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1

Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

2012-06-01

2

7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503...Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...designated by the Office of Management and Budget,...

2013-01-01

3

7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503...Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...designated by the Office of Management and Budget,...

2011-01-01

4

7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503...Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...designated by the Office of Management and Budget,...

2012-01-01

5

7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.  

...2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503...Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...designated by the Office of Management and Budget,...

2014-01-01

6

Rural Area Revitalization Act of 1987; and the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1987. Hearing on H.R. 1800 and H.R. 2026 before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony of H.R. 1800, the Rural Area Revitalization Act, and H.R. 2026, the Rural Development Reorganization Act focuses on the need for federal attention to rural problems other than agriculture. The Rural Area Revitalization Act authorizes expansion of capital available for lending in rural areas, a grant program of $25 million per year for…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

7

Migrant Response to Industrialization in Four Rural Areas, 1965-70. Agricultural Economic Report No. 270.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrants competed on a limited scale with residents for new jobs in four industrializing rural areas in Arizona, the Central Ozarks, Mississippi, and Arkansas during 1965-70. This study determined: (1) competition for jobs between residents and immigrants; (2) need for immigrants to staff industries; and (3) differences between attributes of…

Olsen, Duane A.; Kuehn, John A.

8

OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

DOWLER, LLOYD

9

Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: the social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement.  

PubMed

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit. PMID:19924473

McElwee, Pamela D

2010-01-01

10

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND RURAL CREDIT: STATUS, ISSUES AND REFORM AGENDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a part of a larger study aimed at strengthening policy reforms in the area of agriculture, food security and rural development. In countries like India, strengthening of agriculture is critical for facing the challenges of rural poverty, food insecurity, unemployment and sustainability of natural resources. But, there is a need to redefine agriculture as the science and

S. S. ACHARYA

11

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

12

Monthly deposition of cadmium in rural and industrial areas of Germany (Bayern, Pfalz, Ruhr district) and its influences upon an agricultural model system.  

PubMed

Monthly depositions of cadmium were collected by a modified Bergerhoff method and measured by AAS during a 3-year period in rural areas of the Pfalz and in an industrial area of the Ruhr district. Another one year period included measurements in rural areas of southern Bavaria and on a Dutch island. The log-normally distributed deposition rates of cadmium at the rural areas in southern Germany amounted to only 20% of those of the industrial district. The depositions on the Dutch island were twice as high as the depositions on the rural areas of southern Germany. The monthly cadmium deposition rates show only little periodical fluctuation during the year and scatter around more or less constant median values of 25 and 120 micrograms . m-2 . month-1 at the rural and industrial areas, respectively. When open air mass cultures of algae were taken as an agricultural model, the organisms, depending on their growth rate, accumulated 0.4-4.0 ppm of cadmium (dry matter based). The course of the cadmium accumulation reflects the deposition rate of the area where the algae were grown. No growth depression of the algae due to cadmium can be observed under the given deposition rates. PMID:6303745

Runkel, K H; Payer, H D

1983-02-01

13

7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.130 Identified Rural Areas. A RBIC must identify the...

2010-01-01

14

Interrelationships of Animal Agriculture, the Environment, and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agriculture is closely interrelated to both the natural environment and human systems, including rural communities. Accordingly, changes in animal agriculture can have wide-ranging consequences across many areas. During the past 50 yr, there has been tremendous change in animal agriculture, involving an increase in the size of production units, greater reliance on technology, a corresponding decrease in human labor,

M. G. Hogberg; S. L. Fales; F. L. Kirschenmann; Mark Honeyman; John Miranowski; P. Lasley

2005-01-01

15

Agriculture and Rural Development Culture and Education  

E-print Network

B Agriculture and Rural Development Culture and Education Fisheries Regional Development Transport Transport and Tourism Regional Development Fisheries Culture and EducationCulture and Education Agriculture and Rural Development AFT ! DRAFT ! DRAFTEASE! PRE-RELEASE! THE ROLE OF CHINA IN WORLD FISHERIES STUDY EN

Pauly, Daniel

16

Rural development, agriculture, and food security.  

PubMed

Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development. PMID:12292191

Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

1996-12-01

17

Capital market access, factor demand, and agricultural development in rural areas of developing countries: The case of Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test for the impact of credit market access on agricultural productivity and off-farm investment using data from a 1992 survey of 10,000 Ugandan households. Results indicate that development of local financial markets improves efficiency of (purchased) input use in agriculture and promotes diversification and non-agricultural investment.

Klaus Deininger; John Okidi

18

SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

1987-04-01

19

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.120 Plan to invest in Rural Areas. An Applicant must...

2010-01-01

20

Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

Ikerd, John

21

Gifted Education in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes responses of 35 state gifted education consultants and 76 teachers of gifted students in rural areas to survey of rural gifted programming. Finds many needs for gifted programming involving cooperative efforts, adequate funding, use of community resources, more consistent/appropriate identification methods, teacher influence, and role…

Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances A.

1986-01-01

22

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

Monk, David H.

2007-01-01

23

Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical

Ultanir

1983-01-01

24

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

25

Impact on food security and rural development of reallocating water from agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competition for limited water resources between agriculture and more highly valued domestic and industrial water uses is rapidly increasing and will likely require the transfer of water out of agriculture. This paper reviews and synthesizes the available evidence of the effects of water transfers from agricultural to urban and industrial areas on local and regional rural economies; and analyzes

Mark W. Rosegrant; Claudia Ringler

1999-01-01

26

Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

Friedland, William H.

2002-01-01

27

Effects of the 1924 Agricultural Recession on Rural Missouri Hebdomadals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between the agricultural slump of 1924 and the economic vitality of rural weekly newspapers in Missouri. "Rural weekly newspaper" was defined as any weekly newspaper in a predominantly agrarian locale with a city population of fewer than 5,000 and a county population of fewer than…

Koski, Steven D.; Kahan, Robert S.

28

Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 49. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document lists 248 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1995, which is available online from the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

29

Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

30

Institutionalization of agricultural knowledge Management System for Digital Marginalized Rural Farming Community  

E-print Network

Institutionalization of agricultural knowledge Management System for Digital Marginalized Rural of agricultural knowledge Management System for Digital Marginalized Rural Farming Community Md. Faisal Islam 33 framework for addressing these problems is Agricultural Knowledge Management System (AKMS), consisting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Optimal taxation with joint production of agriculture and rural amenities  

E-print Network

all the positive externalities associated with agriculturalexternality generated by agri- culture, such as pollution, which has of course very important implications for agriculturalexternalities associated with agriculture are recog- nized, and moreover, that it is less costly to generate these rural amenities through agricultural

Casamatta, Georges; Rausser, Gordon C.; Simon, Leo K.

2008-01-01

32

Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

2005-01-01

33

Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

34

How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

E-print Network

How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil ERIK-agricultural employment prospects and earnings. Key words: Rural non-agricultural employment, economic geography, Latin America, Brazil. JEL Classification: J24, J43, O18, R23 1. INTRODUCTION Rural non-agricultural employment

Krivobokova, Tatyana

35

Planning Educational Services for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report showed ways of providing rural youths with quality schooling while keeping costs down. An Oklahoma survey of student needs measured quality differences between rural and urban areas. Students from farms, ranches, and small towns consistently ranked below students in middle and large cities on achievement tests in each grade level…

White, Fred; Tweeten, Luther

36

Veterinary Manpower for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the main activity of veterinarians is the care and treatment of animals, they are professionally trained personnel who have a history of involvement in community action. Their full potential has not been tapped to help alleviate the inadequacies of rural health services. Cited in this paper are specifics relating the number of trained…

Tucker, E. W.

37

Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

2009-01-01

38

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new directions for developing learning and innovation competence in international development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach:

Laxmi Prasad Pant

2012-01-01

39

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

Pant, Laxmi Prasad

2012-01-01

40

Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on

Terry Marsden; Roberta Sonnino

2008-01-01

41

Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

Barros, Vicente

2008-09-01

42

Influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas—a case study in Lianshui County in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of household biogas digesters in rural areas and integrated use of agricultural wastes has changed the structure of rural household energy consumption and greatly increased the application of highly efficient organic fertilizer, improved soil fertility and promoted sustainable agricultural development. This paper mainly discusses the influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas based

Wang Xiaohua; Li Jingfei

2005-01-01

43

AGRICULTURAL DIRECT MARKETING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

AAgricultural direct marketing implies the selling of agricultural, mainly horticultural products directly to the public either through on-farm markets (farm-shops), community-based farmers’ markets, or post, electronic mail and internet web order. These types of distribution channels can supply customers with fresh, ripen and healthy produce without the physical and social costs of transportation. In our view direct marketing alone is

RADULY ISTVAN; PARTENIE DUMBRAVA

2009-01-01

44

Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

2014-01-01

45

Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.  

PubMed

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

2014-01-01

46

CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES OCTOBER 2003 RURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODS  

E-print Network

to International Organisations - Summary of The World Bank: Reaching the Rural Poor 46 Rural Development According31/32 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES OCTOBER 2003 RURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL LIVELIHOODSRURAL

47

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's rural areas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.

Zhou, Aiming

48

Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.  

PubMed

"In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model. PMID:12345244

Salehi-isfahani, D

1993-04-01

49

Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

50

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2012-04-01

51

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2013-04-01

52

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2011-04-01

53

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2014-04-01

54

AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004  

E-print Network

AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY 34 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004 #12;Currents No. 34 August 2004 In this issue Agriculture Today 4 Flashback: Fifty Years of Donor Aid to African Agriculture Executive summary of Conference

55

Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

2008-01-01

56

RURAL POPULATION CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE IN NEW YORK STATE 1950-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1950. the nwnber of farms in New York has diminished while farm size has increased. This study describes and analyses rural population and agricultural change since 1950, focusing on relationships between rural population growth and agriculture in metropolitan counties. The rebound in rural population growth discovered in the 19708 raised concerns over its potential affect on the future of

George A. Sclmell; Peter Fairweather

57

Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

2003-01-01

58

Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

59

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

60

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships  

E-print Network

issues related to National Agricultural Research Systems in Africa Climate change and African agricultureDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships Economics, Extension and Rural Development is able to offer a two-year Post-Doctoral Fellowship from January

Jarrett, Thomas H.

61

Does Core Area Theory Apply to STIs in Rural Environments?  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in rural areas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or rural areas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural areas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities. PMID:23254115

Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C

2012-01-01

62

Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas

Malecki, Edward J.

2003-01-01

63

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

64

Published in: Agricultural Systems 59:193-214 (1999) Community History and Rural Development: Why Some  

E-print Network

Published in: Agricultural Systems 59:193-214 (1999) Community History and Rural Development: Why, Negros Oriental, Philippines Eduardo Visitacion Department of Agriculture Bais City, Negros Oriental consequences for peoples' participation: migration and settlement history; family & group lineages; history

Walters, Bradley B.

65

CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

RHODES, ALVIN E.

66

Drought insurance for agricultural development and food security in dryland areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential role for and experience with index based insurance for managing drought risks in agriculture\\u000a and rural areas in the dry areas of developing countries. It argues that while index insurance is not a panacea for risk management,\\u000a it could make important, market-based contributions in catalyzing sustainable safety nets and promoting agricultural growth.\\u000a And though the

Peter B. R. Hazell; Ulrich Hess

2010-01-01

67

AN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE ON AGRICULTURE, ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE ARKANSAS EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are both challenges and opportunities facing the agricultural industry in the state of Arkansas. Arkansas is geographically located in the mid-south of the United States. Arkansas is a rural, agricultural state with an economy heavily dependent upon agriculture, forestry and tourism. The agriculture of the state can be divided into two regions: the Mississippi Delta and the Ozark\\/Ouachita highlands.

Mark Cochran

68

Streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen across a gradient in rural–agricultural land use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the impacts of rural land use on lowland streamwater phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations and P loads and sources in lowland streams. Based on weekly water quality monitoring, the impacts of agriculture on streamwater P and N hydrochemistry were examined along a gradient of rural–agricultural land use, by monitoring three sets of ‘paired’

H. P. Jarvie; P. J. A. Withers; M. J. Bowes; E. J. Palmer-Felgate; D. M. Harper; K. Wasiak; P. Wasiak; R. A. Hodgkinson; A. Bates; C. Stoate; M. Neal; H. D. Wickham; S. A. Harman; L. K. Armstrong

2010-01-01

69

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

Anacleti K. Kashuliza

1992-01-01

70

Rural Areas Weaning Themselves from Farming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)

Carlin, Thomas A.

1987-01-01

71

Rural Areas Attract Young Families and College Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1995 through 1997, the rural population increased, especially in the South and West, due to net migration from urban areas. The largest rural gains were among people ages 26 to 30, including many young families. College graduates were well represented among rural in-migrants. Includes migration data by age group, educational attainment,…

Nord, Mark; Cromartie, John

1999-01-01

72

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

73

Data for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

/ 34 #12;Drinking water for Boriwali or for that matter, a savings and micro-lending analysisData for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas GISE Lab, CSE IIT Agriculture/Livelihoods ­post-harvest, foods Water sector ­drinking water, policy. Environmental planning

Sohoni, Milind

74

Social Work Consultation Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews social work consultation models and describes applications of consultation techniques in rural communities. Discusses following steps in developing rural consultation services: making contact, negotiating contract, formulating goals, problem solving, action, evaluation, and termination. Encourages consultation services development as…

Waltman, Gretchen H.

1989-01-01

75

Climate change, rural livelihoods and agriculture (focus on food security) in Asia-Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a major challenge for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for billions of people including the poor in the Asia-Pacific region. Agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather and because people involved in agriculture tend to be poorer compared with urban residents. More than 60 per

S. Mahendra Dev

2011-01-01

76

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

77

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

E-print Network

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

78

Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

Foght, H. W.

1917-01-01

79

Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

80

36 CFR 242.15 - Rural determination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rural determination process...AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR... § 242.15 Rural determination process...determine if an area or community in Alaska is rural...in evaluating a community's rural or...

2012-07-01

81

36 CFR 242.15 - Rural determination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rural determination process...AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR... § 242.15 Rural determination process...determine if an area or community in Alaska is rural...in evaluating a community's rural or...

2011-07-01

82

36 CFR 242.15 - Rural determination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rural determination process...AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR... § 242.15 Rural determination process...determine if an area or community in Alaska is rural...in evaluating a community's rural or...

2013-07-01

83

Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

2008-01-01

84

Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.  

PubMed

Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the magnitude and geographic distribution of deforestation is enhanced with the use of remote sensing techniques, such as those used in the 1982 UN Food and Agriculture baseline study. Soil degradation is not so easily measured. The implications are that regional development funds need to directed away from critical zones or areas adjacent to critical zones. Research is needed to understand rural to rural migration. PMID:12343671

Rudel, T I

1991-01-01

85

WILDLIFE HABITAT RELATIONS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA  

E-print Network

WILDLIFE HABITAT RELATIONS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA 2003 Report #12;Wildlife Habitat habitat of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) is situated within a matrix of natural habitat and urban areas of South Florida. This area has not been widely studied and little is known about the wildlife

Mazzotti, Frank

86

RURAL AND URBAN INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and perception of rural and urban inner-city students in two Midwestern states regarding agriculture, food, and natural resources. Since this study was a pilot project, these two subgroups of the United States population were assessed to provide baseline data reflecting the knowledge and perceptions of United States residents regarding agriculture and the

Martin J. Frick; Robert J. Birkenholz; Harrison Gardner; Krissanna Machtmes

87

Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

Bird, Alan R.

88

Civil agronomy: a new dimension of agricultural extension to invoke poverty issues for sustainable rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural

Thilak T. Ranasinghe

1997-01-01

89

How Important is Economic Geography for Rural Non-Agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By paying particular attention to the local economic context, this paper analyzes rural non-agricultural employment and earnings in non-agricultural jobs. The empirical analysis is based on the Brazilian Demographic Census, allowing for disaggregated controls for the local economy. Education stands out as one of the key factor for shaping employment outcome and earnings potential. Failure to control for locational effects

Erik Jonasson; Steven M. Helfand

2009-01-01

90

Contextualising the Curriculum in Rural Primary Schools: The Role of Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity of agriculture to act as a familiar vehicle for development of young rural learners' literacy, numeracy, and other necessary life skills was examined through a literature review and case studies of the use of primary school agriculture (PSA) as a contextualizing subject in the following countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon,…

Taylor, Peter

91

77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval. The Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas survey...

2012-02-21

92

HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

2005-01-01

93

Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

McLaughlin, Max, MD

2004-07-23

94

50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure...Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2010-10-01

95

50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure...Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2012-10-01

96

50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure...Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2013-10-01

97

50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure...Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2011-10-01

98

Sustaining sustainable agriculture: The rise and fall of the Fund for Rural America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture has lately madesignificant inroads into US agricultural policydiscourse. An examination of the ``life\\u000a cycle'' of theFund for Rural America, a component of the 1996 farmbill, provides an example of the complex and contestedways\\u000a in which the goals of sustainable agriculture areadvocated, negotiated, and implemented at the level ofnational policy, in\\u000a the context of the evolvingpolitical and institutional arrangements

Andrew Marshall

2000-01-01

99

Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

Adewumi, B. A.

2008-01-01

100

Hydrochemical investigation and quality assessment of ground water in rural areas of Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes was assessed in the rural areas of Delhi based\\u000a on the various water quality parameters. A total of 50 ground water samples were collected randomly from different sources\\u000a viz. hand pump, tube well, boring and analyzed for major ion chemistry to understand the operating mechanism of geochemical\\u000a processes for ground

Masood AlamSumbul RaisMohd Aslam; Sumbul Rais; Mohd Aslam

101

Developing Pressures for Migration Toward Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gallup Polls conducted between 1966 and 1972 indicated that the percentage of persons stating they would prefer living in a city has steadily declined, reaching the all-time low of 13 percent in 1972. Interviews conducted with a sample of 1,806 Americans showed that while one-third of the respondents currently live in towns, villages, or rural

Baden, John A.; And Others

102

REACHING NEW READERS IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN RURAL INDIA, MOBILE LIBRARIES ARE ESSENTIAL TO LITERACY EDUCATION AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT. THE TIN TRUNK LIBRARY, A COLLECTION OF 15 TO 50 BOOKS IN A BOX, IS FLEXIBLE AND ECONOMICAL. HOWEVER, IT IS USED PRIMARILY BY FRIENDS OF THE PERSON IN WHOSE HOUSE THE TRUNK IS PLACED. THE LIBRARIAN OF THE MARKET MOBILE LIBRARY BRINGS BOOKS AND NEWSPAPERS…

SHAW, E.C.

103

Agricultural Landscape Externalities, Agro-Tourism, and Rural Poverty Reduction in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an empirical analysis of agricultural landscape externalities and an economic valuation of their potential\\u000a impacts to reduce rural poverty in Morocco’s Western High Atlas Mountains. The externality concept is applied at the farm\\u000a level to inventory landscape externalities, to analyze their internalization forms, and to evaluate their economic benefits\\u000a on rural households. Of 134 farms studied, the

Khalil Allali

104

Patterns of Health Maintenance Organization Service Areas in Rural Counties  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the 1993 National Directory of HMOs to determine the extent to which rural counties are included in health maintenance organization (HMO) service areas. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) How do the patterns of service areas differ across HMO model types? (2) What are the characteristics that distinguish rural counties served by HMOs from those that are not? Although a majority of rural counties are in HMO service areas, substantially fewer are served by non-individual practice association (non-IPA) models. Access to HMO services is found to decrease with county population density, and adjacency to metropolitan areas is an important predictor of inclusion in service areas. PMID:10153478

Ricketts, Thomas C.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Johnson-Webb, Karen D.

1995-01-01

105

LINKING WATER QUALITY WITH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN A RURAL WATERSHED  

E-print Network

, agricultural pollution, animal waste, land-water interactions, nitrate, nitrogen surplus, nonpoint source; accepted 19 May 2000) Abstract. Agricultural intensification was linked to streamwater pollution in a case quality indicators suggesting that it is possible to use the budget/GIS linked techniques for pollution

Short, Daniel

106

Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

107

An innovation on agricultural insurance mode in the development of new-style rural cooperative economy — Creating “Six in one” mode to extricate agricultural insurance from trouble  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new rural cooperative economy is quite helpful in optimizing the allocation of resources and promoting the development of agricultural modernization, while it also faces more centralized and more kinds of operating risk than it did ever before. Using the experiences of the previous agricultural insurance pilots, this paper proposes a new mode of agricultural insurance, which is \\

Huan Wang; Jing Tan

2011-01-01

108

Is The Cost Of Living Less In Rural Areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There seems to be a general presumption that rural areas benefit from lower costs of living than urban areas. However, there is relatively little systematic data, other than anecdotal evidence, to support this. To test this presumption, this study develops spatial cost of living estimates for each of the sixty-seven counties of Pennsylvania. In addition to the overall cost of

James A. Kurre

2003-01-01

109

Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas Mattia Cai, Davide Pettenella , Enrico Vidale  

E-print Network

Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas Mattia Cai, Davide Pettenella: Wild mushrooms Income generation Rural development North Karelia Harvesting wild edible fungi, international trade in previously unused mushroom resources has increasingly provided rural communities

Pettenella, Davide

110

Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application of SA.

Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

2009-01-01

111

Sustainability assessment for agriculture scenarios in Europe's mountain areas: lessons from six study areas.  

PubMed

Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene (Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene's lessons for the further development and application of SA. PMID:18953599

Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

2009-01-01

112

Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

Ethridge, Jim; And Others

113

Agricultural Prices, Technology and Rural Employment in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of agricultural prices and technology on farmer incomes and then assesses its growth linkage implications for rural employment and wages. Based on the irrigated rice economy of Andhra Pradesh and the rainfed jowar economy of Maharashtra, the study concludes that technical change has been the dominant source of increases in farmer incomes; the role of

J. V. Meenakshi; Thomas T. Poleman

1994-01-01

114

Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

115

Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

116

The Teaching of Rural Economics in U.S. Departments of Agricultural Economics: Some Impressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 76 agricultural economics departments received 57 replies indicating that 25 departments teach 35 courses in rural economics/development; 10 years ago, 31 departments taught 44 courses. Slow enrollment growth and emphasis shifts were possible causes. More attention is now paid to community economics and less to social issues and…

Hughes, David W.; Weber, Bruce A.

1995-01-01

117

RIPARIAN AREAS OF AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agricultural area in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...

118

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

E-print Network

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas Lixia Liao,1 Christopher T affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied, L., C. T. Green, B. A. Bekins, and J. K. Bo¨hlke (2012), Factors controlling nitrate fluxes

119

Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment

A. Scipioni; F. Tagliaferri

2009-01-01

120

Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

Newman, Constance

121

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

Swanjord, Don Edward

122

Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

123

Studies Regarding the Ground Water Pollution in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters

Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga

124

VillageCell: Cost Effective Cellular Connectivity in Rural Areas  

E-print Network

-cost alternative to high-end cell phone networks. VillageCell relies on software defined radios and openVillageCell: Cost Effective Cellular Connectivity in Rural Areas Abhinav Anand, Veljko Pejovic_anand@umail.ucsb.edu, {veljko, davidj, ebelding}@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Mobile telephony brings clear economic and social benefits

Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

125

Scenario development to explore the future of Europe's rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in rural areas, such as depopulation and land abandonment, but also intensification and loss of biodiversity, usually proceed very slowly yet are often irreversible. A scenario study (called EURURALIS) was carried out by Wageningen University and Research Centre in combination with the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) to stimulate the strategic discussion among both national policy makers and policy

H. J. Westhoek; M. van den Berg; J. A. Bakkes

2006-01-01

126

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

127

Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

2008-01-01

128

Status of Thai Women in Two Rural Areas. Survey Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chachoengsao Province and Lampang Province were selected in 1976 as sites for an "action survey" to identify appropriate program areas for rural women so that governmental and voluntary agencies could be assisted in planning. During December 994 families and 1,272 women (ranging from 15-70 years old) were surveyed. Interviews were conducted by 30…

National Council of Women of Thailand.

129

Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

130

Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

Reed, John C.

131

Linking Water Quality with Agricultural Intensification in a Rural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural intensification was linked to streamwaterpollution in a case study watershed using GIS andnutrient budgeting techniques. The results showed thatsurplus nitrogen applications from fertilizers andmanure averaged 120 kg ha-1 yr-1. In some parts of the watershed surplus applications exceeded 300 kg ha-1 yr-1. A consistent increase in pig and chickennumbers (59 and 165% increase between 1986 and1996) is considered the

C. Berka; H. Schreier; K. Hall

2001-01-01

132

Rural Conditions and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

133

Business Occupational Profiles in an Agricultural Economy. An Investigation to Determine the Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Essential to Satisfactory Performance at the Job Entry Level as Office and Administrative or Management Trainee Personnel in Rural-Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To aid the development of criteria to guide high school curriculum planners and teachers, data for 160 jobs covering six different positions with 112 employers were gathered in 428 executive-employee-supervisor interviews in a 21-county area in northern Mississippi. Based on an analyses of the activities and duties of the six positions according…

Harwood, R. Frank

134

Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

135

Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

1996-03-01

136

[Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

2014-06-01

137

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. METHODS: We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from

Kethi Mullei; Sandra Mudhune; Jackline Wafula; Eunice Masamo; Michael English; Catherine Goodman; Mylene Lagarde; Duane Blaauw

2010-01-01

138

Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale  

PubMed Central

Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

2014-01-01

139

Neotropical Forest Conservation, Agricultural Intensification, and Rural Out-migration: The Mexican Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin AmericaâÂÂnamely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agricultureâÂÂhave helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.

Luis García-Barriosâ (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México;Departamento de Sistemas de Producción Alternativos)

2009-11-01

140

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970-2005  

PubMed Central

Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

2009-01-01

141

The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

2007-01-01

142

Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

Wilkening, E. A.

143

Population growth in those rural areas which are characterised by high levels of natural amenities  

E-print Network

amenities, climate, authentical rural culture, recreation and affordable housing. The concept of "amenityPopulation growth in those rural areas which are characterised by high levels of natural amenities, downshifters, economic migrants and retirees is transforming rural mountain areas. With the new trend

Borsdorf, Axel

144

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...section does not apply to a rural low-stress pipeline regulated under this part...

2010-10-01

145

77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas survey...Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Washington...HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as...

2012-05-17

146

Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

2012-01-01

147

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda.  

PubMed

Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes. PMID:23718775

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Katureebe, Sheila K; Gitta, Sheba N; Mwaka, Amos D; Atuyambe, Lynn

2013-01-01

148

What interventions do rural doctors think will increase recruitment in rural areas: a survey of 2778 health workers in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Background A shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers’ perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. Results Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. Conclusions From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing. PMID:23964857

2013-01-01

149

Teaching in Rural and Isolated Areas of Queensland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1985 mail survey of 97 rural schools and 53 coastal (urban/suburban) schools in Queensland, Australia, investigated teacher characteristics, problems, and needs. Respondents included 504 rural teachers, 215 rural parents, 405 coastal teachers, and 179 coastal parents. The results confirm many previous findings about teaching in rural Australia.…

Duck, Greg; And Others

150

Nonlinear Deterministic Analysis of Air Pollution Dynamics in a Rural and Agricultural Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of nonlinear dynamic tools for studying air pollution are gaining attention. Studies on ozone concentration in urban areas have reported the presence of low-dimensional deterministic natures and thus the possibility of good predictions of air pollution dynamics. In light of these encouraging results, a nonlinear deterministic approach is employed herein to study air pollution dynamics in a rural, and

Bellie Sivakumar; Wesley W. Wallender; William R. Horwath; Jeffrey P. Mitchell

2007-01-01

151

Topical Lunch Robert Howarth "Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York."  

E-print Network

, and Marcellus shale gas. - Target areas: Susquehanna River Basin (affecting Chesapeake Bay), Finger Lakes, rural to CAFOs · Marcellus shale gas development (water quality, particularly as it relates to TMDL; greenhouse management practices, in context of meeting TMDL · Marcellus shale gas water quality and relation to TMDL

Angenent, Lars T.

152

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the land

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

153

Free Preconceptual Screening Examination Service in Rural Areas of Hubei Province, China in 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective This work aims to collect and summarize the outcomes on free preconceptual screening examination in rural areas of Hubei Province in 2012. Moreover, this review promotes further understanding of the status of this activity to provide the Family Planning Commission valid scientific data upon which to construct effective policies. Methods Couples, who complied with the family planning policy and were the residents in agricultural areas or lived in a local rural area for more than six months, were encouraged to participate in the free preconceptual screening examination service provided by the Hubei Provincial Population and Family Planning Commission. This service included 19 screening tests. All the data, including forms, manuals, and test results, were collected from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in rural areas in Hubei Province. Results A total of 497,860 individuals participated in the free preconceptual screening examination service, with a coverage rate of 97.1%. 4.0% and 4.8% of the participants exhibited with abnormal blood levels of ALT and creatinine, respectively; 0.36% of the participants tested positive for syphilis; 0.44% and 3.6% of the female participants tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively; and 0.84% and 1.8% of the female participants tested positive for cytomegalovirus (IgM) and Toxoplasma gondii (IgM), respectively. After risk assessment, 59,935 participants might have high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 2012, the prevalence of birth defects among the parturient who participated in the preconceptual screening examination service was 0.04%, while the prevalence was 0.08% among those who did not participate in the service. Conclusion Preconceptual screening examination service may help to address the risk factors that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. More studies on the relationship between preconceptual screening examination service and prevalence of birth defect or other adverse pregnancy outcomes should be conducted. PMID:25375642

Li, Hui; Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Sun, Rong-ze; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-01-01

154

Measles control in a rural area in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

In the rural district of Chimanimani in Zimbabwe, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) which started in January 1982 has achieved measles coverage of between 50 and 80% in the 12-23 months age group, from 1984 to 1988, through 65 outreach centres, and 15 static health centres serving 93985 people in 119 villages. Facility based data as well as community based surveys have failed to show serious measles transmission in children under nine months of age, a common observation in high population density urban areas in Africa. Instead there has been a reduction in measles incidence and age distribution of measles has shifted to older children. The lowest measles incidence rate of 0.8 per 100 children occurred in the 0-5 months age group and the highest incidence rate of 4.0 per 100 children in the 48-59 months of age group. Only 7.9% of measles cases occurred in children under nine months of age. The high vaccination coverage rates were made possible by the post-independence government commitment, community involvement and dedicated staff. Our observations support the current one-dose 9 months minimum age measles vaccination policy for the low density rural areas in the developing countries. PMID:1797531

Tumwine, J K

1991-09-01

155

Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized. It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture, rural areas and peasants, but due to the shortage of capital, deficit and many other reasons, the outlets is fewer, which can not serve the agriculture, rural areas and

Jin-feng Sun; Xue-sheng Zhou

2010-01-01

156

The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.

Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

157

Characterization of agricultural tasks performed by youth in the Keokuk County Rural Health Study.  

PubMed

Injury and illness among youth working on farms are important problems. The types of farm tasks performed by children and the ages at which they begin these activities have not been well characterized. This cross-sectional study characterized agricultural work performed by adolescents in a rural Iowa county to better understand the patterns and extent of exposures to agricultural risk factors. This information will help to develop prevention strategies for agriculture-related injury and illnesses for children working on farms. The Keokuk County Rural Health Study is a prospective cohort study of randomly selected households in Iowa. In Round 2, all youth, aged 12 to 17 years participating in this population-based study, were asked about their use of farm machinery, work with livestock, pesticide handling, and other farm activities. The age at which they actually began these activities, the age they believed youth should start these activities, and sources of health and safety training they received were also ascertained. Adults in the study were asked the same questions about youth. Matched parental reports and opinions were compared to their children's reports and opinions using McNemar's chi-square tests. A total of 143 youth and 684 adults with farming experience completed the interviews. There were 118 pairs of parents and youth. Fifty percent of male youth, and 18 percent of females had performed agricultural work at some time in their life. Twenty-five percent of all male youth, and 5 percent of females were currently working on farms. Close to 30 percent had driven tractors, all-terrain vehicles, and pick-up trucks. Despite the legal prohibition of hazardous work by children under age 16, several younger children reported that they had driven a self-propelled combine, worked in silos, or handled and applied fertilizers in the past 12 months. Youth began riding on tractors at a mean age of 7. The mean ages for driving tractors and all-terrain vehicles were 11 and 10, respectively. The mean age for driving a self-propelled combine was 13. Children began applying or handling fertilizers at the age of 12. There were discrepancies between parent and youth reports regarding the frequencies, starting age, and opinions relative to performing agricultural tasks. These results suggest the need for implementing guidelines, particularly for age appropriate agricultural tasks. PMID:12746065

Park, Hyesook; Reynolds, Stephen J; Kelly, Kevin M; Stromquist, Ann M; Burmeister, Leon F; Zwerling, Craig; Merchant, James A

2003-06-01

158

POTENTIAL ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A REPORT ON FOCUS GROUP STUDIES CONDUCTED IN RURAL NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus group discussions were conducted in April 1997 in two rural North Dakota counties to examine whether the problem of inadequate or missing goods and services in those areas can be solved by using the cooperative business approach. An earlier study (Bhuyan, 1996a) has shown that many rural North Dakota communities lack essential goods and services, such as supermarket or

Sanjib Bhuyan; Frayne E. Olson

1998-01-01

159

Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

160

How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark

161

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2011-01-01

162

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

...2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2014-01-01

163

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2013-01-01

164

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2012-01-01

165

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2010-01-01

166

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COASTAL URBAN DYNAMICS AND AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF THE COTE D'AZUR  

E-print Network

. This paper studies the linked dynamics of agricultural and built-up areas, over the last forty years and the spatial dynamics resulting from them. 1 Evolution of agricultural areas and built-up surfaces on the Côte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

High Technology in Rural Settings. State-of-the-Art Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of high technology in rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural movement and the implications of this technology for agriculture and rural areas. The first section of the paper considers the impact of technology on agriculture in the United States over the past 50 years. Because U.S. agriculture has…

Tweeten, Luther

168

RURAL RADIO IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION: THE EXAMPLE OF VERNACULAR RADIO PROGRAMMES ON SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION IN N. GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio is a powerful communication tool. Experience with rural radio has shown the potential for agricultural extension to benefit from both the reach and the relevance that local broadcasting can achieve by using participatory communication approaches. The importance of sharing information locally and opening up wider information networks for farmers is explored with reference to the specific example of vernacular

Robert Chapman; Roger Blench; Gordana Kranjac-Berisavljevic; A. B. T. Zakariah

169

Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

2002-01-01

170

Community governance and active citizenship in rural areas: the relationship between parish councils and voluntary and community organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

NCVO's rural project is a programme of research and policy development focusing specifically on the needs of voluntary organisations working in rural areas. Our aim is to increase awareness and understanding of the scope and impact of rural voluntary activity and develop and promote policy to support the work of the voluntary sector in rural areas. This three year project

Claire Steel; Véronique Jochum; Jemma Grieve

171

Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

2014-05-01

172

Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.  

PubMed

Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change. PMID:20398079

Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

2010-03-01

173

Understanding rural areas dynamics from a complex perspective. An application of Prospective Structural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rural areas continues to be an international priority. The urgent need to fight poverty (mainly concentrated in rural areas) in developing countries, and the demand for increasing economic and social cohesion in developed countries, explain this priority on the political agendas of multilateral bodies, the EU and most other countries. When Development Economics was acknowledged as part

Mateo Ambrosio Albala; Maria del Mar Delgado

2008-01-01

174

Hybrid wireless-broadband over power lines: A promising broadband solution in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas, due to the low population density and the poor familiarization with new technologies, new projects related to broadband access are less profitable. In this article a hybrid wireless-broadband over power lines network, suitable for rural and remote areas is presented, offering smart grid applications and broadband access along a 107 km medium voltage power grid in Larissa,

Angeliki M. Sarafi; Georgios I. Tsiropoulos; Panayotis G. Cottis

2009-01-01

175

Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

2014-01-01

176

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

177

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

178

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

179

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

180

Community, mobility and racism in a semi-rural area: Comparing minority experience in East Kent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research into community, racism and racialization has been conducted in metropolitan urban settings. It is only recently that race in rural areas has received some attention. A key theme of existing research on race in rural areas has focused on the issue of racial violence. Drawing on interviews with a variety of ethnic minority groups in East Kent the

Larry Ray; Kate Reed

2005-01-01

181

Multiple Effects of Education in Rural Areas: Action Research for Development Strategies in Croatia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of development in rural areas of Croatia includes several factors. Among them is education. The education system in Croatia has a number of institutional, infrastructural and regional characteristics that are a frame of research for this article. Rural areas confront additional factors such as population migrations, poor…

Persuric, Anita Silvana Ilak; Gautier, Patrick

2005-01-01

182

Development of a School Based Hearing Conservation Program for Use in Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to develop and evaluate hearing loss prevention programs for use with youth in grades 4 and 7 in rural areas. There is a high prevalence of hearing impairment among adolescents living in rural areas, particularly those with farmi...

G. A. Flamme, S. Myers-Verhage, J. A. Merchant, A. M. Stromquist, C. Zwerling

2005-01-01

183

Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild

Susan Power Bratton; Raymond C. Mathews; Peter S. White

1980-01-01

184

RURAL LANDSCAPE VALUATION IN A CROSS-BOARDER REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural landscape is one of the most valuable agricultural externalities and it is often affected by modifications in the agricultural production process. Moreover, some rural areas are deteriorating because of the depopulation process and others are being transformed owing to socio-economic pressures. Since the European Conference on Rural Development hosted in Cork in 1996, efforts have been made in

185

Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average ?18O and ?D in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average ?18O and ?D in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The ?18O in function of ?D was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher ?18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, ?18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

2008-12-01

186

Energy requirements for rural development  

SciTech Connect

This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

Jones, D.W.

1988-06-01

187

Job Creation in Rural Areas: A Select Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography is designed to assist rural leaders seeking ways to effectively structure successful job development projects in their communities. The 120 entries are listed in the main body alphabetically by author, and are grouped in the index into categories reflecting Thomas's "seven hallmarks of successful rural development": (1)…

Pankratz, John

1989-01-01

188

Primary health care in rural areas: an agenda for research.  

PubMed Central

The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead. PMID:2645252

DeFriese, G H; Ricketts, T C

1989-01-01

189

Family Literacy Service Design and Delivery in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…

Statewide Initiative News, 2002

2002-01-01

190

Promoting Academic, Business, and Community Partnerships in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural community colleges are faced with issues similar to their urban counterparts, but many challenges for rural schools are further exacerbated by limited resources, geographic isolation, and a static economy. This paper argues that the difference between success and failure can be the ability to create strong partnerships. Of the 15 colleges in…

Morelli, Peg

191

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

192

Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities  

SciTech Connect

The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-07-01

193

Rural Sociology in an International Context. Papers on the State of Rural Sociology in Selected Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published in order to further a better understanding of how work in the field of rural sociology is carried on in various places, the six papers describe pedagogical and research activities relating to the sociological concern for rural people in West Africa, Brazil, Iran, the Middle East, Japan, and India. Each paper describes the evolution of…

Fugitt, Glenn V., Ed.

194

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China.  

PubMed

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. PMID:24270102

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

2014-02-01

195

The tradeoff between centralized and decentralized health services: Evidence from rural areas in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effectiveness of centralized and decentralized health care providers in rural Mexico. It compares provider performance since both centralized and decentralized providers co-exist in rural areas of the country. The data are drawn from the 2003 household survey of Oportunidades, a comprehensive study of rural families from seven states in Mexico. The analyses compare out-of-pocket health care

Arturo Vargas Bustamante

2010-01-01

196

Development of Water Supply and Sanitation Facility in The Rural Areas of Nepal: An Overview  

E-print Network

SUPPLY AND SANITATION FACILITY IN THE RURAL AREAS OF NEPAL: AN OVERVIEW Jiba Nath Prasain* 1.0 Introduction Safe drinking water is the basic necessity for people. Traditionally as well as culturally, Nepali people believe that flowing water is considered... practices of rural water supply and sanitation activity, and (ii) to assess the roles of the beneficiaries to make the rural water supply and sanitation activity sustainable. The author has tried to fulfill these two objectives of the paper by utilizing...

Prasain, Jiba Nath

2003-01-01

197

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

198

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

199

Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

200

Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

Ballara, Marcela

2007-01-01

201

Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

2010-01-01

202

Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

, Appropriate Technology, Policy and Governance Sectors-the knowledge base Water, Soil and Agriculture, Energy machines and implements energy and drudgery saving devices KVIC nodal center herbal oils extraction process. W. Date-Appropriate Technology, Rural systems U. N.Gaitonde-Mechanical Engineering, Energy

Sohoni, Milind

203

Nebulous margins: Sexuality and social constructions of risks in rural areas of Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on research conducted among young people in two rural communities in the state of Morelos, Central Mexico. Methods used included participant observation, indepth interviews and focus groups. Findings suggest that a person's constitution or 'nature', their gender and perceived risks during agricultural work were strongly associated with riskrelated sexual behaviour. Those who perceive themselves as having a

Xóchitl Castañeda; Claire Brindis; Itzá Castañeda Camey

2001-01-01

204

Rural landscape valuation in a cross-border region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural landscape is one of the most valuable agricultural externalities and it is often affected by modifications in the agricultural production process. Moreover, some rural areas are deteriorating due to the depopulation process while others are being transformed owing to socio-economic pressures. However, should agricultural policies concerning landscape preservation only be considered as cost items or should they be

Francesco Marangon; Francesca Visintin

2007-01-01

205

Are mental disorders more common in urban than rural areas of the United States?  

PubMed

Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: (1) large metropolitan areas, (2) small metropolitan areas, (3) semi-rural areas, and (4) rural areas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and rural areas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most rural areas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-rural areas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610

Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A

2014-09-01

206

Dynamic Simulation of Construction System of Rural Eco-Residential Areas Based on Couplings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction system of rural eco-residential areas was constituted with construction subsystem as the main ponderance, couplings influence exist between subsystems, built a couplings model for construction system of rural eco-residential areas based on grayer relatedness degree, take Yanhe village as an example, simulated and calculated the couplings degree of construction system of Yanhe village eco-residential areas at different times by

Li Ming; Wang Xiaoming

2010-01-01

207

Traditional birth attendants and their practices in the State of Pernambuco rural area, Brazil, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain socioeconomic information about TBAs in the State of Pernambuco and information concerning their practices. Method: Statistical analysis of the answers to structured questionnaires applied to 127 TBAs. Results: The results of a survey with 127 TBAs conducted in the rural area of the State of Pernambuco (Brazil) is presented in this paper. TBAs in rural Pernambuco are

I Carvalho; A. S Chacham; P Viana

1998-01-01

208

Into Another Kind of Country: The College Matriculation of Youth from Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth from rural areas are consistently under-represented in 4-year college institutions. This is particularly true for those whose parents did not go to college. Historically, a high school degree was sufficient for employment in rural communities. However, as blue-collar jobs continue to disappear, lesser educated residents are increasingly…

Tucker, Sarah Armstrong

2010-01-01

209

Workshop on Problems of Chronically Depressed Rural Areas (Asheville, N.C., April 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workshop was conducted at which 13 papers were presented on problems of chronically depressed rural areas. Attendees endeavored to assess the existing knowledge with respect to these problems, to point out major gaps in this body of knowledge, and to suggest types of research needed to cope with the problems of rural poverty. It was determined…

Leven, Charles L.; And Others

210

How does additional education affect willingness to work in rural remote areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of offering educational opportunities as a strategy to recruit health workers to rural areas. Tanzania, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a very small and unequally distributed health workforce. It has been suggested that rural remote jobs can be made more attractive to health workers with basic clinical

Julie Riise Kolstad

2010-01-01

211

Economics and Education: Instrumentalism and the Dilemma of Learning in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While most economists agree that educational attainment contributes to national economic performance, studies have not generally confirmed a similar conclusion with respect to rural areas. This paper examines the relationships between rural education and economics. The new aim of American education, restoration of national economic…

Howley, Craig B.

212

Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

2006-01-01

213

Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

2007-01-01

214

Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

2010-01-01

215

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.  

PubMed

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

2001-07-01

216

[Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].  

PubMed

The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

2010-01-01

217

Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

2002-01-01

218

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

219

Conflicting Implementation of Agricultural and Water Policies in Irrigated Areas in the EU  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Objectives and Background Irrigated agriculture is very important in terms of area, value of production and employment in Mediterranean regions devoted to continental agriculture. T his paper analyses the impact of CAP reform and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in irrigated agriculture through a case study in Central Spain. We believe that this research will contribute to our understanding

José A. Gómez-Limón; Manuel Arriaza; Julio Berbel

2002-01-01

220

OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

221

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms Kathleen Lockhart University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department Major Advisor containing, from the north, the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), Water Conservation Areas (WCA) 1, 2

Ma, Lena

222

Sex workers in agricultural areas: Their drugs, their children.  

PubMed

Most research on female sex workers is urban-based, emphasizing economic necessity and risk-taking. Few authors discuss sex workers and their children. The objective of the present study was to ethnographically explore the influence of street life on childrearing by women involved in sex work in agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. Interviews took place with 38 women. Findings suggest that the sampled women followed the usual paths into substance use. Most began using substances before they began sex work, at which time use escalated to crack-cocaine. Children of 32 of the 34 women who were mothers were living separately from their mothers. None the less, mothers took an interest in children's wellbeing, and many visited them whenever possible. Their principal concern was assuring that children were raised in the best way available. One daughter followed her mother into sex work, and a few older children drank moderately. Several children had experienced abuse from persons other than parents, but the long-term effects of this abuse are unknown. PMID:16864221

Bletzer, Keith V

2005-01-01

223

Fatal motor vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas: decomposing rates into contributing factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Design: Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. Results: As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in rural areas. Conclusions: Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash. PMID:15691985

Zwerling, C; Peek-Asa, C; Whitten, P; Choi, S; Sprince, N; Jones, M

2005-01-01

224

Impacts of e-collaboration tools for development of rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a powerful driver for economy-wide productivity, growth and jobs - and are arguably Europe's best-bet investment for the future. The ICT in innovation processes and acts play more and more important role in rural areas. The regional innovation performance is different in regions and lower in rural areas.The regional innovation performance is different in

Miklós Herdon

225

Rural Poverty in Wisconsin Counties. College of Agricultural & Life Sciences Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe rural poverty in Wisconsin in a manner useful to educators, policymakers, clergy, and businesspersons, census statistics, primarily from 1980, were used to look separately at rural nonfarm, farm, and urban families and persons. Other census data provided comparability. As measured in 1980, 6% of urban and rural nonfarm families had…

Saupe, William E.; Belknap, John W.

226

Value to Wildlife of Urban-Agricultural Parks: A Case Study from Rome Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban-agricultural parks could have some advantages to wildlife because of less intensive agricultural procedures, absence\\u000a of hunting pressure, and reduced human disturbance. In this study, the breeding and wintering bird communities and the small\\u000a mammal community in an urban-agricultural park of Rome were compared to those of a close urban park and a close agricultural\\u000a area just outside the city.

ALBERTO SORACE

2001-01-01

227

Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

2014-05-01

228

Survey of microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of Kashan-Iran in second half of 2008.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC). The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC) and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important. PMID:21913499

Miranzadeh, M B; Heidari, M; Mesdaghinia, A R; Younesian, M

2011-01-01

229

Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

230

Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

1993-01-01

231

THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

WALLACE, HELEN M.

232

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

233

Music Education in Rural Areas: A Few Keys to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community dynamics play a major role in determining the duties of music educators. What music educators do each day can vary greatly depending on their location. A middle school band director's job description in suburban New York is likely to look nothing like that of a music educator in rural Iowa. There is a substantial lack of literature to…

Isbell, Daniel

2005-01-01

234

A prepaid architecture for solar electricity delivery in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a model for electricity delivery and revenue collection in a rural context with the potential to increase the reliability of service delivery and lower operating costs compared to traditional fixed monthly fee utilities. The microutility in this paper provides power on a pre-paid basis similar to the way cellular phone air-time is sold. This system uses Short

Daniel Soto; Edwin Adkins; Matt Basinger; Rajesh Menon; Sebastian Rodriguez-Sanchez; Natasha Owczarek; Ivan Willig; Vijay Modi

2012-01-01

235

The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

Howley, Craig B.

236

A Marginal Profession in Rural Areas: The Case of Rural Chiropractors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reference to the significance of a marginal profession, 44 Missouri chiropractors practicing in 20 rural counties (total enumeration) were compared with 39 randomly selected Kansas City chiropractors to determine the following characteristics: (1) social background; (2) place history (at time of birth, start of school; termination of 8th grade,…

Hassinger, Edward W.; And Others

237

Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India. PMID:22295192

Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

2011-01-01

238

Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

Quigley, John M.

239

Rural Industrialization in the Ozarks: Case Study of a New Shirt Plant at Gassville, Arkansas. Agricultural Economic Report No. 123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the short term effects of a large apparel plant on the economy of a relatively isolated, highly rural Ozark area (8 counties), characterized by low income and few employment opportunities, this study compared 1959 data on the study area and the state of Arkansas with similar post plant data (1960-1963). Data were compared on income…

Jordon, Max F.

240

Cognitive–Behavioural Therapy via Videoconferencing to a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This case report describes the use of cognitive–behavioural therapy via twoway, interactive audiovisual videoconferencing and identifies issues involved in using this form of technology to provide therapy.Clinical picture: A 38-year-old married woman living in rural South Australia presented with panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depression. The patient had refused antidepressant treatment.Treatment: The patient was treated with 12 sessions

Taryn Cowain

2001-01-01

241

Area health services as learning organisations: the rural experience.  

PubMed

Staff development units (SDUs) across New South Wales Health are in a state of flux. Traditional models of training may no longer be meeting the continuing professional education needs of staff. This paper outlines how one SDU, the Rural Health Education and Research Centre at Tamworth, with few resources, has successfully negotiated the transformation from delivering ad hoc, face-to-face teaching, to a model encompassing competency-based training, recognition of prior learning, workplace assessment and distance education. PMID:11111423

Hartley, R

2000-04-01

242

Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made a rural development publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Rural Development Perspectives, issued three times annually, "track... economic and social trends in rural America," and present "nontechnical articles on the results of new rural research,." Selected archives of the publication is available, and articles can be downloaded individually.

1996-01-01

243

PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS PROGRAMS IN TWENTY-EIGHT SELECTED VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MIGRATION FROM RURAL TO URBAN AREAS AND THE SHIFT IN LEGISLATIVE EMPHASIS FROM FARMING TO OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS PROMPTED THE OPERATION OF A SUMMER INSERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE ON OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS FOR 30 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS. THE IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM AREAS DURING THE INSTITUTE RESULTED IN THIS…

DUPY, CLEO A.; HULL, WILLIAM L.

244

Migration, cash cropping and subsistence agriculture: relationships to household food expenditures in rural Mexico.  

PubMed

The relationship between income and food expenditure patterns is influenced by a number of factors, including personal tastes, source and frequency of income, male/female control over income, home food production, and other demographic factors. In this study, the relationship of household resource allocation to each of the following is examined: (1) source of income (i.e. wage labor, cash cropping, migrant remittances, and other private sources); (2) women's contribution to income; and (3) subsistence production level. The overall study design involved a cross-sectional survey of 178 households in three rural Mexican communities on two occasions spanning both agricultural seasons. On each occasion, data were collected on the following: (1) income by source and by earner; (2) migrant remittances; (3) gifts and loans; (4) subsistence and cash crop production, expenses, and earnings; (5) major nonfood purchases; (6) household composition; and (7) household food use (during the previous week). Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the factors associated with the percentage of income allocated to food (PFX) and the percentage of the food budget allocated to (1) maize, beans, and chile (TRAD); (2) meat, milk, and fruit (LUX); and (3) bread, pasta, and snack foods (PROC). All regressions were run controlling for income. The proportion of income from migrant remittances was negatively associated with PFX (winter). Subsistence score was positively related to PFX (summer). Migrant remittances (winter) and subsistence score (both seasons) were negatively associated with TRAD. Subsistence score was positively related to LUX (both seasons). Father's absence (both seasons), store ownership (winter), and private source of income (summer) were all positively linked to PROC. Mother's contribution to total income and cash cropping income were not significantly related to any of the dependent variables. The findings support the idea that resource allocation patterns are influenced not only by income level but also by the household economic strategies through which income is generated. PMID:1767281

Kaiser, L L; Dewey, K G

1991-01-01

245

Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings  

PubMed Central

Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas. PMID:23759062

2013-01-01

246

A Description of the Agriculture and Type-of-Farming Areas in Texas.  

E-print Network

OF' AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A DESCRIPTION OF THE AGRICULTURE AND TYPE- OF-FARMING AREAS IN TEXAS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Texas is primarily an rcgricultural State.... Approximately 40 per cent of the 5,824,715 people in the State lived on farms in 1930. Of tlle persons 10 years or older gainfully enlployed in the State, 38 per cent were engaged in agriculture, while only 17 per cent were engaged in manufacturing...

Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H. (Ben Hur)

1937-01-01

247

Rural-to-Urban Labor Migration, Household Livelihoods, and the Rural Environment in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China.  

PubMed

Rural migration and its relationship to the rural environment have attracted increasing research interest in recent decades. Rural migration constitutes a key component of human population movement, while rural areas contain most of the world's natural resources such as land and forests. This study empirically evaluates a conceptual framework incorporating rural household livelihoods as an integrative mediating factor between rural migration and the rural environment in the context of rural-to-urban labor migration in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. The analysis draws on data collected through household surveys and key informant interviews from four villages. Results confirm the hypothesis that labor-migrant and non-labor-migrant households differ significantly in livelihood activities including agricultural production, agricultural technology use, income and consumption, and resource use and management. Implications for the subsequent environmental outcomes of rural labor out-migration and corresponding natural resource management and policy in rural origin areas are discussed. PMID:22207776

Qin, Hua

2010-10-01

248

Cancer Outcomes Research in a Rural Area: A Multi-Institution Partnership Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care\\u000a in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes\\u000a research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership\\u000a includes eight institutions: the Emory University in

Michael Goodman; Lyn Almon; Rana Bayakly; Susan Butler; Carol Crosby; Colleen DiIorio; Donatus Ekwueme; Diane Fletcher; John Fowler; Theresa Gillespie; Karen Glanz; Ingrid Hall; Judith Lee; Jonathan Liff; Joseph Lipscomb; Lori A. Pollack; Lisa C. Richardson; Phillip Roberts; Kyle Steenland; Kevin Ward

2009-01-01

249

Using VCDs to Promote Rural Educational Development in China: A Case Study in the Tianshui Hilly Areas of Gansu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study is set in a remote rural area of China--the Tianshui area of Gansu Province. It examines a strategy involving the use of Video Compact Discs (VCDs) to enhance primary education in these areas. Firstly, the challenging context of Tianshui area is described. Secondly, strategies for promoting rural education using VCDs and the…

John, Lee Chi Kin; Jiayi, Wang

2005-01-01

250

Experiences of workplace bullying in a rural area.  

PubMed

Employed people spend most of their waking hours in workplaces, but sometimes workplaces are made unbearable by bullying. This study examined how 21 people experienced workplace bullying in a rural and small city context and explored strategies for stopping workplace abuse. The research method of the learning circle was used because of its potential to reduce the isolation typically experienced by targets of workplace bullying, and its potential for peer dialogue and learning. This paper focuses on signs and experiences of workplace bullying, a phenomenon which produces both physical and emotional symptoms and often requires counseling. PMID:16203644

MacIntosh, Judith

2005-11-01

251

L'agriculture durable, lment de stratgie pour le dveloppement rural communal Cas de la Commune d'Ampitatafika-District d'Antanifotsy-Rgion du Vakinankaratra  

E-print Network

L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le développement rural communal Cas de la Commune,S., Ramananarivo, R., Aubert Gilon, S. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 L'AGRICULTURE DURABLE, ELEMENT DE "ISDA 2010, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO URBANIZATION: FARM TYPES IN NORTHEAST METROPOLITAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metropolitan agriculture is not homogeneous. This paper delves beneath metropolitan county averages using data on individual farms in the Northeast classified into three statistically distinct types. A small group of adaptive farms profit from intensive production on smaller acreage to accommodate themselves to the urban environment. Traditional farms have increased costs and pressures on their more extensive operations without compensating

Ralph E. Heimlich; Charles H. Barnard

1992-01-01

253

Chronic Disease Patients' Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

2013-01-01

254

Une agriculture en déclin démographique dans un monde rural en croissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] A la surprise générale, la population rurale a cessé de diminuer en France, puis a augmenté. Ce phénomène pose certes des problèmes d'interprétation statistique, mais sa réalité ne peut être mise en doute. Toutefois, l'évolution est très différente dans les régions rurales proches des villes, où la population augmente rapidement, et dans le \\

Joseph Klatzmann

1991-01-01

255

Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

Akintola, Jacob; And Others

256

Information Technologies: Do They Have the Potential To Bring Change to U.S. Rural Areas? Policy Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities have long experienced an outmigration of talented people to urban areas for better employment opportunities. The traditional rural economic model, especially prevalent in Appalachia and the rural South, involves outside capital promoting industrial development separated from community needs and culture. This, at worst, is…

Burton, John K.; Lockee, Barbara B.

257

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

PubMed Central

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

258

International Obstacles to Rural Development: How Neoliberal Policies Constrain Competitive Markets and Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses key changes to international agriculture during the neoliberal period (roughly from the 1980s until today), including structural adjustment, agricultural trade policies, corporate control, and intellectual property rights (IPRs), from two different theoretical perspectives: market-driven economic growth (similar to neoclassical economics) and sustainable agriculture. It first examines what market-driven economic growth and sustainable agriculture say about the ideal

Jerry Buckland

2006-01-01

259

Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.  

PubMed

During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area. PMID:22709878

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petri?, Dušan; ?upina, Aleksandra Ignjatovi?; Bain, Odile

2012-07-01

260

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

261

Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

262

Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic. PMID:23351567

2013-01-01

263

Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

Nlerum, F. E.

2012-12-01

264

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

265

Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

Hendryx, Michael

2008-01-01

266

Policy implications of a financial incentive programme to retain a physician workforce in underserved Japanese rural areas.  

PubMed

Existing evidence supports the effectiveness of a financial incentive policy for medical students and early-career physicians in return for obligatory rural service. But whether the experience of contractual rural service affects the physician's choice of practice location after the service is completed remains unknown. This study analysed the practice location of Jichi Medical University (JMU) graduates. JMU is a Japanese medical education programme with a contract system under which all graduates have an obligation to serve in underserved areas for about six years in exchange for a 6-year undergraduate tuition waiver. 484 JMU graduates who were under rural service in 2000 and had completed the service by 2006 were included in the study. The rurality of the communities was determined by population density quintiles. The proportion of those practicing in the communities with the highest rurality quintile in 2000 (30.8%) decreased dramatically (8.7%) in 2006, but the geographic distribution of the participants after contract was still biased toward rural areas compared with the distribution pattern of all Japanese physicians. The flow of participants from rural to urban communities was largely unidirectional. In 2006, 452 (93.4%) practiced in places with the same or lower rurality than in 2000, while only 32 (6.6%) practiced in places with higher rurality as compared to the placements of 2000. Multivariate analysis showed that service experience in the communities of the first and second highest quintiles of rurality was associated with choosing such places after contract, independent of known predictors of rural practice, such as having a rural background and primary care specialty choice. Although the effect of contractual rural service substantially decreased after finishing the service, the experience of rural service early in the physician's career had a positive impact on the later choice of a rural practice. The results from this study support the use of a policy that attracts early-career physicians to practice in rural areas. PMID:20542362

Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

2010-08-01

267

Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

2012-01-01

268

NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA III--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, A TOTAL OF 443 FIRMS AND AGENCIES IN 12 PARISHES (EXCLUDING TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS) WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE (1) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO JOB TITLES, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, (3) CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF JOBS, AND (4) TRENDS IN…

MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

269

Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the

S. J. Vermeulen; P. K. Aggarwal; A. Ainslie; C. Angelone; B. M. Campbell; A. J. Challinor; J. W. Hansen; J. S. I. Ingram; A. Jarvis; P. Kristjanson; C. Lau; G. C. Nelson; P. K. Thornton; E. Wollenberg

270

Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-03-01

271

Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

2014-01-01

272

Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

Perry, C. A.; Robbins, F. V.; Barnes, P. L.

1988-01-01

273

Clean water provision in rural areas of less developed countries.  

PubMed

The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis. PMID:3975696

Roundy, R W

1985-01-01

274

[Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201

Gazin, P; Melo, G; Abuquerque, A; Oliveira, W; Soula, G; Audry, P

2004-08-01

275

A Bibliography of Rural Development: Listings by Topic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 776 journal articles pertaining to rural development are cited. Entries are arranged by topic: agriculture, area development, community, economic development, environmental improvement, facilities and services, human resource development, leadership, organization, rural development, rural-urban relationships, and social action. Some articles…

Parker, Carrie G.; And Others

276

Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

277

Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia

2010-05-01

278

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0) x (1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1) x (0,1,1)24 has been developed for the rural area. In both sampling points, predictions of hourly ozone concentrations agree reasonably well with measured values. However, the prediction of hourly ozone concentrations in the rural point appears to be better than that of the urban point. The performance of ARIMA models suggests that this kind of modelling can be suitable for ozone concentrations forecasting. PMID:15975626

Dueñas, C; Fernández, M C; Cañete, S; Carretero, J; Liger, E

2005-12-01

279

The research of dynamic agricultural machinery working area measure system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method of area-measurement system of farm machineries was proposed through the study of field test data, and a dynamic vehicle field area-measurement system based on GPS-OEM was built. In the test, the system represented (presented) high speed of information collection and high area measure accuracy with the error rate lower than 2%. The portability and convenience of this

Zhuo Wei; Fang Yang; Li Zhang

2011-01-01

280

Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

1986-01-01

281

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater quality depends on the interactions of biogeochemical and hydrologic factors. To identify key processes affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied at 14 sites across the U.S. Simulated vertical profiles of NO3-, N2 from denitrification, O2, Cl-, and environmental tracers of groundwater age were matched to observations by adjusting the parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, fractions of N and Cl- inputs leached to groundwater, O2 reduction rate, O2 threshold for denitrification, and denitrification rate. Model results revealed important interactions among biogeochemical and physical factors. Chloride fluxes decreased between the land surface and water table possibly because of Cl- exports in harvested crops (averaging 22% of land-surface Cl- inputs). Modeled zero-order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated. Denitrification rates at depth commonly exceeded overlying O2 reduction rates, likely because shallow geologic sources of reactive electron donors had been depleted. Projections indicated continued downward migration of NO3- fronts at sites with denitrification rates -1 yr-1. The steady state depth of NO3- depended to a similar degree on application rate, leaching fraction, recharge, and NO3- and O2 reaction rates. Steady state total mass in each aquifer depended primarily on the N application rate. In addition to managing application rates at land surface, efficient water use may reduce the depth and mass of N in groundwater because lower recharge was associated with lower N fraction leached. Management actions to reduce N leaching could be targeted over aquifers with high-recharge and low-denitrification rates.

Liao, Lixia; Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Bohlke, J. K.

2012-01-01

282

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater quality depends on the interactions of biogeochemical and hydrologic factors. To identify key processes affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied at 14 sites across the U.S. Simulated vertical profiles of NO3-, N2 from denitrification, O2, Cl-, and environmental tracers of groundwater age were matched to observations by adjusting the parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, fractions of N and Cl- inputs leached to groundwater, O2 reduction rate, O2 threshold for denitrification, and denitrification rate. Model results revealed important interactions among biogeochemical and physical factors. Chloride fluxes decreased between the land surface and water table possibly because of Cl- exports in harvested crops (averaging 22% of land-surface Cl- inputs). Modeled zero-order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated. Denitrification rates at depth commonly exceeded overlying O2 reduction rates, likely because shallow geologic sources of reactive electron donors had been depleted. Projections indicated continued downward migration of NO3- fronts at sites with denitrification rates <0.25 mg-N L-1 yr-1. The steady state depth of NO3- depended to a similar degree on application rate, leaching fraction, recharge, and NO3- and O2 reaction rates. Steady state total mass in each aquifer depended primarily on the N application rate. In addition to managing application rates at land surface, efficient water use may reduce the depth and mass of N in groundwater because lower recharge was associated with lower N fraction leached. Management actions to reduce N leaching could be targeted over aquifers with high-recharge and low-denitrification rates.

Liao, Lixia; Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; BöHlke, J. K.

2012-06-01

283

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

284

[Tularemia seroprevalence in the risky population living in both rural and urban areas of Erzurum].  

PubMed

Tularemia which is a zoonotic infection, caused by Francisella tularensis, has become a re-emerging disease in Turkey. Infection is often transmitted to human by handling animal tissues and products, but it is also possible to acquire the disease from contaminated water or food. Recently several cases and epidemics of tularemia have been reported in the northwest areas of Turkey, particularly in Marmara and West Black Sea regions. Erzurum is a city in Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey and animal husbandry is the main agricultural activity in that area. However, neither tularemia cases were reported from this province nor seroprevalence studies were performed. In this study we aimed to determine F.tularensis antibody seropositivity in the risky population living at both rural and urban area of Erzurum. Blood samples from 240 volunteer subjects (134 male with mean age: 36.2, age range: 17-75 years and 106 female with mean age: 39.1, age range: 16-77 years) whose occupations were farming and animal husbandry, were included in the study. Serum samples were screened for the presence of F.tularensis antibodies by slide agglutination method (BD, USA) and Serazym ELISA kit (anti-F.tularensis IgG/IgA/IgM, Seramun, Germany). The positive samples with those tests were also retested by microagglutination test (MAT) in National Tularemia Reference Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, using antigen prepared in the same laboratory from the local strain. The serum samples were also searched for the presence of Brucella and Salmonella antibodies in terms of cross-reactivity. Seropositivity was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 subjects by slide agglutination test (SAT), whereas only 5 (2.1%) gave positive result for total antibody by ELISA. Twenty-five of the 71 SAT positive samples yielded F.tularensis antibodies by MAT, of which 21 were between 1/20-1/40 and four were between 1/80-1/160 titers. However, all of the MAT positive samples (n= 25) were found reactive in Brucella and/or Salmonella antibody tests. One of the four MAT positive samples with 1/40 titer and all of the four MAT positive samples with ? 1/80 titer yielded positive results in ELISA. Since MAT gave very high cross reactive results, the five subjects (2.1%) found positive with ELISA were evaluated as seropositive for tularemia. Of those subjects (four were female, one was male; age range: 27-38 years), four were the inhabitants of the same village, and one from another neighboring village. All of the seropositive subjects were dealing with raising livestock and two were also farming. No history of contact with rat and wild animals or tick bite were detected, however it was noted that non-chlorinated fountain water has been used in both of these villages. In conclusion, our data emphasized that, populations inhabiting especially in rural area and dealing with farming and stock raising in our region are at risk for tularemia. PMID:21341161

Yazg?, Halil; Uyan?k, M Hamidullah; Ertek, Mustafa; K?l?ç, Selçuk; Kireçci, Ekrem; Ozden, Kemalettin; Ayy?ld?z, Ahmet

2011-01-01

285

The seen and the unseen: Agricultural and rural history in American survey textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAVID B. DANBOM is an Associate Professor of History at North Dakota State University in Fargo. His book THE RESISTED REVOLUTION: URBAN AMERICA AND THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE, 1900-1930, was published by Iowa State University in 1979. He is currently writing a history of the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station.

David B. Danbom

1985-01-01

286

Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

Liebenow, J. Gus

287

Landscape change with agricultural intensification in a rural watershed, southwestern Ohio, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialized cash grain production, emergent in the midwestern United States during the post-WWII era, typifies the Upper Four Mile Creek watershed in southwestern Ohio. This style of agriculture intensifies cropland use, with consequent increases in soil erosion and stream sedimentation - a serious problem in the lower reservoir, Acton Lake. Agricultural statistics and aerial photographs compiled between 1934 and 1984

Kimberly E. Medley; Brian W. Okey; Gary W. Barrett; Michael F. Lucas; William H. Renwick

1995-01-01

288

Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

2009-01-01

289

Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

Andrews, Rhys

2011-01-01

290

How can Collection of Wild Edible Fungi Contribute to Livelihoods in Rural Areas of Nepal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of wild edible fungi is important for livelihoods in rural areas of Nepal and neighbouring countries. Only very few species of fungi are being exported from Nepal, and compared to neighbouring countries there is still a potential to be exploited. However, a system of quality control and training of local people must be considered to use this potential. Also,

Morten Christensen; Helle O. Larsen

2005-01-01

291

An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

2013-01-01

292

Succession pattern of cadaverous entomofauna in a semi-rural area of Bogotá, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to examine the succession of insects colonizing three pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers in a semi-rural area of Bogotá. The 12kg pigs were shot and put into metallic mesh cages to allow access by insects. Arthropods were then sampled at different intervals depending on the corresponding stage of decomposition. In total 5981 arthropods were

Nidya Alexandra Segura; William Usaquén; Magda Carolina Sánchez; Lilian Chuaire; Felio Bello

2009-01-01

293

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

PubMed

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-12-01

294

A Profile of Disabled Household Heads and Spouses in Rural Areas of the Ozarks Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this sequel to the report of a 1966 survey of 1,413 household heads in rural areas of the Ozarks region, socioeconomic conditions are discussed for the 439 household heads who had reported total or partial disabilities. Of the 439 households, 41% were in poverty. Household heads' incomes were small because many heads were unable to hold regular…

Holmes, O. Wendell

295

Analysis of an RO plant to remedy the water shortage in the rural area of damascus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water situation of the rural area of Damascus has been investigated in details including water resources, consumption, shortage and quality. Due to the shortage of potable water, a suitable RO plant was suggested. Full details of its design including its needed pretreatment are presented. Water production cost methodology has been surveyed and applied for the suggested plant.

S. Suleiman; F. Kroma; J. Momjian

2005-01-01

296

Improving the geographical accessibility of health care in rural areas: A Nigerian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses problems of geographical accessibility of health care in rural areas of Nigeria. It provides analyses of the location, distribution and accessibility of government-provided health care facilities to people and presents a framework for measuring improvements in accessibility and for assessing the efficiency of decisions about location of new facilities. It shows that while accessibility in the study

Bola Ayeni; Gerard Rushton; Michael L. McNulty

1987-01-01

297

Title VII Funding and Physician Practice in Rural or Low-Income Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether Title VII funding enhances physician supply in underserved areas has not clearly been established. The purpose was to determine the relation between Title VII funding in medical school, residency, or both, and the number of family physicians practicing in rural or low-income communities. A retrospective cross sectional analysis was carried…

Krist, Alex H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Callahan, David; Woolf, Steven H.; Marsland, David

2005-01-01

298

Extending the Independent Living Center Model to Rural Areas: Expanding Services through State and Local Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title VII-Part B of the Rehabilitation Act of 1978 created federally funded independent living centers (ILCs), but funding shortages left many rural areas unserved. A survey found 76 ILCs in 24 states that did not receive Part-B funds. Most were supported solely by state and local funds. (SV)

Seekins, Tom; And Others

1992-01-01

299

A Study on Yangsaeng for Health Promotion of Aged Women in Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the yangsaeng level in a health management way of an aged women in rural area, and to offer basic material for the development of community's public health service. Methods: The subjects were 144 aged women who participated voluntarily in the questionnaire. The data were collected from January to February, 2008

Hyoung Sook

300

Assessing the Costs of Foster Family Care in Rural Areas - Myths and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A request to develop instruments for assessing local foster care costs provided the impetus to examine family foster care in depth. Based on data from original studies done in Delaware and nationally during 1974-75 and on review of other research available, the study examined the history and connection of foster care to rural areas in the United…

Settles, Barbara H.; And Others

301

Motivation and Design of a Content Distribution Architecture for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

;Social media in rural areas Variety of mechanisms Community radio Community video News/video social media platform for the BoP InternetCommunity reporters Cellular data network Community radio and video stations Business model to subsidize cost of access Ecosystem to translate social media

Prasad, Sanjiva

302

Nature of Domestic Violence against Women in a Rural Area of Bangladesh: Implication for Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports finding from a study carried out in a remote rural area of Bangladesh during December 2000. Nineteen key informants were interviewed for collecting data on domestic violence against women. Each key informant provided information about 10 closest neighbouring ever-married women covering a total of 190 women. The questionnaire included information about frequency of physical violence, verbal abuse,

Abbas Bhuiya; Tamanna Sharmin; S. M. A. Hanifi

2003-01-01

303

Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

2012-01-01

304

Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio-economic Benefits  

E-print Network

areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power

Huber, Bernhard A.

305

Institution Building Through Self-Help in Rural Developing Areas: An Integrated Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of regional community development through self-help programs in rural developing areas presents the need for a diversified system of institutions to ensure a developmental process based on qualitative rather than quantitative criteria. Available from: Editorial and Business Offices, Piazza Cavalieri di Malta, 2, 00153 Rome, Italy. (EA)

Levi, Yair

1974-01-01

306

Estimation of Plant Diversity at Landscape Level: A Methodological Approach Applied to Three Spanish Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches linking biodiversity assessment with landscape structure are necessary in the framework of sustainable rural development. The present paper describes a methodology to estimate plant diversity involving landscape structure as a proportional weight associated with different plant communities found in the landscape mosaic. The area occupied by a plant community, its patch number or its spatial distribution of patches are

M. Ortega; R. Elena-Rosellió; J. M. García del Barrio

2004-01-01

307

Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and

P. Jacob; S. Fesenko; I. Bogdevitch; V. Kashparov; N. Sanzharova; N. Grebenshikova; N. Isamov; N. Lazarev; A. Panov; A. Ulanovsky; Y. Zhuchenko; M. Zhurba

2009-01-01

308

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. METHODS: The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

Jean-Christophe Fotso

2006-01-01

309

Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. (Faculty of Pharmacy, UFMG, Botucatu (Brazil)); Vassilieff, I. (Institute of Biosciences, UNESP, Botucatu (Brazil))

1989-06-01

310

Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review  

PubMed Central

Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Findings Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. Conclusions This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs. PMID:24025429

2013-01-01

311

Impact of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area on China's International Agricultural Trade and Its Regional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study aims to examine the impact of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) on China's international agricultural trade and its regional agricultural development, using the Global Trade Analysis Project model and the China Agricultural Decision Support System. Our analysis showed that: (i) CAFTA will improve resource allocation efficiencies for both China and ASEAN and will promote bilateral agricultural trade

Huanguang Qiu; Jun Yang; Jikun Huang; Ruijian Chen

2007-01-01

312

Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

Scott, David M.

2010-01-01

313

The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI), implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in rural areas. Conclusion We concluded that women in rural areas were more likely to seek prenatal care in large hospitals, but were not more likely to perceive very convenient transportation to and from prenatal care facilities in the late 1990s than in the early 1990s. In contrast, women in non-rural areas did not have a stronger tendency to seek prenatal care in large hospitals in the late 1990s than in earlier periods. In addition, they did perceive an improvement in transportation for acquiring prenatal care in the late 1990s. More efforts should be made to reduce these disparities. PMID:18373869

Chen, Likwang; Chen, Chi-Liang; Yang, Wei-Chih

2008-01-01

314

Sustainable Control of Newcastle Disease in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In areas where the cold chain is non-existent or unreliable, Newcastle disease (ND) can be con- trolled in village chickens using thermostable ND vaccines. In order for ND control programs to be sustainable, the technical, social, cultural, administrative and economic issues such as community participation, gender sensitive extension activities, facilitating government policies, training of staff and farmers, cost recovery, and

R. G. Alders

315

Impact of Job Development on Poverty in Four Developing Areas, 1970. Agricultural Economic Report No. 225.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The direct impact of job development in new and expanded plants on individual salary and poverty reduction was studied in rural areas of Arizona, Appalachian Mississippi, the Ozarks, and the Mississippi Delta. Specific Objectives were to: indicate competiveness between migrants and residents for new jobs; estimate the proportion of jobs which…

Kuehn, John A.; And Others

316

Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

2013-04-01

317

Multi-angle indicators system of non-point pollution source assessment in rural areas: a case study near Taihu Lake.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas. PMID:23456193

Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

2013-04-01

318

The consumption of wood by rural households in Gokwe Communal Area, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to quantify the annual household consumption of wood for different purposes and to investigate the types of wood used for each purpose. Households in part of Gokwe Communal Area, a rural Zimbabwean study area in which wood is considered plentiful, use a mean 4.8 tons per household per year (t hh\\u000a–1\\u000a yr\\u000a–1

S. J. Vermeiden; B. M. Campbell; G. E. Matzke

1996-01-01

319

Context-supported Road Extraction from SAR Imagery: Transition from Rural to Built-up Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with automatic road extraction from SAR imagery, with special use of context information. Starting in rural areas we show that the incorporation of so-called context objects into the extraction improves the results. In addition, we transfer these findings to more complex scenes, i.e. moderately dense built-up areas, in which the presence of context objects increases. Since traffic-related

Birgit Wessel

320

Nitrate removal with reverse osmosis in a rural area in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrate-nitrogen concentration (>6 mg\\/l) and the salinity (>1000 mg\\/l TDS) of many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are too high for human consumption. Therefore, an urgent need for water denitrification and water desalination exists in these areas. Reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), ion-exchange (IX) and certain biological technologies can be very effectively applied for water denitrification.

J. J. Schoeman; A. Steyn

2003-01-01

321

Mercury Cycling in Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California: Sediment Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Land use in the YBWA consists of white and wild rice fields, seasonally flooded fallow agricultural fields, and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. A recent assessment of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) loads indicates that the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous MeHg entering the Delta, and that biota from the Yolo Bypass are considerably elevated in MeHg. The current study examines benthic MeHg production and biogeochemical controls on this process, as a function of YBWA land use, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007 rice growing season (June to October). Preliminary results indicate that in the week following initial flooding of agricultural fields, prior to the establishment of rice plants, the microbial community in the 0-2 cm surface sediment zone exhibited very little potential Hg(II)-methylation activity compared to the permanent wetland habitat (as assessed via the 203Hg(II)- methylation assay). Approximately 1 month after flooding, rice plants were established and the activity of the resident Hg(II)-methylating microbial community had increased substantially in all agricultural fields, although the observed rates of MeHg production were still much lower than those observed in the permanent wetland setting. Ongoing field sampling includes analysis of reactive Hg(II) in sediments and of iron and sulfur redox species in sediments and pore waters.

Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Windham-Myers, L.; Alpers, C. N.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M. H.; Kakouros, E.; Wren, S. L.

2007-12-01

322

Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

Anderson, Shawn

2008-01-01

323

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research  

E-print Network

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification research methodology that will begin by developing a theoretical model for measuring SI through rigorous context to test its applicability and suitability. It will be looking at livestock, arable, and mixed

Evans, Paul

324

Production efficiency of Chinese agriculture: evidence from rural household survey data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shadow-price profit frontier model is developed to examine production efficiency of Chinese rural households in farming operations. The model incorporates price distortions resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints, but retains the advantages of stochastic frontier properties. The shadow prices are derived through a generalized profit function estimation. The shadow-price profit frontier is then estimated and

Jirong Wang; Gail L. Cramer; Eric J. Wailes

1996-01-01

325

Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

2006-01-01

326

What Is Rural?  

MedlinePLUS

... territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers. ... that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The Atlas ...

327

Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

1983-01-01

328

Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

Thomas, Della W.

2010-01-01

329

Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

330

Applications of TIMS data in agricultural areas and related atmospheric considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While much of traditional remote sensing in agricultural research was limited to the visible and reflective infrared, advances in thermal infrared remote sensing technology are adding a dimension to digital image analysis of agricultural areas. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) an airborne sensor having six bands over the nominal 8.2 to 12.2 m range, offers the ability to calculate land surface emissivities unlike most previous singular broadband sensors. Preliminary findings on the utility of the TIMS for several agricultural applications and related atmospheric considerations are discussed.

Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.

1986-01-01

331

Potential risks to ring-necked pheasants in California agricultural areas using zinc phosphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both wild-caught (32) and pen-reared (29) ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were studied using radio-telemetry in agricultural areas including: milo (sorghum — Sorghum vulgare), rice (Oryza sativa), corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), melon (Cucumis melo), and weeds. Following capture, demographic data collection, and radio-collaring, they were released into agricultural habitats near Meridian and Nicolaus, CA. After 7 days of acclimation,

Craig A Ramey; Jean B Bourassa; Joe E Brooks

2000-01-01

332

Identification of the origin of salts in an agricultural area of SE Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of soil salinity having been widely studied in many part of the world, origin of salinity has not been addresses in detail in some of the most productive agricultural areas of Europe (e.g. southeast of Spain). According to the European Commission, salinization affects about 1 to 3 million ha of the area of the European Union and Candidate

Jose A. Acosta; Angel Faz; Karsten Kalbitz; Boris Jansen; Martinez-Martinez Silvia

2010-01-01

333

Employment Opportunities in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations in the Metropolitan Area of Chicago.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on questionnaire data collected from a sample of employers, this phase of a larger research project ascertained employment opportunities in the area of applied biological and agricultural occupations in the metropolitan area of Chicago. Specific fields of business surveyed by stratified random sample were animal care, animal health care,…

Thomas, Hollie B.; Neavill, Arthur

334

The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas

M. Irshad; M. Inoue; M. Ashraf; A. Al-Busaidi

2007-01-01

335

Airborne multispectral data for quantifying leaf area index, nitrogen concentration, and photosynthetic efficiency in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne multispectral data were acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectral Imager (CASI) for an agricultural area in Denmark with the purpose of quantifying vegetation amount and variations in the physiological status of the vegetation. Spectral reflectances, vegetation indices, and red edge positions were calculated on the basis of the CASI data and compared to field measurements of green leaf area

Eva Boegh; H. Soegaard; N. Broge; C. B. Hasager; N. O. Jensen; K. Schelde; A. Thomsen

2002-01-01

336

Stated Preferences of Doctors for Choosing a Job in Rural Areas of Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors’ scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors’ stated preferences for rural jobs. Methods and Findings A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho’s capital) and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54). Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. Conclusions Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden. PMID:23272065

Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Lema, Claudia; Lescano, Andres G.; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Huicho, Luis

2012-01-01

337

Ushering in the Twenty First Century: Emphasis on the Rural South. Proceedings of the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference (44th, Tuskegee, Alabama, December 7-9, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…

Williams, Thomas T., Ed.

338

THE AGRICULTURAL LITERACY OF URBAN\\/SUBURBAN AND RURAL TWELFTH GRADE STUDENTS IN FIVE ILLINOIS HIGH SCHOOLS: AN EX POST FACTO STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This criterion group ex-post facto study sought to replicate an Oklahoma study which assessed the agricultural literacy of twelfth grade students. Seniors were selected from a random cluster sample of five Illinois high schools in two geographic locations, urban\\/suburban and rural. An instrument based on the Food and Fiber Systems Literacy Framework (FFSL), and used in an earlier study, was

Seburn L. Pense; Jessica Beebe; James G. Leising; Dexter B. Wakefield; Richard W. Steffen

2006-01-01

339

POPULATION GROWTH AND URBAN AGRICULTURE IN YAOUNDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In less than two decades, Yaounde, the capital of C ameroon has grown into a millionaire city. Much of this growth is attributed to a rapid rate o f rural exodus from the mid 1980s due mainly to declining agricultural fortunes in rural areas. A significant proportion of these new urban dwellers is illiterate or semi-literate and cannot easily

Paul Mukwaya

340

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

PubMed

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

341

Rural Development: An Overview. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, for the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in late fall and early winter of 1978-79, the 12 papers in this collection provide a status report on various aspects of rural America and on governmental policies affecting rural America. The first paper examines terms commonly used in this area of public policy, revealing both the complexity of the issues and some of the contradictions…

Schussheim, Morton J., Ed.; And Others

342

Rural Industrialization: Prospects, Problems, Impacts, and Methods. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 93d Congress, 2d Session, April 19, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 9 papers in this compilation on rural industrial development are titled as follows: (1) "U.S. Employment Shifts Through 1985" (gains, regional losses, relation to per capita income and economic activities, geographic concentration, and national basis of regional projections); (2) "Large Industry in a Rural Area: Demographic, Economic, and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

343

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

344

Agricultural exposures and farm-related injuries among adolescents in rural China.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study explored the incidence of farm injuries and the relationship between agricultural exposures and injury among 2053 adolescents aged 13-19 years in Macheng, China. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire was given to adolescents. The cumulative incidence rate of farm injury was 19.8%. Adolescents who were male, aged 10-15 years, left behind, working more days each month and living on the plains, reported higher rates. Specific agricultural exposures, such as large animals, pesticides and operating farm machinery were associated with higher injury rates. Prevention programmes are needed to reduce farm injuries. PMID:22936700

Shen, Min; Wang, Youjie; Yang, Senbei; Du, Yukai; Xiang, Huiyun; Stallones, Lorann

2013-06-01

345

Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

2008-08-01

346

Planning Rural Fire Protection for Texas.  

E-print Network

IOC rA24S.7 73 ).1196 (Blank Pa.ge InOdgiuat Bulletinl ~ ; ''; . : .. . ~. " PLANNING RURAL FIRE PROTECTION FOR TEXAS JACK L. JONES, EXTENSION COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE INTRODUCTION A home fire... is one of the most feared accidents a homeowner can? have, especially in rural areas where extended distances, inadequate water supplies or lack of any community fire fighting services limit fire fighting capability. Unless a rural resident makes prior...

Jones, Jack L.

1981-01-01

347

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

348

India 19602010: Structural Change, the Rural Nonfarm Sector, and the Prospects for Agriculture  

E-print Network

, the structural transformation of the Indian economy has been slow, with a widening labor productivity differential between the nonagricultural sectors and agriculture. Labor absorption in the urban economy, and especially in the manufacturing sector, has been low; formal sector jobs are few and declining as a share

349

OPTIMAL LAND CONVERSION AT THE RURAL-URBAN FRINGE WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AGRICULTURAL EXTERNALITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bid-rent curves are incorporated in a stochastic dynamic programming model of land development around a city when farmland generates both positive and negative externalities. The model delineates how the quantities of land in various uses over time should depend on the relative social weights assigned to the competing agricultural externalities.

Jeffrey M. Peterson; Richard N. Boisvert

2000-01-01

350

THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

KERBRET, MAKONNEN

351

Plot and Household-Level Determinants of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility depletion is considered the main biophysical limiting factor to increasing per capita food production for most smallholder farmers in Africa. The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs), as a way to tackle this impediment, has become an important issue in the development policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the adoption decisions for SAPs, using

Menale Kassie; Moti Jaleta; Bekele Shiferaw; Frank Mmbando; Geoffrey Muricho

2012-01-01

352

Human exposure to respirable manganese in outdoor and indoor air in urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), is an additive in gasoline, and its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles, which increase atmospheric metal concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the level of outdoor and indoor respirable Mn (MnR) in Montreal, Canada, where MMT has been used since 1976. Ten women were involved in this study: five living in an urban area, near an expressway with high traffic density, and five residing in a rural area characterized by low traffic density. Outdoor and indoor air samples were collected each week (5 in total) during 3 consecutive days; blood samples were collected at the end of the air sampling period. The average concentration of outdoor MnR in the urban area was 0.025 microg/m3, which is significantly different from the average of 0.005 microg/m3 found in the rural area. The average indoor MnR concentration was also significantly different from teh average MnR indoor concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the urban area (0.017 microg/m3) and the rural area (0.007 microg/m3). The average outdoor MnR concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Data suggest that a high outdoor atmospheric MnR leads to a high indoor MnR, but not to an increase in blood Mn levels. PMID:15000130

Bolté, Sébastien; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

2004-03-26

353

The Day After Grant-Aid: Business Development Schemes for Small Rural Firms in Lagging Areas of Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the need for providing follow up business development instruments to small rural businesses that have benefited from grant aid assistance schemes. A sample of 76 small rural businesses in lagging areas of insular Greece is included in the present survey, and ranks thirteen possible business growth instruments. It is found that business development instruments are ranked according

Dimitris Skuras; Efthalia Dimara; Aleka Vakrou

2000-01-01

354

Access to Primary Health Care Among Persons With Disabilities in Rural Areas: A Summary of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prevalence of disabilities among persons living in rural areas, scarce data exist on their health care needs. While rural residents generally experience barriers to access to primary health care, these problems are further exacerbated for people with disabilities. This article summarizes findings from the published literature one access to primary health care among people with disabilities living in

Denise M. Lishner; Mary Richardson; Phyllis Levine; Donald Patrick

1996-01-01

355

HIV prevalence in blood donors in urban and in rural areas of the Federal Republic of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary HIV infection rates in blood donors from the FRG were compared with the prevalence in donors from Berlin to obtain information on the HIV infections in donors of rural versus urban origin. The HIV prevalences decrease similarly in the first years of testing, although on different levels. They are lower in rural areas by a factor of 15 in

D. Giiick; A. Vornwald; E. Gossrau; B. Kubanek

1990-01-01

356

Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

357

Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Rural Area Using Single-Field, Digital Fundus Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the practicability of using single-field, 2.3 million-pixel, digital fundus images for screening of diabetic retinopathy in rural areas. Material and Method: All diabetic patients who regularly attended the diabetic clinic at Kabcheang Community Hospital, located at 15 kilometers from the Thailand-Cambodia border, were appointed to the hospital for a 3-day diabetic retinopathy screening programme. The fundi of

Paisan Ruamviboonsuk; Nattapon Wongcumchang; Pattamaporn Surawongsin; Ekchai Panyawatananukul; Montip Tiensuwan

358

Urban and rural ultrafine (PM 0.1) particles in the Helsinki area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1996–June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM0.1). Ten sample pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03–15?m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was

Tuomo A Pakkanen; Veli-Matti Kerminen; Christina H Korhonen; Risto E Hillamo; Päivi Aarnio; Tarja Koskentalo; Willy Maenhaut

2001-01-01

359

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of ultrafine particles in some Scandinavian rural and urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of ultrafine particles (0.01 to greater than 1 ?m) was measured in some rural and urban areas of Sweden and Denmark. The instruments used are handheld real-time condensation particle counters, models CPC 3007 and P-Trak™ 8525, both manufactured by TSI. Field measurements in Sweden were conducted in a few residential and office buildings, while in Denmark the measurement

Uve Matson

2005-01-01

360

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for

C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger

2005-01-01

361

A population based study on injuries in rural and urban areas of Aligarh  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWorldwide injuries and violence are ranked among the leading causes of death and disability. In India, the currently available injury data are hospital derived. In order to understand the burden and outcome associated with injuries, we conducted a community based study in urban and rural area of Aligarh.MethodsCommunity based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2006 to July 2007. Data

S H N Zaidi; Z Khan; N Khalique; A Amir

2010-01-01

362

A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

2014-12-01

363

The tradeoff between centralized and decentralized health services: evidence from rural areas in Mexico.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effectiveness of centralized and decentralized health care providers in rural Mexico. It compares provider performance since both centralized and decentralized providers co-exist in rural areas of the country. The data are drawn from the 2003 household survey of Oportunidades, a comprehensive study of rural families from seven states in Mexico. The analyses compare out-of-pocket health care expenditures and utilization of preventive care among rural households with access to either centralized or decentralized health care providers. This study benefits from differences in timing of health care decentralization and from a quasi-random distribution of providers. Results show that overall centralized providers perform better. Households served by this organization report less regressive out-of-pocket health care expenditures (32% lower), and observe higher utilization of preventive services (3.6% more). Decentralized providers that were devolved to state governments in the early 1980s observe a slightly better performance than providers that were decentralized in the mid-1990s. These findings are robust to decentralization timing, heterogeneity in per capita government health expenditures, state and health infrastructure effects, and other confounders. PMID:20579793

Vargas Bustamante, Arturo

2010-09-01

364

Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

2013-01-01

365

Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

2013-01-01

366

The experience of one obstetrician in a rural area in emergency obstetrics.  

PubMed

Chiangrai, a northern province of Thailand has continued to find challenges in providing emergency obstetric care similar to other rural areas in developing countries. However, several intervention campaigns aiming to prevent and minimize emergency obstetrics-related problems were carried out successfully in the local community during 1974 to 2003. These campaigns included: (1) birth reduction campaign with a decreased birth rate from 3.2% to 1.0% between 1974-2003, (2) HIV vertical transmission rate reduction campaign resulted in a decrease from 42% in 1994 to 5.75% in 2003, (3) perinatal morbidity and mortality reduction campaign through establishing supervision committees and setting up standard guidelines for proper treatment and, (4) a campaign to eliminate violence and sex abuse of women and girls through setting up 'One Stop Crisis Center'. One of the key successes behind the campaigns' positive outcome was likely to result from a high level of coordination and collaboration among specialists, non-specialists and local volunteers. Limitations in the number of obstetricians and related facilities will continue in rural areas. Therefore, alliances among multi-disciplinary teams are viewed as a vital necessity for emergency obstetric care in rural areas. PMID:17718294

Srismith, Renu

2005-10-01

367

Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities.  

PubMed

This research aimed at assessing the properties of guinea pig manure digestate from low-cost tubular digesters for crops fertilization in rural Andean communities. To this end, field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of the digestate on two common Andean crops: potato (Solanum tuberosum) and forage (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium pratense L.). The potato yield (20-25 tha(-1)) increased by 27.5% with digestate, by 15.1% with pre-compost and by 10.3% with the mixture, compared to the control. The forage yield (20-21 tha(-1)) increased by 1.4% with digestate - 50% dose, and by 8.8% with digestate - 100% dose and digestate - 150% dose, compared to the control. The results suggest that the digestate is an appropriate substitute of manure pre-compost for potato fertilization. The results with forage indicate that it can be applied in a range of doses, according to the amount produced by the digester. Currently, manure is either used for cooking or as fertilizer. With low-cost tubular digesters implementation, it could be used to feed the digester, using the digestate for crops fertilization and biogas for cooking; improving household living conditions and protecting the environment. Since soil properties in rural Andean communities differ from experimental layouts, the effect of fertilizers should be re-evaluated in-situ in future research studies. PMID:21903373

Garfí, Marianna; Gelman, Pau; Comas, Jordi; Carrasco, William; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-12-01

368

Dr. Echeverra, a citizen from Uruguay, has worked on agricultural and rural development issues for over 30 years. As Director General of CIAT, he plans to reinforce his organization as the epicenter for mobilizing global science, technology, and  

E-print Network

the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C. where he helped develop several agriculturalDr. Echeverría, a citizen from Uruguay, has worked on agricultural and rural development issues and development efforts on behalf of the greater region. Dr. Echeverría holds a B.Sc. degree in Agriculture from

Ginzel, Matthew

369

How an Agricultural Development Bank Revolutionized Rural Finance: The Case of Bank Rakyat Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of BRI is evidence that, in a deregulated policy environment, a government-owned agricultural development bank can (a) be transformed into a highly profitable, self-reliant financial intermediary, and (b) turn into a major microfinance provider, offering carefully crafted microsavings and microcredit products to low-income people at market rates of interest. Making good use of government seed money and a

Hans Dieter Seibel

2000-01-01

370

Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?  

PubMed

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

371

Lost in the Rush to National Reform: Recommendations to Improve Impact on Behavioral Health Providers in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

As the United States embarks on the most ambitious national health reform since the 1960s, this article highlights the challenges faced by behavioral health agencies, providers, and clients in rural areas and presents recommendations to improve access to and quality of services. Lessons learned from five years of research on a major systems-change initiative in New Mexico illuminate potential problem areas for rural agencies under national health reform, including insufficient financial resources, shortages of trained staff, particularly clinicians with advanced credentials, and delays in adopting the latest information technology. We recommend that rural states: (1) undertake careful planning for smooth transitions; (2) provide financial resources and technical assistance to expand rural safety-net services and capacity; (3) modify the health home model for the rural context; and (4) engage in ongoing evaluation, which can help ensure the early identification and rectification of unanticipated implementation issues. PMID:22643628

Semansky, Rafael; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David J.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

2012-01-01

372

The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

373

The Many Faces of Ephraim: In Search of A Functional Typology of Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature of social work and rural sociology lacks conceptualization of the term "rural" and treats the term imprecisely. According to a 1960 survey, authors dealing with rural/urban differences do not agree on the attributes of "rural." However, if the rural concept is to be a useful analytical tool and guide to social work practice, its…

Whitaker, William H.

374

Innovative Interventions with Alcohol Problems in Rural Areas: An Indian Experience and its Relevance to Rural America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Conventional interventions used to address the complex problems of substance abuse call for multifaceted approaches reflecting the diverse backgrounds of affected populations. In this paper the rural context is highlighted as an asset in contributing to sustainable recovery from alcohol problems. Against the background of comparing two international rural contexts and recognizing shared identities, a case is made for

Kala Chakradhar

375

Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas  

PubMed Central

Abstract The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries – the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa – and provides a broader perspective in two regions – Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported. PMID:24347707

Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina

2013-01-01

376

Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events

G. García-Santos

2010-01-01

377

Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency in Arid and Semiarid Areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage in China, particularly in the north and northwest of China, is very serious. The region accounts for half of the total area of China, but has less than 20% of total national available water resources. While the water shortage in this region is severe, irrigation water use efficiency is only about 40%, with a typical agricultural water use

Xi-Ping Deng; Lun Shan; Heping Zhang; Neil C. Turner

2004-01-01

378

Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage in China, particularly in the north and northwest of China, is very serious. The region accounts for half of the total area of China, but has less than 20% of total national available water resources. While the water shortage in this region is severe, irrigation water use efficiency is only about 40%, with a typical agricultural water use

Xi-Ping Deng; Lun Shan; Heping Zhang; Neil C. Turner

2006-01-01

379

Area Represented First Name Last Name College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Victoria Thomas  

E-print Network

College of Education Laura Lippert College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Andy Martin College Rebecca Damrom Spears School of Business Jason Nichols College of Education Angel Kymes CollegeArea Represented First Name Last Name Students College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

380

Area Represented First Name Last Name College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Abbey Linthicum  

E-print Network

(Chair) College of Education Mason Toole College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Matt Rogers of Arts and Sciences Marc Krein Spears School of Business Nik Dalal College of Education Angel KymesArea Represented First Name Last Name Students College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

381

Screening of pesticide toxicity in surface water from an agricultural area at Phuket Island (Thailand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening study of the toxicity of expected pesticide-contaminated surface water from an agricultural area at Phuket Island, Thailand, was carried out using standardized bioassays in combination with pre-concentration by solid phase extraction (SPE). The bioassays were an algal growth inhibition test (Selenastrum capricornutum) and a Daphnia immobilization test (Daphnia magna). Tests were run on both filtered water samples and

A Baun; N Bussarawit; N Nyholm

1998-01-01

382

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

383

AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING IN MISSOURI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE…

GRIFFITH, WARREN L.

384

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

385

Quantifying human vulnerability in rural areas: case study of Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to assess the vulnerability at regional level, the model and the proposed indicators being explicitly intended for an essentially rural region, in this case-Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania). Five categories of variables were taken into account to define the vulnerability components: rural habitat, demographic features, agriculture, environmental quality and emergency situations. For each one, five variables were analyzed and ranked based on the level of determination or subordination. In order to ensure the flexibility of the model and to avoid the criteria duplication in assessing vulnerability, only a single indicator of each category was retained and included in analysis: total number of inhabitants, dependency ratio, weight of arable land on slope categories, weight of land under forestry and road accessibility of villages. The selected indicators were mathematically processed in order to maximize their relevance and to unitary express the results in the spread 0-1. Also, values of each indicator were grouped into four classes, corresponding to the level of vulnerability: low, medium, high and very high. A general index was obtained through the integration of vulnerability factors in an equation based on the geometric mean. Spatial analysis was based on features of the MicroImages TNTmips 7.3. software, which allow the vulnerability mapping. This approach argues and states that vulnerability assessment through indicator-based methods can be made only according to the level and scale of analysis and related to natural or human conditions of a region.

Stâng?, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

2012-06-01

386

Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

1990-01-01

387

Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2002-01-01

388

Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two herbicides (atrazine and prometon), and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine). Samples from the urban/residential water-supply well network contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), and three herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor, and prometon). Pesticides were detected in samples from depths of less than 2 to more than 70 m. Pesticides were detected in samples with nitrate concentrations ranging from less than the detection limit of 0.05 mg/L to 16 mg/L. These results indicate that pesticides are detected most frequently in shallow ground water beneath agricultural areas, and that pesticides can be detected in wells with a wide range of depths and nitrate concentrations.

Phillips, P. J.; Wall, G. R.; Ryan, C. M.

2000-01-01

389

Antioxidant Response of Three Tillandsia Species Transplanted to Urban, Agricultural, and Industrial Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the physiological response of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., and T. tricholepis Baker to different air pollution sources, epiphyte samples were collected from a noncontaminated area in the province of\\u000a Córdoba (Argentina) and transplanted to a control site as well as three areas categorized according to the presence of agricultural,\\u000a urban, and industrial

Gonzalo M. A. Bermudez; María Luisa Pignata

390

Geochemistry characterization of groundwater in an agricultural area of Razan, Hamadan, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality in an area with agriculture as main use. Thirty\\u000a groundwater samples have been collected from Razan area (Hamadan, Iran) for hydrochemical investigations to understand the\\u000a sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The chemical compositions of the groundwater\\u000a are dominated by Na+, Ca2+, HCO3\\u000a ?,

Mohsen Jalali

2009-01-01

391

Development of an open source network management & monitoring platform for wireless broadband service provider in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People in rural areas are less likely to obtain broadband Internet access due to a combination of economic disadvantage, technical difficulties, and lack of service providers. There is a great need to develop robust, low-cost and easy-to-maintain network management platform for Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) in rural areas. The goal of this project is to partner with a small

Yu Cai

2010-01-01

392

A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins -- Urban Versus Rural Areas  

E-print Network

TR-28 1970 A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins?Urban Versus Rural Areas R.G. Feddes R.A. Clark R.C. Runnels Texas Water...TR-28 1970 A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins?Urban Versus Rural Areas R.G. Feddes R.A. Clark R.C. Runnels Texas Water...

Feddes, R. G.; Clark, R.A.; Runnels, R. C.

393

Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept  

PubMed Central

Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL?1 and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L?1) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL?1 and 4.78 [±0.10] g L?1, respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

2014-01-01

394

Areas of Increasing Agricultural Abandonment Overlap the Distribution of Previously Common, Currently Threatened Plant Species  

PubMed Central

Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity. In agricultural ecosystems, abandonment of former farmlands constitutes a major land-use shift. We examined the relationships between areas in which agriculture has been abandoned and the distribution records of threatened plant species across Japan. We selected 23 plant species that are currently identified as threatened but were previously common in the country as indicators of threatened plant species. The areas of abandoned farmlands within the distribution ranges of the indicator species were significantly larger than the proportion of abandoned farmland area across the whole country. Also, abandoned farmland areas were positively correlated with the occurrence of indicator species. Therefore, sections of agricultural landscape that are increasingly becoming abandoned and the distribution ranges of indicator species overlapped. These results suggest that abandoned farmland areas contain degraded or preferred habitats of threatened plant species. We propose that areas experiencing increased abandonment of farmland can be divided into at least two categories: those that threaten the existence of threatened species and those that provide habitats for these threatened species. PMID:24260328

Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

2013-01-01

395

Management of Agricultural Pollution in China: Current Status and International Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions which are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas is the leading source of water pollution in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. And because that agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the

Yang Yong

2010-01-01

396

A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

2007-01-01

397

Cost Effective Delivery Strategies in Rural Areas: Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Vol. I. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a common format outlining program settings, agencies, children/families served, staff, services, delivery strategies, and program costs, descriptions of four cost-effective rural service delivery programs for young handicapped children provide evidence that good rural programs are affordable. The Early Lifestyle Program at King's Daughters'…

Black, Talbot, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

398

African rural settlement patterns.  

PubMed

Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658

Kaloko, F R

1983-11-01

399

Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.  

PubMed

This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India. PMID:12348316

Sharma, S D

1997-08-01

400

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-05-01

401

Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

2013-01-01

402

75 FR 43207 - Request for Certification of Compliance -Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture to make or guarantee loans or grants to finance industrial and business activities in rural areas...transfer of any employment or business activity from one area to another by the loan applicant's business operation; or, (b)...

2010-07-23

403

75 FR 13784 - Request for Certification of Compliance Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture to make or guarantee loans or grants to finance industrial and business activities in rural areas...transfer of any employment or business activity from one area to another by the loan applicant's business operation; or, (b)...

2010-03-23

404

76 FR 51435 - Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture to make or guarantee loans or grants to finance industrial and business activities in rural areas...transfer of any employment or business activity from one area to another by the loan applicant's business operation; or, (b)...

2011-08-18

405

A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and rural areas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability. PMID:21470420

2011-01-01

406

High-Value Agriculture in India: Past Trends and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the declining share of traditional agricultural commodities in production, consumption and trade, horticulture and other non-traditional high-value agriculture represent an important area of potential income growth in rural areas. The high-value agriculture-led-growth strategy also provides significant scope for achieving greater commercialization of smallholder agriculture. Despite the potential, the contribution of high-value agricultural exports is still small but increasing. This

Vijay Paul Sharma; Dinesh Jain

407

Grants for transportation of veterans in highly rural areas. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations to establish a new program to provide grants to eligible entities to assist veterans in highly rural areas through innovative transportation services to travel to VA medical centers, and to otherwise assist in providing transportation services in connection with the provision of VA medical care to these veterans, in compliance with section 307 of title III of the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010. This final rule establishes procedures for evaluating grant applications under the new grant program, and otherwise administering the new grant program. PMID:23556183

2013-04-01

408

Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas  

PubMed Central

The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2012-01-01

409

Accumulation of metals in the liver and kidneys of cattle from agricultural areas in Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

Intensive agricultural practices are recognized as significant sources of metal pollution in soils and pasture. This study investigated metal contamination in cattle offal from an agricultural area in Zambia, where inorganic fertilizers, agricultural lime, and pesticides are routinely applied. The highest median values (mg/kg, wet weight) of Cu (40.9), Zn (35.2), Cr (1.35) and Ni (0.594) were recorded in the liver, whereas the highest median values of Pb (0.061) and Cd (0.049) were found in kidneys. Maximum levels of Hg, As and Co were under 0.2 mg/kg in both organs. Pb and Cd did not exceed the benchmark values in cattle offal for human consumption and did not pose immediate health risks. Concentrations of Ni and Cr could present a public health concern. Monitoring of metal accumulations in offal of cattle, not only from well-known polluted environments but also agricultural areas, should be done regularly for the health of human consumers. PMID:22672843

Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Umemura, Takashi

2012-10-01

410

Migration from Rural to Urban Areas in Peru: Impact on Health Outcomes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of rural to urban migration on health outcomes in Peru contrasting three different groups: rural, migrant and urban people. This paper finds that migration has heterogeneous effects on health outcomes. Migration increases level of body-mass index BMI (obesity) comparing rural group and migrant group. Rural group has lower BMI level than migrant group, while urban

Juan Jose Miranda

411

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charao, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marilia; Brucker, Natalia; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Avila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

412

Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes do; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Jr, Fernando Barbosa; Bohrer, Denise; Avila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

413

Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

2009-05-01

414

Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex. Results The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa?=?0.52 and 0.64, respectively), whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa?=?0.83). The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively). The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS. Conclusions MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS. PMID:24614618

Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

2014-01-01

415

Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China  

E-print Network

FarmRevenueperCapita 2003U.S.Dollars 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 40 50 60 70 Percent Urban jobs. This would require massive job creation in urban areas, in addition to growth in off-farm from farming, trading in land and water rights, and adopting and developing new technologies. C hina

Kammen, Daniel M.

416

URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF MISSOURI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three trends that have characterized the geographic distribution of Missouri's population. One has been the rural-to-urban shift of the population, which was driven by the industrialization of our nation's economy during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The mechanization of agricultural production in rural areas and concurrent proliferation of industrial production in urban areas provided the push\\/pull

Gary Brinker; Ravindra Amonker

417

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the

Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye

2011-01-01

418

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

419

Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented). During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends, availability of continuing professional training for career development and support of co-workers and the community. Conclusion Many first year students at Makerere University have limited exposure to health facilities in rural areas and have concerns about eventually working there. PMID:20573221

2010-01-01

420

Assessing the error of polygonal area measurements: a general formulation with applications to agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a simple and general theoretical framework for the error assessment of area measurements of planar polygonal surfaces. The general formulation is first developed, both for the case of correlated and for the case of independent measurements, where a compact formulation can be obtained for the latter. These results are then used in the context of agriculture, with the aim of assessing field area measurement errors when using a global positioning system (GPS) device, enhanced using a simulated EGNOS (European geostationary navigation overlay service) time series. They show that for GPS/EGNOS measurements made by an operator moving along the border of a field, area measurement error is linked both to the operator speed and to the acquisition rate of the GPS device. For typical field sizes found in the European Union, ranging from 0.5 ha to 5 ha, the coefficient of variation (CV) for area measurement errors is about 1% to 5%. These results depend on the field area, but they can be considered to be insensitive with respect to the field shape. They also show that field area measurement errors can be limited if an appropriate combination of operator speed and GPS acquisition rate is selected. Though the practical case study presented here is focused on polygonal agricultural fields, it is expected that various other fields (medical and remotely sensed imagery, geographical information system data, computer vision analysis,...) should also benefit from the theoretical results hereby obtained.

Bogaert, P.; Delincé, J.; Kay, S.

2005-05-01

421

A preliminary survey of specialized households with single children in Tianjin rural areas.  

PubMed

A preliminary survey of specialized households with single children in Tianjian rural areas was carried out in order to understand the impact of the economic system reform on family planning programs. Out of 180,000 specialized households, 37,000 are those of young peasants under 35, accounting for 24% of the total specialized households. The survey showed that family planning publicity could be improved in 4 ways. A change in the peasants' concept of childbearing in favor of family planning should be actively promoted. Publicity efforts should be strengthened. Both the content and methods of family planning education and publicity should be improved. Publicity should be integrated with service. Centers of publicity and guidance should become centers of publicity and service. Family planning workers should become close friends of young couples of reproductive age. Education must be integrated with service. A recent trend of having fewer children has set in. This change manifests itself in 3 ways: the state policy of making the people rich greatly encourages young couples to devote themselves to pioneering causes; after becoming rich, the peasants become aware that they should have healthier and better educated children; when the peasants become rich they worry less about their old age and other problems. The recent trend toward early marriage in rural areas should be curbed. PMID:12267762

1985-08-01

422

High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural area in Mozambique.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) problem in a rural area of Mozambique. METHODS--A cross sectional study among pregnant women and patients presenting with genital complaints. Laboratory confirmation was done for gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, active syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV infection. SETTING--A primary health care setting in Vilanculos, Inhambane province, Mozambique. RESULTS--Evidence of one or more of the above STDs was found in 51% of 201 pregnant women, 56% of 85 women and 62% of 77 men with genital complaints. Neisseria gonorrhoea or Chlamydia trachomatis were found in 16% of pregnant women, 23% of female patients and 28% of male patients; genital ulcer disease was present in 6%, 28% and 36%, of respectively pregnant women, female and male patients. The prevalence of active syphilis was about the same in the three groups of study subjects, that is 15%. HIV infection was found in 4% of the male patients; no HIV infection could be detected in the female groups. CONCLUSION--STDs were a major health problem in this rural area in Mozambique. Though HIV infection was still low, the high prevalence of STDs indicates that the potential is there for an explosive spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8282293

Vuylsteke, B; Bastos, R; Barreto, J; Crucitti, T; Folgosa, E; Mondlane, J; Dusauchoit, T; Piot, P; Laga, M

1993-01-01

423

[Factors associated with tooth loss among adults in rural areas in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tooth loss and associated factors among Brazilian adults aged 20 to 59 years in rural areas in the state Pernambuco, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 568 participants. The number of lost teeth (d" 12 and > 12) was the outcome investigated. The independent variables were as follows: sociodemographic characteristics, subjective oral health conditions, impact of oral health on quality of life using the short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and the use of dental services. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of subjects with at least one tooth lost was 91.4%. Tooth loss was strongly associated with age group, self-perceived oral health and oral health impact on quality of life. The high prevalence of tooth loss among Brazilian adults in rural areas shows a need for a reorientation of public dental services aimed at this population group. PMID:24863834

Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Moura, Cristiano; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Cimões, Renata

2014-02-01

424

PREVALENCE OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS INFECTION BY INTRADERMAL REACTION IN RURAL AREAS IN ALFENAS, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paracoccidioidal infection by intradermal reaction (Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity, DTH) to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rural areas in Alfenas, Southern Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil, and to assess risk factors (gender, occupation, age, alcohol intake and smoking) associated with infection. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using intradermal tests with gp 43 paracoccidioidin in 542 participants, who were previously contacted by local health agents and so spontaneously attended the test. Participants underwent an interview by filling out a registration form with epidemiological data and were tested with an intradermal administration of 0.1 mL of paracoccidioidin in the left forearm. The test was read 48 hours after injection and was considered positive if induration was greater than or equal to 5 mm. Out of 542 participants, 46.67% were positive to the skin test. Prevalence increased in accordance with an increase of age. There was statistical significance only for males. Occupation, alcohol intake and smoking habits were not significantly associated with the risk of paracoccidioidomycosis infection. There is relevance of paracoccidioidomycosis infection in such rural areas, which suggests that further epidemiological and clinical studies on this mycosis should be done in the southern part of Minas Gerais State. PMID:25076426

Magalhaes, Evandro Monteiro de Sa; Ribeiro, Carla de Fatima; Damaso, Carla Silva; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro; Ferreira, Eric Batista; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Velloso, Tania Regina Grao; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta

2014-01-01

425

The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

2013-01-01

426

Evaluation of pulse-polio immunisation in rural area of Maharashtra.  

PubMed

An evaluation survey on Pulse-polio Immunisation (PPI) in January 2000 was carried out in rural areas of Maharashtra to assess the immunisation coverage, the knowledge regarding pulse-polio and the routine immunisation schedule. House-to-house survey was carried out and information was collected by interviewing the parents of 778 children. It was observed that PPI coverage was excellent i.e., 98%. Majority of informants were female. Knowledge about pulse-polio had a direct relationship with literacy. But knowledge regarding routine immunisation and the polio disease was not found satisfactory. Excellent coverage of pulse-polio Immunisation was found because of an organised and extensive campaign, use of mass media like T.V., radio, and home visits of peripheral health staff (as told by the informants). The distance of approach to a polio booth was less than a kilometre in almost all cases. Behaviour of health staff was satisfactory everywhere. The time-period required for getting vaccinated after arrival at the polio booth was less than 5 minutes. Thus it was a worthwhile attempt to evaluate PPI coverage is rural areas of Maharasthra. Excellent coverage of pulse-polio immunisation gives us the picture that poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated from India, if the excellent coverage of PPI is followed by effective surveillence. PMID:11028116

Chincholikar, S V; Prayag, R D

2000-09-01

427

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martinez, Jose Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

428

Photochemical pollution in a rural mountainous area in the northeast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a two-week-long campaign in June/July 2006, samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air were simultaneously collected at two sites located at different altitudes (500 and 950 masl) in the northern mountainous region of Portugal (Alvão Natural Park), where spring and summer ozone exceedences have been registered over the last years. High ozone concentrations (ca. 150-220 ?g m - 3 ) have been detected in both locations. The calculation of propylene equivalent concentrations showed an important contribution of biogenic VOCs (e.g. 3-carene, isoprene and ?-pinene) to the photochemical production of ozone, especially at the low-altitude mountain area. The importance of atmospheric transport on a synoptic scale to the VOC levels in rural mountain areas and the contribution of these precursors to the ozone formation were highlighted.

Evtyugina, M. G.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C.; Marques, M. C.

2009-04-01

429

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-01-01

430

Development of Human Resources through a Vocationally Oriented Education Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas. Interim Report No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to explore the degree of upward social and occupational mobility which society might realiztically expect from residents of a rural economically depressed area. Social class structure was identified as a related factor and examined in a rural, Southern Illinois county. It was…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

431

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

432

Rural Land Use: A Need for New Priorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new demands being placed on the rural land base--for agricultural production, for energy and minerals, as well as for economic development--are considerable, and rural areas today face the difficult challenge of finding ways to accommodate new growth and development, while at the same time ensuring that essential activities and the inherent…

Fletcher, Wendell; Little, Charles E.

433

Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) and rural area (Valmarecchia) in Romagna region (North Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in two different population samples from the Romagna region (North Italy) was performed. One population sample was collected in the urban area of Rimini, an ancient port in Roman age and the other one in the near and geographically more isolated rural area of Valmarecchia. Fast and slow evolving markers have been

Gianmarco Ferri; Stefania Ceccardi; Federica Lugaresi; Carla Bini; Francesca Ingravallo; Alberto Cicognani; Mirella Falconi; Susi Pelotti

2008-01-01

434

Environmental Attitudes of the 6th Grade Students from Rural and Urban Areas: A Case Study for Ankara  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated environmental attitude of 6th grade students living in rural and urban areas in Ankara. Hundred and thirty-eight students were selected from four schools located in these areas. A 45-item questionnaire consisting of four dimensions was used to measure students' environmental attitude. Results of the study revealed that,…

Tuncer, Gaye; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Ertepinar, Hamide

2004-01-01

435

Promoting Use of Booster Seats in Rural Areas Through Community Sports Programs  

PubMed Central

Background Booster seats reduce mortality and morbidity for young children in car crashes, but use is low, particularly in rural areas. This study targeted rural communities in 4 states using a community sports-based approach. Objective The Strike Out Child Passenger Injury (Strike Out) intervention incorporated education about booster seat use in children ages 4–7 years within instructional baseball programs. We tested the effectiveness of Strike Out in increasing correct restraint use among participating children. Methods Twenty communities with similar demographics from 4 states participated in a non-randomized, controlled trial. Surveys of restraint use were conducted before and after baseball season. Intervention communities received tailored education and parents had direct consultation on booster seat use. Control communities received only brochures. Results 1,014 pre-intervention observation surveys for children ages 4–7 years (Intervention Group (I): N = 511, Control (C): N = 503) and 761 post-intervention surveys (I: N = 409, C: N = 352) were obtained. For 3 of 4 states, the intervention resulted in increases in recommended child restraint use (Alabama +15.5%, Arkansas +16.1%, Illinois +11.0%). Communities in one state (Indiana) did not have a positive response (?9.2%). Overall, unadjusted restraint use increased 10.2% in intervention and 1.7% in control communities (P =.02). After adjustment for each state in the study, booster seat use was increased in intervention communities (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.56, 95% CI (1.16–2.10)). Conclusions A tailored intervention using baseball programs increased appropriate restraint use among targeted rural children overall and in 3 of 4 states studied. Such interventions hold promise for expansion into other sports and populations. PMID:23944283

Aitken, Mary E.; Miller, Beverly K.; Anderson, Byron L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Monroe, Kathy W.; Daniels, Dawn; O'Neil, Joseph; Scherer, L.R."Tres"; Hafner, John; Mullins, Samantha H.

2013-01-01

436

A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

2012-01-01

437

Cardiovascular medication utilization and adherence among adults living in rural and urban areas: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Rural residents face numerous barriers to healthcare access and studies suggest poorer health outcomes for rural patients. Therefore we undertook a systematic review to determine if cardiovascular medication utilization and adherence patterns differ for rural versus urban patients. Methods A comprehensive search of major electronic datasets was undertaken for controlled clinical trials and observational studies comparing utilization or adherence to cardiovascular medications in rural versus urban adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Two reviewers independently identified citations, extracted data, and evaluated quality using the STROBE checklist. Risk estimates were abstracted and pooled where appropriate using random effects models. Methods and reporting were in accordance with MOOSE guidelines. Results Fifty-one studies were included of fair to good quality (median STROBE score 17.5). Although pooled unadjusted analyses suggested that patients in rural areas were less likely to receive evidence-based cardiovascular medications (23 studies, OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.98), pooled data from 21 studies adjusted for potential confounders indicated no rural–urban differences (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91, 1.13). The high heterogeneity observed (I2?=?97%) was partially explained by treatment setting (hospital, ambulatory care, or community-based sample), age, and disease. Adherence did not differ between urban versus rural patients (3 studies, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.39, 2.27, I2?=?91%). Conclusions We found no consistent differences in rates of cardiovascular medication utilization or adherence among adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes living in rural versus urban settings. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine if differences truly exist between urban and rural patients in the use of, and adherence to, evidence-based medications. PMID:24888355

2014-01-01

438

Prevalence of Rickettsia infection in dogs from the urban and rural areas of Monte Negro municipality, western Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection among dogs living in the rural and urban areas of Monte Negro, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon. Canine sera were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using six rickettsial antigens: Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia felis. While the first three Rickettsia species are known to occur in the study site, the latter three species are known to occur in southeastern Brazil. For each serum, end point titer reacting with each Rickettsia antigen was determined. Serum showing for a Rickettsia species titer at least fourfold higher than that observed for any other Ricketttsia species was considered homologous to the first Rickettsia species or to a very closely related genotype. A total of 164 rural and 153 urban dogs were tested. Overall, 19 (11.6%) and 6 (3.9%) dogs from rural and urban areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. In the rural area, three sera showed titers to R. parkeri at least four-fold higher than any of the other five antigens. These sera were considered to be homologous to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Using the same criteria, two rural sera were considered homologous to R. amblyommii, two other rural sera to R. rhipicephali, and one urban serum to R. parkeri. Because dogs living in the rural area of Monte Negro are commonly infested by the same tick species infesting humans, they indeed serve as sentinels for human rickettsial diseases. Thus, humans living in Monte Negro are likely to be infected by at least three Rickettsia species: R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, and R. rhipicephali. While R. parkeri is a known human pathogen, further studies are required to verify the potential role of R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali as human pathogens. PMID:17627445

Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Maurício C; Aguiar, Daniel M; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Pinter, Adriano; Gennari, Solange M; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A

2007-01-01

439

Rural Poverty, Agrarian Reform and the Role of the State in Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central Eurasia Ten Propositions regarding Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty Reduction Technical Consultation Meeting, FAO Regional Office for Central Asia (FAO\\/SEC) Ankara, Turkey, 11-13 July 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten propositions are presented, that analyze the trends and causes of rural poverty, the possibilities for its reduction, its link with agricultural and agro-industrial development, the context of changing markets and institutions, and the role of government in these countries. Each proposition is empirically analysed, using existing data sets available from FAO, the World Bank, UNDP, UNICEF, CISSTAT, and national

MAX SPOOR

440

Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model  

PubMed Central

The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

Bandali, Sarah

2014-01-01

441

The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland  

PubMed Central

Background The Greenlandic Healthcare Reform (2010) required improved quality of services for health promotion, prevention of infectious and lifestyle diseases, family nursing and evidence-based clinical nursing. Aim To investigate current nursing practice in Greenland and to identify whether it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55, participated in this study. Four were working at healthcare centres in towns and four were working at nursing stations in villages. The nurses were educated in Greenland or a Nordic country and had been practicing nursing for at least 2 years in an Arctic region. They were observed for 1–5 days, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive work with conflict between health strategies and everyday realities, where unpredictable tasks often lead to prioritisation of urgent, acute work. There is interaction between personal and professional skills. Everyday life is characterised by opportunities and challenges in the grey areas, namely nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care, preventive care, social work, humanistic approaches and information technology to implement the ideology of health strategies. PMID:23984291

Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, Anne Birgitte; Wilche, Julie Præst; Dolmer, Ilone

2013-01-01

442

Multihop relaying for broadband wireless access systems at 800 and 3500 MHz in rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

paper addresses the coverage enhancement for broadband wireless access (BWA) at 800 and 3500 MHz in a rural scenario in north Germany using multi-hop relay concepts. The investigation is divided into two phases: In phase I, the coverage of a single BWA system in a rural area is predicted and verified with measurement data. In phase II, the coverage from the BWA system is analyzed and enhanced through the deployment of relay stations. The number of relay stations required for each carrier frequency is determined, and the positions of the relay stations are identified via three different relay placement algorithms, namely path-loss-based, distance-based, and hybrid algorithms. At 800 MHz, the path-loss-based algorithm requires seven relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 95%. The hybrid and distance-based algorithms require 11 and 14 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. At 3500 MHz, path-loss based and hybrid algorithms require 19 and 16 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. The distance-based requires 20 relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 82%. Further increase of relay stations has led to higher interference. Lastly, the transmit power of the relay station is optimized via an intelligent power allocation scheme. The results show that 20% of the total transmit powers from 14 relay stations can be saved at 800 MHz whereas 18% of the total transmit powers from the 20 relay stations can be saved at 3500 MHz.

Chee, Kin Lien; Feng, Wei; Kürner, Thomas

2014-02-01

443

Water-quality characteristics of streams in forested and rural areas of North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected in North Carolina during 1973-78 from a statewide network of 39 rural sampling sites were used to define unpolluted or baseline stream quality. The basins were 90 to 100 percent forested and, except for the unknown effects of air pollution, were relatively unaffected by man 's activities. Five distinct geochemical zones were delineated across the State. The chemical characteristics of surface waters in each zone are similar. Mean and other statistical values for major dissolved constituents, nutrients, and minor elements in base runoff and storm runoff were determined. Twenty additional rural sites were located in basins where farming activities ranged from 15 to 55 percent of basins ' land area. Data from these 20 sites were used for comparison with data from the 39 unpolluted sites to determine the increase in constituent levels caused by man. For basins where farming activities accounted for 20 or more percent of total land use, phosphorus levels were 2 to 13 times greater than those from the forested basins and several major constituents were 2 to 3 times greater. Concentrations of minor elements were essentially the same in both developed and undeveloped basins. (Kosco-USGS)

Simmons, Clyde E.; Heath, Ralph C.

1979-01-01

444

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

445

Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 ?m) and coarse (2.5-10 ?m) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 ?m). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

2014-10-01

446

The New Squirearchy and Emergent Cultures of the New Middle Classes in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In part prompted by a recent spate of media reports this paper explores the emergence of a "new squirearchy" in the English countryside. In doing so, it aims to both illuminate a particular facet of rural social life and help reignite interest in the cultures of rural class. Whilst relationships between rural class and culture were a source of…

Heley, Jesse

2010-01-01

447

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

448

4.1 ON ISSUES OF TORNADO DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND F-SCALE ASSIGNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

4.1 ON ISSUES OF TORNADO DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND F-SCALE ASSIGNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS Jared L center pivot systems by 2010. (UNL Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2001). Although design. Doswell and Burgess (1988) discussed the reality of the F-scale as a damage scale versus an intensity

449

Characteristics of AVIRIS bands measurements in agricultural crops at Blythe area, California: III. Studies on Teff Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

AVIRIS data from Blythe were acquired in June 1997 to study the agricultural spectra from different crops and for identification of crops in other areas with similar environmental factors and similar spectral properties. In this respect; the main objectives of this study are: 1) to compare the spectral and radiometric characteristics of AVIRIS data from agriculture crops with the spectra

Safwat H. Shakir Hanna; Michael D. Rethwisch

2003-01-01

450

Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

Chichester, Douglas C.

1988-01-01

451

An epidemiological study of metabolic syndrome in a rural area of Ambala district, Haryana  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a state of deranged metabolic and anthropometric status. It is considered a precursor to various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Objectives: (1) To determine the prevalence of MS in adults aged 20 years and above in the rural area of Ambala district, Haryana. (2) To determine the sociodemographic factors associated with MS. Materials and Methods: In a community-based cross-sectional study, a total of 1200 subjects aged 20 years and above were studied, using multi-stage random sampling. Results: The prevalence of MS was estimated by using criterion given by the International Diabetes Federation. MS was found in 110 (9.2%) subjects, being more prevalent in females: 73 (66.36%) when compared to 37 males (33.63%). Sedentary occupation and age were significantly associated with MS. Conclusions: MS is a major health problem in the region and it should be given proper attention in order to prevent and control it. PMID:24987283

Pathania, Deepak; Bunger, Ruhi; Bunger, Eera; Mishra, Prabhakar; Arora, Anjali

2014-01-01

452

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

453

Mercury Cycling in Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California: Water Column Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter (OM) plays a significant role in mercury (Hg) cycling. For instance, aromatic dissolved OM can enhance Hg solubility leading to greater cycling in the water column whereas bioavailable forms of OM may enhance Hg methylation by increasing the microbial activity of Hg-methylating bacteria. Differences in wetland management (e.g. fertilization, plant residue, water depth and movement) can influence the character of OM within the wetland, thus affecting Hg cycling as well. This study is investigating the role of OM in Hg cycling over a wide range of time scales and wetland management practices within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, near Sacramento, California. We are comparing Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the water columns of three agricultural field types (wild rice, white rice, and shallow-flooded fallow) with those in two non-agricultural field types (seasonal and permanent wetlands). The time scales over which variations in Hg and MeHg concentrations are being investigated range from diurnal variations caused by fluctuations in photolytic reactions and microbial activity to seasonal variations caused by plant growth, land management, climate, and fertilization. We relate those concentration fluctuations to the dominant processes affecting OM cycling in the fields. We further evaluate the possible influence of S-bearing fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and zinc sulfate, on Hg methylation because of the role that sulfur plays in Hg cycling and Hg-OM interactions. Preliminary results indicate that dissolved OM (DOM) concentrations (operationally defined using a filter with 0.45 ìm pore diameter) increased from 9 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) at inflow stations to as high as 30 mg-C/L within the water column of the wetlands. Based on measured optical properties, OM in these wetlands appears to be derived from a mixture of algal activity, plant exudates, and diffusion from the flooded soils, with the proportion of each source dependent on land use. Concurrent rise in both the Hg concentration (from 14 ng/L to 50 ng/L) and the fraction of Hg in the dissolved fraction (from 15 to 50 percent, based on filtration with 0.45 ìm pore diameter filters) mirrors the increase in DOM concentration, suggesting the importance of Hg-DOM complexation. Measurements of optical properties and field parameters taken at 15-minute intervals over a diurnal cycle indicate that conditions in the rice fields fluctuate greatly through the day, with dissolved oxygen dropping from 14 mg/L in the afternoon to 2 mg/L at dawn. Extreme and systematic fluctuations also were observed for other water properties, including spectrometric indicators of OM character. Further analysis of water quality constituents and their relation to Hg and MeHg cycling in these wetlands will be presented.

Fleck, J. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Stephenson, M.; Aiken, G. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Stricker, C.

2007-12-01

454

Seeing the social capital in agricultural innovation systems: using SNA to visualise bonding and bridging ties in rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to highlight the complex networks that support information flows in rural communities of Bolivia by providing a visual representation of the heterogeneous organisational structures that characterise different ethnic groups. The social structures within rural communities provide development agencies with key insights into the support networks created by community-based organisations which can be used to

Louise Clark

2011-01-01

455

Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

Hammer, Patricia Cahape

456

3DFEMWATER/3DLEWASTE: NUMERICAL CODES FOR DELINEATING WELLHEAD PROTECTION AREAS IN AGRICULTURAL REGIONS BASED ON THE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY CRITERION  

EPA Science Inventory

Two related numerical codes, 3DFEMWATER and 3DLEWASTE, are presented sed to delineate wellhead protection areas in agricultural regions using the assimilative capacity criterion. DFEMWATER (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) ...

457

Soil resources, land cover changes and rural areas: towards a spatial mismatch?  

PubMed

The present study analyzes the impact of long-term urban expansion on soil depletion in Emilia-Romagna, an agricultural-specialized region of northern Italy. Using settlement density maps at three points in time (1945, 1971 and 2001) dense and diffused urbanization trends were assessed and correlated with soil quality. Non-urbanized land decreased from 11.8% in 1945 to 6.3% in 2001. Urbanization dynamics between 1945 and 1971 reflect the increase of dense settlements around pre-existing urban centers. To the contrary, a discontinuous, low- and medium-density urban expansion along the road network and in the most fertile lowland areas was observed between 1971 and 2001. Overall, urbanization consumed soils with progressively higher quality. However, a diverging trend was observed in the two investigated time intervals: soil with high quality was occupied by compact and dense settlements during 1945-1971 and by discontinuous, medium- and low-density settlements during 1971-2001. These findings document the polarization in areas with low and high soil capital and may reflect disparities in agricultural production and increasing environmental degradation. Moreover, the analysis shows a diverging trend between land and soil consumption patterns suggesting that the edification of pervious land is an unreliable indicator of soil quality depletion. Taken together, the results of this study illustrate the (increasing) spatial mismatch between agricultural land and high-quality soils as a consequence of urbanization-driven landscape transformations and may inform measures to contain soil depletion driven by economic growth. PMID:24530591

Ferrara, Agostino; Salvati, Luca; Sabbi, Alberto; Colantoni, Andrea

2014-04-15

458

Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted along two transects (80 and 45km long) from Coquimbo and Ovalle cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region of Chile in 2005-2007 to investigate the demography of dogs in the context of a study of canine infectious diseases. Data were collected on the number of dogs per household, fecundity, mortality, and sex and age distribution. The results from 1021 households indicated that dog ownership was common, with a higher proportion of households owning dogs in rural areas (89%), than in towns (63%) or cities (49%). Dog density ranged from 1380+/-183 to 1509+/-972 dogs km(-2) in cities, from 119+/-18 to 1544+/-172 dogs km(-2) in towns, and from 1.0+/-0.4 to 15.9+/-0.4 dogs km(-2) in rural sites. The dog population was estimated to be growing at 20% in cities, 19% in towns and 9% in rural areas. The human:dog ratio ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 in cities, from 2.3 to 5.3 in towns, and from 1.1 to 2.1 in rural areas. A high percentage of owned dogs was always allowed to roam freely in the different areas (27%, 50% and 67% in cities, towns and rural areas, respectively). Observations of free-roaming dogs of unknown owner were reported from a greater proportion of respondents in cities (74%), followed by towns (51%) and finally by rural areas (21%). Overall only 3% of dogs had been castrated. In addition, only 29% of dogs were reported to have been vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and 30% against canine parvovirus (CPV). The higher population size and density, higher growth rate and a higher turnover of domestic dogs in urban than in rural areas and the poorly supervised and inadequately vaccinated dog populations in urban areas suggest that urban areas are more likely to provide suitable conditions for dogs to acts as reservoirs of pathogenic infections. PMID:20096943

Acosta-Jamett, G; Cleaveland, S; Cunningham, A A; Bronsvoort, B M Dec

2010-05-01

459

Insecticides Susceptibility Status of the Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) in a Rural Area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies. PMID:20300399

Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mwang'onde, Beda J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Msangi, Shandala; Tenu, Filemoni; Mahande, Aneth M

2009-01-01

460

Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.  

PubMed

Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

2013-07-01

461

Insecticides Susceptibility Status of the Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) in a Rural Area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies. PMID:20300399

Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mwang'onde, Beda J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Msangi, Shandala; Tenu, Filemoni; Mahande, Aneth M

2009-07-01

462

Nutritional needs assessment of rural agricultural migrants of southern Brazil: designing, implementing and evaluating a nutrition education program.  

PubMed

A nutritional needs assessment was conducted among rural agricultural migrant women (target group) and children (less than 5 years). The study was conducted in Vila Diogo, a slum located on the periphery of Nuporanga, a village in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. A nutrition education program was designed on the basis of evidence obtained from demographic/socioeconomic information of the study population and a nutritional needs assessment of women (target group) and children less than 5 years of age. The nutritional needs assessment consisted of anthropometry, dietary assessment, and nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaires. Formative and summative evaluation of the nutrition education program, using appropriately selected criteria and comparisons of nutrition knowledge scores before and after the program, were used to determine program effectiveness. Major findings of the study were: Diets of Vila Diogo residents were generally simplistic, consisting primarily of rice, beans, and coffee with sugar. Vila Diogo women appeared to be at a relatively high risk for vitamin A, iron, calcium, ascorbic, and riboflavin deficiencies, based on comparisons of 24-hour dietary intake data with FAO recommendations. Children (2-5 years) appeared at high risk for vitamin A, iron, and ascorbic acid deficiencies, based on comparisons of 24-hour dietary intake data with FAO recommendations. All children less than 5 years of age had been breast-fed at birth, but more than one half of children had been weaned by the third month. Infant feeding practices during fever and diarrhea were nutritionally detrimental. Women generally recognized a relationship between dietary intake during pregnancy and fetal nourishment. Using weight-for-height index, a significant number of women were probably undernourished; a small percentage of women, however, were overweight or obese. Although children less than 5 years of age did not generally appear malnourished, a relatively large number were stunted in growth. Although Vila Diogo women reported many food taboos during various physiological states (menstruation, pregnancy, immediately post partum, lactation), relatively few food taboos had potentially negative nutritional co