examines the rate of returns to education in rural China. Compared with the previous studies that showed rather low rates in rural areas throughout the 1980s, this study finds a considerably higher rate in 1996. A chief contributor is the rapid non-agricultural

  17. Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

  18. Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Findings Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. Conclusions This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs. PMID:24025429

  19. Ambient concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid across a rural-urban-agricultural transect in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbieranowski, Antoni L.; Aherne, Julian

    2012-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in ambient atmospheric concentrations of gaseous reactive nitrogen (Nr) species (ammonia [NH3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and nitric acid [HNO3]) were measured at four sites (spanning a transect in land use types: intensive agricultural, urban-agricultural transition, urban, and rural background) across southern Ontario, Canada. Atmospheric concentrations were measured with the Willems badge diffusive passive sampler for one year (April 2010-March 2011) at two-week exposure periods (biweekly integrated concentration measurements); dry deposition was estimated using the inferential method. There was high spatial and temporal variability in the ambient concentrations and estimated dry deposition of NH3, NO2 and HNO3 across the four study sites. Annual average Nr concentrations were greatest at the urban site owing to high NO2 concentrations (>25 ?g m-3), while annual average ambient NH3 concentrations were greatest at the intensive agricultural site (>3 ?g m-3) followed by the urban site (˜2 ?g m-3) suggesting that outside of intensive agricultural areas, urban regions have the highest ambient NH3 concentrations in southern Ontario. The high ambient NH3 and NO2 concentrations resulted in high dry deposition of gaseous Nr (urban [>12 kg N ha-1 yr-1] and intensive agricultural [>8 kg N ha-1 yr-1]), accounting for 50-60% of estimated total Nr deposition (dry gaseous + wet ammonium and nitrate) at the study sites. Atmospheric NH3 and NO2 are significant components of total Nr deposition in southern Ontario and should be routinely monitored.

  20. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  1. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0?g/m(3)) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9?g/m(3). Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  2. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  3. The strategic significance of wastewater sources to pollutant phosphorus levels in English rivers and to environmental management for rural, agricultural and urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Withers, Paul J A; Whitton, Brian A; Neal, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km(2) scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total (TP), Dissolved Hydrolysable (DHP) and Particulate (PP) forms correlated with effluent markers (sodium and boron) and SRP was generally dominant signifying the importance of sewage sources. Low flows were particularly enriched in SRP, TDP and TP for average SRP>100microg/l indicating low effluent dilution. At particularly low average concentrations, SRP increased with flow but effluent sources were still implicated as the effluent markers (boron in particular) increased likewise. For rural areas, DHP had proportionately high concentrations and SRP+DHP concentrations could exceed environmental thresholds currently set for SRP. Given DHP has a high bioavailability the environmental implications need further consideration. PP concentrations were generally highest at high flows but PP in the suspended solids was generally at its lowest and in general PP correlated with particulate organic carbon and more so than the suspended sediment in total. Separation of pollutant inputs solely between effluent and diffuse (agriculture) components is misleading, as part of the "diffuse" term comprises effluents flushed from the catchments during high flow. Effluent sources of phosphorus supplied directly or indirectly to the river coupled with within-river interactions between water/sediment/biota largely determine pollutant levels. The study flags the fundamental need of placing direct and indirect effluent sources and contaminated storage with interchange to/from the river at the focus for remediation strategies for UK rivers in relation to eutrophication and the WFD. PMID:20097406

  4. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

  5. Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

    One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

  6. Radio Propagation in Rural Residential Areas withVegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein; D. Censor; A. Freedman; I. Matityahu

    2003-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we describe radio wave propagation within mixed residential area consisting of vegetation and houses. We assume no specific knowledge of the houses and vegetation location,but only of their statistical parameters. A three-dimensional (3D) stochastic approach,which is based on the statistical description of the terrain features,houses and vegetation,and deterministic description of signal decay is presented. The scattering and

  7. The role of urban?to?rural remittances in rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Rempel; Richard A. Lobdell

    1978-01-01

    One of the effects of rural?to?urban migration is the return of money and resources by the migrants to their respective home areas. Recently, it has been argued by several authors that such remittances represent a significant means for removing supply constraints to improved productivity in agriculture. In this paper the authors examine critically the available evidence on the rural impact

  8. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

  9. Evaluation of risk communication for rural water supply management: a case study of a coastal area of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Masahiko Sekine

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of safe drinking water is an important public health issue. In this study, we considered the risk communication topic of human health concerns related to unsafe water consumption in rural coastal areas of Bangladesh, where potable water is scarce. Our objective was to investigate the level of knowledge that rural residents had concerning safe water consumption and to evaluate

  10. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

  11. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-03-23

    An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

  12. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and physical activity correlates of obesity across rural and urban residence are examined. Methods Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings The obesity prevalence was 39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults (P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio = 1.18, P = .03). Race/ethnicity and percent kcal from fat were significant correlates of obesity among both rural and urban adults. Being married was associated with obesity only among rural residents, whereas older age, less education, and being inactive was associated with obesity only among urban residents. Conclusions Obesity is markedly higher among adults from rural versus urban areas of the United States, with estimates that are much higher than the rates suggested by studies with self-reported data. Obesity deserves greater attention in rural America. PMID:23083085

  13. Agricultural Risk Management through Community-Based Wildlife Conservation in Rural Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Muchapondwayand; Thomas Sternerz

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the risk faced by rural farmers in Zimbabwe could poten- tially be managed by using community-based wildlife conservation. Community-based wildlife conservation could be an additional asset in the rural farmers’ investment portfolio thereby potentially diversifying and consequently reducing the risk they face. Such investment could also help e¤orts to conserve wildlife. By making use of national

  14. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

  15. Human exposure to respirable manganese in outdoor and indoor air in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Bolté, Sébastien; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2004-03-26

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), is an additive in gasoline, and its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles, which increase atmospheric metal concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the level of outdoor and indoor respirable Mn (MnR) in Montreal, Canada, where MMT has been used since 1976. Ten women were involved in this study: five living in an urban area, near an expressway with high traffic density, and five residing in a rural area characterized by low traffic density. Outdoor and indoor air samples were collected each week (5 in total) during 3 consecutive days; blood samples were collected at the end of the air sampling period. The average concentration of outdoor MnR in the urban area was 0.025 microg/m3, which is significantly different from the average of 0.005 microg/m3 found in the rural area. The average indoor MnR concentration was also significantly different from teh average MnR indoor concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the urban area (0.017 microg/m3) and the rural area (0.007 microg/m3). The average outdoor MnR concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Data suggest that a high outdoor atmospheric MnR leads to a high indoor MnR, but not to an increase in blood Mn levels. PMID:15000130

  16. Rural Policy Formulation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard W.; And Others

    The major participants in the formation of policy and programs for rural areas include agricultural interest groups, nonfarm groups, certain legislators, and--less directly--the media. Policy is developed in many institutional arenas: the local community and state governments, the Department of Agriculture, the White House, and the Congress and…

  17. Factors Associated with Faecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in a Rural Area, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vuong Tuan Anh; Kåre Mølbak; Phung Dac Cam; Anders Dalsgaard

    \\u000a A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in the highland area of Vietnam in order to identify risk factors\\u000a for faecal contamination of household drinking water. In the study, the water supplies of 146 households were assessed initially\\u000a in the rainy season and then were reassessed in the dry season.Water sampling in water sources and at the point-of-use

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Ju Sun; Jian-Hong Zhao; Minoru Koga; Yu-Xia Ma; Dian-Wu Liu; Masafumi Nakamura; Huai-Jun Liu; Hyogo Horiguchi; George C. Clark; Fujio Kayama

    2005-01-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human

  19. A proactive culture of support : Establishing a regional comparative advantage in a semi-rural area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Falcone; Timothy L. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper describes the proactive culture of support that has been effective in the regional development of a semi-rural area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Information used in this paper came predominately from participative case studies accompanied with formal and informal discussions with principals, including members of associated economic development groups. Oral responses and observations were supported by plans, reports, pro-formas

  20. New particle formation in rural areas - what is behind the story?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Boy; S. L.-Sihto; J. Lauros; B. Bonn; A. Guenther

    2009-01-01

    New particle formation in rural areas - what's behind it? M. Boy(1), S.-L. Sihto(1), J. Lauros(1), B. Bonn(2) and A. Guenther(3) (1) Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. (2) Institute of Atmospherical and Environmental Sciences, J. W. Goethe University, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt\\/Main, Germany (3) ACD, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, 80305 Boulder, Colorado, USA.

  1. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

  2. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  3. Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

  4. Atrazine concentrations, gonadal gross morphology and histology in ranid frogs collected in Michigan agricultural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Murphya; M. Hecker; K. K. Coady; A. R. Tompsett; P. D. Jones; L. H. Du Preez; G. J. Everson; K. R. Solomon; J. A. Carr; E. E. Smith; R. J. Kendall; G. Van Der Kraak; J. P. Giesy

    2006-01-01

    The triazine herbicide atrazine has been suggested to be a potential disruptor of normal sexual development in male frogs. The goals of this study were to collect native ranid frogs from sites in agricultural and non-agricultural areas and determine whether hypothesised atrazine effects on the gonads could be observed at the gross morphological and histological levels. Juvenile and adult green

  5. Rural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Rural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative Image provided courtesy of Oregon Department of Agriculture Annual Report 2006 ­ 2007 (August 1, 2007) The Sustainable Rural Communities of the University to serve the people of Oregon. Rural Studies Program Oregon State University 213 Ballard Extension

  6. Health-Post: A Delay-Tolerant Secure Long-Term Health Care Scheme in Rural Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mrinmoy Barua; Rongxing Lu; Xuemin Shen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a delay-tolerant secure long-term health care scheme (Health-Post) to monitor patient's sensitive personal health information (PHI), particularly at the rural areas. To minimize the overall health care cost, Health-Post provides network connectivity to rural areas in developing region using conventional transportation vehicles (e.g., cars, buses) as relay nodes. These vehicles are expected to store, carry,

  7. The Many Faces of Ephraim: In Search of A Functional Typology of Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, William H.

    The literature of social work and rural sociology lacks conceptualization of the term "rural" and treats the term imprecisely. According to a 1960 survey, authors dealing with rural/urban differences do not agree on the attributes of "rural." However, if the rural concept is to be a useful analytical tool and guide to social work practice, its…

  8. Breast Feeding Practices and Newborn Care in Rural Areas: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, K; Chowdary, Sriram; Masthi, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC) that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed. PMID:20049304

  9. Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas — A case study of Gongcheng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Weichao; Chen, Bin

    2011-09-01

    The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of "New Rural Construction" in China due to intensive energy consumption and environmental pollution in rural areas. As a kind of renewable energy, biogas is helpful for new energy development and plays an important role in the sustainable development of agro-ecosystem in China. To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem from a systematic angle, we discussed the status quo of household biogas and identified its main factors that may have impacts on agro-ecosystem. An indicator framework covering environmental, social and economic aspects was established to quantify the impacts exerted by biogas project on agro-ecosystem. A case study of Gongcheng was then conducted to evaluate the combined impact of biogas project using the proposed indicator framework. Results showed that there was a notable positive effect brought by the application of biogas, and the integrated benefit has been significantly improved by 60.36%, implying that biogas as a substitute energy source can promote the sustainable level of rural areas.

  10. Contamination of soil with Toxocara eggs in urban (Prague) and rural areas in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dubná, S; Langrová, I; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Pekár, S; Nápravník, J; Fechtner, J

    2007-03-15

    Contamination of soil with feline and canine ascarid eggs in public parks, backyards and sand pits in Prague, Czech Republic was investigated in this work. Soil samples from shelters and rural areas were also collected. The comparison of soil from different areas (urban, rural, backyards and shelters) exhibited significant difference (chi(2)=32.16, d.f.=3 and p<0.0001). The highest rate of contamination (45%) was found in backyards inhabited by feral cats. The eggs of Toxocara spp. were found in 20.4% of parks, 10% of shelters and 5% of rural samples. Mean egg density per sample from Prague parks was 6.2 eggs/100g of soil. In 126 composite samples from children's and pits, the prevalence of Toxocara eggs was 11.90%. The number of eggs in positive samples varied from 2 to 22 (per 100g). A high proportion (46.9%) of eggs was fully embryonated. There was no difference between the sand pits with or without formal exclusion of dogs (chi(2)=0.6, d.f.=1 and p<0.0001). PMID:17049747

  11. Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina; Dolea, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries - the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa - and provides a broader perspective in two regions - Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported. PMID:24347707

  12. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  13. Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

    1990-01-01

    This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

  14. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fluxes in Groundwater in Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg/L/yr. Reaction rates tended to be highest in aquifers with low recharge rates and thin unsaturated zones, resulting in shallow depths of NO3 contamination. At sites where the denitrification rate was lower and the recharge rate was higher, the anthropogenic NO3 tended to extend deeper into groundwater. In summary, the combination of hydrologic and geochemical factors at these sites results in a wide range of NO3 fluxes, with minimal NO3 contamination in shallow, reactive groundwaters, and extensive NO3 transport at sites with high recharge and low reaction rates. This 1D model can be quickly applied to multiple sites to facilitate the understanding of factors controlling N fluxes in groundwater based on existing hydrogeochemical data.

  15. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the <0.45?m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1?g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48?g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7?g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (>1kDa i.e. >c. 1-2nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. PMID:21353288

  16. Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

  17. Rural Research in USDA. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Research and General Legislation of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, 95th Congress, 2nd Session (May 4 and 5, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    In these hearings, discussion centered on the state of rural development research in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Testimony by 19 persons connected with various government and private agencies and groups and with land-grant universities are contained in the hearings, along with letters, articles, and other submitted materials and an…

  18. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 ?g g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 ?g g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment. PMID:25794574

  19. Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services by Primigravida Females in Urban and Rural Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

  20. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  8. Northeast Texas Agricultural Literacy Network: A-Lit-NeT: A Rural College Partnership Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, John

    In northeast Texas, 47% of the adults over the age of 25 have not graduated from high school. Area agricultural businesses are rapidly implementing new technologies and quality control measures, both of which require literate and highly trainable workers. To meet these needs, a partnership project was undertaken between Northeast Texas Community…

  9. Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

  10. Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

  11. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  12. The research of dynamic agricultural machinery working area measure system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuo Wei; Fang Yang; Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A simplified method of area-measurement system of farm machineries was proposed through the study of field test data, and a dynamic vehicle field area-measurement system based on GPS-OEM was built. In the test, the system represented (presented) high speed of information collection and high area measure accuracy with the error rate lower than 2%. The portability and convenience of this

  13. Review of China's agricultural and rural development: policy changes and current issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiwen Chen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Since the start of the twenty-first century China has stepped into a new stage of harmonious urban-rural development. Based on the brief review of policy changes since the new century, the purpose of this paper is to figure out the comprehensive policy framework, and analyze its background and reasons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, this paper offers a brief review

  14. CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES OCTOBER 2003 RURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODS

    E-print Network

    31/32 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY, Sweden and is intended for a readership interested in rural development in developing countries. Issues 28 Rethinking Rural Development From ODI Briefing Paper 33 Soil Conservation, Land Use and Property

  15. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  16. The impact of the 1970s’ oil boom on Iranian agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Hakimian

    1988-01-01

    This article challenges the dominant strand of thinking on Iranian agriculture, which has hitherto stressed the depressing effects of the 1970s’ oil boom on the rural economy. In highlighting the nature of the economic boom both in the rural and urban areas, it delineates new constraints imposed on agriculture and offers a new explanation as to its outcome. The precipitated

  17. Rural Land Use: A Need for New Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Wendell; Little, Charles E.

    The new demands being placed on the rural land base--for agricultural production, for energy and minerals, as well as for economic development--are considerable, and rural areas today face the difficult challenge of finding ways to accommodate new growth and development, while at the same time ensuring that essential activities and the inherent…

  18. West Virginia University 1 Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources,

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Management · Agribusiness Management and Rural Development · Agricultural and Extension Education; and Resource Management. There are twenty-one major areas of study in which undergraduate students can earn Resources Management · Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources · Wildlife and Fisheries Resources · Wood

  19. Rural development and rural to urban migration in China 1978–1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianfa Shen

    1995-01-01

    Economic reforms since the late 1970s have brought about significant changes in rural China. A large number of surplus rural labourers have been released from the agricultural sector and there has been a massive transition of rural residents from agricultural to non-agricultural employment. These changes will be analyzed by examining the changes in the employment structure of rural residents. Rural

  20. Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions Preliminary report to the Agricultural Alliance, Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions. Preliminary report to the Australian Agricultural Alliance of Australia South Australian Farmers Federation Visy Western Australian Farmers Federation (Inc) Westpac

  1. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented). During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends, availability of continuing professional training for career development and support of co-workers and the community. Conclusion Many first year students at Makerere University have limited exposure to health facilities in rural areas and have concerns about eventually working there. PMID:20573221

  2. The Possibility Analysis on Application of New LightWeight Steel-Straw Bale Thermal Insulating Dwellings in Northeast Rural Areas of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenfeng Duan; Aihua Bai; Baozhu Cao

    2010-01-01

    The situations of low story dwelling in northeast rural areas of China was introduced, aggregate comparing analysis was carried out on thermal insulating performance of dwellings with different structure, building material and thermal insulating equipment. According to construction experience of rural thermal insulating and ecotypical dwellings, a new rural dwelling was provided here. The new light-weight steel-straw bale thermal insulating

  3. AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING IN MISSOURI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIFFITH, WARREN L.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE…

  4. Agricultural exposures and farm-related injuries among adolescents in rural China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Wang, Youjie; Yang, Senbei; Du, Yukai; Xiang, Huiyun; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the incidence of farm injuries and the relationship between agricultural exposures and injury among 2053 adolescents aged 13-19 years in Macheng, China. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire was given to adolescents. The cumulative incidence rate of farm injury was 19.8%. Adolescents who were male, aged 10-15 years, left behind, working more days each month and living on the plains, reported higher rates. Specific agricultural exposures, such as large animals, pesticides and operating farm machinery were associated with higher injury rates. Prevention programmes are needed to reduce farm injuries. PMID:22936700

  5. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex. Results The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa?=?0.52 and 0.64, respectively), whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa?=?0.83). The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively). The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS. Conclusions MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS. PMID:24614618

  7. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  8. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

    2002-01-01

    An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

  9. Identification of the origin of salts in an agricultural area of SE Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Acosta; Angel Faz; Karsten Kalbitz; Boris Jansen; Martinez-Martinez Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In spite of soil salinity having been widely studied in many part of the world, origin of salinity has not been addresses in detail in some of the most productive agricultural areas of Europe (e.g. southeast of Spain). According to the European Commission, salinization affects about 1 to 3 million ha of the area of the European Union and Candidate

  10. Airborne multispectral data for quantifying leaf area index, nitrogen concentration, and photosynthetic efficiency in agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Boegh; H. Soegaard; N. Broge; C. B. Hasager; N. O. Jensen; K. Schelde; A. Thomsen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne multispectral data were acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectral Imager (CASI) for an agricultural area in Denmark with the purpose of quantifying vegetation amount and variations in the physiological status of the vegetation. Spectral reflectances, vegetation indices, and red edge positions were calculated on the basis of the CASI data and compared to field measurements of green leaf area

  11. Employment Opportunities in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations in the Metropolitan Area of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; Neavill, Arthur

    Based on questionnaire data collected from a sample of employers, this phase of a larger research project ascertained employment opportunities in the area of applied biological and agricultural occupations in the metropolitan area of Chicago. Specific fields of business surveyed by stratified random sample were animal care, animal health care,…

  12. Applications of TIMS data in agricultural areas and related atmospheric considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    While much of traditional remote sensing in agricultural research was limited to the visible and reflective infrared, advances in thermal infrared remote sensing technology are adding a dimension to digital image analysis of agricultural areas. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) an airborne sensor having six bands over the nominal 8.2 to 12.2 m range, offers the ability to calculate land surface emissivities unlike most previous singular broadband sensors. Preliminary findings on the utility of the TIMS for several agricultural applications and related atmospheric considerations are discussed.

  13. Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2005-03-01

    Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO 3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO 4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP levels. The importance of agricultural sources of SRP is questioned.

  14. The Role of Optimizing Agricultural Water Resource Management to livelihood Poverty abolition in Rural Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Panahi; Iraj Malekmohammadim; Mohammad Chizari

    2009-01-01

    Most of the projected i ncrease i n g lobal population wi ll take place in third worl d count ries that already suffer from wa ter, food, and health problems. As a vital agricultural resource, irrigation water is important for the productivity of a society and the livelihood of its members. With a common belief in the important role

  15. [Determinants of the utilization of physician services in remote rural areas].

    PubMed

    Song, K Y

    1986-07-01

    Data from the 1981 Baseline Household Interview Survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Population and Health were analyzed to assess differential levels of utilization of physicians' services in remote rural areas of Korea. Factors associated with a high frequency of physician visits included: small family size, high educational level, high socioeconomic status, medical security benefits, low travel time to the physician's office, a regular source of medical care, a high incidence of induced abortion, and poor health (self-rated). Multivariate analysis indicated that self-rated health is the single, most important determinant of the number of visits to a physician. Education has two large different direct and indirect effects on utilization: the more highly educated make more visits while higher education leads indirectly to lower physician utilization through improved health status. The data further point to the importance of the presence of a particular physician who is regarded as a person's ongoing source of medical care. The square of the multiple correlation coefficients when the number of visits to a physician was the dependent variable was 0.16. It is stressed that more equitable access to physician services in rural areas of Korea must involve an educational effort to remove cultural barriers as well as expended allocation of health resources. PMID:12268044

  16. Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

    2015-01-01

    People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

  17. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  18. SUSTAINABLE POLICY FOR A RURAL MOINTAIN VILLAGE IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE BARCELONA’S METROPOLITAN AREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Balanzo; Agapit Borras

    2011-01-01

    Spain had build more houses in 2006 than France, Germany and the United Kingdom together. Actually, this urban growth is unsustainable and damage the resources the territory. 'People becomes rich, but the territory becomes poor'. The metropolitan area of Barcelona has growth hard but the rural areas lost there identity and his natural resources. Is not possible an unlimited growth

  19. "Everybody Is Just Fumbling along": An Investigation of Views Regarding EAL Training and Support Provisions in a Rural Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research conducted in a rural area of England that has experienced a rise in the number of pupils who speak a language other than English as their first language. The research was motivated by a concern that EAL teacher training provisions in such areas are insubstantial. The data source for the study comes from…

  20. Future Agricultures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

  1. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review of nonoccupational pathways for pesticide exposure in women living in agricultural areas. Environ Health Perspect 123:515–524;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408273 PMID:25636067

  2. COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight interometry over rural areas: the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milillo, Pietro; Fielding, Eric J.; Schulz, William H.; Delbridge, Brent; Burgmann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    In the last 7 years, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with resolution of better than a meter acquired by satellites in spotlight mode offered an unprecedented improvement in SAR interferometry (InSAR). Most attention has been focused on monitoring urban areas and man-made infrastructure exploiting geometric accuracy, stability, and phase fidelity of the spotlight mode. In this paper, we explore the potential application of the COSMO-SkyMed® Spotlight mode to rural areas where decorrelation is substantial and rapidly increases with time. We focus on the rapid repeat times of as short as one day possible with the COSMO-SkyMed® constellation. We further present a qualitative analysis of spotlight interferometry over the Slumgullion landslide in southwest Colorado, which moves at rates of more than 1 cm/day.

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

  4. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Paw?owska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; K?dzierski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Paw?owska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation. PMID:25528919

  5. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

    2001-02-01

    The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys may be more suitable for the unique challenges of water contact in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:11251909

  6. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

  7. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yue; Dibley, Michael J; Zhang, Xueli; Zeng, Lingxia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97%) and zinc (91%). Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:19589154

  8. Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. Methods: The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. Results: “Social uncertainty and confusion” was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Conclusions: Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Keywords: Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty. PMID:25685625

  9. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in rural area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    PENA, GEÓRGIA G.; DUTRA, MÍRIAM SANTOS; GAZZINELLI, ANDREA; CORRÊA-OLIVEIRA, RODRIGO; VELASQUEZ-MELENDEZ, GUSTAVO

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. Methods The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ? 18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index, body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. Results The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h2=52%), glucose (h2=51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc; h2=58%), and waist circumference (WC; h2=49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin with body mass index (BMI;?g=0.48), WC (?g=0.47) and HDLc (?g= ?0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g=0.53) and HDLc (?g=?0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. Conclusions Glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  10. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  11. Population Growth in High-Amenity Rural Areas: Does it Bring Socioeconomic Benefits for Long-Term Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Onge, Jarron M. Saint; Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A widely noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to yield only low-wage service-sector employment for long-term residents, while raising local costs of living. This research examines change in socioeconomic status during the 1990s for long-term residents of high-amenity, high-growth rural counties in the United States. Methods Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in combination with county-level information, we estimate growth-curve models to examine the extent to which the socioeconomic status of long-term residents is associated with amenity-related in-migration. Results We find that, on average, residents in high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas have higher income growth over time and higher levels of initial occupational prestige compared to those from other rural areas, but that socioeconomic gains are primarily for individuals with low baseline prestige. Conclusions The socioeconomic gains made by long-term residents of high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas associated with net in-migration may be limited to individuals with low initial prestige and growth may be due to low-skill service-sector jobs. PMID:21892234

  12. FACTORS RELATED TO THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH TO URBAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILBER, GEORGE L.

    THE TENDENCY FOR YOUNG AMERICANS TO ACHIEVE INDEPENDENCE, COMBINED WITH THE LONG-ESTABLISHED TREND OF RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION, PROVIDES A BASE FOR THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH. THE BASE IS BROADENED BY THE PROCESSES OF CHANGE WHICH HAVE MADE THIS COUNTRY INCREASINGLY URBAN. THERE ARE FOUR FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH TO CITIES…

  13. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...electronically to HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject line. Written...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. Obtaining a Copy of the...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...

  14. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Clinical Experiences in Rural and Remote Areas: Recruitment Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Jane; Taylor, Kerry

    2002-01-01

    Two urban Australian nursing students' stories of their experiences in clinical placements in rural and Aboriginal communities indicate their interest in and enthusiasm for returning to rural nursing after graduation. Unfortunately, many urban students are disadvantaged financially by the added expense of their rural clinical rotation. Assisting…

  15. Increasing Reading Skills in Rural Areas: An Analysis of Three School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Reviews of research on rural education suggest that identifying ways to help rural schools improve teachers' pedagogical skills should be a high priority. This article addresses this issue by examining changes in reading skills through the primary grades of students in three rural, Midwestern districts that occurred after the implementation of a…

  16. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  17. Low traffic density, small terminal network, and satellite antenna design for communications in the rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardelli, L.; Martinino, F.; Rispoli, F.

    The applications of satellite communications techniques for improving the telecommunications scenario in developing countries and access to isolated and disperse users are discussed. The main issues determining the strategy for solving communications problems are summarized, and the main requirements for both the earth and space segments are outlined. System considerations for satellite-network design and the main criteria correlated to rural-area requirements are presented, and emphasis is placed on two proposed concepts for satellite multiple-access techniques: single channel per carrier/demand assignment multiple access (SCPC/DAMA) and code division multiple access/spread spectrum (CDMA/SS). A CDMA/SS network architecture design for 9600 b/s voice-communication and TV-program distribution in African countries and an onboard reconfigurable multispot antenna design for the coverage optimization of African regions are considered as examples.

  18. A survey of helminthic infections in the residents of rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do-Sung; Chung, Byung-Ha; Lee, Nam-Seok; Kim, Joong-Ho

    1999-01-01

    A total of 738 samples was collected to survey the helminthic infections of residents in two rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for 2 weeks from July 23 to August 2, 1998. Among 391 scotch-taped slides of anal swabs of children and of young teenagers, Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in 138 cases (35.3%). With the fecal samples of 206 Kato-Katz thick smear slides from adults, the eggs of E. vermicularis were observed in 9 cases and Taenia sp. in one case, respectively. And by ELISA on 141 blood samples absorbed to blood sampling paper, 12 cases (8.5%) were found to be positive against the hydatid cyst antigen. Enterobiasis and hydatidosis are two major endemic diseases which are related closely to the life style of Mongolian. PMID:10507221

  19. Effective Collaboration Among Health Care and Education Professionals: A Necessary Condition for Successful Early Intervention in Rural Areas. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Dickson, Bonnie, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

    Addressing the lack of cooperation between early intervention programs and the rural health community, this monograph presents eight papers by educators and health professionals who identify specific problems and offer solutions in the form of effective collaboration techniques and model programs. Papers by Susan Hastings and Stewart Gabel…

  20. Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Cleaveland, S; Cunningham, A A; Bronsvoort, B M Dec

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted along two transects (80 and 45km long) from Coquimbo and Ovalle cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region of Chile in 2005-2007 to investigate the demography of dogs in the context of a study of canine infectious diseases. Data were collected on the number of dogs per household, fecundity, mortality, and sex and age distribution. The results from 1021 households indicated that dog ownership was common, with a higher proportion of households owning dogs in rural areas (89%), than in towns (63%) or cities (49%). Dog density ranged from 1380+/-183 to 1509+/-972 dogs km(-2) in cities, from 119+/-18 to 1544+/-172 dogs km(-2) in towns, and from 1.0+/-0.4 to 15.9+/-0.4 dogs km(-2) in rural sites. The dog population was estimated to be growing at 20% in cities, 19% in towns and 9% in rural areas. The human:dog ratio ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 in cities, from 2.3 to 5.3 in towns, and from 1.1 to 2.1 in rural areas. A high percentage of owned dogs was always allowed to roam freely in the different areas (27%, 50% and 67% in cities, towns and rural areas, respectively). Observations of free-roaming dogs of unknown owner were reported from a greater proportion of respondents in cities (74%), followed by towns (51%) and finally by rural areas (21%). Overall only 3% of dogs had been castrated. In addition, only 29% of dogs were reported to have been vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and 30% against canine parvovirus (CPV). The higher population size and density, higher growth rate and a higher turnover of domestic dogs in urban than in rural areas and the poorly supervised and inadequately vaccinated dog populations in urban areas suggest that urban areas are more likely to provide suitable conditions for dogs to acts as reservoirs of pathogenic infections. PMID:20096943

  1. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  2. AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

    TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

  3. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  4. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kronvang; M. Bechmann; H. Lundekvam; H. Behrendt; G. H. Rubaek; O. F. Schoumans; N. Syversen; H. E. Andersen; C. C. Hoffmann

    2005-01-01

    fuse sources as the influence of P from point sources has decreased considerably in most countries due to im- In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of proved wastewater treatment (European Environment phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river

  5. Disaggregation of MODIS Surface Temperature over an Agricultural Area Using a Time Series of Formosat-2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Disaggregation of MODIS Surface Temperature over an Agricultural Area Using a Time Series season. Kilometric Preprint submitted to Remote Sensing of Environment June 23, 2010 #12;MODIS (MODerate. The approach is also tested using the MODIS data re-sampled at 2 km resolution. Aggregation reduces errors

  6. CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES DECEMBER 2005 Future Swedish Competence?

    E-print Network

    CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY and is intended for a readership interested in rural development in developing countries. Issues related Development,and oppor- tunities for new entrants John F.A.Russell Miscellaneous 42 News from Sida on Rural

  7. current issues in international rural development published by the swedish university of agricultural sciences January 2008 PERSPECTIVES ON

    E-print Network

    current issues in international rural development published by the swedish university, Sweden and is intended for a readership interested in rural development in developing countries. Issues 33 organisational study of sarec Staff writer miscellaneous 34 news from sida on rural development

  8. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  9. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation...Hospitals located in areas that are changing from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. An urban hospital that was part of an MSA,...

  10. Areas of Increasing Agricultural Abandonment Overlap the Distribution of Previously Common, Currently Threatened Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2013-01-01

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species. PMID:24260328

  11. MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN A PLANNED COMMUNITY. BACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STORMWATERS IN DEVELOPING RURAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of low flow and stormwater runoff bacteria content from rural and urban areas was conducted over a two and a half year period. Data were obtained from total coliform, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Staphylococcus sp. for ...

  12. Development of mental health services among existing community institutions in rural areas: The case of the Japanese kumiai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anson D. Shupe

    1974-01-01

    Despite high rates of emotional disorder, rural areas of Japan have a dearth of modern community mental health professionals and facilities. Reasons for this situation are explored and a form of interest organization, the kumiai, is proposed as one unexploited avenue for better coordinating the efforts of consultants, community leaders, and indigenous prosessionals in the future. The functions served by

  13. “Embracing the present and fearing the future”: The meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Tove M.; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life. PMID:25361532

  14. Transformation of Rural Areas, Proceedings of the Polish-Yugoslav Geographical Seminar (1st, Ohrid, 24-29 May, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy, Ed.; Tyszkiewicz, Wieslawa, Ed.

    Transformations of rural areas was the topic of the first Polish-Yugoslav Geographical Seminar as documented in these proceedings from the six-day meeting. Twenty of the 25 papers presented are contained here, three in French and the remainder in English, and are categorized under these major topics: influence of big urban centers on the…

  15. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  16. Philosophy Underlying Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Level of Curiosity and Academic Achievement of Rural Area Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aminuddin Hassan; Tajularipin Sulaiman; Rohaizan Ishak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Since emotional intelligence is still not wholly-ac cepted despite evidences of its powerful influence in general sett ing, this study is therefore conducted to identify the emotional intelligence level among school students in rural areas, relationships between emotional intelligence and anxiety, as well as relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Approach: It involved a sample of 223

  17. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  18. Undertake field study in a rural or urban area of East Java... Fully immerse yourself in Indonesian life...

    E-print Network

    life... EastJavaFieldStudy Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! © PhotographUndertake field study in a rural or urban area of East Java... Fully immerse yourself in Indonesian. ACICIS gratefully acknowledges the financial and other support received from the Australia Indonesia

  19. Combined methods for the study of water contact behavior in a rural schistosomiasis-endemic area in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Kloos; Julio Cézar Alves Paixão Rodrigues; Wesley Rodrigues Pereira; Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez; Phillip LoVerde; Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira; Andréa Gazzinelli

    2006-01-01

    A new combined methodology consisting of direct observation and two types of interviews (internal and external interviews) was evaluated for use in exposure risk assessment in schistosomiasis. Specific objectives were to determine its usefulness in achieving equitable coverage of gendered exposure risk and its efficiency in identifying water contact behavior in a rural area in Brazil with different settlement patterns,

  20. Measles case fatality among the under-fives: A multivariate analysis of risk factors in a rural area of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas Bhuiya; Bogdan Wojtyniak; Stan DSouza; Lutfun Nahar; Kashem Shaikh

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of measles case fatality among the under-fives with age, case type, complications, sex, mother's education, and household economic condition in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 3465 measles cases were detected during 1980 and 61 of them died of measles associated complications within 45 days of rash onset. Case type, sex, mother's education

  1. Feasibility Study: Home Telemonitoring for Patients With Lung Cancer in a Mountainous Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Petitte, Trisha M.; Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Coole, Charles; Forth, Tara; Frick, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the feasibility of rural home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer. Design Exploratory, descriptive, observational. Setting Patient homes within a 75-mile radius of the study hospital in West Virginia. Sample 10 patients hospitalized with lung cancer as a primary or secondary-related diagnosis. Methods Data included referral and demographics, chart reviews, and clinical data collected using a HomMed telemonitor. Five patients received usual care after discharge; five had telemonitors set up at home for 14 days with daily phone calls for nurse coaching; mid- and end-study data were collected by phone and in homes through two months. Main Research Variables Enrollment and retention characteristics, physiologic (e.g., temperature, pulse, blood pressure, weight, O2 saturation) and 10 symptom datapoints, patient and family telemonitor satisfaction. Findings Of 45 referred patients, only 10 consented; 1 of 5 usual care and 3 of 5 monitored patients completed the entire study. Telemonitored data transmission was feasible in rural areas with high satisfaction; symptom data and physiologic data were inconsistent but characteristic of lung cancer. Conclusions Challenges included environment, culture, technology, and overall enrollment and retention. Physiologic and symptom changes were important data for nurse coaching on risks, symptom management, and clinician contact. Implications for Nursing Enrollment and retention in cancer research warrants additional study. Daily monitoring is feasible and important in risk assessment, but length of time to monitor signs and symptoms, which changed rapidly, is unclear. Symptom changes were useful as proxy indicators for physiologic changes, so risk outcomes may be assessable by phone for patient self-management coaching by nurses. PMID:24578075

  2. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ?DDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ?DDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. PMID:22840535

  3. Prevalence and intensity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in cultured freshwater fish from rural and urban areas of northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Murrell, K D

    2012-10-01

    Consumption of raw freshwater fish produced in both rural farm and urban wastewater ponds is a common practice in Vietnam. The present study assessed the risk of fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infection from fish raised in both these aquaculture systems in northern Vietnam. The diversity, prevalence, and infection intensity of FZT metacercariae in 1,500 freshwater fish collected from 6 sites located in rural and urban areas in northern Vietnam were investigated. The specific diagnosis of species was made by morphologic methods. The overall FZT prevalence in fish from both urban wastewater ponds and rural farm ponds was 11.2%. In wastewater ponds, the overall prevalence was 5.1%, ranging from 2.0% in tilapia to 7.3% in common and grass carp. In fish from farm ponds, the prevalence was 17.3%, and ranged from 6.7% in mud carp to 26.7% in common carp. The mean intensity of FZT infection was also higher in fish from farm ponds than that in fish from wastewater ponds (6.0% and 8.4%, respectively). The FZT species recovered from infected fish included both liver (Clonorchis sinensis) and intestinal flukes (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus). The prevalence of FZT in fish raised in these common farm systems represents a significant public health risk for a population with a strong cultural preference for consuming raw or inadequately prepared fish. These research results should encourage the public health and agriculture sectors to conduct the risk factor research required to develop control programs for FZT. PMID:22471793

  4. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban sources, and the main source of transport for the other pesticides could not be determined because of concentrations less than the method detection limit.

  5. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  6. Compulsory service programmes for recruiting health workers in remote and rural areas: do they work?

    PubMed Central

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Payne, Perry W; Ross, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Compulsory service programmes have been used worldwide as a way to deploy and retain a professional health workforce within countries. Other names for these programmes include ”obligatory”, ”mandatory”, ”required” and ”requisite.” All these different programme names refer to a country’s law or policy that governs the mandatory deployment and retention of a heath worker in the underserved and/or rural areas of the country for a certain period of time. This study identified three different types of compulsory service programmes in 70 countries. These programmes are all governed by some type of regulation, ranging from a parliamentary law to a policy within the ministry of health. Depending on the country, doctors, nurses, midwives and all types of professional allied health workers are required to participate in the programme. Some of the compliance-enforcement measures include withholding full registration until obligations are completed, withholding degree and salary, or imposing large fines. This paper aims to explain these programmes more clearly, to identify countries that have or had such programmes, to develop a typology for the different kinds and to discuss the programmes in the light of important issues that are related to policy concepts and implementation. As governments consider the cost of investment in health professionals’ education, the loss of health professionals to emigration and the lack of health workers in many geographic areas, they are using compulsory service requirements as a way to deploy and retain the health workforce. PMID:20461136

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Su-Ju; Zhao, Jian-Hong; Koga, Minoru; Ma, Yu-Xia; Liu, Dian-Wu; Nakamura, Masafumi; Liu, Huai-Jun; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Clark, George C; Kayama, Fujio

    2005-11-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human milk. We found that the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH in human milk from the primiparous mothers in Shijiazhuang (3330 and 108.8 ng/g fat, respectively) were higher than in samples from mothers from Tangshan (1916 and 21.2 ng/g fat, respectively). In addition, we found the level of p,p'-DDE correlated positively with a dietary history of meat consumption or consumption of internal organs of pigs and sheep (r=0.38 and r=0.52, respectively), but not with intake frequencies of vegetables and fruits in primiparous mothers. The higher level for p,p'-DDE may be due to a greater intake of contaminated fatty foods in the industrialized areas. We also showed that the body burden of p,p'-DDE was higher in the urban group compared to the values in other regions in China after 1998. However, there was no difference in dioxin levels between the two regions. Comprehensive monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in human milk and food is needed in China. PMID:16039646

  8. A spatial equilibrium model for region size, urbanization ratio, and rural structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Guldmann J--

    1997-05-01

    "Earlier economic models of city size have either focused on urban agglomeration effects while ignoring the spatial structure of the rural hinterland, or made unrealistic assumptions (for example, uniform rural population distribution) so as to simplify the problem. Following the classic von Thunen framework, we present a two-sector spatial equilibrium model of a city located at the center of an agricultural hinterland. The city produces industrial goods, and the rural area produces agricultural goods. Both goods are consumed both by urban and by rural residents. Market equilibrium for these goods determines: (1) the spatial size of the region, (2) the urbanization ratio (urban to total population) and the population size of the city, and (3) the rural spatial structure (wage, population distribution, land rent, and agricultural yield). Given various sets of exogenous parameters pertaining to the industrial, agricultural, and transportation production functions and to population preferences, the model is solved numerically, and response functions are estimated and analyzed." PMID:12292889

  9. Building Institutional Capacity in Rural Northern Ireland: The Role of Partnership Governance in the LEADER II Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Europe's rural areas increasingly embraced local action and local development solutions to face the challenge of the continued re-structuring of the agricultural industry. In parallel, in both the EU and the UK, a policy discourse has emerged which envisages a fundamental shift in support policies for rural areas from a…

  10. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application Processing § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application Processing § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application Processing § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application Processing § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Application Processing § 1780.49 Rural or Native Alaskan villages. (a)...

  15. Enriching the Rural School Curriculum through Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl L.

    Rural teachers of vocational agriculture, realizing the need for access to current information in their field, obtained funds for initiating the use of a computerized telecommunications service. The service selected, AgriData Network, includes reports of news, markets, and trends; a collection of over 500 teaching plans in all subject areas in…

  16. REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

  17. Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…

  18. Creating Highly Qualified Teachers: Maximizing University Resources to Provide Professional Development in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollenkopf, Dawn L.

    2009-01-01

    The "highly qualified teacher" requirement of No Child Left Behind has put pressure on rural school districts to recruit and retain highly qualified regular and special education teachers. If necessary, they may utilize uncertified, rural teachers with provisional certification; however, these teachers may find completing the necessary…

  19. Blue Ocean Strategy: A Vehicle for Entrepreneurship Development and Economic Growth in Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinay Sharma; Piyush Seth; Shujauddin Niyazi

    2010-01-01

    This paper emphasizes on the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of a society with the perspective of Blue Ocean strategy used by organizations across the globe and especially in the context of Indian rural markets. The paper also utilizes live examples of organizations going towards uncontested rural markets and is suggestive of the crux and the core definition of

  20. Jane Jacobs and the Dilemma of Life and Learning in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    Recent work by both neoclassical and political economists suggests the scope of the influence of economic structures on rural socioeconomic conditions and rural education. In particular, dual labor-market analyses look beneath the surface of the macroeconomy--the national economy--to the underlying reality of regional or sectoral economic…

  1. The Impact of Living in Rural and Urban Areas: Vitamin D and Medical Costs in Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beth A.; Manning, Todd; Peiris, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Living in a rural region is associated with significant health disparities and increased medical costs. Vitamin D deficiency, which is increasingly common, is also associated with many adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rural-urban residence status of veterans was related to vitamin D levels, and…

  2. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  3. Violence Prevention in Rural Areas: Evidence of the Need for Educational Reform and Community Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 1993 study explored the relationships among literacy, drug/alcohol misuse, victimization, and economic hardship in rural central Texas schools, using survey instruments and regression techniques. The association between violence and youth's academic performance in rural schools may be mediated by economic influences and magnified by local drug…

  4. Experience with excreta-disposal programmes in rural areas of Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Walter R.; Wagner, Edmund G.

    1954-01-01

    As part of a wide public-health programme for rural areas of Brazil, the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP) has, since 1944, placed considerable emphasis on the problem of excreta disposal. Except in a few cities where conditions justified the construction of sewer systems, projects were started for the erection of pit privies, some 18,000 having been built up to 1952. The projects are conducted by specially trained personnel (“guardas”), who first carry out a sanitary survey of the area concerned, at the same time explaining the benefits of sanitation to the people. A general plan having been drawn up, construction is begun under the supervision of the guardas, who strive to enlist the co-operation of the house-owners as far as possible. Various types of privy have been tried, local building materials being used wherever possible. In almost all cases, however, concrete slabs have been used, covering a hole which may vary in width, but which is generally 2 m deep. Where possible, the SESP has sought the financial collaboration of the local authorities, but the earlier projects were entirely financed by the SESP. Surveys carried out before the projects were started and 3-4 years later show that in certain areas the fall in the percentage of the examined population found positive for Ancylostoma was from 37.6 to 25.4 and all severe infestations (over 500 eggs per g of faeces) had disappeared. This result, though appreciable, would probably have been greater had all the inhabitants used the privies and had they been better maintained. PMID:13160761

  5. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  6. Impact of agricultural activity and lithology on groundwater quality in the Merdja area, Tebessa, Algeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelkader Rouabhia; Fethi Baali; Chemseddinne Fehdi

    2010-01-01

    This work presents results of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical studies on groundwater samples from the alluvial aquifer\\u000a of Merdja in Tébessa, located in the Western part of this town. Its groundwater resources are used mainly for crop irrigation\\u000a in an agriculture dominated area. Hydrochemical and water quality data obtained through a sampling period (December 2008)\\u000a and analysis program indicate that

  7. Behavioural and material determinants of production relations in agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans P. Binswanger; Mark R. Rosenzweig

    1986-01-01

    In this essay we develop a framework for analysing the major institutions governing the production and exchange of output and the primary factors of production in rural areas. The analysis incorporates general considerations of risk and information constraints jointly with the principal material attributes of agriculture and of agricultural production factors. The framework is used to analyse barriers to the

  8. Promoting intermediate means of transport for the rural poor: a case study from Madagascar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Starkey

    Efficient rural transport systems require complementary infrastructure, motorised vehicles, intermediate means of transport, boats, railways and an air network. Intermediate means of transport are essential for domestic use, agricultural production, local trade and consolidating larger loads. In rural areas, vicious circles of scarce transport, insufficient users and inadequate support services hinder development. In Madagascar, as elsewhere, transport investment has been

  9. Environment, Land Use, and Natural Resources in Rural New York: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Participants at the First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development discussed environmental, land use, and natural resource problems and opportunities in rural areas of New York state. Identified as major assets were scenic beauty, diversified land use and economy, abundance and high quality of water, soil base for agriculture and…

  10. Opportunities for and Limitations of Social and Economic Adjustments in an Alabama Rural County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Harold L.

    The plights of southern farmers and the self-perceptions of their problems are the main topics of this study. Using U. S. Department of Agriculture criteria for determining low income and low level of living for rural areas, Fayette County, Alabama, was selected for this pilot study. Some 171 rural farm and nonfarm households, randomly selected,…

  11. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  12. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program. 1940.560 Section 1940...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program. 1940.560 Section 1940...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program. 1940.560 Section 1940...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program. 1940.560 Section 1940...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  16. Psychological Factors and Mortality Risk in a Rural Area of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588

  17. A Study on Morbidity Profile and Associated Risk Factors in a Rural Area of Dehradun

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, SD; Semwal, Jayanti; Deepshikha

    2014-01-01

    Background: First few years of life is the most crucial period of life as this age is known for accelerated growth and development, warranting regular monitoring. During this period about 40% of physical growth and 80% of mental development occurs. Any adverse influences during this period may result in severe limitations in their development. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre. Mothers of children between 0-3 years of age were enquired about the morbidity in the past two months. Results: Diarrhea (47.9%) followed by ARI (22.21%), Pica (13%) and Worm Infestation (9.21%) were the commonest morbidities found in the study population. Morbidities were found to be common in males as compared to females. Amongst the nutritional deficiencies anaemia & Vitamin B deficiencies were the commonest. Conclusion: There was considerable sickness load amongst the toddlers. Morbidity can be reduced by improvement in the health care system at peripheral level PMID:25302220

  18. Risk factors for preterm birth: a case-control study in rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Lijun; Hao, Bo; Zhao, Gengli

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in China, the study is to learn risk factors for preterm birth in rural area of western China. A 1:1 case-control study in which cases included the pregnant women of preterm birth and controls included the matched pregnant women of normal deliver was conducted in 5 counties in western China. Data about the general situation, pregnancy history, reproductive health infection (RTI) symptoms, pregnancy complications, et al were obtained by using questionnaire. The results showed that the risk factors related to preterm birth were including: family income, mother’s age ? 35 years old, antennal visiting ? 4 times, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications. The logistic regression analysis showed that only 3 factors of preterm birth were left at the last step, which of antenatal visiting ? 4 times, PROM and placenta previa had significant difference. We show that family income, age, antennal visiting, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications are the risk factors of preterm birth.

  19. Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development

    E-print Network

    Rice Center ­ NARS (National Agricultural Research Systems) Gender in Rice Research for DevelopmentDepartment of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural

  20. Irrational use of antimalarial drugs in rural areas of eastern Pakistan: a random field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial disease is a common practice in countries where malaria is endemic. However, unwarranted use of such drugs can cause side effects in some people and is a financial drain on local economies. In this study, we surveyed the prevalence of malaria parasites in humans, and the prevalence of the malaria transmitting mosquito vectors in the study area. We also investigated the use of antimalarial drugs in the local people. We focused on randomly selected rural areas of eastern Pakistan where no malaria cases had been reported since May 2004. Methods Mass blood surveys, active case detection, passive case detection, and vector density surveys were carried out in selected areas of Sargodha district from September 2008 to August 2009. Data pertaining to the quantities and types of antimalarial drugs used in these areas were collected from health centers, pharmacies, and the district CDC program of the Health Department of the Government of the Punjab. Results Seven hundred and forty four blood samples were examined, resulting in a Blood Examination Rate (BER) of 3.18; microscopic analysis of blood smears showed that none of the samples were positive for malaria parasites. Investigation of the mosquito vector density in 43 living rooms (bedrooms or rooms used for sleeping), 23 stores, and 32 animal sheds, revealed no vectors capable of transmitting malaria in these locations. In contrast, the density of Culex mosquitoes was high. Substantial consumption of a variety of antimalarial tablets, syrups, capsules and injections costing around 1000 US$, was documented for the region. Conclusion Use of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial infection or the vectors that transmit the disease was common in the study area. Continuous use of such drugs, not only in Pakistan, but in other parts of the world, may lead to drug-induced side effects amongst users. Better training of health care professionals is needed to ensure accurate diagnoses of malaria and appropriate prescription of antimalarial drugs delivered to communities. PMID:23116148

  1. Higher Prevalence of Obesity in Greek Children Living in Rural Areas Despite Increased Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Papoutsakis, Sofia; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors could explain observed differences in the prevalence of childhood obesity in a sample of Greek children. Methods Epidemiological study. PA and sedentary behaviors were assessed by a self-administrated physical activity checklist. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. A representative sample of Greek children aged 10 to 12 years attending fifth and sixth grade (N=3,195), living in rural and urban areas were enrolled. Maturation status was not evaluated due to technical reasons. Results Prevalence of obesity was higher among children living in rural areas as compared with urban areas (12.1% vs. 10.7%, p<0.01). Surprisingly, children living in rural areas had higher levels of self reported PA (p<0.001) and met current PA guidelines to a greater extent than their urban counterparts (p<0.05). Furthermore, boys had higher levels of total, light-to-moderate intensity and vigorous intensity PA (VPA), as well as sedentary behaviors, than girls (all p-values <0.05). Stratified analysis by BMI category revealed that normal weight boys and girls had higher levels of total PA and VPA compared with overweight and obese boys from the same type of setting (all p-values<0.05). Conclusions Children living in rural areas have higher levels of PA and more frequently met PA guidelines than their urban counterparts, despite a higher prevalence of obesity. PMID:23724863

  2. European Commission Agriculture and

    E-print Network

    European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

  3. Social Networks as an Integration Tool in Rural Areas – Agricultural Enterprises of the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Cervenkova; Pavel Simek; Tereza Vogeltanzova; Michal Stoces

    2011-01-01

    Social networks have been growing at a rapid pace. Social media represent one of the most significant phenomena of today's world and are more and more integrated from the private sphere into the commercial one (e.g. into marketing where social media already play a substantial role). The present paper is aimed at introducing an initial study on the use of

  4. Epidemiological Study of High Cancer among Rural Agricultural Community of Punjab in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, J. S.; Rao, B. T.; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Parwana, H. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Based on a citizen’s report, a house-to-house survey was conducted in Talwandi Sabo and Chamkaur Sahib Community Development Blocks in Bathinda and Roop Nagar District respectively in Punjab state located in a northern part of India to identify the number of existing cancer cases, and the number of cancer deaths that occurred in the last 10 years. Age adjusted prevalence of confirmed cancer cases per 100,000 population was 125 (107/85315) in Talwandi Sabo and 72 (71/97928) in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer of female reproductive system, i.e., breast, uterus/cervix and ovary were more common in Talwandi sabo whereas cancer of blood and lymphatic system, esophagus, and bones were more common in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer deaths per 100,000 populations per year were 52 in Talwandi Sabo compared to 30 at Chamkaur Sahib. A comparison of the characteristics of randomly selected individuals, from the villages where a cancer case existed or death due to cancer had occurred in last 2 years, revealed that involvement in cultivation, pesticide use, alcohol consumption and smoking were more common in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. Limited studies show that in drinking water the levels of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Se, Hg were generally higher, and pesticides such as heptachlor, ethion, and chloropyrifos were also higher in samples of drinking water, vegetables, and blood in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. As multiple factors were responsible for significantly higher prevalence of cancer cases in Talwandi Sabo, therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to discourage the indiscriminate use of pesticides, tobacco and alcohol needs to be adopted for cancer prevention, and a cancer registry should be set up for elucidation of the role of pesticides and heavy metals in the etiology of cancer in this area. PMID:19151435

  5. Fluxes, variability and sources of cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in dry atmospheric depositions in urban, suburban and rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, G., E-mail: gt_shi@163.com [Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Chen, Z. [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Teng, J. [Shanghai Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai 202183 (China)] [Shanghai Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai 202183 (China); Bi, C.; Zhou, D.; Sun, C. [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Y. [Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136 (China)] [Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136 (China); Xu, S. [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-02-15

    In China's largest city, Shanghai, dry deposition fluxes of Cd, Pb, As and Hg were 137, 19 354, 2897 and 9.4 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively in an urban area, intermediate in a suburban area, and 51.7, 5311, 1703 and 7.3 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively in a rural area. Enrichment factors were Cd>Pb>As>Hg. Seasonal variations of metals differed: Pb and As were dominated by fossil fuel combustion, Cd was related to industrial pollution, and natural source controlled Hg levels.

  6. Short-Rotation Coppice of Willow for Phytoremediation of a Metal-Contaminated Agricultural Area: A Sustainability Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nele Witters; Stijn Van Slycken; Ann Ruttens; Kristin Adriaensen; Erik Meers; Linda Meiresonne; Filip M. G. Tack; Theo Thewys; Erik Laes; Jaco Vangronsveld

    2009-01-01

    Large areas of land contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) are currently in agricultural production in the\\u000a Campine region in Belgium. Cadmium contents in food and fodder crops frequently exceed legal threshold values, resulting in\\u000a crop confiscation. This imposes a burden on agriculture and regional policy and, therefore, encourages proper soil management.\\u000a One way to increase agricultural

  7. AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR, PLURIATIVIDADE E TURISMO RURAL: reflexões a partir do território fluminense1 FAMILY AGRICULTURE, PLURAL ACTIVITIES AND RURAL TURISM: reflextions concerning the fluminense territory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gláucio José Marafon

    Resumo O Território Fluminense encontra-se marcado por um intenso processo de urbanização que tem provocado profundas transformações socioespaciais. Entre elas destacamos as atividades associadas ao turismo rural contemporâneo, com a proliferação de hotéis- fazenda, spas, pousadas, e casas de segunda residência, e a manutenção e até mesmo o aumento da produção familiar. A proliferação dessas atividades possibilitou aos produtores familiares

  8. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

  9. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  10. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study) of 11,982 households located in the province?s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42%) households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information). The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p<0.0001). Diabetes risk increased with age and affected almost 17% of those older than 65 (OR 2.57; CI? 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45). Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI?s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI?s 2.44, 3.98] if mother), obesity (OR 2.66; CI?s 1.86, 3.78), as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI?s 1.15, 2.91). Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada. PMID:23289729

  12. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  13. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of agriculture in the future.

  14. 78 FR 34978 - Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA....

  15. Cancer hospitalizations in rural–urban areas in relation to carcinogenic discharges from Toxics Release Inventory facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hendryx; Juhua Luo

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether carcinogenic pollutants discharged from US Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) facilities are related to cancer hospitalization rates among the general population in rural and urban areas. We analyzed cancer hospitalizations (N = 440,061) across 20 states to find age- and sex-adjusted population cancer hospitalization rates. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether cancer hospitalization rates at the county

  16. Satellite Evidence of Phenological Differences Between Urbanized and Rural Areas of the Eastern United States Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. White; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Peter E. Thornton; Steven W. Running

    2002-01-01

    We used a 10-year record (1990–99) of composited and cloud-screened reflectances from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer\\u000a (AVHRR) to test for phenological differences between urban and rural areas in the eastern United States deciduous broadleaf\\u000a forest (DBF). We hypothesized that well-documented urban heat island effects would be associated with alterations in temperature-sensitive\\u000a vegetation phenology. Our objectives were thus (a)

  17. Indoor exposures and acute respiratory effects in two general population samples from a rural and an urban area in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzia Simoni; Antonio Scognamiglio; Laura Carrozzi; Sandra Baldacci; Anna Angino; Francesco Pistelli; Francesco Di Pede; Giovanni Viegi

    2004-01-01

    A study of indoor air exposures and acute respiratory effects in adults was conducted in the Po Delta (rural) and Pisa (urban) areas of Italy. Indoor exposures were monitored for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) for 1 week during the winter or summer in a total of 421 houses (2\\/3 in Pisa). Information on house characteristics,

  18. Characterization of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Spanish urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2011-02-01

    Urban areas constitute major pollution sources due to anthropogenic activities located in these areas. Among the legislated air pollutants, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microns (PM10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are controlled under Directive 2008/50/EC and Directive 2004/107/EC, respectively due to their adverse health effects. A study was carried out at four urban and rural Spanish areas during the warm and cold seasons in 2008-2009 to quantify 19 PAH associated with the atmospheric PM10 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS-MS) with the internal standard method. The particle-bound composition of the analysed PAH was 5 and 10 times greater in industrial and urban areas, respectively when compared to those measured in rural areas. The highest PAH concentrations during the cold period were possibly due to the additional contribution of domestic heating sources and meteorological conditions such as low temperature and solar irradiation. The use of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated that the possible, major PAH pollution sources in the most polluted areas were pyrogenic sources, mainly attributed to petroleum combustion sources (motor vehicle emissions and crude oil combustion). Petrogenic sources related to evaporative emissions also seemed to contribute in the most polluted area during the warm period. Those dates with high carcinogenic character according to the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) were also possibly attributed to petroleum combustion sources. PMID:21152605

  19. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  20. Strategic focus areas and emerging trade arrangements in the South African agricultural industry since the demise of the marketing boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ockert T. Doyer; Marijke F. C. DHaese; Johann F. Kirsten; C. J. van Rooyen

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the responses of agribusiness managers to drastic changes in the policy and marketing environment of South African agriculture. The process of deregulation and liberalisation of agricultural markets exposed agribusiness managers to international trends, which required new institutions and relationships. Based on a survey conducted among business managers, we explored emerging growth strategies, strategic focus areas and coordination

  1. Perceptions of Agricultural Extension Agents' Inservice Training Needs within the National Agency for Rural Development in the Republic of Moldova

    E-print Network

    Black, Matthew Keith

    2014-05-21

    agency in the Republic of Moldova which provides a variety of agricultural advisory services to the communities it serves. The purpose of this study was to assess inservice training needs of agricultural extension agents employed by ACSA. Two hundred...

  2. How federal health-care policies interface with urban and rural areas: a comparison of three systems.

    PubMed

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Global public health policies span national borders and affect multitudes of people. The spread of infectious disease has neither political nor economic boundaries, and when elevated to a status of pandemic proportions, immediate action is required. In federal systems of government, the national level leads the policy formation and implementation process, but also collaborates with supranational organisations as part of the global health network. Likewise, the national level of government cooperates with sub-national governments located in both urban and rural areas. Rural areas, particularly in less developed countries, tend to have higher poverty rates and lack the benefits of proper medical facilities, communication modes and technology to prevent the spread of disease. From the perspective of epidemiological surveillance and intervention, this article will examine federal health policies in three federal systems: Australia, Malaysia and the USA. Using the theoretical foundations of collaborative federalism, this article specifically examines how collaborative arrangements and interactions among governmental and non-governmental actors help to address the inherent discrepancies that exist between policy implementation and reactions to outbreaks in urban and rural areas. This is considered in the context of the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, which spread significantly across the globe in 2009 and is now in what has been termed the 'post-pandemic era'. PMID:22043815

  3. Risk of sexual HIV transmission among wives left behind and wives of nonmigrant men in rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Rong; Ji, Guo-Ping; Xu, Juan; Jiang, Qi-Cheng; Hong, Hang; Chu, Xiao-Yue; Chen, Ran; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2009-01-01

    In rural areas of China where commercial plasma donation used to be common, little is known about sexual behaviors and condom use among wives left behind by migrating husbands and wives of nonmigrant men. This study investigated sexual behaviors and condom use among married women in rural areas of China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1,873 participants recruited by a cluster-sampling method. Study results showed that wives left behind had a significantly lower mean frequency of sexual intercourse with their husbands in the previous month, a higher rate of multiple sexual partners, a higher rate of self-reported HIV infection, and a lower rate of condom use when compared with wives of nonmigrant men. Also, HIV-infected wives left behind who were infected by their husbands had multiple sex partners and did not use condoms consistently. This research provides additional insight that may be used to develop effective HIV prevention strategies in rural areas of China. PMID:19576547

  4. Rural areas electrification (Latin America), Guatemala City, Guatemala, June 4--7, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    ORNL serves the function of monitoring the Central American Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES) of US Agency for International Development (USAID), which is administered by NRECA. The results of the Demand Assessment Model, presented at the conference, were reviewed, and a paper on the use of marginal cost analysis for rural electrification was delivered for presentation by NRECA staff. Discussions on the acceptability of the model were discussed with utility representatives.

  5. Land cover mapping of wetland areas in an agricultural landscape using SAR and Landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, C; Ducrot, D

    2009-05-01

    Saline wetlands in the Monegros Desert, NE Spain, are situated in an agricultural landscape which is undergoing significant changes. Agricultural intensification in recent decades and current installation of new irrigation systems threaten these valuable habitats, set to be included in the Natura2000 network. Their preservation and successful management depend on the information available regarding the transformation of surrounding areas. When soil and vegetation maps at adequate scale are not available, remote sensing is an alternative means to obtain needed data. We have used SAR data, taking advantage of the soil surface characteristics perceived in SAR images. The objective of this work is to explore the capability of multitemporal SAR data to characterize the land covers of these wetlands and their environment. We have developed specific contextual classifications which take into account the statistical properties of the radar distribution. Moreover, we tested the contribution of radar in Landsat classification. PMID:18387730

  6. Ectoparasite infestation patterns of domestic dogs in suburban and rural areas in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Durden, Lance A; Petney, Trevor N; Lakim, Maklarin B; O'Hara, Robert B

    2012-08-01

    Domestic dogs, Canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. Here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (Siphonaptera) chewing lice (Phthiraptera), and ticks (Acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in Northern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). We used a spatially-explicit hierarchical Bayesian model that allowed us to impute missing data and to consider spatial structure in modelling dog infestation probability and parasite density. We collected a total of 1,968 fleas of two species, Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis, from 195 dogs (prevalence, 92 %). Flea density was higher on dogs residing in houses made of bamboo or corrugated metal (increase of 40 % from the average) compared to timber or stone/compound houses. Host-dependent and landscape-level environmental variables and spatial structure only had a weak explanatory power. We found adults of the invasive chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger on 42 dogs (20 %). The effect of housing conditions was opposite to those for fleas; lice were only found on dogs residing in stone or timber houses. We found ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as Haemaphysalis bispinosa gp., Haemaphysalis cornigera, Haemaphysalis koenigsbergi, and Haemaphysalis semermis on 36 dogs (17 %). The most common tick species was R. sanguineus, recorded from 23 dogs. Tick infestations were highest on dogs using both plantation and forest areas (282 % increase in overall tick density of dogs using all habitat types). The infestation probability of dogs with lice and ticks decreased with elevation, most infestations occurred below 800 m above sea level. However, the density of lice and ticks revealed no spatial structure; infestation probability of dogs with these two groups revealed considerable autocorrelation. Our study shows that environmental conditions on the house level appeared to be more influential on flea and lice density whereas tick density was also influenced by habitat use. Infestation of dogs with Haemaphysalis ticks identified an important link between dogs and forest wildlife for potential pathogen transmission. PMID:22526293

  7. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a transboundary aquifer that extends far beyond the study area, over about 150 000 km2. It is also heterogeneous. Like surface flows, but at a different scale, groundwater flows are marked by a strong endorheism. For example the Dantiandou closed piezometric depression extends over about approximately 5000 km2. These natural closed depressions are explained only by evapotranspiration uptake, weak in absolute terms (a few mm.a-1) but with a very high impact on hydrodynamics because of poor permeability and porosity. Both density of observations and hydraulic continuity of the CT3 aquifer give a fine idea of groundwater changes in the whole area. Human activities, continuously adapting in this poor rural area, add another complexity to the hydrological diversity in surface and ground water. The replacement of the natural vegetation with millet fields and fallow increased the surface runoff, and consequently water accumulation in temporary pools and then CT3 recharge. In the SE part of the study area, the water table has risen up to outcropping in the lowest valley bottoms. These new permanent ponds reflect groundwater while temporary ponds still reflect surface dynamics. This new component of the hydrological landscape induces several consequences, in physical and human dimensions. Evaporation strongly affects the permanent water and increases its salinity while the natural mineralization of groundwater is very low. The easier access to water resources allows a significant development of local gardening, which modifies the social functioning of villages (e.g. land rights between villages and within a village, diversification of crops and sources of income, new sales channels). Different physically based models (for surface and ground water) were built, with a significant discrepancy between their respective quantification of water flows at the region scale. Extrapolation of surface fluxes from the few instrumented catchments to a much larger mosaic of non-instrumented catchments is only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquife

  8. XXIII ESRS Congress, Vaasa 2009 1 Working Group 2.5: Governing the Local? Rural Power, Rural Needs and Rural Policy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    XXIII ESRS Congress, Vaasa 2009 1 Working Group 2.5: Governing the Local? Rural Power, Rural Needs and Rural Policy "Territorialisation, Return or Death of Agriculture in Rural Policies?", Esposito (A.) & Lajarge (R.) Territorialisation: Rebirth or Death of Agriculture in Rural Policies? Aurélien ESPOSITO

  9. Climate and Rural Income

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Mendelsohn; Alan Basist; Pradeep Kurukulasuriya; Ariel Dinar

    2007-01-01

    This paper tests whether climate has an impact on per capita rural income. The study finds that total (agricultural and nonagricultural)\\u000a income in rural counties and municipios in the US and Brazil are affected by climate. The study demonstrates that this income\\u000a effect is due to changes in the net value of agriculture. Regions with better climates for agriculture support

  10. Production, prices and poverty in rural India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwani Saith

    1981-01-01

    This paper challenges the view that increases in agricultural production have reduced poverty in rural India. Rural poverty is related directly to the consumer price index number for agricultural labourers, and inversely to agricultural production. The underlying time trend term indicates a residual rising trend in rural poverty after accounting for the influence of these two factors. There are plausible,

  11. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  12. Use of variety\\/diversity scores for diet quality measurement: relation with nutritional status of women in a rural area in Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Savy; Y Martin-Prével; P Sawadogo; Y Kameli; F Delpeuch

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:To develop scores for food variety and diversity to assess the overall dietary quality in an African rural area; and to study their relationship with the nutritional status of women of childbearing age.Design:Cross-sectional.Setting:Sahelian rural area in the North-East Burkina Faso (West Africa).Subjects:A total of 691 mothers with children below the age of 5 y, selected at random in 30 villages.Methods:A

  13. OECD reports on World Agricultural Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This small collection of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development reports is the result of a two-year study of the organization's Agriculture, Food and Fisheries Directorate. In these papers, the OECD attempts to examine the reasons why advanced agriculture policy reforms have not been as effective as previously estimated and suggests areas where further reforms should be enacted. The reports, available in .pdf format, include papers on a wide range of subjects including "the potential impact of full elimination of export subsidies to the relationship of agricultural production to food security, environmental quality, and rural employment -- the so-called multifunctionality of agriculture."

  14. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (principal investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  15. Water sources and their protection from the impact of microbial contamination in rural areas of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

  16. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  17. Examining the major contributors of ozone pollution in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Kanaya, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Wang, Z.; Kudo, S.; Uno, I.

    2015-06-01

    Open biomass burning (OBB) emits significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3) pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the northern edge of the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) from 15 May to 24 June 2010, during intensive open burning of wheat residues. The net photochemical production rate of oxidant (Ox = O3 + NO2) at the site was evaluated based on a box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2) constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx (NO2 + NO), J values). Our results showed that both in situ photochemistry and direct transport from urban areas in the YRDR were responsible for the high Ox concentration at the site. During an OBB-impact case, net photochemical production of Ox in the daytime was pronounced, with a 6 h averaged Ox production rate of 13 ± 4 ppbv h-1 (maximum value of 21 ppbv h-1 at 12:00 CST). Photochemical Oxproduction changed from VOC-limited in the morning to NOx-limited in the afternoon due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx during the day. A combined analysis with positive matrix factorization demonstrated that O3 pollution in the rural area of the YRDR was largely affected by urban emission, and OBB-related emissions also contributed to in situ photochemical production, particularly in the afternoon. Our study suggested that a joint effort in reducing both NMHCs (e.g., aromatics) and NOx emissions in the urban area, as well as local OBB activities, may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

  18. The mission of the Research Centers is to serve the specific needs of the clientele in local production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    production areas and the broader needs of Montana agriculture in general through applied research directed to the problems and impacts of agricultural production. New knowledge generated by Agricultural Research Center programs benefits Montana agriculture and the scientific community at local, state and national levels

  19. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic...are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic...difference between the urban standardized amount and...reclassification and the rural standardized amount...

  20. Oregon Agriculture and the Economy

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Oregon Agriculture and the Economy: An Update Oregon State University Extension Service Rural Analyst Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Oregon State University #12;Contents ...........................................................................................................................................12 Agricultural Support Services, Wholesale Trade, Transportation and Warehousing, Retail Trade