Science.gov

Sample records for rural agricultural area

  1. Industrial Development Bonds for Financing Projects in Rural Areas. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Stephen W.

    As one of several special reports on development possibilities for the agriculture and forestry sector of the Four Corners Economic Development Region, this monograph deals with the use of industrial development bonds as a means of resolving finance problems arising from inadequate or nonexistent credit in rural areas. Distinguishing between the…

  2. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...

  3. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes...

  4. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38 %). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  5. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  6. Migrant Response to Industrialization in Four Rural Areas, 1965-70. Agricultural Economic Report No. 270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Duane A.; Kuehn, John A.

    Immigrants competed on a limited scale with residents for new jobs in four industrializing rural areas in Arizona, the Central Ozarks, Mississippi, and Arkansas during 1965-70. This study determined: (1) competition for jobs between residents and immigrants; (2) need for immigrants to staff industries; and (3) differences between attributes of…

  7. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  8. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is an... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules §...

  9. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is an... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules §...

  10. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is an... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules §...

  11. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is an... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules §...

  12. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is an... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules §...

  13. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  14. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  15. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  16. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  17. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rural areas? What is the current status of methamphetamine use in rural America and what has been ... Maine Rural Health Research Center, the rate of methamphetamine use by young rural adults ages 18–25 ...

  18. Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

  19. Walking Safely in Rural Areas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Walking Safely in Rural Areas Walking is great exercise and can be particularly enjoyable ... the hustle and bustle of city streets. But walking in rural areas requires special care. Unpaved surfaces ...

  20. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Designation Process ...choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment Zone, Enterprise Community or Champion Community, the...

  1. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Designation Process ...choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment Zone, Enterprise Community or Champion Community, the...

  2. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  3. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  4. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  5. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. PMID:25792416

  6. Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mental Health Centre, Peshawar (Pakistan).

    The document presents a series of 14 scripts focusing on families with disabled children, written in English for radio broadcast in translation to rural village areas in Pakistan. Intended to educate the public concerning disabilities and how families can help their handicapped children participate as fully as possible in community life, the…

  7. Core II Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units A-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…

  8. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  9. Mexican doctors serve rural areas.

    PubMed

    Grossi, J

    1991-02-01

    The Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) worked to solve the unemployment problems of physicians and to increase health services to underserved rural areas. In Mexico, 75% of practicing physicians were located in 16 urban areas. Mexico had a large population of 83 million, of whom many in rural areas have been deprived of family planning and medical services. MEXFAM initiated the Community Doctors Project in 1986. The aim was to help Mexican doctors set up a medical practice in marginal urban towns and small towns with low income residents. Funding to physicians was provided for conducting a market survey of the proposed region and for advertising the new medical services. Loans of furniture and medical supplies were provided, and options were provided for purchase of equipment at a later date. During the promotion, services for maternal and child health care were provided for a small fee, while family planning was provided for free. Doctors usually become self-sufficient after about two years. The MEXFAM project established 170 community doctor's offices in 30 out of 32 states. Services were provided for at least 2500 families per office. In 1990, 13 offices were opened to serve an estimated 182,000 clients. A new effort is being directed to owners of Mexican factories. MEXFAM will set up a medical and family planning clinic very close to factories for a company contribution of only $12,000. The clinic promotion is being marketed through videos. MEXFAM found two companies that agreed to support a clinic. PMID:12288711

  10. Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

    A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

  11. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  12. Effects of the 1924 Agricultural Recession on Rural Missouri Hebdomadals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Steven D.; Kahan, Robert S.

    A study was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between the agricultural slump of 1924 and the economic vitality of rural weekly newspapers in Missouri. "Rural weekly newspaper" was defined as any weekly newspaper in a predominantly agrarian locale with a city population of fewer than 5,000 and a county population of fewer than…

  13. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for nine problem areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, a teacher guide, a competency inventory, an…

  14. Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courson, Roger L.; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

  15. Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, J B

    1989-01-01

    Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas. PMID:2645250

  16. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  17. Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

  18. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  19. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  20. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  1. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  2. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  3. Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

  4. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  5. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  6. Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

    Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

  7. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  8. Does Core Area Theory Apply to STIs in Rural Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in rural areas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or rural areas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural areas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities. PMID:23254115

  9. Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas

  10. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  11. Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

  12. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  13. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  14. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  15. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  16. Rural Areas Attract Young Families and College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Cromartie, John

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 through 1997, the rural population increased, especially in the South and West, due to net migration from urban areas. The largest rural gains were among people ages 26 to 30, including many young families. College graduates were well represented among rural in-migrants. Includes migration data by age group, educational attainment,…

  17. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural

  18. Rural AreasRural AreasRural Areasin Russell McGee and Saqib Mukhtar*

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    that some equipment used to measure air pollution can overestimate it by as much as 70 percent. The problem and agricultural producers to adjust the readings from specific air pollution samplers to enable them to produce from power plants, industries, and automobiles react in the air. Particulate matter is measured

  19. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  20. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  1. A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

  2. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses...exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010...

  5. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  6. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  7. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  8. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  9. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  10. Agriculture and the Development Process: Tentative Guidelines for Teaching. Education and Rural Development--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, L.

    Concerned with the application of science and technology to agriculture, this book is intended to be used as a reference for rural education groups and as a guide for teachers in an attempt to formulate a new approach to teaching rural economics by integrating it into the overall analysis of social and economic development. The book is divided…

  11. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  12. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the magnitude and geographic distribution of deforestation is enhanced with the use of remote sensing techniques, such as those used in the 1982 UN Food and Agriculture baseline study. Soil degradation is not so easily measured. The implications are that regional development funds need to directed away from critical zones or areas adjacent to critical zones. Research is needed to understand rural to rural migration. PMID:12343671

  13. Cooperative Microgrid Networks for Remote and Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Kundur, Deepa

    cooperation gains for the microgrid network after implementing the proposed algorithm. I. INTRODUCTIONCooperative Microgrid Networks for Remote and Rural Areas Eman Hammad, Abdallah Farraj, Deepa: {ehammad, abdallah, dkundur}@ece.utoronto.ca Abstract--Microgrids (MGs) with renewable energy resources

  14. Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

  15. An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

  16. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  17. Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

  18. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  19. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture

    E-print Network

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

  20. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  1. The Physician Pipeline to Rural and Underserved Areas in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    Context: An implicit objective of a state's investments in medical education is to promote in-state practice of state educated physicians. Purpose: To present a tool for evaluating this objective by analyzing the "pipeline" from medical education to patient care, primary care, rural areas, and underserved areas in Pennsylvania. Methods: AMA…

  2. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

  4. A decision support system for rainfed agricultural areas of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural inhabitants of arid lands lack sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. They do not have readily available technical information to support decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper, a computer model (...

  5. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  6. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. PMID:25588899

  7. LINKING WATER QUALITY WITH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN A RURAL WATERSHED

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    , agricultural pollution, animal waste, land-water interactions, nitrate, nitrogen surplus, nonpoint source pollution, water pollution, watershed management 1. Background Agriculture is rapidly emerging not require extra nutrients. Animal waste is primarily applied to soils, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 127

  8. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  9. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  10. Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

    This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

  11. VillageCell: Cost Effective Cellular Connectivity in Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    densities and low income rural ar- eas of the developing world, where big telecoms often defer from density and low-income communities, along with the specific cultural context represented by a mix in the most re- mote areas of the world. However, network coverage is often lacking in low population

  12. Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eugene C.

    1913-01-01

    In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

  13. Aspects of Rural Life in Northern Nigeria with Implications for Agricultural Extension Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Dhara Singh

    Research on rural life in Northern Nigeria was carried out through interviews with a stratified random sample of farmers in a district of Zaria Province. Among the findings were: roadside villages were more susceptible to accepting the use of fertilizer and other innovative agricultural practices than more remote settlements; women hold different…

  14. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  15. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  16. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  17. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  18. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  19. Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area Elise V. Pearlstine, Michelle L to growers and public #12;Lake Okeechobee Everglades Agricultural Area #12;Sugarcane Characteristics · Grown · Limited access Sugarcane Edge Water Road #12;ARM Loxahatchee NWR Interior Water Edge Road · Managed

  20. WILDLIFE HABITAT RELATIONS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    WILDLIFE HABITAT RELATIONS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA 2003 Report #12;Wildlife Habitat habitat of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) is situated within a matrix of natural habitat and urban that is found in the EAA or the way this wildlife uses the habitat. A few studies have illustrated

  1. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  2. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  4. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

  5. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

  6. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

  7. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

  8. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (?65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. Results The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%. The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ?500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). Conclusions It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs. PMID:25925800

  9. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  10. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    . As the majority of the best agricultural land has been in production for decades and even millennia, deforestationPopulation, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier annum. Much of Guatemala's recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers

  11. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values. PMID:26647953

  12. RIPARIAN AREAS OF AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Willamette Valley is a productive, diversified agricultural area in western Oregon. Pastureland and grass seed fields, mostly located on poorly drained soils, account for 60% of the agricultural land in the valley. The size and character of Willamette Valley streams and ass...

  13. Agricultural Policy Reform and Less-Favoured Areas Policy: Application of EU Policy to Japan

    E-print Network

    Mound, Jon

    residents could benefit from modernisation. Despite these policy efforts, Japanese agriculture and rural Shigeto Masayuki Kashiwagi and Geoff Whitman Centre for Rural Economy Discussion Paper Series No. 15 to the development of rural policy. Japan's LFA direct payment policy was formed through adjustments to the small

  14. Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

  15. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  16. Residential, commercial, and agricultural technology alternatives for rural electric systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFate, K.L.; Skelton, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains information on demand-side management technology alternatives applicable to the residential, agriculture and commercial sectors. Descriptive information on operating characteristics, applicability, specifications, and consumer and utility benefits is provided in a standardized Technical Brief format for 78 technologies. Matrices are included to guide the reader in the intuitive application and use of the information contained in the Technical Briefs. This report is considered a companion to EPRI publication EM-4385 entitled, ''Demand-Side Management for Rural Electric Systems.''

  17. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  18. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  19. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 3 Figure...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 2 Figure...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 7 Figure...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 3 Figure...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  7. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological shocks, as well as for the participatory use of the models as decision support tools for the participatory design of sustainable solutions to the identified vulnerabilities in each system.

  8. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1971. A Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this second annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  9. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1973. Fourth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As part 1 of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this fourth annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and county…

  10. Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1972. Third Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

  11. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC96 Rural Development Voucher... agency within the Rural Development mission area, is adding new regulations to implement its Rural Development Voucher Program (RDVP). Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, authorizes RDVP....

  12. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs) (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience). Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies. PMID:20594367

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

  14. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  15. Rural Sociology in the South: 1980. Proceedings of the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 3-6, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Wolfgang, Ed.

    A total of 47 papers representing the broad research and extension interests related to rural areas are included in this volume. The 13 sessions are entitled Rural Structure and Process, Industrialization, Migration, Health and Alcohol, Quality of Life, Occupations and Work, Applied Sociology, Education, Network Analysis, Poverty, Status…

  16. Income and Employment Generation in Rural Areas in Relation to Alternative Farm Programs (with Special Emphasis on the North Central Region).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    Four alternative government farm policies were analyzed to determine their effect upon farm income and employment generation in rural areas and agriculturally related industries. A linear programming model of interregional competition was used to determine the impact of alternative farm policies on the quantity of major commodities produced, the…

  17. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  18. Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon

    Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

  19. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  20. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  1. Planning and Providing End-of-life Care in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna M.; Justice, Christopher; Sheps, Sam; Thomas, Roger; Reid, Pam; Leibovici, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Context: Approximately 20% of North Americans and 25% of Europeans reside in rural areas. Planning and providing end-of-life (EOL) care in rural areas presents some unique challenges. Purpose: In order to understand these challenges, and other important issues or circumstances, a literature search was conducted to assess the state of science on…

  2. The Feasibility and Value of Broadband Communications in Rural Areas. A Preliminary Evaluation, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, William; And Others

    The study was conducted to determine the feasibility and value of using broadband communications (transmission of many television, voice and/or data signals through a single system) to provide public services for rural areas. Applications of broadband communications to rural areas were divided into public services (health, education, law…

  3. Issues in Vocational Education for Special Populations in Rural Areas. TASPP Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1990-01-01

    Students with special needs living in rural areas face a difficult challenge as they prepare for employment and adult life. Access to vocational education in rural areas may be limited by isolation, problems in teacher recruitment and retention, curriculum and instructional deficiencies, and weak financial support. In addition, program relevance…

  4. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  5. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY... this proposed information collection (Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval. The Election Administration in Urban and...

  6. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY... this proposed information collection (Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval. The Election Administration in Urban and...

  7. Terminal care in a semi-rural area.

    PubMed

    Herd, E B

    1990-06-01

    In six months 157 patients died of malignant disease in West Cumbria, a semi-rural area, following a period of terminal care exceeding a week. A total of 53% of patients died at home compared with 24-41% in studies in metropolitan areas. In addition, over one-third of patients who died in hospital were in for a week or less. Patients living further from hospital were more likely to be cared for at home to the end of their illness. The emotional strain of home care was the commonest problem for the lay carer (74%). The commonest reasons for hospital admission were problems in providing care: in 22% of admissions there was no lay carer and in 45% the lay carer became unable to continue to give care. Nearly half the patients dying in hospital were in acute wards, frequently criticized by nurses and relatives as being unsuitable for dying patients. Despite the high degree of satisfaction expressed for the care provided in all settings, there was evidence of much avoidable suffering. A need for expert advice on palliative care was revealed. PMID:2117949

  8. A global map of irrigated agriculture in dry areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Linderman, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    With changing socio-economic environments and population growth, it is estimated that agricultural production levels need to double by 2050. One way to achieve this may be through agricultural expansion into drier regions, which cover about 41% of earth's land area. Currently, about 70% of freshwater withdrawals are used for irrigation, which in turn produces about 40% of global food. However, little is known about the global area under irrigated agriculture in these water-stressed, arid regions which host about 2 billion people. Here we estimate the global area under irrigation in the arid and hyperarid regions. To this end, we analyse the temporal signature of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) that was derived from the ~500m BRDF-adjusted reflectance data provided by the MODIS sensor since February 2000. This method does not rely on any external data sources and it allows to explore the temporal evolution of irrigation practices. Additionally, compared to other irrigation maps, our dataset can be quickly updated annually to provide the latest estimations. Initial results show that by using a combination of simple metrics quantifying each pixel's phenology we are able to clearly identify irrigated areas in these dry regions. Our results will be compared to existing global irrigation datasets as well as global land cover maps.

  9. AU01 code Area Unit 2001 Discription Urban/Rural Profile Category Regional Council 666673 Antipodes Islands Not included Area Outside Region

    E-print Network

    AU01 code Area Unit 2001 Discription Urban/Rural Profile Category Regional Council 666673 Antipodes-Mahurangi Rural Area with Moderate Urban Influence Auckland Region 524001 Ambury Main Urban Area (Southern Region 521151 Awhitu Rural Area with Moderate Urban Influence Auckland Region 518201 Balmoral Main Urban

  10. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  11. Family Literacy Service Design and Delivery in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statewide Initiative News, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…

  12. Primary health care in rural areas: an agenda for research.

    PubMed Central

    DeFriese, G H; Ricketts, T C

    1989-01-01

    The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead. PMID:2645252

  13. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  14. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  15. High Technology in Rural Settings. State-of-the-Art Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeten, Luther

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of high technology in rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural movement and the implications of this technology for agriculture and rural areas. The first section of the paper considers the impact of technology on agriculture in the United States over the past 50 years. Because U.S. agriculture has…

  16. Slash and Burn Agriculture: A Dynamic Spatio-temporal Model of Shifting Cultivation Locations and Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagge, C. E.; Frolking, S.; Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture, also known as slash-and-burn or swidden agriculture, in which a plot of forest is cleared and then cultivated continuously for several years, after which it is abandoned to revert to natural vegetation, and then is subsequently re-cleared after a longer fallow period. Shifting cultivation is an important form of agriculture because it affects soil erosion rates, canopy cover in tropical forests, nutrient deficiency in soils, and also has an impact on the global carbon cycle. Because it is generally outside of the larger economy, shifting cultivation is not well-represented in large-scale earth system analyses. We investigated a new way to model shifting cultivation which will be included in a global land-use transitions model to better quantify this type of land use, both historically and into the future. Ultimately this study will improve simulations of changes in the Earth system and will aid in the study of the carbon cycle and thus climate change. Our model calculates the area of shifting cultivation in square kilometers per half-degree grid cell, using gridded population data, the fraction of that population that is rural, the fraction of global population that practices shifting cultivation, the crop area needed per person, and the length of cultivation plus the fallow. Locations of shifting cultivation were further constrained by variables such as potential vegetation biomass density, population density, fraction of land already in use, GDP per capita, and average winter temperatures. With this model, we generated global estimates for total cultivated area, total population involved in shifting cultivation, and total shifting cultivation area including fallow lands. From this model it was estimated that the total global area of shifting cultivation in 2000 was approximately 1.5 million km2 with 90,000 km2 of that actually in cultivation by 190 million people.

  17. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

  18. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  19. Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel G.

    Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

  20. Sports and recreational injuries: regional rural injury study?II: impact on agricultural households and operations

    PubMed Central

    Kurszewski, L S; Gerberich, S G; Serfass, R C; Ryan, A D; Renier, C M; Alexander, B H; Carlson, K Ferguson; Masten, A S

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence, severity, and potential risk factors for sports/recreational injuries incurred by children and adults in a five state, rural, Midwest, agricultural household population. Methods Computer assisted telephone interviews that included questions about all injuries were completed for eligible, participating households for 1999; 16?538 people participated, including 8488 children less than 20 years of age. Rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and causal models guided multivariate models. Results Of a total of 2586 injuries, 1301 (50%) were not related to agricultural activity. Among these, 733 (28%) were associated with sports/recreational activities including multiple person sports (64%), general play activities (19%), and single person sports (14%). The overall rate was 46.4 injury events per 1000 persons per year. Rates for children were 99.4 for boys and 64.3 for girls. For adults (aged 20 and above), rates were 11.9 for men and 4.8 for women. For children, 93% received health care, 44% were restricted for seven or more days, and 18% lost agricultural work time of seven or more days; the respective proportions for adults were 88%, 45%, and 17%. Multivariate analysis for children showed increased risks for Nebraska residents, males, and those 10–14 or 15–19 years. For adults, increased risks were identified for males and those 20–24 years; decreased risks were observed for Nebraska residents and those 45–54 years. Conclusions Sports/recreational activities are an important source of injury with relevant consequences for this population, including significant restricted daily activity and lost agricultural work time. Key findings provide a basis for further study to address these burdens. PMID:16547145

  1. Contraception prevalence under rural poverty: the case of the rural areas of Kondoa District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Madulu, N F

    1995-01-01

    This case study illustrates that low contraceptive prevalence in the rural areas of Kondoa District in Tanzania is related to socioeconomic conditions that foster high fertility. These socioeconomic conditions include a subsistence level of production, the high value on children, early marriage, low educational levels, discrimination in the distribution of contraception, and the persistence of traditional norms and values. High contraceptive awareness is not sufficient to overcome the influence of the high demand for children. It is argued that contraceptive prevalence can be increased through changes in socioeconomic conditions that will reduce poverty and increase literacy. Analysis is based on survey data from 849 women aged 15 years and older in October 1992 among 9 randomly selected villages. Family planning services in the district study area are available only in the 1 district hospital, 4 health centers, and 42 public dispensaries that are not accessible to large segments of the population of 340,232. Distance to a facility may be 10 km or more. In 1991 contraceptive use was 16% of women of reproductive age. 6.8% of current users relied on modern methods, and contraceptive prevalence among respondents was 13.7%. 67.4% were aware of at least one method of contraception. The pill was the most widely used modern method and the most widely known method. Women with 9 or more years of education were the most knowledgeable about contraception. Reasons for nonuse included disapproval by their husbands (13.3%), fear of side effects (5.8%), and a high demand for children (12.8%). Many women with no education or a primary education indicated husband's objection and lack of demand as reasons for nonuse. Only 2.6% of women had an education higher than the primary school level. The mean desired number of children was 6 children. The mean number of children ever born was 5 children. The total fertility rate was 7.1 children. PMID:12291260

  2. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  3. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

  4. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  5. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.12 What requirements apply to... the following criteria: (1) A Category 1 rural low-stress pipeline: (i) Has a nominal diameter of...

  6. An Economic Analysis of Out-Migration from a Depressed Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Larry Clinton

    In an effort to estimate some of the components of the net social costs and benefits of rural-to-urban migration, 161 Lexington, Kentucky migrants (randomly selected via census data) who had migrated from the rural, economically depressed area of Eastern Kentucky were surveyed in 1971 to gather information re: their last year in Eastern Kentucky…

  7. Science and Technology of Food Storage and Preservation. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, V. V.; And Others

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. This module deals…

  8. Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

  9. Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio-economic Benefits

    E-print Network

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    Renewable Energy Policy in Remote Rural Areas of Western China: Implementation and Socio on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the `Township Electrification Program', launched

  10. Alzheimer's Disease in Rural Areas: Can Informal Helpers Meet the Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, James; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines issues and problems confronting 20 caregivers of victims of Alzheimer's disease in rural southwest Missouri and the formal and informal services they received. Suggests that coordination of formal/informal supports must be improved. Describes characteristics and incidence of Alzheimer's disease and implications for rural areas with high…

  11. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main services proposed. • rapid alert: individuation and fast location of fires, also eventually in their starting phase (fire start), carried out through use of satellite data to high and most very high cycle (every 15 minute) to concur and organize a more effective fighti to spread fire; • perimeter of the area burned by the fire, with generation of polygons (compatible scale with the cadastre maps and data) through photo interpretation of spectral images, colours and infrared, at highest resolution (50 cm), and through fine aerial missions purposely planned during summery season, in substitution or in integrate way of the relief in field for: big fires, zones difficult to reach, isolated uneven area (reference scale from 200 to 400 kmq) • validation activity: services for quality control and validation of the activities of covered detail and relief perimeter of the area burned by the fire carried out through the employment end integration of the acquired data from land/aerial/satellite reliefs in application of law 353/2000. Data supplied to the municipalities, the regions and the prefecture for institutional adoptions. • damage statistics: Services of support to the generation of statistics through analysis of the damage and the vegetation resumption in relation to the type of forest with the use of different platform: satellite, aerial and land observation, for a temporal analysis.

  12. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.

    PubMed

    Or?owski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemys?aw; Wuczy?ski, Andrzej; Polecho?ski, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural

  13. Rural hospital wages and the area wage index.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Howard, Hilda A

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities. PMID:12545604

  14. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  15. The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yorukkoyo Village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiper, Tugba; Arslan, Mukerrem

    The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. In this study, the topics were questioned with a research based on questionnaires, observations and related literature are (1) What is the visitors= land use and satisfaction level? (2) What are the expectations of the local community from tourism and what are they able to do? With this aim, different questionnaires were applied to the visitors and the local community in the case of the Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu Village. These questionnaires were applied to a total of randomly selected 194 people. One hundred and forty four of them were composed of visitors and 50 of them were from the local community. Questionnaires have been applied to people having different socio-economic structures in June and July of 2004. The research shows that Safranbolu-Yorukkoyu has a suitable potential for rural tourism with its historical, cultural and natural resources. These resources can contribute to the diversification and distribution of tourism to different seasons and the local people can have active roles during this process.

  16. [Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

    2010-01-01

    The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

  17. THE RAPID GROWTH OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND THEIR ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELDRIDGE, DONALD A.

    THE COURSE OFFERINGS IN SOME JUNIOR COLLEGES FAIL TO MEET ADEQUATELY THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH. A STUDY IN 1964 REVEALED THAT ONLY TWENTY OF THE SEVENTY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA OFFERED TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, ALTHOUGH THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED "DIRECTORY OF JUNIOR COLLEGES" SHOWS AN INCREASE TO SIXTY. FURTHER STATISTICS REVEAL THAT 253…

  18. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  19. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  20. Refugee Reintegration in Rural Areas: Land Distribution in Ban Pha Thao, Lao PDR

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Brett M.

    The successful reintegration of refugee groups in rural areas often depends on people’s access to and control over productive land resources. The acquisition of land and the preservation of secure use rights depend on ...

  1. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

  3. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

  4. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

  5. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

  6. Women living in rural areas of Texas are less likely than their urban counterparts to have had a mammogram

    E-print Network

    Relevance Women living in rural areas of Texas are less likely than their urban counterparts services tend to be "disconnected" and not easy to locate or access in rural Texas, especially for underserved and older women. As a result, women in these rural areas tend to be diagnosed in later stages

  7. February 2002 / Vol. 52 No. 2 BioScience 151 Rural areas in the American West are undergoing

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    ).The residents of a rural subdivision in a boom county in Montana might include re- cent arrivals fromFebruary 2002 / Vol. 52 No. 2 · BioScience 151 Articles Rural areas in the American West or undeveloped land (Wilkinson 1993, Power 1998).For most of the 1900s,the population of many rural areas inthe

  8. February 2002 / Vol. 52 No. 2 BioScience 151 Rural areas in the American West are undergoing

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    .1997).The residents of a rural subdivision in a boom county in Montana might include re- cent arrivalsFebruary 2002 / Vol. 52 No. 2 · BioScience 151 Articles Rural areas in the American West or undeveloped land (Wilkinson 1993, Power 1998). For most of the 1900s, the population of many rural areas

  9. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

  10. Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York For several years, Congress has been funding research on water quality in the Susquehanna River

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York Abstract For several years, Congress has, these ear-marked funds supported the Agricultural Ecology Program (AEP), with a primary goal of examining how agriculture affects water quality in the Susquehanna, the major source of nutrient pollution

  11. Diarrhea and ARI in rural areas of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Piechulek, Helga; Al-Sabbir, Ahmed; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge

    2003-06-01

    In Bangladesh, one third of the total child death burden is due to diarrhea. Every year, a rural child suffers on average from 4.6 episodes of diarrhea, from which about 230,000 children die. In this study, information was collected from 8,287 children under five years of age and 7,082 caretakers in 120 clusters chosen by a two-stage random cluster sampling method. As compared to the baseline survey, carried out in 1996, children now are about 30% less likely to suffer from diarrhea, and the risk of dying has been reduced by 60%. Although the 2-weeks prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) has risen from 39% (1996) to 46% and that of Acute Respiratory Infections needing assessment (ANA) from 12.4% to 16.9%, now more caretakers (59.9%) than in 1996 (56.7%) are able to identify correctly danger signs for seeking care and 58.4% (1996: 46.6%) of parents seek help when danger signs are present. Similar for diarrhea and ARI, village doctors and traditional healers are most frequently sought for help by caretakers; government health centers and hospitals are sought to a much lesser degree. Since 1996, intervention activities were implemented for four years in the study area using an IEC strategy. This strategy included raising awareness and training of health personnel, NGO personnel and village volunteers, especially women. Diarrhea issues were included in school health education with emphasis on practical exercises of diarrhea management. For all target groups (health personnel, village volunteers, NGOs, mothers and school children) specific education material was developed and deployed. In the political arena, women leaders who are part of the local government were included in an awareness-raising campaign. The results of the study undertaken over four years later show that in a relatively short time behavior of mostly poor and illiterate caretakers can be changed leading to a significant reduction of ARI mortality and diarrhea morbidity, and mortality in children. PMID:12971559

  12. Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

  13. A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…

  14. Effective Teachers: Perceptions of Native American Students in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    This paper examines perceptions of Native American students regarding effective practices of non-Native teachers. A survey of students in grades 3-12 in 3 rural school districts on the Navajo Reservation (Arizona) questioned 148 Navajo students and 10 non-Native students. The sample included 28 special needs students (17.7 percent). The survey…

  15. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  16. Peer Influence and Drug Use among Adolescents in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, B. E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Sampled 1,004 eighth and tenth graders in 23 rural communities to examine peer influence and drug use. Students who perceived higher degree of drug use among friends and who received more information about drugs from friends used drugs more frequently. Findings support theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse. (Author/NB)

  17. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  18. A Marginal Profession in Rural Areas: The Case of Rural Chiropractors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger, Edward W.; And Others

    In reference to the significance of a marginal profession, 44 Missouri chiropractors practicing in 20 rural counties (total enumeration) were compared with 39 randomly selected Kansas City chiropractors to determine the following characteristics: (1) social background; (2) place history (at time of birth, start of school; termination of 8th grade,…

  19. A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

    2011-10-01

    Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

  20. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rural territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www. ... Sources that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The ...

  1. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  2. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  3. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

  5. The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.

    The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

  6. [Radiological assessment of protective countermeasures in the private sector of rural settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident area].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Fesenko, S V; Aleksakhin, R M; Pasternak, A D; Prudnikov, P V

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of countermeasures on private farms in rural settlements of the Russian Federation affected by the Chernobyl accident for the period of 1986-2005 was assessed. The averted collective doses to the residents of these settlements and the contribution of restrictive and agricultural countermeasures to dose reduction in the rural population have been estimated. PMID:17571731

  7. Natural Resource Dependence, Rural Development, and Rural Poverty. Rural Development Research Report Number 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Rural areas' population growth, location, level of economic activity and social well-being depend less on natural resource endowments than on such factors as transportation, communication, labor force characteristics, and urbanization. General causes of the 1970's urban-to-rural migration included fewer changes in the structure of agriculture,…

  8. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1975. Sixth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A consolidated summary of information submitted by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agencies and State Rural Development (RD) Committees, this sixth annual report on USDA information and technical assistance includes USDA organizational arrangements for rural assistance, some assessments, research supporting RD information and technical…

  9. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

  10. A Description of the Agriculture and Type-of-Farming Areas in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H. (Ben Hur)

    1937-01-01

    . R82-537-20m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 544 JUNE, 1937 IN COOPERATION WITH THE DIVISION OF FARM MANAGEMEN AND COSTS, BUREAU OF' AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, U. S.... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A DESCRIPTION OF THE AGRICULTURE AND TYPE- OF-FARMING AREAS IN TEXAS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Texas is primarily an rcgricultural State. Approximately 40 per cent of the 5...

  11. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  12. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Pant, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies from high income countries (HIC) have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally. Method Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013) were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM) of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data. Results Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC). Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01). Conclusions Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss. PMID:26162093

  13. Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas

    PubMed Central

    Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

  14. Experiences of workplace bullying in a rural area.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Judith

    2005-11-01

    Employed people spend most of their waking hours in workplaces, but sometimes workplaces are made unbearable by bullying. This study examined how 21 people experienced workplace bullying in a rural and small city context and explored strategies for stopping workplace abuse. The research method of the learning circle was used because of its potential to reduce the isolation typically experienced by targets of workplace bullying, and its potential for peer dialogue and learning. This paper focuses on signs and experiences of workplace bullying, a phenomenon which produces both physical and emotional symptoms and often requires counseling. PMID:16203644

  15. Data for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    and cities Basic areas-soil, water, energy, livelihoods, public health end-user defined or demandData for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas GISE Lab, CSE IIT pursuit-challenges, solutions. Academic Initiatives 2007: M.Tech./Ph.D. program in Technology

  16. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  17. Business Incubators Give New Firms in Rural Areas a Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    1987-01-01

    Business incubators can help fledgling firms get off the ground by providing business services and rental space, at below-market costs, for a business's first few years. The payoff for the community is more jobs. Concentrated until recently in urban areas, incubators are now succeeding in rural areas too. (JHZ)

  18. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  19. Studies on dengue in rural areas of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, N; Murty, U Suryanarayana; Kabilan, Lalitha; Balasubramanian, A; Thenmozhi, V; Narahari, D; Ravi, Alaham; Satyanarayana, K

    2004-03-01

    A dengue case was reported for the 1st time in a rural area of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Entomological and serological investigations were carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue vectors and dengue virus. Aedes aegypti was recorded for the 1st time in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. Breeding of Ae. aegypti was observed only in containers with nonpotable water. Cement cisterns and tanks, stone tubs, and clay pots were the major breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti. Larval indices for Ae. aegypti ranged as follows: house index 28-40%, container index 13-37%, and Breteau index 32-60. A serological survey indicated that humans in Kurnool District have been exposed to dengue virus infections. The potential threat of an outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas because of the prevalence of the vector (Ae. aegypti) and dengue virus is discussed. PMID:15088710

  20. Modeling tree scattering in rural residential areas at 3.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Kin Lien; Catalán, Ferran; Torrico, Saúl A.; Kürner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    paper addresses the modeling of tree scattering in rural residential areas at 3.5 GHz using a 3-D ray-optical approach. In this approach, a 3-D digital map of rural residential areas is constructed, where the terrain's signature, buildings, as well as vegetation are included. In particular, a tree is modeled as a cylindrical volume with radii varying from 2 to 5 m. Trees within a tree group are assumed to be uniformly distributed with a separation distance varying from 10 to 20 m. The scattered fields within a tree volume are determined by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering theory. Measurement data derived from cross-season measurement campaigns in a vegetated rural area in Germany are used to verify the simulation results.

  1. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  2. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  3. Mental Health Professional Shortage Areas in Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Context: Research on health disparities in Appalachia has rarely compared Appalachia to other geographic areas in such a way as to isolate possible Appalachian effects. Purpose: This study tests hypotheses that nonmetropolitan Appalachia will have higher levels of mental health professional shortage areas than other nonmetropolitan areas of the…

  4. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  5. Strategies for Balanced Rural-Urban Growth. Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clark

    Summarizing an Economic Research Service (ERS) publication, this guide to a balanced rural-urban growth describes the results of a computer based ERS model which examined seven strategies to improve rural economic development. Based on 1960-70 trends, the model is described as asking how much would be required of each of the following strategies…

  6. Upon Entering College: First Semester Experiences of First-Generation Rural Students from Agricultural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Patrick F.

    2004-01-01

    First-generation and rural college students are considered by many retention theorists and practitioners to be an at-risk population. This study examined the details of the first semester in postsecondary education from the perspective of a group of students who met the demographic criteria of being first-generation to go to college, from rural

  7. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  8. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

  9. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity. PMID:12286961

  10. OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

    A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

  11. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    PubMed

    Düzgüne?, Ertan; Demirel, Öner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in Salac?k Village of Akçaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  12. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  13. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  14. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  15. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  16. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  17. A Bibliography of Rural Development: Listings by Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carrie G.; And Others

    Over 776 journal articles pertaining to rural development are cited. Entries are arranged by topic: agriculture, area development, community, economic development, environmental improvement, facilities and services, human resource development, leadership, organization, rural development, rural-urban relationships, and social action. Some articles…

  18. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003... (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS ORGANIZATION Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission Area § 2003.10 Rural Development State Offices. (a) Headed by State Directors, State Offices...

  19. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  20. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  1. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  2. Center for Support of Mental Health Services in Isolated Rural Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarlo, James A.

    In 1994, the University of Denver received a grant to develop and operate the Frontier Mental Health Services Resource Network (FMHSRN). FMHSRN's principal aim was to improve delivery of mental health services in sparsely populated "frontier" areas by providing technical assistance to frontier and rural audiences. Traditional dissemination methods…

  3. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  4. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  5. 49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  6. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  7. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  8. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  9. Home-Based Learning Programmes for Mentally Handicapped People in Rural Areas of Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariga, Lilian; McConkey, Roy

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a community based rehabilitation program for mentally handicapped children and young adults living with their families in rural areas of Zimbabwe. Critical to the program's success are (1) partnership with existing agencies; (2) training and monitoring provided by specialist staff; and (3) provision of appropriate resource…

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ?1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ?1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  11. Title VII Funding and Physician Practice in Rural or Low-Income Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krist, Alex H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Callahan, David; Woolf, Steven H.; Marsland, David

    2005-01-01

    Whether Title VII funding enhances physician supply in underserved areas has not clearly been established. The purpose was to determine the relation between Title VII funding in medical school, residency, or both, and the number of family physicians practicing in rural or low-income communities. A retrospective cross sectional analysis was carried…

  12. The TELEPAC Project: A Service Delivery Model for the Severely Handicapped in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Atkinson, Charles M.

    Described is Project TELEPAC, a telecommunications-based system which provides instructional packets to parents of severely handicapped children in rural areas of Utah. In addition to the parent involvement packets which outline teaching methods, correction procedures and behavior management practices for arithmetic, language arts, self help and…

  13. Local Instruction Theory on Division in Mathematics GASING: The Case of Rural Area's Student in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra; Suwasti, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on learning mathematics for rural area's student indicate that students have difficulty in understanding the concept of division operation. Students are more likely to be introduced by the use of the formula without involving the concept itself and learning division separate the concrete situation of learning process. This…

  14. Deaf and Hearing Impaired Children in Regional and Rural Areas: Parent Views on Educational Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checker, Lisa J.; Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The general trend for the inclusion of deaf and hearing impaired students in Australia involves placing students in a mainstream classroom setting alongside their hearing peers with regular support from a Visiting Teacher of the Deaf. The provision of educational services to deaf and hearing impaired students in regional and rural areas, however,…

  15. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  16. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Emma C.; Purdue, Laura M.; Jamieson, Rob C.; Yost, Chris K.

    2015-01-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (?100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  17. The applications of mobile telecommunications in new rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xia; Lu, Ting-jie

    2009-07-01

    With the current popularity of information and telecommunication technologies, more and more farmers recognize the important role of information. The urgent need for Chinese farmers is how to make use of information to get rich. Contrast in the newspapers, television, radio and other traditional media, mobile information services have unmatched advantages, such as wide spread in very low cost, spread source of widely dispersed, and diverse forms of communication, simple and easy to operate, with strong participatory and interactive, and so on. The paper proposes that Mobile operators can supply different information in accordance with personalized demands of farmers with various agencies, such as government departments, supply and marketing cooperatives, hospitals, banks, veterinary clinics, agricultural stations. They can unite to supply a number of convenience people, rich people, and love for the people's business through the message, voice, WAP and other forms to meet the needs of farmers. Besides, the paper points out that those farmers can order information on personalized service.

  18. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  19. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  20. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  1. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  2. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  3. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  4. Satellite Services for Internet Access in Rural Areas1 McClure School of Communication Systems Management

    E-print Network

    Kruse, Hans

    Satellite Services for Internet Access in Rural Areas1 Hans Kruse McClure School of Communication of direct satellite services for internet access in rural areas. The broad success of direct to home provided an incentive for service providers to put together satellite internet access packages. At the same

  5. Factors affecting attitudes toward care of elderly mothers: urban versus agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Mio; Kai, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    In our previous study, we examined factors that affect rural people's attitudes toward parental care when their mothers or mothers-in-law become fragile and need 24-h care. Our next task was to examine the factors in an urban area to test external validity. In the previous studies, several factors affecting adult children's attitudes between caring directly for parents or sending parents to a nursing home were indicated. Factors identified included affection, filial obligation, sekentei (i.e., wanting to keep an appearance of taking care), and others. In this study, we examine these factors in a residential urban area, using the same model as before. Results revealed that filial obligation affected attitudes toward care in the case of a mother while affection did in the case of a mother-in-law. This is consistent with the results in the rural setting. Sekentei did not affect attitudes in the urban area, though it had in the rural area. PMID:20022391

  6. [Improved health in Zimbabwe's rural areas as a result of the rural development project].

    PubMed

    Dahlin, K; Dahlin, L

    1984-09-01

    A rural development project carried out in Southern Zimbabwe for 5 years was aimed at improving nutrition, combatting diseases, educating villagers about proper hygiene, improving water quality, and assessing the development and nutritional status of children under 5. The community investigated consisted of 10,000 people or 1,439 families with an average of 7 persons per family. The main staple of their diet was maize, and malnutrition was prevalent. Water holes infested with bilharzia were the source of drinking water for both man and animal. The project succeeded in vaccinating 90% of preschool children against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, and tuberculosis. A control district was chosen to compare the developmental data obtained by the Cole Slide Rule Calculator of 229 children under 5 with those of 242 children in the project. Malnutrition was studied in 200 children hospitalized in the children's ward of a district hospital, 1/3 of whom were less than 1 year old. Gastroenteritis, giardiasis and amebiasis were prevalent among them (37%), as were upper respiratory infections (27%), pneumonia (12%), and skin infections (7%). Nonspecific gastroenteritis was found in 86% of children under 2. Most over 2 were severely undernourished. A nutritional rehabilitation village called Hutano Village was established in 1982 to function as a nutritional center, staffed by a full-time health worker and an assistant. In the 1st 9 months of its existence, 114 children were taken in, and the mothers received instruction in vegetable gardening, raising chickens and rabbits, hygiene, and family planning. The average attendance runs to 25 children and 15 to 17 mothers. In spite of successful medical intervention in malnutrition cases, the relapse of children into an undernourished state remains a difficult issue, whose cause lies in inadequate water supply, poor soil, lack of resources, and low family socio-economic status. PMID:6482596

  7. Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. Purpose This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Findings Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. Conclusions This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs. PMID:24025429

  8. Heterogeneity in Rural California and the Example of Shandon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Brian

    This paper summarizes a 22-month ethnographic study of rural Shandon (California), a community that demonstrates the social and demographic changes resulting from agricultural intensification in rural California. Changes in the Shandon area's agricultural production have produced a demographic shift from the homogeneous Anglo-American farming and…

  9. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

  10. Multi-angle indicators system of non-point pollution source assessment in rural areas: a case study near Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas. PMID:23456193

  11. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  12. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  13. Why Invest in Rural America--And How? A Critical Public Policy Question for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Karl N.

    Current rural policies at both the federal and state levels do not meet the needs of rural people and communities; they are designed for the past, not the future. Agricultural subsidies absorb most federal resources directed to rural areas, with no evidence of benefits for rural communities. The continuing state-level pursuit of low-wage,…

  14. Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

  15. Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Della W.

    2010-01-01

    Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

  16. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

  17. General Health in the Elderly and Younger Adults of Rural areas in Fars Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Najaf; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehesh, Tania; Moradi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are critical gaps in assessment and research on health among the elderly living in rural communities. The state of aging and health in rural areas provides a snapshot of our older adults’s need to necessary public health measures .The aim of this study was to determine the self-rated general health of adults residing in rural areas and compare the general health of the elderly with younger adults. Methods: In this population based study using multistage random sampling, 2259 adults aged (?15 years old) were selected from rural areas of Shiraz, southern Iran. The participants were divided into three age groups: young adults (15-39 years old n=1574), middle aged adults (40-59 years old, n=530), and the elderly (?60 years of age, n-155).  Data were gathered using a translated version of the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and analyzed using Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANCOVA analysis.  SPSS software, version 16, was used for analysis. Results:  34.8%, 31.6%, 52.3% and 7.7% of the elderly had a probable mental disorder  in the somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression categories, respectively. Moreover, 9.7, 7.1, 3.9 and 4.5% of the elderly had a  severe mental disorder  in the four mentioned subscales, respectively. Compared with younger adults, the elderly showed a significantly higher disorder in all subscales except for anxiety. Conclusion: Our findings showed that chronic disease had a great effect on general health. Screening programs and prevention of chronic disease by the newly established family physician in rural districts can improve the overall community health. PMID:25553335

  18. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fluxes in Groundwater in Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg/L/yr. Reaction rates tended to be highest in aquifers with low recharge rates and thin unsaturated zones, resulting in shallow depths of NO3 contamination. At sites where the denitrification rate was lower and the recharge rate was higher, the anthropogenic NO3 tended to extend deeper into groundwater. In summary, the combination of hydrologic and geochemical factors at these sites results in a wide range of NO3 fluxes, with minimal NO3 contamination in shallow, reactive groundwaters, and extensive NO3 transport at sites with high recharge and low reaction rates. This 1D model can be quickly applied to multiple sites to facilitate the understanding of factors controlling N fluxes in groundwater based on existing hydrogeochemical data.

  19. Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

  20. 1974 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…

  1. 1975 Rural Manpower Report [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…

  2. Rural Industrialization: Prospects, Problems, Impacts, and Methods. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 93d Congress, 2d Session, April 19, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The 9 papers in this compilation on rural industrial development are titled as follows: (1) "U.S. Employment Shifts Through 1985" (gains, regional losses, relation to per capita income and economic activities, geographic concentration, and national basis of regional projections); (2) "Large Industry in a Rural Area: Demographic, Economic, and…

  3. Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebenow, J. Gus

    Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

  4. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  5. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  6. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  7. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

  8. Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

  9. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-03-23

    An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

  10. Hypertension, a Neglected Disease in Rural and Urban Areas in Moramanga, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ratovoson, Rila; Rasetarinera, Ony Rabarisoa; Andrianantenaina, Ionimalala; Rogier, Christophe; Piola, Patrice; Pacaud, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In Madagascar, studies on hypertension in urban and rural communities are scarce. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and identify associated risk factors in adults living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga, Madagascar. Methods The study included people aged 15 years old and above living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga. A household census was performed in 2012 to enumerate the population in 3 communities in Moramanga. In addition to the questionnaire used in the initial census, a standardized questionnaire and blood pressure were taken twice after 5 and 10 minutes of rest. In urban areas, heights and weights were also measured to calculate the body mass index. Results There were 3621 and 4010 participants respectively in rural and urban areas. Prevalence of hypertension in rural population was 27.0% (IC95% [25.6–28.5]) and 29.7% (IC95% [28.3–31.1]) in urban population. Among hypertensive subjects, 1.7% (17/979) and 5.3% (64/1191) were on antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before the survey in rural and urban population, respectively. In rural areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18–25 years OR = 11.81, IC95% [7.79–18.07]), giving more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks factors of hypertension (OR = 1.67, IC95% [1.14–2.42]) and singles in comparison with married people (OR = 1.61, IC95% [1.20–2.17]) were associated to hypertension in a logistic regression model. In urban areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18–25 years OR = 37.54, IC95% [24.81–57.92]), more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks of hypertension (OR = 3.47, IC95% [2.58–4.67]) and obesity (OR = 2.45, IC95% [1.56–3.87]) were found as risk factors. Conclusion Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural areas although it is significantly less treated. As a result, a major epidemic of cardiovascular diseases is at risk in Madagascar’s progressively aging society. PMID:26355997

  11. 77 FR 39675 - Applications for Licensing as a Non-Leveraged Rural Business Investment Company Under the Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Applications for Licensing as a Non-Leveraged Rural Business Investment Company Under the Rural Business Investment Program AGENCY: Rural...

  12. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  13. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

  14. Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

    Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

  15. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  16. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  17. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  18. Design of a Korean style passive solar house for rural area

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Korea Solar Energy Research Institute (KSERI) as well as the Korean government is pushing hard on the development of passive solar technology with high priority for the expeditious widespread use of soalr energy. As a first attempt at KSERI for the demonstration of a passive solar house in the rural area, designs of single family residential buildings were performed. The proposed designs are expected to be used by the Korean government for the construction of demonstration passive houses throughout Korea. Introduced here is one such design, whose design goal was to generate a demonstration solar house which is a) passive, b) for rural area, c) simple in construction and operation, d) technically sound (meeting the desired solar fraction) and, e) most economical.

  19. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to begin looking for alternative practices that ca...

  20. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA III--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, A TOTAL OF 443 FIRMS AND AGENCIES IN 12 PARISHES (EXCLUDING TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS) WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE (1) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO JOB TITLES, (2) AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, (3) CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF JOBS, AND (4) TRENDS IN…

  1. A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas) to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public health work. We chose 7 townships and 49 administrative villages in Chongyi County as the intervention sites; 3 townships and 9 administrative villages in Luxi County as the comparison sites. Officers from county health bureaus and postgraduates from School of Public Health, Nanchang University visited each township hospital and village clinic in field together and made observations and interviewed clinic staff. Results There was little change in health facilities or workforce in the two areas. However, there was an increase in the use of public health services at township and village level in the intervention sites in Chongyi. In these, the proportion of clinics which had developed a child health (under the age of 3) management system, maternal postpartum visit and chronic disease management increased from 53%, 51% and 47% to 78%, 73%, and 71% respectively. There was no significant change in the comparison sites. Conclusions The trial demonstrated that it was feasible to implement a model of community health service delivery that was adapted to depressed rural areas because it required little organizational change, additional funding or personnel. The model had a positive impact on the provision of public health programs, a finding which has implications for efforts to improve access to primary health care in rural China. PMID:23244489

  2. Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.

    2011-04-01

    Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study tour of the diverse environments of southern Patagonia affected by ash storms, with an emphasis on determining the impacts of repeated ash storms on agriculture and local practices that were developed in an attempt to mitigate these impacts. Ash storms produce similar effects to initial tephra eruptions, prolonged for considerable periods. These have included the burial of farmland under dune deposits, abrasion of vegetation and contamination of feed supplies with fine ash. These impacts can then cause problems for grazing animals such as starvation, severe tooth abrasion, gastrointestinal problems, corneal abrasion and blindness, and exhaustion if sheep fleeces become laden with ash. In addition, ash storms have led to exacerbated soil erosion, human health impacts, increased cleanup requirements, sedimentation in irrigation canals, and disruption of aviation and land transport. Ash deposits were naturally stabilised most rapidly in areas with high rainfall (>1,500 mm/year) through compaction and enhanced vegetation growth. Stabilisation was slowest in windy, semi-arid regions. Destruction of vegetation and suppression of regrowth by heavy tephra fall (>100 mm) hindered the stabilisation of deposits for years, and reduced the surface friction which increased wind erosivity. Stabilisation of tephra deposits was improved by intensive tillage, use of windbreaks and where there was dense and taller vegetative cover. Long-term drought and the impracticality of mixing ash deposits with soil by tillage on large farms was a barrier to stabilising deposits and, in turn, agricultural recovery. The continuing ash storms motivated the partial evacuation of small rural towns such as Chile Chico (Chile) and Los Antiguos (Argentina) in September-December 1991, after the primary tephra fall in August 1991. Greatly increased municipal cleanup efforts had to be sustained beyond the initial tephra fall to cope with the ongoing impacts of ash storms. Throughout the 1990s, ash storms contributed to continued population migration out of the affected area, leaving hundreds of farms abandoned on the Argentine steppe. The major lesson from our study is the importance of stabilisation of ash deposits as soon as possible after the initial eruption, particularly in windy, arid climates. Suggested mitigation measures include deep cultivation of the ash into the soil and erecting windbreaks.

  3. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

  4. Satellite-sensed winter nocturnal temperature patterns of the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, E.; Bartholic, J. F.; Bill, R. G., Jr.; Sutherland, R. A.; Allen, L. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Surface temperature patterns of drained organic soil farmland in the Everglades Agricultural Area south of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, were studied using GOES-1 satellite infrared digital data for the winters of 1976-77 and 1977-78. Local thermal features were explained in terms of soil types, soil depths and climate modification caused by organic soil drainage. A cold-prone area was delineated in the Everglades Agricultural Area with satellite data. The winter nighttime surface temperatures of this area were more characteristic of north central Florida, approximately 370 km further north, than of surrounding areas of mineral soil or undrained organic soil.

  5. Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

  6. Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

  7. Lost in the Rush to National Reform: Recommendations to Improve Impact on Behavioral Health Providers in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Semansky, Rafael; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David J.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    As the United States embarks on the most ambitious national health reform since the 1960s, this article highlights the challenges faced by behavioral health agencies, providers, and clients in rural areas and presents recommendations to improve access to and quality of services. Lessons learned from five years of research on a major systems-change initiative in New Mexico illuminate potential problem areas for rural agencies under national health reform, including insufficient financial resources, shortages of trained staff, particularly clinicians with advanced credentials, and delays in adopting the latest information technology. We recommend that rural states: (1) undertake careful planning for smooth transitions; (2) provide financial resources and technical assistance to expand rural safety-net services and capacity; (3) modify the health home model for the rural context; and (4) engage in ongoing evaluation, which can help ensure the early identification and rectification of unanticipated implementation issues. PMID:22643628

  8. Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

  9. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-06-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases. PMID:21736280

  10. Rural Substance Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rural areas? What is the current status of methamphetamine use in rural America and what has been ... Maine Rural Health Research Center, the rate of methamphetamine use by young rural adults ages 18–25 ...

  11. Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

    1986-01-01

    Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

  12. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Rural Health Policy, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 9A-55, Rockville, MD 20857. (2) The hospital is located in an area designated by any law or...

  13. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Rural Health Policy, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 9A-55, Rockville, MD 20857. (2) The hospital is located in an area designated by any law or...

  14. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Rural Health Policy, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 9A-55, Rockville, MD 20857. (2) The hospital is located in an area designated by any law or...

  15. Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Lixia; Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; BöHlke, J. K.

    2012-06-01

    The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater quality depends on the interactions of biogeochemical and hydrologic factors. To identify key processes affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied at 14 sites across the U.S. Simulated vertical profiles of NO3-, N2 from denitrification, O2, Cl-, and environmental tracers of groundwater age were matched to observations by adjusting the parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, fractions of N and Cl- inputs leached to groundwater, O2 reduction rate, O2 threshold for denitrification, and denitrification rate. Model results revealed important interactions among biogeochemical and physical factors. Chloride fluxes decreased between the land surface and water table possibly because of Cl- exports in harvested crops (averaging 22% of land-surface Cl- inputs). Modeled zero-order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated. Denitrification rates at depth commonly exceeded overlying O2 reduction rates, likely because shallow geologic sources of reactive electron donors had been depleted. Projections indicated continued downward migration of NO3- fronts at sites with denitrification rates <0.25 mg-N L-1 yr-1. The steady state depth of NO3- depended to a similar degree on application rate, leaching fraction, recharge, and NO3- and O2 reaction rates. Steady state total mass in each aquifer depended primarily on the N application rate. In addition to managing application rates at land surface, efficient water use may reduce the depth and mass of N in groundwater because lower recharge was associated with lower N fraction leached. Management actions to reduce N leaching could be targeted over aquifers with high-recharge and low-denitrification rates.

  16. Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

  17. [Rural Development: First Annual] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…

  18. Distribution and sharing of palliative care costs in rural areas of Canada.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Serge; Jacobs, Philip; Turcotte, Véronique; Turcotte, Stéphane; Johnston, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the costs occurring during the palliative phase of care and on the sharing of these costs in rural areas. This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to all resources used by rural palliative care patients and to examine how these costs were shared between the public healthcare system (PHCS), patients' families, and not-for-profit organizations (NFPOs). A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken of 82 palliative care patients and their main informal caregivers in rural areas of four Canadian provinces. Telephone interviews were completed at two-week intervals. The mean total cost per patient for a six-month participation in a palliative care program was CA$31,678 +/- 1,160. A large part of this cost was attributable to inpatient hospital stays and was assumed by the PHCS. The patient's family contributed less than a quarter of the mean total cost per patient, and this was mainly attributable to caregiving time. PMID:25058986

  19. Altitudes of residential areas affect salt intake in a rural area in Japan: a Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Ferdaus, Sonia I; Kohno, Kunie; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Miwako; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Isomura, Minoru; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between residential environments and hypertension. As shown in our previous study, the inconvenience of the locations of residential areas may be one of the factors influencing the blood pressures of inhabitants. Salt intake is one of the likely mediators between inconvenience and hypertension. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between the altitudes of residential areas and salt intake in a rural Japanese region because altitude may be one of the proxies for inconvenience. In this cross-sectional study, 1016 participants living in a mountainous region in Japan were recruited during health examinations. The altitude of each participant's residence was estimated using a geographic information system. Subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the altitudes of their residences. To evaluate salt intake, we employed the 24-h salt intake estimation of Kawano et al. (e24-h salt intake) and the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (uNa/K). Linear regression analyses indicated that altitude was an independent factor influencing both e24-h salt intake and uNa/K after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, triglycerides and county of residence. The same result was observed when the subjects who did not take antihypertensive medications were analyzed (N=633). The present study indicated that altitude of residence had a significant positive influence on salt intake in a rural area of Japan. PMID:26311164

  20. Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2002-01-01

    We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

  1. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  2. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Coma del Corral, Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín, Pedro; Cordero Guevara, José; Olea Movilla, Angel; Torres Torres, Gerardo; Lozano Garcia, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices. PMID:16042778

  3. Household Solid Fuel Use and Cardiovascular Disease in Rural Areas in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    QU, Weihua; YAN, Zhijun; QU, Guohua; IKRAM, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: More than 80 percent of the China’s population is located in the rural areas, 95 percent of which use coal, wood etc for cooking and heating. Limited by data availability, the association between household solid fuels and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China’s rural areas is ignored in prior studies. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from 2010–2012 and carried out on rural population aging 20–80 yr, comprised of 13877 participants from eighteen villages. Self-report questionnaire data were collected. Each outcome represents whether the participant has a kind of CVDs or not and it is reported in participants’ questionnaire. Then the collected data is analyzed by logistic regression models with odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, the use of household solid fuels was significantly associated with an increased risk for hypertension (OR 1.751), CHD (OR 2.251), stroke (OR 1.642), diabetes (OR 1.975) and dyslipidemia (OR 1.185). Residents with the highest tertile of the duration of household solid fuel exposure had an increased odd of hypertension (OR 1.651), stroke (OR 1.812), diabetes (OR 2.891) and dyslipidemia (OR 1.756) compared with those in the lowest tertile of the duration of solid fuel exposure. Conclusion: Indoor pollution exposure from household solid fuels combustion may be a positive risk factor for CVDs in the perspectives of China’s rural population. Our findings should be corroborated in longitudinal studies. PMID:26284203

  4. How Agricultural Science Trumps Rural Community in the Discourse of Selected U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…

  5. Allelic Diversity of MSP1 Gene in Plasmodium falciparum from Rural and Urban Areas of Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Mbondoukwe, Noé; Adande, Elvire; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined and compared the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum strains infecting children living in 2 areas from Gabon with different malaria endemicity. Blood samples were collected from febrile children from 2008 to 2009 in 2 health centres from rural (Oyem) and urban (Owendo) areas. Genetic diversity was determined in P. falciparum isolates by analyzing the merozoite surface protein-1 (msp1) gene polymorphism using nested-PCR. Overall, 168 children with mild falciparum malaria were included. K1, Ro33, and Mad20 alleles were found in 110 (65.5%), 94 (55.9%), and 35 (20.8%) isolates, respectively, without difference according to the site (P>0.05). Allelic families’ frequencies were comparable between children less than 5 years old from the 2 sites; while among the older children the proportions of Ro33 and Mad20 alleles were 1.7 to 2.0 fold higher at Oyem. Thirty-three different alleles were detected, 16 (48.5%) were common to both sites, and 10 out of the 17 specific alleles were found at Oyem. Furthermore, multiple infection carriers were frequent at Oyem (57.7% vs 42.2% at Owendo; P=0.04) where the complexity of infection was of 1.88 (±0.95) higher compared to that found at Owendo (1.55±0.75). Extended genetic diversity of P. falciparum strains infecting Gabonese symptomatic children and high multiplicity of infections were observed in rural area. Alleles common to the 2 sites were frequent; the site-specific alleles predominated in the rural area. Such distribution of the alleles should be taken into accounts when designing MSP1 or MSP2 malaria vaccine. PMID:26323839

  6. Echinococcus granulosus infection in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Bronsvoort, Barend M Dec; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bradshaw, Helen; Craig, Philip S

    2010-04-19

    Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the cystic stage of the cestode parasite Echinoccocus granulosus, in which the definitive hosts are mainly domestic dogs. This parasite is regarded mainly as a rural disease, where man is exposed through contact with eggs excreted by definitive hosts; however, some studies have shown that domestic dogs can get infected within urban areas. This study was conducted to assess differences in prevalence of E. granulosus in urban and rural sites in Coquimbo region of Chile. From 2005 to 2006 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge NP in the Coquimbo region. Faecal samples were collected from dogs during the questionnaire survey and tested for Echinococcus coproantigens. Positive dogs were found in urban areas. Analysis of risk factors indicated that dogs inhabiting the borders of urban areas were at greater risk of being coproantigen positive than those in the centre of these areas. These results are likely to be related to the custom of slaughtering livestock at home in urban areas during local celebrations, which could favour the importation of E. granulosus to urban areas by acquiring livestock contaminated with cysts from rural sites. This study shows that surveillance and control measures in livestock and domestic dogs need to be introduced in urban areas as well as rural areas of the Coquimbo region to reduce the public health risk of hydatid disease. PMID:20071085

  7. Mercury Cycling in Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California: Sediment Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Windham-Myers, L.; Alpers, C. N.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M. H.; Kakouros, E.; Wren, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Land use in the YBWA consists of white and wild rice fields, seasonally flooded fallow agricultural fields, and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. A recent assessment of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) loads indicates that the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous MeHg entering the Delta, and that biota from the Yolo Bypass are considerably elevated in MeHg. The current study examines benthic MeHg production and biogeochemical controls on this process, as a function of YBWA land use, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007 rice growing season (June to October). Preliminary results indicate that in the week following initial flooding of agricultural fields, prior to the establishment of rice plants, the microbial community in the 0-2 cm surface sediment zone exhibited very little potential Hg(II)-methylation activity compared to the permanent wetland habitat (as assessed via the 203Hg(II)- methylation assay). Approximately 1 month after flooding, rice plants were established and the activity of the resident Hg(II)-methylating microbial community had increased substantially in all agricultural fields, although the observed rates of MeHg production were still much lower than those observed in the permanent wetland setting. Ongoing field sampling includes analysis of reactive Hg(II) in sediments and of iron and sulfur redox species in sediments and pore waters.

  8. An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

    2000-05-01

    The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

  9. The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

  10. A Review of Non-occupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...

  11. Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-09-01

    Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

  12. Value of Oaks in Rural Subdivisions1 Richard B. Standiford, Nancy Diamond, Peter C.

    E-print Network

    residences in these rural subdivisions. It is not clear, however, whether these aesthetic and amenity valuesValue of Oaks in Rural Subdivisions1 Richard B. Standiford, Nancy Diamond, Peter C. Passof subject to increasing pressure to provide housing in rural areas. With many of the prime agricultural

  13. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  14. Haematological parameters in postpartum women and their babies in Poland - comparison of urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wojty?a, Cezary; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia is a serious health problem in the contemporary world which aff ects 24.8% of the total human population. It is especially frequent among pregnant women and children. Anaemia is considered as a risk factor of an unfavourable outcome of pregnancy. More than a half of the cases of anaemia, especially among pregnant women, are caused by iron deficiency. The prevalence of anaemia worldwide is especially high among the rural population. It is estimated that the incidence of anaemia after delivery is 4-27%. Anaemia occurring in pregnant women is the cause of anaemia in newborns after birth. The objective of the study was analysis of the haematological parameters of postpartum women and newborns, with particular consideration of the comparison between urban and rural areas. The studies were conducted with the use of questionnaire forms based on the project undertaken in the USA: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The survey was carried out on a single day, during the period 9-13 August 2010, in all hospitals in Poland where mothers were hospitalized with their newborns. The presented study was based on the replies concerning the results of whole blood count tests in mothers and their babies. The results of the study did not confirm any significant differences between Hct, Hb and RBC values between urban and rural mothers. In both cases, the Hct levels were at the lower limit of normal. Also, no differences with respect to the above-mentioned values were noted among the newborns, although the babies of urban mothers had a higher Hb level. The results of the studies indicate the lack of differences in the health of mothers and their newborn babies with respect to the urban or rural place of residence. Despite this, anaemia is associated with complications which are life-threatening for the mother and the baby; therefore, efforts should be undertaken in order to minimize this problem. PMID:22216816

  15. A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and rural areas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability. PMID:21470420

  16. Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

  17. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  18. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Erlane Chaves; Oliveira, Maria de Fátima; Andrade, Mônica Coelho; Vasconcelos, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; Silva Filho, José Damião da; Cândido, Darlan da Silva; Pereira, Laíse Dos Santos; Correia, João Paulo Ramalho; Cruz, José Napoleão Monte da; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  19. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, Erlane Chaves; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANDRADE, Mônica Coelho; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; da SILVA, José Damião; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; CORREIA, João Paulo Ramalho; da CRUZ, José Napoleão Monte; CAVALCANTI, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  20. Cost Effective Simulation of the Hybrid Solar/wind and Diesel Energy System in Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Ee. Y.; Barsoum, Nader

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the rural areas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.

  1. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas.

    PubMed

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2012-05-01

    The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

  2. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2012-01-01

    The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

  3. Influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables on childhood diarrhoea in a rural area of Zaire.

    PubMed

    Manun'ebo, M N; Haggerty, P A; Kalengaie, M; Ashworth, A; Kirkwood, B R

    1994-02-01

    There have been very few longitudinal studies of diarrhoea morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. This longitudinal study of children aged 3-35 months from 18 clusters of villages reports an annual incidence rate of 6.3 episodes per child in a rural area of Zaire, which is higher than a cross-sectional estimate previously obtained in the same district. The study confirms that a child's risk of diarrhoeal attack is associated with age, water quality and sanitation, parental education and household size. The findings suggest also that birth interval may be an important risk factor for diarrhoeal morbidity. PMID:8107171

  4. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  5. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  6. Distinguishing social and cultural features of cholera in urban and rural areas of Western Kenya: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Akeyo, Lilian; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-01-01

    Urban and rural areas have distinctive health problems, which require consideration. To examine sociocultural features of cholera and its community context, a semi-structured explanatory model interview based on vignettes depicting typical clinical features of cholera was used to interview 379 urban and rural respondents in Western Kenya. Findings included common and distinctive urban and rural ideas about cholera, and its prevention and treatment. The three most commonly perceived causes among urban and rural respondents collectively were drinking contaminated water, living in a dirty environment and lacking latrines. However, a dirty environment and flies were more prominently perceived causes among urban respondents. Rural respondents were less likely to identify additional symptoms and more likely to identify biomedically irrelevant perceived causes of cholera. Oral rehydration therapy was the most frequently reported home treatment. Health facilities were recommended unanimously at both sites. For prevention, rural respondents were more likely to suggest medicines, and urban respondents were more likely to suggest health education and clean food. Findings indicate community priority, demand for and potential effectiveness of enhanced efforts to control cholera in Western Kenya, and they suggest strategies that are particularly well suited for control of cholera in urban and rural areas. PMID:23672503

  7. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahasti; Jabbari Birami, Hossein; Moradi, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ) and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031) and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031) after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province.

  8. Rural Areas in the 1980s: Prologue to the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Norman

    The rural economy has performed badly during the 1980s. While the recession of the early 1980s was responsible for much of the trouble, the slow rural recovery demonstrates the fundamental hurdles facing the rural economy. Central among these are economic disadvantages, including remote locations isolating rural producers from their markets, low…

  9. A Review of Nonoccupational Pathways for Pesticide Exposure in Women Living in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review of nonoccupational pathways for pesticide exposure in women living in agricultural areas. Environ Health Perspect 123:515–524;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408273 PMID:25636067

  10. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL?1 and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L?1) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL?1 and 4.78 [±0.10] g L?1, respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4. PMID:25401067

  11. Draft Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2016-2017 in the area of Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry,

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Draft Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2016-2017 in the area of Food security, sustainable agriculture of this document. #12;HORIZON 2020 - Work Programme 2016 - 2017 Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry

  12. Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Benno, Y; Endo, K; Mizutani, T; Namba, Y; Komori, T; Mitsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber. PMID:2547333

  13. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented). During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends, availability of continuing professional training for career development and support of co-workers and the community. Conclusion Many first year students at Makerere University have limited exposure to health facilities in rural areas and have concerns about eventually working there. PMID:20573221

  14. Monitoring of black carbon concentration at an inland rural area including fixed sources in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Yun, Jeongseok; Kim, Kyeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    We monitored black carbon (BC) concentration for 6months to understand the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of an inland rural area in Korea. A multi-angle absorption photometer was used to continuously monitor the BC concentration, which was compared with elemental carbon (EC) concentration measured by an OC/EC Analyzer. For the atmospheric aerosols less than 10?m, size distributions were measured using both an optical particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The diurnal variations for BC concentration show that the average BC concentration was 1.43?gm(-3) and exhibited peaks in the morning rush hours. However, the BC concentration measured at night from 20:00 to 08:00 was higher than that measured during the day. The reason why the BC concentration at night was higher would be partly due to the regional characteristics influenced by the combination of local fixed sources and traffic condition. It is suggested that the traffic and transporting of pollutants from the west influenced the increase in the BC concentration at inland rural area including fixed sources. PMID:25900115

  15. Use of telemedicine to manage severe ischaemic strokes in a rural area with an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sébastien; Lavandier, K; Zioueche, Y; Pelletier, S; Vezain, A; Ducrocq, X

    2014-05-01

    The rural district of the Meuse (East France) has a high number of elderly patients for whom prognosis of ischaemic strokes is poor with high-haemorrhagic transformation risk of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). This disadvantage is made worse by the distances a patient has to travel to the nearest stroke unit. We set out to assess the effectiveness of a telestroke system implemented in this area. Between October 2010 and February 2012, data from each "tele-expertised" patient were collected. 53 patients were examined. Diagnosis of ischaemic stroke was confirmed in 43 cases (81 %), and intravenous rt-PA treatment performed in 21 cases (40 %). In the treated patient group, median age was 73 years, with 29 % of octogenarians. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 16, with 29 % ? 20. The median onset to needle time was 169 min, and the median door to needle time was 69 min. Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 3 cases (14 %), and was symptomatic in two (10 %). At 3 months, median NIHSS was 6, 6 patients (29 %) presented a favourable outcome (modified Rankin scale ? 1) and 3 (14 %) had died. In rural areas, for elderly patients with severe ischaemic strokes, telemedicine appears to be a way of improving accessibility and benefits of rt-PA treatment. PMID:24277200

  16. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (?313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations. PMID:26132474

  17. Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

    2015-01-01

    People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

  18. Telemedicine odyssey customised telemedicine solution for rural and remote areas in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jagjit Singh; Sharma, Sagri

    2006-01-01

    There is a significant potential for delivering medical services in rural areas of India using Telemedicine methods. However, there is a continuous emphasis on patient privacy, which is usually not a concern in traditional consultation. We at Centre for Development of Advance Computing, Mohali Punjab have developed a customized Telemedicine solution, which overcomes the barrier--technological as well as professional, legal and financial--to Telemedicine. We implement Telemedicine in rural areas as 70% of total population in India is living in villages. We have, as a pilot project, established Telemedicine Technology at six major locations in India. These locations were subsequently connected to nearby districts and primary health centres to make a Telemedicine hub. Currently, our major project is to deploy Telemedicine sites at various locations in the hilly and remote state of Himachal Pradesh. During these developments, we have faced unavoidable hurdles and tried to overcome them with team effort, perseverance and never give up attitude. This paper will shed light on our journey from scratch to what we have achieved till date. PMID:17095800

  19. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (?313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations. PMID:26132474

  20. [Development of psychiatric care in semi-urban and rural areas of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Chacón, A

    1978-12-01

    Information is given concerning the historical background of Psychiatric Services in Costa Rica. These services have been rendered since the year 1890 when a European style Asylum was opened in San José, the Capital City. The first residency program in Psichiatry begun in the early sixties with its projection into Community Psychiatry during the third year of training as well as the first actions trying to demonstrate to the administrators the usefullness and extension of Mental Health programmes for the future of the country. The residency training program evolved into a national program offering psychiatric assistance throughout the country. Seven out-patient facilities in the metropolitan area plus eleven out-patient facilities in semi-urban and rural areas were founded. To motivate the newly graduated psychiatrists to accept their designation in smaller towns and villages for a full time work was possible because of the experience that they had in Community Psychiatry during their training, there was a clear understanding when signing for the residency programme that at least for two years, they would work in the provinces. A closed relationship after their training with the National Psychiatric Hospital and the Coordination of National Psychiatric Services was kept. In the local, semi-rural communities, the Psychiatrists can hospitalize their train-in local general Hospitals and work closely with the rest of the medical staff. PMID:377914

  1. [The survey of quality of life among aging population in the rural areas of Guangdong].

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Ou, Q

    1998-02-01

    In order to investigate the quality of life in 1008 cases of elderly people living in rural areas, Kaipin and Boluo counties in Guangdong Province. Data was collected by cluster stratification and random selection, 96.64% of them were independently managing their activities of daily life with 78.08% lived by themselves. In a self-evaluation questionnaire on health status, 36.31% perceived good, 52.8% moderate and 10.42% bad with 56.05% having had history of chronic illnesses. Arthritis and chronic headache, appeared to take the first and second place 38.8% showed satisfaction about the current medical condition with, 45.7% moderate and 9.1% un-satisfaction. 23.81% of them felt the degree of satisfaction to their life was good, 65.97% moderate and 9.82% poor. Since the proportion of elderly in the rural areas was big, and most elderly could manage their lives in late years because they had engaged in physical labor in the past, the general health condition was bad which led to poor quality of life. It is suggested that more medical care be provided to elderly living in the countryside to improve their quality of life. PMID:10322697

  2. Association of diarrhea with anemia among children under age five living in rural areas of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Howard, Caitlin T; de Pee, Saskia; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D

    2007-08-01

    The high incidence of anemia of infection among children in developing countries is not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between diarrhea, fever and other risk factors for anemia in young children in the community. The relationship between risk factors for anemia was examined in a cross-sectional study of 85 229 children, aged 6-59 months, from impoverished families in rural areas of Indonesia. The prevalence of anemia was 56.1% among the study subjects. Those considered anemic were more likely to be younger, male, stunted, underweight, wasted, to have low maternal and paternal education and to have current diarrhea or history of diarrhea in the previous 7 days compared with children without anemia (all P < 0.0001). In separate multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, stunting, maternal age and education, and weekly per capita household expenditure, current diarrhea (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.325, P < 0.0001) and a history of diarrhea in the previous 7 days (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.25, P < 0.0001) were associated with an increased risk of anemia. In similar models, current fever had a borderline association with anemia (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.98-1.32, P = 0.09). We conclude that diarrhea is a contributing factor of anemia among young children living in rural areas in Indonesia. PMID:17463011

  3. Guidelines for the Planning of Rural Areas in Europe. A Contribution to an Overall European Regional Planning Policy. Conference Report Presented by the Belgian and German Delegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Rural regional planning that will satisfy man's real needs, and not merely those of an economic nature, must take into consideration all factors, all possible interactions, and most important of all, those values which cannot be expressed in terms of money. The report details the functions and problems of rural areas revealed by analyses of rural

  4. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea. PMID:26354686

  5. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

  6. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  7. Topical Lunch Robert Howarth "Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York."

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    NY. - Ear marked funding ­ varies year to year - Funds research, not extension; emphasis; · Biofuels, corn (including indirect pressures on area planted), alternatives (switchgrass), relationship · greenhouse gas fluxes from biofuels (N2O, switchgrass) · ethanol plants as CAFO magnets, with associated

  8. Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D

    1997-08-01

    This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India. PMID:12348316

  9. COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight interometry over rural areas: the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milillo, Pietro; Fielding, Eric J.; Schulz, William H.; Delbridge, Brent; Burgmann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    In the last 7 years, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with resolution of better than a meter acquired by satellites in spotlight mode offered an unprecedented improvement in SAR interferometry (InSAR). Most attention has been focused on monitoring urban areas and man-made infrastructure exploiting geometric accuracy, stability, and phase fidelity of the spotlight mode. In this paper, we explore the potential application of the COSMO-SkyMed® Spotlight mode to rural areas where decorrelation is substantial and rapidly increases with time. We focus on the rapid repeat times of as short as one day possible with the COSMO-SkyMed® constellation. We further present a qualitative analysis of spotlight interferometry over the Slumgullion landslide in southwest Colorado, which moves at rates of more than 1 cm/day.

  10. Study of addiction problems and morbidity among geriatric population in rural area of Aurangabad district

    PubMed Central

    Mundada, Vinod; Jadhav, Vijay; Gaikwad, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research Question: What is the addiction problems and morbidity profile pattern of geriatric population in rural area? Objectives: i) To study the morbidity profile of elderly. ii) To study the addiction problems among elderly. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Center (RHTC), Paithan of Government Medical College, Aurangabad during the period of September 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007. Total elderly population according to the definition at the field practice area of RHTC, Paithan was 3128. Enlisting of the study subjects was done by systematic random sampling by using Loksabha electoral list of 2005. A sample of 20% of total elderly population was taken by including every fifth elderly from the electoral list. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Settings: Field practice area of RHTC, Paithan of Government Medical College, Aurangabad. Participants: Elderly above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 625 which was 20% of total elderly at RHTC, Paithan. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test. Results: a) The study found that the prevalence of addiction among males was 68.34%, the prevalence of various addictions were smoking 29.96%, alcohol 18.18%, tobacco chewing 29.29% and among females, 45.42% elderly females use to chew tobacco. b) Prevalence of cataract was 40.16%, joint pain - 23.04%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) - 7.52%, senescent forgetfulness - 10.88%, hemorrhoids - 8.64%, benign enlargement of prostate (BEP) - 7.20% in elderly males, hearing impairment - 24.8%, hypertension - 21.6%, diabetes mellitus - 13.92%, and anemia - 8.32%. PMID:24672190

  11. AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING IN MISSOURI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIFFITH, WARREN L.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE…

  12. How New Manufacturing Industry Affects Rural Areas--A Synthesis. Rural Development Synthesis Series No. 1A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    In assessing impacts of rural industrial development, it is important to include not only economic impacts but the interface between organizational, political, and behavioral aspects with economic aspects. Though effects depend on a variety of economic and institutional circumstances, several observations can be made about how new manufacturing…

  13. United States Agricultural Information Network (USAIN) National Preservation Program for the History of Agriculture and Rural Life: Texas Preservation Project 1820-1945, Texas A&M University: Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Gyeszly, Suzanne D.; McGeachin, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    ANNUAL REPORT(1908); THIRD ANNUAL REPORT (1910) 1908;1910 Center for American History T630.6 T312D C.2 79 FOURTH 1911 Texas A&M University - Evans Library 582 EIGHTH 1915 Texas A&M University - Evans Library 582 TENTH 1917 Texas A&M University - Evans...=ISO-8859-1 UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NETWORK (USAIN) NATIONAL PRESERVATION PROGRAM FOR THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LIFE TEXAS PRESERVATION PROJECT SUZANNE D. GYESZLY AND ROBERT B. McGEACHIN, Ph.D...

  14. Promoting Use of Booster Seats in Rural Areas Through Community Sports Programs

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Mary E.; Miller, Beverly K.; Anderson, Byron L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Monroe, Kathy W.; Daniels, Dawn; O'Neil, Joseph; Scherer, L.R."Tres"; Hafner, John; Mullins, Samantha H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Booster seats reduce mortality and morbidity for young children in car crashes, but use is low, particularly in rural areas. This study targeted rural communities in 4 states using a community sports-based approach. Objective The Strike Out Child Passenger Injury (Strike Out) intervention incorporated education about booster seat use in children ages 4–7 years within instructional baseball programs. We tested the effectiveness of Strike Out in increasing correct restraint use among participating children. Methods Twenty communities with similar demographics from 4 states participated in a non-randomized, controlled trial. Surveys of restraint use were conducted before and after baseball season. Intervention communities received tailored education and parents had direct consultation on booster seat use. Control communities received only brochures. Results 1,014 pre-intervention observation surveys for children ages 4–7 years (Intervention Group (I): N = 511, Control (C): N = 503) and 761 post-intervention surveys (I: N = 409, C: N = 352) were obtained. For 3 of 4 states, the intervention resulted in increases in recommended child restraint use (Alabama +15.5%, Arkansas +16.1%, Illinois +11.0%). Communities in one state (Indiana) did not have a positive response (?9.2%). Overall, unadjusted restraint use increased 10.2% in intervention and 1.7% in control communities (P =.02). After adjustment for each state in the study, booster seat use was increased in intervention communities (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.56, 95% CI (1.16–2.10)). Conclusions A tailored intervention using baseball programs increased appropriate restraint use among targeted rural children overall and in 3 of 4 states studied. Such interventions hold promise for expansion into other sports and populations. PMID:23944283

  15. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  16. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  17. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Onoda, Keiichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nabika, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version) and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas. PMID:26512683

  18. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Onoda, Keiichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Nabika, Toru

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version) and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas. PMID:26512683

  19. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  20. Rural Land Use: A Need for New Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Wendell; Little, Charles E.

    The new demands being placed on the rural land base--for agricultural production, for energy and minerals, as well as for economic development--are considerable, and rural areas today face the difficult challenge of finding ways to accommodate new growth and development, while at the same time ensuring that essential activities and the inherent…

  1. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report, MA 5-79, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    During 1975, the Rural Manpower Service provided a comprehensive program of service to agricultural workers and employers in both rural and urban areas. This program was accomplished through employer relations and applicant registration programs, placement services, promotion of training programs, counseling and testing programs, collection and…

  2. Protected areas as biodiversity benchmarks for human impact: agriculture and the Serengeti avifauna.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A R E; Mduma, Simon A R; Arcese, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Protected areas as biodiversity benchmarks allow a separation of the direct effects of human impact on biodiversity loss from those of other environmental changes. We illustrate the use of ecological baselines with a case from the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. We document a substantial but previously unnoted loss of bird diversity in agriculture detected by reference to the immediately adjacent native vegetation in Serengeti. The abundance of species found in agriculture was only 28% of that for the same species in native savannah. Insectivorous species feeding in the grass layer or in trees were the most reduced. Some 50% of both insectivorous and granivorous species were not recorded in agriculture, with ground-feeding and tree species most affected. Grass-layer insect abundance and diversity was much reduced in agriculture, consistent with the loss of insectivorous birds. These results indicate that many species of birds will become confined to protected areas over time. We need to determine whether existing protected areas are sufficiently large to maintain viable populations of insectivorous birds likely to become confined to them. This study highlights the essential nature of baseline areas for assessing causes of change in human-dominated systems and for developing innovative strategies to restore biodiversity. PMID:12495481

  3. Land policy for integrated development of mountainous areas in the sectors of agriculture, stockbreeding and forestry

    E-print Network

    Psarrakos, Panayiotis

    , stockbreeding and forestry E. Michailidou, Agriculturist, MS "Environment and Development" N.T.U.A. Ph in this productive sector. Due to the high dependence of mountainous areas on agriculture, stockbreeding and forestry, forestry and stockbreeding. An analytical review of their "theory", their practical implementation, the way

  4. The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, Anne Birgitte; Wilche, Julie Præst; Dolmer, Ilone

    2013-01-01

    Background The Greenlandic Healthcare Reform (2010) required improved quality of services for health promotion, prevention of infectious and lifestyle diseases, family nursing and evidence-based clinical nursing. Aim To investigate current nursing practice in Greenland and to identify whether it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55, participated in this study. Four were working at healthcare centres in towns and four were working at nursing stations in villages. The nurses were educated in Greenland or a Nordic country and had been practicing nursing for at least 2 years in an Arctic region. They were observed for 1–5 days, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive work with conflict between health strategies and everyday realities, where unpredictable tasks often lead to prioritisation of urgent, acute work. There is interaction between personal and professional skills. Everyday life is characterised by opportunities and challenges in the grey areas, namely nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care, preventive care, social work, humanistic approaches and information technology to implement the ideology of health strategies. PMID:23984291

  5. Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. Methods: The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. Results: “Social uncertainty and confusion” was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Conclusions: Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Keywords: Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty. PMID:25685625

  6. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  7. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-12-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  8. The performance of the expanded programme on immunization in a rural area of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Lanaspa, Miguel; Balcells, Reyes; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhama, Abel; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique

    2015-09-01

    Vaccines are an effective public health measure. Vaccination coverage has improved in Africa in the last decades but has still not reached WHO/UNICEF target of at least 90% first-dose coverage for vaccines in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) implemented in Mozambique in 1979. There are concerns about reliability of vaccination coverage official data from low-income countries, and inequities in vaccine administration. We randomly sampled 266 under-five years children from Taninga, a poor rural area in Southern Mozambique under a Demographic surveillance system and collected data directly from the individual national health cards when available (BCG, DTP/HepB/Hib, Polio, Measles). We also collected data on socio-economic variables through an interview. Overall, only 5% of the participants did not receive all the doses of the vaccines included in the EPI in a timely manner (overall vaccination coverage 95%, 95% CI: 93.5-95.5%). The socio-economic status was homogenously low and no differences were found between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Vaccination coverage in Taninga was very high, despite the low socio-economic status of the population. The high performance of the EPI in Taninga is an encouraging experience for achieving high vaccination coverage in low-income rural settings. PMID:26095045

  9. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  10. [Active Health Promotion among the Aged--Transfer of a Programme from an Urban to a Rural Area].

    PubMed

    Mnich, E; Hofreuter-Gätgens, K; von dem Knesebeck, O

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the programme "active health promotion in old age" is to improve physical activity, healthy nutrition and the social integration of older people. The intervention has been successfully implemented in an urban setting and was then transferred to a rural area. Although the rural area has a major impact on recruitment, access, and factors of implementation, results demonstrate that overall the intervention was implemented successfully. Moreover, structural conditions (e.g., availability of fitness clubs) are essential for a successful transfer. PMID:23549652

  11. Effective Collaboration Among Health Care and Education Professionals: A Necessary Condition for Successful Early Intervention in Rural Areas. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Dickson, Bonnie, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

    Addressing the lack of cooperation between early intervention programs and the rural health community, this monograph presents eight papers by educators and health professionals who identify specific problems and offer solutions in the form of effective collaboration techniques and model programs. Papers by Susan Hastings and Stewart Gabel…

  12. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant. PMID:7777914

  13. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    E-print Network

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  14. The Influence of Wildfires on Aerosol Size Distributions in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; Fraile, R.; Castro, A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of wildfires on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14??m, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time—before, during, and after the passing of the smoke plume from the wildfires—shows that the mean geometric diameter of the fine mode in the measurements affected by the fire is smaller than the one obtained in the measurements carried out immediately before and after (0.14??m) and presents average values of 0.11??m. PMID:22629191

  15. Trend of socio-demographic characteristics of tubectomy acceptors in a rural area of West Bengal (Singur).

    PubMed

    Saha, S P

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the sociodemographic characteristics of tubectomy acceptors in a rural community of West Bengal (Singur), India from 1960-76. The study was conducted during the 1975-77 period in the service area of the Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, the field practice area of the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health in Calcutta. There were 1326 tubectomies recorded in the area from 1960-76. They were divided into 3 groups based on their period of operation, i.e., 1960-72 as Group A, 1973-75 as Group B, and 1976 as Group C. A 33.3% random sample was drawn from each group. 439 cases were drawn in the sample, of which 401 cases (91.1%) could be interviewed through a structured, pretested schedule. It was observed that disproportionately fewer Muslim women than Hindu women chose to have a tubectomy. Muslims constituted 11% of the total population in the area, whereas only 0.8% in Group A, 1.3% in Group B, and 1.2% in Group C were Muslims. Although the proportion of scheduled caste/tribe population in the area remained more or less constant around 23%, the tubectomy acceptance rate increased from 2.9% in Group A to 19.8% in Group C. This was a statistically significant difference. The illiteracy rate among the females in the area was 64%. The proportion of illiterates among the tubectomy acceptors was 67.4% in Group A and 61.7% in Groups B and C. Acceptance of tubectomy among the agricultural laborers increased from 21.9% in Group A to 30.9% in Group C, showing an overall increase of 9% over the years. The mean age at marriage among acceptors increased from 14.7 in earlier years to 15.2 and 15.4 in recent years. The average number of live births declined from 5.3 to 4.4 and 4.3 in recent years. None of the couples in Group B, only 0.4% of the couples in Group A, and 3.7% of couples in Group C accepted sterilization as a birth control method without a male child. The majority accepted tubectomy when they had at least 1 male child. 55.6% of acceptors in Group C were operated within 10 days of delivery compared to 35.5% in Group A and 30.8% in Group C. The average family size of the acceptors was higher than the national average, i.e., 7.04 in Group A, 6.47 in Group B, and 6.55 in Group C. 92.8% of the acceptors had 3 or more living children of whom 43.2% already had 5 or more children. It appears that tubectomy will fail to have much effect on population growth unless mothers are motivated to accept sterilization with a smaller number of living children. PMID:7347318

  16. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures. PMID:21183433

  17. Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Cleaveland, S; Cunningham, A A; Bronsvoort, B M Dec

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted along two transects (80 and 45km long) from Coquimbo and Ovalle cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region of Chile in 2005-2007 to investigate the demography of dogs in the context of a study of canine infectious diseases. Data were collected on the number of dogs per household, fecundity, mortality, and sex and age distribution. The results from 1021 households indicated that dog ownership was common, with a higher proportion of households owning dogs in rural areas (89%), than in towns (63%) or cities (49%). Dog density ranged from 1380+/-183 to 1509+/-972 dogs km(-2) in cities, from 119+/-18 to 1544+/-172 dogs km(-2) in towns, and from 1.0+/-0.4 to 15.9+/-0.4 dogs km(-2) in rural sites. The dog population was estimated to be growing at 20% in cities, 19% in towns and 9% in rural areas. The human:dog ratio ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 in cities, from 2.3 to 5.3 in towns, and from 1.1 to 2.1 in rural areas. A high percentage of owned dogs was always allowed to roam freely in the different areas (27%, 50% and 67% in cities, towns and rural areas, respectively). Observations of free-roaming dogs of unknown owner were reported from a greater proportion of respondents in cities (74%), followed by towns (51%) and finally by rural areas (21%). Overall only 3% of dogs had been castrated. In addition, only 29% of dogs were reported to have been vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and 30% against canine parvovirus (CPV). The higher population size and density, higher growth rate and a higher turnover of domestic dogs in urban than in rural areas and the poorly supervised and inadequately vaccinated dog populations in urban areas suggest that urban areas are more likely to provide suitable conditions for dogs to acts as reservoirs of pathogenic infections. PMID:20096943

  18. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  19. Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…

  20. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  1. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

  2. Agricultural Health and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics View more Rural Agricultural Health and Safety Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in ... 854,000 full-time workers employed in production agriculture in 2012, 374 farmers and farmworkers died from ...

  3. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N; Grebenshikova, N; Isamov, N; Lazarev, N; Panov, A; Ulanovsky, A; Zhuchenko, Y; Zhurba, M

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of inhabitants in Belarusian and Russian settlements with annual doses exceeding 1 mSv remains large. Compared to international values for the cost-effectiveness of actions to reduce occupational exposures, the recommended remediation strategies for rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are quite cost-effective (about 20 keuro/person-Sv). PMID:19811802

  4. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... in rural areas. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) – CMMI, also known as the CMS Innovation ...

  5. Estimating inter-annual diversity of seasonal agricultural area using multi-temporal resourcesat data.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, K; Sekhar, N Seshadri; Saxena, Manoj; Paliwal, R; Pathak, S; Porwal, M C; Fyzee, M A; Rao, S V C Kameswara; Wadodkar, M; Anasuya, T; Murthy, M S R; Ravisankar, T; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-09-15

    The present study aims at analysis of spatial and temporal variability in agricultural land cover during 2005-6 and 2011-12 from an ongoing program of annual land use mapping using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data aboard Resourcesat-1 and 2. About 640-690 multi-temporal AWiFS quadrant data products per year (depending on cloud cover) were co-registered and radiometrically normalized to prepare state (administrative unit) mosaics. An 18-fold classification was adopted in this project. Rule-based techniques along with maximum-likelihood algorithm were employed to deriving land cover information as well as changes within agricultural land cover classes. The agricultural land cover classes include - kharif (June-October), rabi (November-April), zaid (April-June), area sown more than once, fallow lands and plantation crops. Mean kappa accuracy of these estimates varied from 0.87 to 0.96 for various classes. Standard error of estimate has been computed for each class annually and the area estimates were corrected using standard error of estimate. The corrected estimates range between 99 and 116 Mha for kharif and 77-91 Mha for rabi. The kharif, rabi and net sown area were aggregated at 10 km × 10 km grid on annual basis for entire India and CV was computed at each grid cell using temporal spatially-aggregated area as input. This spatial variability of agricultural land cover classes was analyzed across meteorological zones, irrigated command areas and administrative boundaries. The results indicate that out of various states/meteorological zones, Punjab was consistently cropped during kharif as well as rabi seasons. Out of all irrigated commands, Tawa irrigated command was consistently cropped during rabi season. PMID:25435154

  6. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is beneficial to promote activity in open areas and thus assure vital ecosystem function in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26231029

  7. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is beneficial to promote activity in open areas and thus assure vital ecosystem function in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26231029

  8. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalvie, Mohamed A; Cairncross, Eugene; Solomon, Abdullah; London, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 ?g/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 ?g/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 ?g/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 ?g/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa. PMID:12689341

  9. Transformation of Rural Areas, Proceedings of the Polish-Yugoslav Geographical Seminar (1st, Ohrid, 24-29 May, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostrowicki, Jerzy, Ed.; Tyszkiewicz, Wieslawa, Ed.

    Transformations of rural areas was the topic of the first Polish-Yugoslav Geographical Seminar as documented in these proceedings from the six-day meeting. Twenty of the 25 papers presented are contained here, three in French and the remainder in English, and are categorized under these major topics: influence of big urban centers on the…

  10. IFLA General Conference, 1985. UNESCO/IFLA Presession Seminar. Public Library Service for All: How to Serve Rural Areas. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on public library service to rural areas, which were presented at the 1985 UNESCO/IFLA (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization/International Federation of Library Associations) presession seminar are compiled here and include: (1) "Characteristics and Needs of Various Groups, Families, and Other Community Groups"…

  11. The Development of Aggression during Adolescence: Sex Differences in Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression among Youth in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2008-01-01

    To describe trajectories of aggressive behaviors for adolescents living in rural areas, we compared the patterns, timing and sex differences in development of physical and social aggression using five waves of data collected from youth in school surveys administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N = 5,151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% Caucasian and 38.2%…

  12. “Embracing the present and fearing the future”: The meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Tove M.; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life. PMID:25361532

  13. A Continuing Educational Initiative to Develop Nurses' Mental Health Knowledge and Skills in Rural and Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Esther; Daly, John; Bell, Pamela; Brown, Tracey; Allan, Jan; Hancock, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Australian nurses (n=202) participated in mental health continuing education delivered via distance methods and regional workshops in rural areas. The majority increased content knowledge and thought audio- and videotapes were effective despite technical difficulties; 90% felt the experiential learning workshops and distance modules integrated…

  14. USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

  15. Project TRAIN: A Competency Based Training Program for Birth to Three Professionals Who Work in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Barbara J.; Bross, Mary

    This paper describes Project TRAIN (Training Rural Area Interventionists to meet Needs), a federally-funded competency-based program that provides graduate-level preservice training for early intervention professionals interested in working with special-need infants, toddlers, and their families. In the third year of the program 19 trainees have…

  16. Chemical Characterization of Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter in Rural Areas of Arizona Impacted by Significant Population Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of PMc is critical to the understanding of recently observed adverse health effects (e.g., asthma, reduced cardiac variability, etc) from coarse particles in ambient air. PMc mass an (PMc, particles between PM2.5 and PM10) in a rural area of increasing populati...

  17. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  18. MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN A PLANNED COMMUNITY. BACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STORMWATERS IN DEVELOPING RURAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of low flow and stormwater runoff bacteria content from rural and urban areas was conducted over a two and a half year period. Data were obtained from total coliform, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Staphylococcus sp. for ...

  19. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  20. Wet deposition at the sub-20 km scale in a rural upland area of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raper, David W.; Lee, David S.

    A network of 10 bulk precipitation collectors was established in an upland region of northern England to examine the small-scale variability of precipitation composition in a rural area. Significant spatial variability was shown for non sea-salt sulphate, calcium and hydrogen ion concentrations. Although nitrate concentrations did not show significant variability, a coherent gradient across the study area was observed. The large variability of calcium ion concentration across the area was related to limestone quarrying, which is prevalent in the south of the study area. Calcareous wind-blown soil may have also made a minor contribution to the abundance of calcium in the rain-water samples. It is likely, however, that a large fraction of the calcium was dry deposited to the funnels of the collectors in the form of particles. The network was not designed to study orographic enhancement of deposition, but it is suggested that this mechanism, along with wind-drift of scavenged cap-cloud droplets, cannot explain the spatial variation in ion concentrations. It is speculated that the variability in non-sea-salt sulphate concentrations may also be partially explained by reaction of CaCO 3 particles deposited to the funnels of the collectors with SO 2. Critical load exceedances in terms of deposited acidity from non-sea-salt sulphate were calculated using different spatially resolved deposition data. A better estimate of deposition in the study area was achieved by combining rainfall concentration data from the national network with the 5 km rainfall field, than the current methodology used for mapping of U.K. deposition which utilises a 20 km rainfall field. However, 20 km is considered to be the minimum resolution at which a procedure for parameterising orographic enhancement can be incorporated. Deposition and critical load exceedances in 2005 were calculated using a long-range transport model and significant improvements in the protection of soils were predicted from the projected emissions reductions.

  1. Physico-chemical and biological monitoring as integrated tools in evaluating tropospheric ozone in urban and semi-rural areas.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, I; Cortiello, M; Manes, F; Tripodo, P

    1994-01-25

    The relationship between tropospheric ozone and growth of radish plants during Summer 1991 in an urban and in a semi-rural site located in Central Italy are analyzed. Largest ozone concentrations and largest radish growth reductions are found in the semi-rural site. The importance of integrating the information on physico-chemical processes with biological monitoring to estimate the impact of photochemical oxidants on natural and cultivated vegetation in the Mediterranean area is discussed. Results from photochemical episodes are also reported in terms of physico-chemical evaluation of atmospheric pollutants. PMID:8178125

  2. Household Wastes as Larval Habitats of Dengue Vectors: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas of Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K.

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban–rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production. PMID:26447690

  3. Household Wastes as Larval Habitats of Dengue Vectors: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production. PMID:26447690

  4. Carer and service providers' experiences of individual funding models for children with a disability in rural and remote areas.

    PubMed

    Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Veitch, Craig; Bundy, Anita; Lincoln, Michelle; Brentnall, Jennie; Gallego, Gisselle; Griffiths, Scott

    2013-07-01

    There is a global movement for people with a disability towards person-centred practices with opportunities for self-determination and choice. Person-centred approaches may involve individual funding (IF) for the purchase of required support. A shift to a person-centred model and IF should allow people with a disability and their carers greater choice in therapy access. However, individuals who live in rural and remote areas have less choice and access to therapy services than their metropolitan counterparts. Drawing on data from a larger study into therapy service delivery in a rural and remote area of New South Wales, Australia, this study describes some benefits and barriers to using IF to access therapy services in rural areas. Ten carers and 60 service providers participated in audio-recorded focus groups and individual interviews during which IF was discussed. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis and constant comparison. Greater access to and choice of therapy providers were identified as benefits of IF. Four barriers were identified: (i) lack of information and advice; (ii) limited local service options and capacity; (iii) higher costs and fewer services and (iv) complexity of self-managing packages. A range of strategies is required to address the barriers to using IF in rural and remote areas. Carers indicated a need for: accessible information; a local contact person for support and guidance; adequate financial compensation to offset additional travel expenses and coordinated eligibility and accountability systems. Service providers required: coordinated cross-sector approaches; local workforce planning to address therapist shortages; certainty around service viability and growth; clear policies and procedures around implementation of IF. This study highlights the need for further discussion and research about how to overcome the barriers to the optimal use of an IF model for those living in rural and remote areas. PMID:23638843

  5. Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

  6. A collection and treatment system for organic waste and wastewater in a sensitive rural area.

    PubMed

    Malmén, L; Palm, O; Norin, E

    2003-01-01

    In the municipality of Sund, located in a sensitive rural area in Aland, a demonstration project is now carried out with the overall objective to move the most concentrated fractions of wastewater from the coastal area to a treatment plant situated close to arable land. Blackwater and greywater septic sludge from about twenty households and two tourist camps are treated together with energy rich organic material from a nearby potato-chip factory. The collection concept is based on the use of extremely efficient water-saving toilets, with separate systems for the blackwater and greywater in the households. The collected materials are co-treated in a batchwise aerobic thermophilic treatment process (wet composting process), where the materials reach at least 55 degrees C during a minimum of 10 hours. The dry matter content of the collected material was about 2%. After stabilisation and sanitation (by the temperature rise caused by microbial activity during the treatment process), the compost slurry is utilized as a liquid organic fertilizer on arable land. PMID:14753521

  7. Unraveling Health Risk and Speciation of Arsenic from Groundwater in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi; Dong, Zhaomin; Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62) were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan) of Punjab in Pakistan. The mean and median As concentrations in groundwater were 37.9 and 12.7 µg·L(-1) (range = 1.5-201 µg·L(-1)). Fifty three percent groundwater samples showed higher As value than WHO safe limit of 10 µg·L(-1). Speciation of As in groundwater samples (n = 13) showed the presence of inorganic As only; arsenite (As(III)) constituted 13%-67% of total As and arsenate (As(V)) ranged from 33% to 100%. For As health risk assessment, the hazard quotient and cancer risk values were 11-18 and 46-600 times higher than the recommended values of US-EPA (i.e., 1.00 and 10(-6), respectively). In addition to As, various water quality parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity, Na, Ca, Cl(-), NO?(-), SO?(2-), Fe, Mn, Pb) also enhanced the health risk. The results show that consumption of As-contaminated groundwater poses an emerging health threat to the communities in the study area, and hence needs urgent remedial and management measures. PMID:26445051

  8. Unraveling Health Risk and Speciation of Arsenic from Groundwater in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi; Dong, Zhaomin; Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62) were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan) of Punjab in Pakistan. The mean and median As concentrations in groundwater were 37.9 and 12.7 µg·L?1 (range = 1.5–201 µg·L?1). Fifty three percent groundwater samples showed higher As value than WHO safe limit of 10 µg·L?1. Speciation of As in groundwater samples (n = 13) showed the presence of inorganic As only; arsenite (As(III)) constituted 13%–67% of total As and arsenate (As(V)) ranged from 33% to 100%. For As health risk assessment, the hazard quotient and cancer risk values were 11–18 and 46–600 times higher than the recommended values of US-EPA (i.e., 1.00 and 10?6, respectively). In addition to As, various water quality parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity, Na, Ca, Cl?, NO3?, SO42?, Fe, Mn, Pb) also enhanced the health risk. The results show that consumption of As-contaminated groundwater poses an emerging health threat to the communities in the study area, and hence needs urgent remedial and management measures. PMID:26445051

  9. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from urban and rural areas in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, R L; O'Dwyer, L H; de Castro, J R; Metzger, B; Rubini, A S; Mundim, A V; Eyal, O; Talmi-Frank, D; Cury, M C; Baneth, G

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of Hepatozoon infection in dogs in the rural and urban areas of Uberlândia, Brazil by PCR and molecular characterization. DNA was obtained from blood samples collected from 346 local dogs from both genders and various ages. Seventeen PCR products from positive blood samples of urban dogs and 13 from the rural dogs were sequenced. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that all 30 dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis similar in sequence to H. canis from southern Europe. Four local dog sequences were submitted to GenBank (accessions JN835188; KF692038; KF692039; KF692040). This study indicates that H. canis is the cause of canine hepatozoonosis in Uberlândia and that infection is similarly widespread in rural and urban dogs. PMID:25039064

  10. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs) are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302) while it was 5.6% (17/303) among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3%) compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P < 0.05). Among people infected with HIV, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more prevalent among males (12.6%) than females (4.4%; P < 0.05). According to multivariate logistic regression, the factors significantly associated with parasite infections of the people who were HIV positive included sex (male: OR = 6.70, 95% CI: 2.030, 22.114), younger age (less than 42 years old: OR = 4.148, 95% CI: 1.348, 12.761), and poor personal hygiene habits (OR = 0.324, 95% CI: 0.105, 0.994). Conclusions HIV positive individuals are more susceptible to co-infections with Cryptosporidium spp. than HIV negative people, particularly younger males with poor personal hygiene habits, indicating a need for targeted hygiene promotion, IPI surveillance and treatment. PMID:22330320

  11. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chichester, Douglas C.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

  12. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. Methods The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Results Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Conclusion Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an important role in maintaining the breeding of anopheles larvae and the malaria transmission in Kandi. In rural settings, the proximity to permanent water sites could probably be the aggravating factor. PMID:24564957

  13. Commodification of Rural Places: A Narrative of Social Fields, Rural Development, and Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floysand, Arnt; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…

  14. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

  15. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of agriculture in the future.

  16. HIV Incidence and Spatial Clustering in a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Augusto, Orvalho J.; Munguambe, Khátia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Pedro, Elpidia N.; Sacoor, Charfudin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Aponte, John J.; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menendez, Clara; Naniche, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring the HIV epidemic in a defined population is critical for planning treatment and preventive strategies. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa, which harbours the highest burden of the disease. Objective To estimate HIV incidence in adults aged 18-47 years old and to investigate spatial variations of HIV prevalence in Manhiça, a semi-rural area of southern Mozambique. Methods Two cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2012 to determine HIV prevalence. Individual participants were randomly selected from the demographic surveillance system in place in the area and voluntary HIV counselling and testing was offered at the household level. HIV incidence was calculated using prevalence estimates from the two sero-surveys. Each participant’s household was geocoded using a global information system. The Spatial Scan Statistics programme was used to identify areas with disproportionate excess in HIV prevalence. Results A total of 1511 adults were tested. The estimated HIV prevalence in the community was 39.9% in 2010 and 39.7% in 2012. The overall HIV incidence was 3.6 new infections per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) [95CI 1.56; 7.88], assuming stable epidemic conditions, and tended to be higher in women (4.9/100 PYAR [95CI 1.74; 11.85]) than in men (3.2/PYAR [95CI 1.36; 9.92]). One cluster with significant excess HIV prevalence was identified at the same geographic location in both surveys. This cluster had an HIV prevalence of 79.0% in 2010 and 52.3% in 2012. Conclusions The findings of these first individually-randomised community-HIV sero-surveys conducted in Mozambique reinforce the need to combine HIV incidence estimates and research on micro geographical infection patterns to guide and consolidate effective prevention strategies. PMID:26147473

  17. The Impact of Living in Rural and Urban Areas: Vitamin D and Medical Costs in Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beth A.; Manning, Todd; Peiris, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Living in a rural region is associated with significant health disparities and increased medical costs. Vitamin D deficiency, which is increasingly common, is also associated with many adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rural-urban residence status of veterans was related to vitamin D levels, and…

  18. MEETING THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGE THROUGH SCHOOL PROGRAM INNOVATIONS IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ESTES, NOLAN

    THE RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION SEEMS TO BE PARTICULARLY ATTRACTIVE TO TWO TYPES OF PEOPLE--(1) BRIGHT YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN, AND (2) POORLY TRAINED YOUTH SEEKING BETTER LABOR MARKETS. IF THIS "BRAIN DRAIN" AND MIGRATION FLOW IS TO BE STEMMED, IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO PROVIDE AN IMPROVED RURAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. WHILE SEVERAL NEEDS HAVE BEEN…

  19. The Impact of Special Needs Students on Teachers in the Rural Areas of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Helen E.; Boyer, Wanda A. R.

    A survey of 121 rural teachers in British Columbia examined their knowledge about and attitudes toward the inclusion of special needs students. In addition, the study examined rural teachers' knowledge of and ability to access resources in the school district and their individual schools. The survey questionnaire consisted of 114 questions related…

  20. Webcasting: A New Technology for Training Special Educators in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Barbara L.; Duff, Michael C.

    This paper describes the use of webcasting technology in a personnel preparation program for rural special education practitioners. Emerging technologies offer promising solutions to the challenges of providing accessible and appropriate training to rural special educators. Web-based instruction is especially appropriate for on-the-job training of…

  1. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study) of 11,982 households located in the province?s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42%) households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information). The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p<0.0001). Diabetes risk increased with age and affected almost 17% of those older than 65 (OR 2.57; CI? 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45). Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI?s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI?s 2.44, 3.98] if mother), obesity (OR 2.66; CI?s 1.86, 3.78), as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI?s 1.15, 2.91). Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada. PMID:23289729

  3. Rural and Urban America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Gwen; Pankake, Anita; Fullwood, Harry; Gates, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    A review of rural and urban demographics reveals that rural areas are experiencing increasing diversity in their student population, decreasing sense of community, and increasing similarity to the challenges faced by urban and suburban schools. As the distinctions between urban and rural areas become less pronounced, will the benefits of rural

  4. The Effect of Clouds and Wind on the Difference in Nocturnal Cooling Rates between Urban and Rural Areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Essenwanger, Oskar M.

    1995-11-01

    The urban warming effect is interesting in its own right and is important for understanding global warming. The aim of this study is to determine how the urban warming effect changes with cloud conditions and with wind speed. Studies of the urban warming effect have mostly concentrated on the urban rural difference in daily maximum or minimum temperatures. The problem was approached using a new technique. Instead of comparing a city, represented by a first-order weather station, with the surrounding rural area, represented by data collected by cooperative observers; pairs of cities, each with a first-order weather station, were studied. One city was large. The other city was small enough to have a minimal warming effect and was close enough to the larger city to approximately represent the rural area. In this way, hourly temperatures, cloud cover, and wind data could be studied rather than only the differences between the daily maxima or minima. Results show that wind disrupts the normal nocturnal cooling pattern in which the smaller city, with lower thermal inertia, cools more quickly than the larger city. Clouds also disrupt this pattern, at least to the extent that one must be careful about extrapolating either magnitudes or patterns of urban rural temperature difference observed by satellites under clear sky conditions to partly cloudy or cloudy conditions.

  5. Walking Devices Used by the Elderly Living in Rural Areas of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Patcharawan, SUWANNARAT; THAWEEWANNAKIJ, Thiwabhorn; KAEWSANMUNG, Supapon; KAEWJOHO, Chonticha; SAENGSUWAN, Jiamjit; AMATACHAYA, Sugalya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of all types of external devices was previously investigated for elderly with and without orthopaedic problems of a developed country. This study describes the proportion, types and the reasons of using a walking device in elderly who live in many rural areas of Thailand. Methods: Participants (n = 390) were interviewed using a questionnaire to ascertain their demographics, health status and types of walking device required for daily activities. Results: Forty-one participants (11%) used a walking device, particularly when walking long distances due to a fear of falling, musculoskeletal pain, and impaired walking ability. The proportion of walking devices used dramatically increased in participants aged 75 years and over (six times of those aged 60–74 years). Most of the participants used a modified walking stick by their own determination (81%), while only 7% used one according to medical prescription. A significant increase in the need of a walking device was seen in participants aged 75 years and over (OR = 13.9; 95% CI 5.9–32.7; P < 0.001), with a medical problem (OR = 45.9; 95% CI 6.7–73.4; P < 0.001) and who required regular medication (OR = 12.7; 95% CI 5.0–33.6; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings emphasise the importance of a community health service to promote health status, particularly before 75 years of age. PMID:26023295

  6. A Study on Morbidity Profile and Associated Risk Factors in a Rural Area of Dehradun

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, SD; Semwal, Jayanti; Deepshikha

    2014-01-01

    Background: First few years of life is the most crucial period of life as this age is known for accelerated growth and development, warranting regular monitoring. During this period about 40% of physical growth and 80% of mental development occurs. Any adverse influences during this period may result in severe limitations in their development. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre. Mothers of children between 0-3 years of age were enquired about the morbidity in the past two months. Results: Diarrhea (47.9%) followed by ARI (22.21%), Pica (13%) and Worm Infestation (9.21%) were the commonest morbidities found in the study population. Morbidities were found to be common in males as compared to females. Amongst the nutritional deficiencies anaemia & Vitamin B deficiencies were the commonest. Conclusion: There was considerable sickness load amongst the toddlers. Morbidity can be reduced by improvement in the health care system at peripheral level PMID:25302220

  7. Clinical features of infectious keratitis at a tertiary referral center in a rural area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Lee, Jang Hun; Kim, Moosang; Han, Sang Beom; Hyon, Joon Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate clinical features of infectious keratitis at a tertiary referral center in a rural area of Korea. Results This was a retrospective study. Medical records of 70 patients who were diagnosed with infectious keratitis and underwent corneal culture were reviewed. Data including demographics, predisposing factors, and microbiological profiles were collected and analyzed. Results Age distribution showed one peak at sixth and seventh decade, and 48 patients (68.6%) were ?50 years old. The male to female ratio was 43 (61.4%):27 (38.6%). Ocular surface disease was the most frequently found (48 cases, 68.6%). Gram-positive bacteria were most common (ten patients, 66.7%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria (three patients, 20%) and fungi (two patients, 13.3%). In this study, 34.3% of patients were treated by at least one topical antimicrobial before culture. Patients who received topical therapy before culture showed positive culture rate of 16.7%, and patients who underwent corneal culture without topical antibiotics showed positive culture rate of 23.9%. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in positive culture rate (P=0.554). Conclusion The proportions of the elderly and male patients were higher than the young and female patients, respectively. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common pathogens, and ocular surface disease was the most common predisposing factor. PMID:26675320

  8. Marital disruption: determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, Mehnaaz; Khatun, Mohsina

    2005-03-01

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case studies and quantitative surveys of a small number of maritally-disrupted women. Additional data were used from the ongoing demographic surveillance system of ICDDR,B: Centre for Health and Population Research. The findings revealed that divorced and abandoned women and their children were extremely vulnerable, both socially and economically. Various factors that influence marital disruption were identified, the most important ones being: aspects determining the process of marriage, various family problems due to non-fulfillment of demand for dowry, mutual distrust, extramarital relationships, quality of sexual life, education of women, and other behavioural characteristics of individuals. Level of education of the wife showed an inverse relationship with the risk of divorce. Women who did not have livebirths from their first pregnancy had a higher risk of divorce. The effect of pregnancy outcome was dependent on the level of education of women. Illiterate women with unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes were at the highest risk of being divorced, with the lowest risk for women with some education and a livebirth. The findings clearly indicate the need for broad-based social development programmes for women, especially to enhance their education to reduce their vulnerability to marital instability and its consequences. PMID:15884756

  9. [The integration of telemedicine concepts in the regional care of rural areas: Possibilities, limitations, perspectives].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Neeltje; Schmidt, S; Stentzel, U; Mühlan, H; Hoffmann, W

    2015-04-01

    In rural areas with a low population density and (imminent) gaps in regional health care, telemedicine concepts can be a promising option in supporting the supply of medical care.Telemedicine connections can be established between different health care providers (e.g., hospitals) or directly between health care providers and patients.Different scenarios for the implementation of telemedicine have been developed, from the monitoring of chronically ill patients to the support of acute care. Examples of frequently applied telemedicine concepts are teleradiology, telemedicine stroke networks, and the telemedicine monitoring of patients with heart failure. The development of concepts for other indications and patient groups is apparently difficult in Germany; one reason could be that research institutions are involved in only a small number of projects. However, the participation of research institutes would be of importance in creating more scientific evidence. The development of appropriate evaluation designs for analyzing the effectiveness of telemedicine concepts and economic effects is an important task and challenge for the future. Mandatory evaluation criteria should be developed to provide a basis for the translation of positively evaluated telemedicine concepts into routine care. PMID:25698122

  10. Individual treatment of hotel and restaurant waste water in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, S W H; Ghyselbrecht, N; Vermeiren, T J L; Depuydt, V; Boeckaert, C

    2012-01-01

    About 25 hotels, restaurants and pubs in the rural community Heuvelland are situated in the area designated for individual water treatment. In order to meet the legislation by the end of 2015, each business needs to install an individual waste water treatment system (IWTS). To study this situation, three catering businesses were selected for further research. The aim of the study was to quantify the effluent quality and to assess IWTS performance for these catering businesses. First of all, the influence of discharging untreated waste water on the receiving surface water was examined. The results showed a decrease in water quality after the discharge point at every business. With the collected data, simulations with the software WEST were performed. With this software two types of IWTSs with different (buffer) volumes were modelled and tested for each catering business. The first type is a completely mixed activated sludge reactor and the second type is a submerged aerobic fixed-bed reactor. The results of these simulations demonstrate that purification with an IWTS is possible if the capacity is large enough and if an adequate buffer volume is installed and if regular maintenance is performed. PMID:22629640

  11. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-10-01

    This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 ?m) and coarse (2.5-10 ?m) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 ?m). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

  12. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  13. Assessment of agricultural drought in rainfed cereal production areas of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural drought assessment is an important tool for water management in water-scarce regions such as Inner Mongolia and northeastern China. Conventional methods have difficulty of clarifying long-term influences of drought on regional agricultural production. To accurately evaluate regional agricultural drought, we assessed the performance of drought indices by constructing a new assessment framework with three components: crop model calibration and validation, drought index calculation, and index assessment (standard period setting, mean value and agreement assessments). The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model simulated well of county-level wheat and maize yields in the nine investigated counties. We calculated a major crop-specific index yield reduction caused by water stress (WSYR) in the EPIC crop model, by relating potential and rainfed yields. Using 26 agricultural drought cases, we compared WSYR with two meteorological drought indices: precipitation (P) and aridity index (AI). The results showed that WSYR had greater agreement (85 %) than either the precipitation (65 %) or aridity index (68 %). The temporal trend of the indices over the period 1962-2010 was tested using three approaches. The result via WSYR revealed a significant increase in the trend of agricultural drought in drought-prone counties, which could not be shown by the precipitation and aridity indices. Total number of dry year via WSYR from 1990s to 2000s increases more sharply than via P or AI. As shown by WSYR, the number of dry years in northeastern China and Inner Mongolia is generally increasing, particularly after the 2000s, in the western part of the study area. The study reveals the usefulness of the framework for drought index assessment and indicates the potential of WSYR and possible drought cases for drought classification.

  14. Irrational use of antimalarial drugs in rural areas of eastern Pakistan: a random field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial disease is a common practice in countries where malaria is endemic. However, unwarranted use of such drugs can cause side effects in some people and is a financial drain on local economies. In this study, we surveyed the prevalence of malaria parasites in humans, and the prevalence of the malaria transmitting mosquito vectors in the study area. We also investigated the use of antimalarial drugs in the local people. We focused on randomly selected rural areas of eastern Pakistan where no malaria cases had been reported since May 2004. Methods Mass blood surveys, active case detection, passive case detection, and vector density surveys were carried out in selected areas of Sargodha district from September 2008 to August 2009. Data pertaining to the quantities and types of antimalarial drugs used in these areas were collected from health centers, pharmacies, and the district CDC program of the Health Department of the Government of the Punjab. Results Seven hundred and forty four blood samples were examined, resulting in a Blood Examination Rate (BER) of 3.18; microscopic analysis of blood smears showed that none of the samples were positive for malaria parasites. Investigation of the mosquito vector density in 43 living rooms (bedrooms or rooms used for sleeping), 23 stores, and 32 animal sheds, revealed no vectors capable of transmitting malaria in these locations. In contrast, the density of Culex mosquitoes was high. Substantial consumption of a variety of antimalarial tablets, syrups, capsules and injections costing around 1000 US$, was documented for the region. Conclusion Use of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial infection or the vectors that transmit the disease was common in the study area. Continuous use of such drugs, not only in Pakistan, but in other parts of the world, may lead to drug-induced side effects amongst users. Better training of health care professionals is needed to ensure accurate diagnoses of malaria and appropriate prescription of antimalarial drugs delivered to communities. PMID:23116148

  15. Evaluation of Self Medication Practices in Rural Area of Town Sahaswan at Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, A; Patel, I; Mohanta, GP; Balkrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self-medication. It is a common type of self-care behavior among the populace of various countries. World Health Organization promotes the practice of self-medication for effective and quick relief of symptoms without medical consultations to reduce the burden on health-care services, which are often understaffed and inaccessible in rural and remote areas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the extent and pattern of self-medication among the population (patients) attending pharmacies at study sites and to note the association of self-medication variables with demographic factors. Subjects and Methods: The present study was a community based cross sectional study aimed to gather information about the prevalence of self-medication in the rural town of Sahaswan, Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to July 2012. The sample size comprised of 600 respondents. Data were collected through a prepared questionnaire. All descriptive data were coded, entered and analyzed using the statistical package for Social sciences program version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive data analysis was conducted and reported as frequencies and percentage. Results: The percentage of patients who were seeking self-medication was approximately 50% (300/600). Most of the patients were seeking self-medication for headache and other pain (23.3% [140/600]), fever (14.5% [87/600]), urinary tract infections (9.7% [58/600]) and respiratory tract infections (11.7% [70/600]). The drugs most commonly purchased for practicing self-medication were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25.3% [152/600]), medications used for gastro intestinal problems (20.8% [125/600]) and antibiotics (16.7% [100/600]). Conclusion: Prevalence of self-medication was high primarily among illiterate males aged above 15 years with a low income. Patient health awareness programs, assistance by community pharmacists and pharmacist continuing education are necessary for controlling self-medication. There is a need for planning interventions to promote rational self-medication through mass medias such as newspaper, magazine and TV. PMID:25184092

  16. Examining health status of women in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye

    2009-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that less information is available in literature on health status of women, and health status of women in 3 geographical zones in Jamaica. Aims: This study examined data on the health status of women in Jamaica in order to provide some scientific explanation of those factors that account for their health status; and differences based on area of residence. Materials and Methods: The sub-sample for the current study was 8,541 women ages of 15 and 100 years extracted from a national survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the subsample, and logistic regressions were utilized to model health statuses. Results: Rural women had the lowest health status (OR = 0.819, 95% CI = 0.679-0.989) among all women (peri-urban OR = 1.054, 95% CI = 0.842-1.320; urban OR = 1.00) and that they were the least likely to have health insurance coverage. Health insurance was the critical predictor of good health status of women in Jamaica, and this was equally the same across the 3 geographic areas; and that married women were 1.3 times more likely (OR 1.3, 95 CI = 1.036-1.501) to report good health compared to those who were never married. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of women's health status in Jamaica as well as the disparity which correlates based on the different geographical regions. PMID:22666705

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  18. Geochemistry characterization of groundwater in an agricultural area of Razan, Hamadan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mohsen

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality in an area with agriculture as main use. Thirty groundwater samples have been collected from Razan area (Hamadan, Iran) for hydrochemical investigations to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The chemical compositions of the groundwater are dominated by Na+, Ca2+, HCO3 -, Cl- and SO4 2-, which have been derived largely from natural chemical weathering of carbonate, gypsum and anthropogenic activities of fertilizer’s source. The production of SO4 2- has multiple origins, mainly from dissolution of sulphate minerals, oxidation of sulphide minerals and anthropogenic sources. The major anthropogenic components in the groundwater include Na+, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -, with Cl- and NO3 - being the main contributors to groundwater pollution in Razan area.

  19. European Commission Agriculture and

    E-print Network

    European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

  20. Fluxes, variability and sources of cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in dry atmospheric depositions in urban, suburban and rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, G.; Chen, Z.; Teng, J.; Bi, C.; Zhou, D.; Sun, C.; Li, Y.; Xu, S.

    2012-02-15

    In China's largest city, Shanghai, dry deposition fluxes of Cd, Pb, As and Hg were 137, 19 354, 2897 and 9.4 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively in an urban area, intermediate in a suburban area, and 51.7, 5311, 1703 and 7.3 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively in a rural area. Enrichment factors were Cd>Pb>As>Hg. Seasonal variations of metals differed: Pb and As were dominated by fossil fuel combustion, Cd was related to industrial pollution, and natural source controlled Hg levels.

  1. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  2. Community Effects on Teacher Involvement in School Development Activity: A Study of Teachers in Cities, Smaller Towns and Rural Areas in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midthassel, Unni Vere; Manger, Terje; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of community type on teacher involvement in school development activity (SDA). Data on urban, small town, and rural teachers indicated that teachers in smaller towns were more involved in SDA than those in rural areas, while the differences between cities and smaller towns were not statistically significant. The impact of…

  3. Psychosocial Differences Between Whites and African Americans Living With HIV/AIDS in Rural Areas of 13 U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davantes Heckman, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Context: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevalence rates are increasing rapidly in rural areas of the United States. As rural African Americans are increasingly affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is important to identify psychosocial factors unique to this group so that AIDS mental health interventions can be culturally…

  4. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  5. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

  6. Mercury Cycling in Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California: Water Column Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, J. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Stephenson, M.; Aiken, G. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Stricker, C.

    2007-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a significant role in mercury (Hg) cycling. For instance, aromatic dissolved OM can enhance Hg solubility leading to greater cycling in the water column whereas bioavailable forms of OM may enhance Hg methylation by increasing the microbial activity of Hg-methylating bacteria. Differences in wetland management (e.g. fertilization, plant residue, water depth and movement) can influence the character of OM within the wetland, thus affecting Hg cycling as well. This study is investigating the role of OM in Hg cycling over a wide range of time scales and wetland management practices within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, near Sacramento, California. We are comparing Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the water columns of three agricultural field types (wild rice, white rice, and shallow-flooded fallow) with those in two non-agricultural field types (seasonal and permanent wetlands). The time scales over which variations in Hg and MeHg concentrations are being investigated range from diurnal variations caused by fluctuations in photolytic reactions and microbial activity to seasonal variations caused by plant growth, land management, climate, and fertilization. We relate those concentration fluctuations to the dominant processes affecting OM cycling in the fields. We further evaluate the possible influence of S-bearing fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and zinc sulfate, on Hg methylation because of the role that sulfur plays in Hg cycling and Hg-OM interactions. Preliminary results indicate that dissolved OM (DOM) concentrations (operationally defined using a filter with 0.45 ìm pore diameter) increased from 9 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) at inflow stations to as high as 30 mg-C/L within the water column of the wetlands. Based on measured optical properties, OM in these wetlands appears to be derived from a mixture of algal activity, plant exudates, and diffusion from the flooded soils, with the proportion of each source dependent on land use. Concurrent rise in both the Hg concentration (from 14 ng/L to 50 ng/L) and the fraction of Hg in the dissolved fraction (from 15 to 50 percent, based on filtration with 0.45 ìm pore diameter filters) mirrors the increase in DOM concentration, suggesting the importance of Hg-DOM complexation. Measurements of optical properties and field parameters taken at 15-minute intervals over a diurnal cycle indicate that conditions in the rice fields fluctuate greatly through the day, with dissolved oxygen dropping from 14 mg/L in the afternoon to 2 mg/L at dawn. Extreme and systematic fluctuations also were observed for other water properties, including spectrometric indicators of OM character. Further analysis of water quality constituents and their relation to Hg and MeHg cycling in these wetlands will be presented.

  7. Finding a New Safety Performance Function for Two-Way, Two-Lane Highways in Rural Areas

    E-print Network

    Bornheimer, Cheryl

    2011-12-31

    FINDING A NEW SAFETY PERFORMANCE FUNCTION FOR TWO-WAY, TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS IN RURAL AREAS By Cheryl Bornheimer Submitted to the graduate degree program in Civil Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment... Parsons Date Defended: December 21, 2011 ii The Thesis Committee for Cheryl Bornheimer certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: FINDING A NEW SAFETY PERFORMANCE FUNCTION FOR TWO-WAY, TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS...

  8. Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety and Depression in Rural Areas: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin; Oosterbroek, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Background People living in rural and remote communities have greater difficulty accessing mental health services and evidence-based therapies, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), than their urban counterparts. Computerized CBT (CCBT) can be used to effectively treat depression and anxiety and may be particularly useful in rural settings where there are a lack of suitably trained practitioners. Objective To systematically review the global evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of CCBT interventions for anxiety and/or depression for people living in rural and remote locations. Methods We searched seven online databases: Medline, Embase Classic and Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. We also hand searched reference lists, Internet search engines, and trial protocols. Two stages of selection were undertaken. In the first, the three authors screened citations. Studies were retained if they reported the efficacy, effectiveness or acceptability of CCBT for depression and/or anxiety disorders, were peer reviewed, and written in English. The qualitative data analysis software, NVivo 10, was then used to run automated text searches for the word “rural,” its synonyms, and stemmed words. All studies identified were read in full and were included in the study if they measured or meaningfully discussed the efficacy or acceptability of CCBT among rural participants. Results A total of 2594 studies were identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria and were included in the review. The studies that disaggregated efficacy data by location of participant reported that CCBT was equally effective for rural and urban participants. Rural location was found to both positively and negatively predict adherence across studies. CCBT may be more acceptable among rural than urban participants—studies to date showed that rural participants were less likely to want more face-to-face contact with a practitioner and found that computerized delivery addressed confidentiality concerns. Conclusions CCBT can be effective for addressing depression and anxiety and is acceptable among rural participants. Further work is required to confirm these results across a wider range of countries, and to determine the most feasible model of CCBT delivery, in partnership with people who live and work in rural and remote communities. PMID:26048193

  9. Rural areas electrification (Latin America), Guatemala City, Guatemala, June 4--7, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    ORNL serves the function of monitoring the Central American Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES) of US Agency for International Development (USAID), which is administered by NRECA. The results of the Demand Assessment Model, presented at the conference, were reviewed, and a paper on the use of marginal cost analysis for rural electrification was delivered for presentation by NRECA staff. Discussions on the acceptability of the model were discussed with utility representatives.

  10. 3DFEMWATER/3DLEWASTE: NUMERICAL CODES FOR DELINEATING WELLHEAD PROTECTION AREAS IN AGRICULTURAL REGIONS BASED ON THE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY CRITERION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two related numerical codes, 3DFEMWATER and 3DLEWASTE, are presented sed to delineate wellhead protection areas in agricultural regions using the assimilative capacity criterion. DFEMWATER (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) ...

  11. Characterization of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Spanish urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2011-02-01

    Urban areas constitute major pollution sources due to anthropogenic activities located in these areas. Among the legislated air pollutants, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microns (PM10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are controlled under Directive 2008/50/EC and Directive 2004/107/EC, respectively due to their adverse health effects. A study was carried out at four urban and rural Spanish areas during the warm and cold seasons in 2008-2009 to quantify 19 PAH associated with the atmospheric PM10 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS-MS) with the internal standard method. The particle-bound composition of the analysed PAH was 5 and 10 times greater in industrial and urban areas, respectively when compared to those measured in rural areas. The highest PAH concentrations during the cold period were possibly due to the additional contribution of domestic heating sources and meteorological conditions such as low temperature and solar irradiation. The use of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated that the possible, major PAH pollution sources in the most polluted areas were pyrogenic sources, mainly attributed to petroleum combustion sources (motor vehicle emissions and crude oil combustion). Petrogenic sources related to evaporative emissions also seemed to contribute in the most polluted area during the warm period. Those dates with high carcinogenic character according to the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) were also possibly attributed to petroleum combustion sources. PMID:21152605

  12. REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

  13. Diet and Physical Activity Among Women in Urban and Rural Areas in South India: A Community Based Comparative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jayamani, Violet; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Lee, Premila; Alexander, Greeda; Christopher, Solomon; Prasad, Jasmin Helan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases are increasing in India. There is a clear need to study risk factors for NCDs in various population groups in the country. Materials and Methods: This community based cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the diet and physical activity of women in urban and rural areas in Vellore district. Dietary data was collected using 24-h dietary recall and physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Sociodemographic variables were collected to assess the risk factors for unfavorable diet and physical activity. Results: The odds of the rural women engaging in high physical activity are 3.61 times greater than urban women (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.36?5.54). The odds of the urban women consuming a high calorie diet are 1.923 times that of the rural women (95% CI = 1.282?2.857). The odds of the urban women being overweight/obese are 5.555 times than that of the urban women (95% CI = 3.333?10). Women who were housewives and not doing household work were significantly less physically active, took higher calorie diet, and were more overweight and obese compared to women who were involved in active household work. Conclusions: Urban women had unfavorable diet and physical activity levels compared to rural women. They also had higher levels of overweight and obesity. There is a need for targeted NCD prevention interventions among urban women.

  14. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  15. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a transboundary aquifer that extends far beyond the study area, over about 150 000 km2. It is also heterogeneous. Like surface flows, but at a different scale, groundwater flows are marked by a strong endorheism. For example the Dantiandou closed piezometric depression extends over about approximately 5000 km2. These natural closed depressions are explained only by evapotranspiration uptake, weak in absolute terms (a few mm.a-1) but with a very high impact on hydrodynamics because of poor permeability and porosity. Both density of observations and hydraulic continuity of the CT3 aquifer give a fine idea of groundwater changes in the whole area. Human activities, continuously adapting in this poor rural area, add another complexity to the hydrological diversity in surface and ground water. The replacement of the natural vegetation with millet fields and fallow increased the surface runoff, and consequently water accumulation in temporary pools and then CT3 recharge. In the SE part of the study area, the water table has risen up to outcropping in the lowest valley bottoms. These new permanent ponds reflect groundwater while temporary ponds still reflect surface dynamics. This new component of the hydrological landscape induces several consequences, in physical and human dimensions. Evaporation strongly affects the permanent water and increases its salinity while the natural mineralization of groundwater is very low. The easier access to water resources allows a significant development of local gardening, which modifies the social functioning of villages (e.g. land rights between villages and within a village, diversification of crops and sources of income, new sales channels). Different physically based models (for surface and ground water) were built, with a significant discrepancy between their respective quantification of water flows at the region scale. Extrapolation of surface fluxes from the few instrumented catchments to a much larger mosaic of non-instrumented catchments is only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquife

  16. Building Institutional Capacity in Rural Northern Ireland: The Role of Partnership Governance in the LEADER II Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Europe's rural areas increasingly embraced local action and local development solutions to face the challenge of the continued re-structuring of the agricultural industry. In parallel, in both the EU and the UK, a policy discourse has emerged which envisages a fundamental shift in support policies for rural areas from a…

  17. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above-average temperatures in the future. Even though both study areas are close together Großfahner area was found to be the least affected one by changes indicating that small spatial scale differences matter. These developments were found in all examined simulation runs. This study highlighted the regional differences in the vulnerability to water surplus or deficit risks in a temperate system which emphasizes the need in impact studies to focus on proper consideration of local and regional environmental conditions as well as adaption and mitigation of management for agriculture.

  18. Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

  19. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (principal investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  20. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE...

  1. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE...

  2. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  3. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  4. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  5. Research on 3G Technologies-Based Agricultural Information Resource Integration and Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Nengfu; Wang, Wensheng

    With the urgent demand of agricultural information for farmers and quick development of telecommunications industry in china, the convenience, quickness and validity of agricultural information service are becoming more important. Now, the problem of the digital divide between rural and urban areas comes from the shortage of effective information transmission means. But the agricultural information services limited by network bandwidth and geography will be changed completely with the mobile phone network coverage to rural areas, especially TD-SCDMA network into rural areas in china. The paper will introduce the development of the 3G technologies-based effect on the agriculture informationization, and discuss the problems of agricultural information resource integration and service adapted to 3G technologies in detail, based on which a 3G technologies-based agricultural information resource application mobile service hierarchy (3GAIMSH) is provided.

  6. Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development

    E-print Network

    Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Ultuna · Funded by the Swedish Research Council

  7. The greening of rural policy

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S. )

    1993-01-01

    A broad, interdisciplinary collection of essays written by prominent researchers. This book surveys essential environmental issues in rural areas of the developed world using case-study material from the UK, USA and Sweden. Looks at the ecological implications of agriculture, land-use, energy, social change and politics, touching on such vital problems as industrial farming, counter-urbanization, the global commons and conflict resolutions in land-use. Emphasizes how planning regimes must be modified to take account of environmental imperatives.

  8. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural

  9. "Balancing Technological and Human Resources Development: A New Priority for Rural America."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blobaum, Roger

    While the adoption of new mechanical and biological-chemical technology has brought revolutionary changes in agricultural production, these changes have also contributed to a decline in employment in many rural industries. There are, however, a number of new technologies, likely to impact on rural areas in the 1980s and beyond, that should level…

  10. Environment, Land Use, and Natural Resources in Rural New York: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Participants at the First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development discussed environmental, land use, and natural resource problems and opportunities in rural areas of New York state. Identified as major assets were scenic beauty, diversified land use and economy, abundance and high quality of water, soil base for agriculture and…

  11. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists over water use. Water users and leaders are also not knowledgeable of the policy guiding water use, ownership and management implying their non-involvement in the policy formulation process. The paper concludes that the traditional irrigation system in Mwanga district that has cushioned people from food insecurity for a long time is under serious threat and something urgently needs to be done. The paper recommends modernizing the irrigation infrastructure, instituting a system of governance that takes on board the interests of all the stakeholders, involving local people and their leaders in the policy formulation process not as an “excess luggage” but as an organic part of the process. The recommendations can only be effected as an organic part of the holistic approach to eradicate poverty.

  12. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

  13. Water sources and their protection from the impact of microbial contamination in rural areas of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

  14. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i) determining potential wastewater treatment plants to supply reclaimed water, based on pre-established criteria such as effluent quality, distance to the target land, existence of infrastructures to transport reclaimed water, etc. (ii) an analysis of the efficiency of the treatment plants selected taking into account that their possible inefficiency will probably derive into an increase in the cost of the reclaimed water. (iii) a feasibility analysis on cost (fixed and variable) and potential benefits (monetary and environmental). Monetary benefits will be estimated after analysing the most profitable crop type for each potential land

  15. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS–S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture’s rural–urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS–S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas. PMID:26270742

  16. RURAL TRANSIT Description

    E-print Network

    RURAL TRANSIT Description Rural transit describes public trans- portation services in areas with pop- ulations of 50,000 or fewer. Rural transit providers operate common tran- sit modes such as local/rideshare programs. Rural transit services provide access to education, employment, and vital services for transit

  17. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  18. Examining the major contributors of ozone pollution in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Kanaya, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Wang, Z.; Kudo, S.; Uno, I.

    2015-06-01

    Open biomass burning (OBB) emits significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3) pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the northern edge of the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) from 15 May to 24 June 2010, during intensive open burning of wheat residues. The net photochemical production rate of oxidant (Ox = O3 + NO2) at the site was evaluated based on a box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2) constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx (NO2 + NO), J values). Our results showed that both in situ photochemistry and direct transport from urban areas in the YRDR were responsible for the high Ox concentration at the site. During an OBB-impact case, net photochemical production of Ox in the daytime was pronounced, with a 6 h averaged Ox production rate of 13 ± 4 ppbv h-1 (maximum value of 21 ppbv h-1 at 12:00 CST). Photochemical Oxproduction changed from VOC-limited in the morning to NOx-limited in the afternoon due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx during the day. A combined analysis with positive matrix factorization demonstrated that O3 pollution in the rural area of the YRDR was largely affected by urban emission, and OBB-related emissions also contributed to in situ photochemical production, particularly in the afternoon. Our study suggested that a joint effort in reducing both NMHCs (e.g., aromatics) and NOx emissions in the urban area, as well as local OBB activities, may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

  19. Investigating the effect of farmer land-use decisions on rural landscapes using an agent-based model approach 

    E-print Network

    Karali, Eleni

    2012-11-29

    Land use and cover change (LUCC) is increasingly recognised as one of the most visible impacts of humans on nature. In rural areas, most of the observed LUCC is associated with agricultural activities. This has traditionally been attributed...

  20. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.