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1

Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

Rainey, Kenneth D.

2

Rural Area Revitalization Act of 1987; and the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1987. Hearing on H.R. 1800 and H.R. 2026 before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony of H.R. 1800, the Rural Area Revitalization Act, and H.R. 2026, the Rural Development Reorganization Act focuses on the need for federal attention to rural problems other than agriculture. The Rural Area Revitalization Act authorizes expansion of capital available for lending in rural areas, a grant program of $25 million per year for…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

3

Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

4

Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

McElwee, Pamela D.

2010-01-01

5

Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

2012-12-01

6

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND RURAL CREDIT: STATUS, ISSUES AND REFORM AGENDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a part of a larger study aimed at strengthening policy reforms in the area of agriculture, food security and rural development. In countries like India, strengthening of agriculture is critical for facing the challenges of rural poverty, food insecurity, unemployment and sustainability of natural resources. But, there is a need to redefine agriculture as the science and

S. S. ACHARYA

7

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

8

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

9

Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

10

Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting

Montek S. Ahluwalia

1978-01-01

11

Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

2012-01-01

12

Preferences of Rural Women for Agricultural Information Sources: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women face a number of constraints in approaching agricultural extension sources especially in developing countries. Being a developing country, in rural areas of Pakistan women face problems like lack of information source related to agriculture, lack of technical assistance and lack of credit facilities. There are no specific information sources and training facilities for rural women. Women in rural areas

SAIMA SADAF; ASIF JAVED; MUHAMMAD LUQMAN

13

A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology,

Tan Rong; Cui Jie; Zhou Enlai

14

Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide, the second part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the final two units in a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the first unit are the following aspects of agricultural mechanics: selecting and…

Courson, Roger; And Others

15

Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

16

Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.

2006-01-01

17

National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Visitors | Researchers & Collaborators | Agricultural, Rural Health & Safety | Biomedical Informatics | Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health | Clinical Research | Human Genetics | Integrated ...

18

Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

Ikerd, John

19

Topical Lunch Robert Howarth "Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York."  

E-print Network

Topical Lunch ­ Robert Howarth "Energy, Agriculture, and Environment in Rural New York." November, and Marcellus shale gas. - Target areas: Susquehanna River Basin (affecting Chesapeake Bay), Finger Lakes, rural in ditches, but also increased kinetic energy of water leading to downstream bank erosion) · agricultural

Angenent, Lars T.

20

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

21

An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

22

Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. PMID:25792416

Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de

2015-06-01

23

Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

Ugbomeh, George M. M.

2001-01-01

24

Impact on food security and rural development of transferring water out of agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competition for limited water resources between agriculture and more highly valued domestic and industrial water uses is rapidly increasing and will likely require the transfer of water out of agriculture. This paper reviews and synthesizes the available evidence of the effects of water transfers from agricultural to urban and industrial areas on local and regional rural economies; and analyzes

Mark W Rosegrant; Claudia Ringler

2000-01-01

25

Rural Areas and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in rural areas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.

26

Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

Friedland, William H.

2002-01-01

27

The study on sustainable development of agricultural economy in three gorges reservoir area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural economic development in three gorges area is restricted by natural conditions and social economic conditions. For vigorously developing agricultural production and improving agricultural productivity, the following strategies can be adopted: improve the natural condition of rural land so as to make full use of rural land resource; grasp opportunities, make scientific decisions and perfect mechanism to promote the

Xiang Gu

2010-01-01

28

Free-Range Cattle on the Bay Area's Rural Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of the San Francisco Bay Area continues to in-crease, added pressures are placed on public land uses in the rural fringe. These uses include natural-resource conservation, scenic value, recreation, and historic activities, including agriculture and grazing. This Article will explore the use of public and nonprofit open space land for grazing, and the unique opportunities and challenges

Paul C. Ringgold

2010-01-01

29

Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.  

PubMed

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching in rural areas. PMID:17407927

Monk, David H

2007-01-01

30

Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural abandonment reflects a post war trend in western Europe of rural depopulation to which isolated and poorer areas are most vulnerable. The commercialisation of agriculture, through technological developments, and the influence of Common Agricultural Policy have increased productivity and focused agricultural activity on more fertile and accessible land thus transforming traditional approaches to farming. In many areas this has

D MacDonald; J. R Crabtree; G Wiesinger; T Dax; N Stamou; P Fleury; J Gutierrez Lazpita; A Gibon

2000-01-01

31

Removing Barriers: Service Learning in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities can successfully integrate service learning into academic subject areas. In service learning, students develop a deeper understanding of academic subjects while engaging in meaningful service to their school or greater community. Barriers to implementing service learning in rural areas include lack of time, transportation,…

Parsons, Cynthia

32

Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

2005-01-01

33

Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

34

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book contains the collected papers from the first conference hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's Center for the Study of Rural America. The conference explored new economic policies that would help rural America enter the digital economy. The papers, which must be downloaded separately, fall into three main categories: Rural America at a Crossroad; Seizing New Opportunities in Rural America; and New Directions for Rural Policy. The book also contains a keynote address by Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, the comments of several noted economists, and the transcripts of the closing discussion.

35

A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

36

Ethical challenges of practicing in rural areas.  

PubMed

Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121

Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth

2010-05-01

37

Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas. PMID:2645250

Christianson, J B

1989-01-01

38

Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

39

Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

40

Veterinary Manpower for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the main activity of veterinarians is the care and treatment of animals, they are professionally trained personnel who have a history of involvement in community action. Their full potential has not been tapped to help alleviate the inadequacies of rural health services. Cited in this paper are specifics relating the number of trained…

Tucker, E. W.

41

Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

42

Influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas—a case study in Lianshui County in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of household biogas digesters in rural areas and integrated use of agricultural wastes has changed the structure of rural household energy consumption and greatly increased the application of highly efficient organic fertilizer, improved soil fertility and promoted sustainable agricultural development. This paper mainly discusses the influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas based

Wang Xiaohua; Li Jingfei

2005-01-01

43

Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

Biondo, Ron; And Others

44

Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

2009-01-01

45

Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

46

Prospects for groundwater resources development and conservation in rural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has evaluated the available quantity of groundwater for agricultural use, based on the investigation for water resources development in the areas where enough water for irrigation purposes is not easy to be obtained. The use of groundwater for irrigation is around 6% of total agricultural use in Japan, but it is expected that dependence of the irrigation on groundwater may rise as the substitute of the river water if the quantity of water resources of river water decreases by climate change. As sustainable use of groundwater is expected to meet with the water demand in rural area in future, it is necessary to analyze and evaluate the potential of groundwater utilization quantitatively and objectively on the basis of correct information on the occurrence, water balance, and flow system of groundwater in each basin.

Nakahara, Masayuki; Imaizumi, Masayuki; Nagata, Jitsuya

47

Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

2014-01-01

48

Conflicting threat perceptions at a rural agricultural fair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism is a major industry in Pennsylvania, second only to agriculture. This paper examines their nexus, the rural agricultural fair. The Bloomsburg Fair provides an opportunity to explore risk management for tourism. This event, now in its 150th year, inundates a town of 12,000 with 500,000+ visitors in an 8-day period. Employing a survey of fairgoer behavior, this study explored

J. T. Mitchell

2006-01-01

49

Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on

Terry Marsden; Roberta Sonnino

2008-01-01

50

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2011-04-01

51

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved... Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...

2010-04-01

52

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

53

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

Pant, Laxmi Prasad

2012-01-01

54

Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

Barros, Vicente

2008-09-01

55

Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

2003-01-01

56

Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

Weinberg, Mark

57

Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

58

Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came

Justin Yifu Lin

1992-01-01

59

From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.  

PubMed

The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future. PMID:17854974

Prändl-Zika, Veronika

2008-04-01

60

School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research  

E-print Network

sustainability of agriculture, the idea of "Sustainable Intensification" (SI) is increasingly gaining popularitySchool of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Measuring Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Action Research Faced with the dual challenges of increasing agricultural productivity to feed

Evans, Paul

61

Does Core Area Theory Apply to STIs in Rural Environments?  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to determine the extent to which geographical core areas for gonorrhea and syphilis are located in rural areas, as compared to urban areas. Methods Incident gonorrhea (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010) and syphilis (January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2010) rates were estimated and mapped by census tract and quarter. Rurality was measured using percent rural and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA; rural, small town, micropolitan, or urban). SaTScan was used to identify spatiotemporal clusters of significantly elevated rates of infection. Clusters lasting five years or longer were considered core areas; clusters of shorter duration were considered outbreaks. Clusters were overlaid on maps of rurality and qualitatively assessed for correlation. Results Twenty gonorrhea core areas were identified; 65% in urban centers, 25% in micropolitan areas, and the remaining 10% were geographically large capturing combinations of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural environments. Ten syphilis core areas were identified with 80% in urban centers and 20% capturing two or more RUCAs. All ten of the syphilis core areas (100%) overlapped with gonorrhea core areas. Conclusions Gonorrhea and syphilis rates were high for rural parts of North Carolina; however, no core areas were identified exclusively for small towns or rural areas. The main pathway of rural STI transmission may be through the interconnectedness of urban, micropolitan, small town and rural areas. Directly addressing STIs in urban and micropolitan communities may also indirectly help address STI rates in rural and small town communities. PMID:23254115

Gesink, Dionne C; Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Norwood, Todd; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C

2012-01-01

62

Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas

Malecki, Edward J.

2003-01-01

63

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

64

Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

65

Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

2008-01-01

66

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

67

AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004  

E-print Network

AFRICAN AGRICULTURE TODAY 34 CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ! AUGUST 2004 #12;Currents No. 34 August 2004 In this issue Agriculture Today 4 Flashback: Fifty Years of Donor Aid to African Agriculture Executive summary of Conference

68

CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

RHODES, ALVIN E.

69

Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

2010-01-01

70

Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy

71

Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

1998-01-01

72

[Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1995-01-01

73

Solar water pumping for remote rural areas  

SciTech Connect

A large portion of the world population lives in remote rural areas where water supply is most important to community development. There are several energy alternatives for water pumping in these areas, but the photothermal energy conversion by means of a Rankine cycle using flat plate collectors is considered in this work. A mathematical model to describe the thermal performance of a collector field and a Rankine cycle using Freon 11 or 114 is presented in this paper. The model resorts only to monthly average daily values of radiation, as well as to a minimum of physical fluid properties which are readily available elsewhere. The results obtained can thus be used in the design or selection of a solar water pump, as well as to determine the most important parameters in the collector field or thermodynamic cycle which require further research development. The numerical results predicted by the model were compared with some experimental data and a satisfactory agreement was found between them.

Manrique, J.A.

1980-12-01

74

12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01... false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...13 Section 1282.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING...1282.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2010-01-01

75

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN TANZANIA: THE POLICY AND OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of the Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (CRDB), an agricultural credit institution in Tanzania, in financing smallholder agricultural production and other rural development activities. Assessment is largely based on available institutional information between 1971 and 1989. Criteria employed in assessing the performance of the credit institution include: credit allocation methods, operational costs and revenues from

Anacleti K. Kashuliza

1992-01-01

76

Moving to the Country: Return Migration to a Rural Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study objectives were to: compare in-migrants with non-migrants in order to ascertain the migrants' demographic and socioeconomic contributions to rural areas; analyze the patterns of this in-migration to determine the presence and extent of return migration; contrast returned migrants with in-migrants who had no prior residence in the rural area;…

Mapstone, James R.

77

Building an Information Ecosystem for Public Transport in Rural Areas  

E-print Network

Building an Information Ecosystem for Public Transport in Rural Areas Peter Edwards, David Corsar.beecroft,jeff.z.pan,yaji.sripada}@abdn.ac.uk ABSTRACT Passenger information systems (PISs) providing real-time information are valuable tools for public transport users; however, in many rural areas, for various reasons, such sys- tems do not exist. As part

Edwards, Pete

78

Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

2008-01-01

79

A Hard Look at USDA's Rural Development Programs. The Report of the Rural Revitalization Task Force to the Secretary of Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses current economic conditions in rural America and offers recommendations about the role the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can play in providing rural development. The Task Force identifies issues for rural policy in the 1990's focusing on economic development. Current rural programs are described and…

Department of Agriculture Graduate School, Washington, DC.

80

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships  

E-print Network

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships for these fellowships can be submitted to: Prof Johann Kirsten Head: Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension (Two positions) With support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation the Department of Agricultural

Jarrett, Thomas H.

81

Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

2008-01-01

82

MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

83

Importance of rural roads as source areas for runoff in mountainous areas of northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unpaved road surfaces have extremely low infiltration rates compared with other watershed land surfaces and, therefore, are significant source areas for erosion-producing Horton overland flow. The hydrologic role of roads is an important issue in mountainous areas of the tropics where erosion control efforts are predominately focused on deforestation and agricultural practices. We report on an investigation of soil physical properties that control excess rainfall (rainfall intensity in excess of infiltration capacity) on rural roads and surrounding lands in a mountainous watershed in northern Thailand. The results of our disk permeameter measurements indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity on unpaved roads is about one order of magnitude lower than on any other land-surface type. Median saturated hydraulic conductivities were not exceeded by measured rainfall intensity on any land use except road surfaces and roadside margins. By simulating excess rainfall, we found that in contrast with other areas of the watershed, the road surface tends to generate excess rainfall early in a rain event, and on nearly all of its area. Despite the relatively small areal extent of road-related surfaces (<0.5% of basin area), they contribute a large portion of basin-wide total excess rainfall during frequently occurring, small rainfall events. However, during larger events, agricultural, secondary vegetation, and forested areas assume greater importance because of their larger areal extent.

Ziegler, Alan D.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

1997-09-01

84

STRATEGY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTONIAN RURAL LIFE VIA CREDITING RURAL AREAS THROUGH THE PRINCIPLE OF GUARANTEED MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the fact that more than half the residents of the European Union live in rural areas that cover 90% of the whole territory, the development of rural life is of vital importance. In rural areas, land is mainly used for farming and forestry, which therefore play an important role in the life of rural communities, being a

Eve Tomson

85

HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

2005-01-01

86

Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

87

Rural Development Progress: Fourth Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the Congress, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth annual secretary of agriculture report on rural development progress (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) presents the most recently available status data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities, discusses examples of federal efforts to improve or expand…

Knebel, John A.

88

Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

Breimyer, Harold F.

1990-01-01

89

Rainfall Uncertainty and Occupational Choice in Agricultural Households of Rural Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agriculture is the main occupation in rural Nepal, evidence suggests that households strive to diversify their sources of income. This paper investigates why this is the case. Using household data from the World Bank and information on rainfall for the various rural districts of Nepal, we find that occupational choice is highly correlated to the uncertainty associated with historical

Nidhiya Menon

2009-01-01

90

Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)  

SciTech Connect

The development of third world rural areas depends largely on the availability of energy and for an improvement in agricultural production; an increase in energy consumption is required. It seems attractive to replace the fossil liquid fuels needed for machinery by locally produced fuels. The thermal gasification of agricultural waste which produces gas that can be used directly to drive engines is suggested. A study to identify the social and economic advantages of this process and its applicability in rural areas of Tanzania has been made.

Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1980-01-01

91

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

92

[The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].  

PubMed

In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas. PMID:22699644

Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

2012-06-01

93

Non-Human Loss in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World War II.…

Holcomb, Ralph

94

CENTER FOR TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR RURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

in pipes to habitations. This project looks to assess 22 #12;the viability of a piped water supply system Water Supply System for North Karjat Techno-Economic Feasibility Study By Abhishek Kumar Sinha (07D04025 water supply to this region as well to establish a universally applicable design methodology for rural

Sohoni, Milind

95

An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

1970

96

Turkish Trailblazer: Boosting Rural Areas through Business  

E-print Network

billion (as of 2007).2 Agriculture contributes about 10 percent to the nation's GDP, 1 CIA, World Factbook -Turkey, available at www.cia.gov [Nov. 10, 2009] 2 World Bank, Country Brief (2009): Turkey, available

Sheldon, Nathan D.

97

Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

Bird, Alan R.

98

Civil agronomy: a new dimension of agricultural extension to invoke poverty issues for sustainable rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural

Thilak T. Ranasinghe

1997-01-01

99

How Important is Economic Geography for Rural Non-Agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

By paying particular attention to the local economic context, this paper analyzes rural non-agricultural employment and earnings in non-agricultural jobs. The empirical analysis is based on the Brazilian Demographic Census, allowing for disaggregated controls for the local economy. Education stands out as one of the key factor for shaping employment outcome and earnings potential. Failure to control for locational effects

Erik Jonasson; Steven M. Helfand

2009-01-01

100

Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.  

PubMed

Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities. PMID:21242153

Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

2011-03-01

101

The Physician Pipeline to Rural and Underserved Areas in Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: An implicit objective of a state's investments in medical education is to promote in-state practice of state educated physicians. Purpose: To present a tool for evaluating this objective by analyzing the "pipeline" from medical education to patient care, primary care, rural areas, and underserved areas in Pennsylvania. Methods: AMA…

Schwartz, Myron R.

2008-01-01

102

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

E-print Network

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

103

Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

Adewumi, B. A.

2008-01-01

104

Location and cost of ambulances serving a rural area.  

PubMed Central

A location model is used to determine the most efficient (i.e., least-cost) number and location of ambulance facilities in a rural area. The model incorporates response time and service time standards into the analysis and indicates the trade-off between costs and various time standards. The financial feasibility of individual facility locations is then analyzed. The results indicate why many rural areas depend on volunteer or part-time purveyors of emergency medical transportation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:914530

Daberkow, S G

1977-01-01

105

Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions\\u000a can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc.\\u000a gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based\\u000a on the

Ningning Ge; Zhiyuan Zang; Lingwang Gao; Qiang Shi; Jie Li; Chunlin Xing; Zuorui Shen

2009-01-01

106

Rural Development Progress, January 1977-June 1979. Fifth Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to The Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture on rural development (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) summarizes current rural conditions by presenting the most recently available statistical data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities and illustrates…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

107

Rural Conditions and Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This U.S. Department of Agriculture periodical gives current statistical information on rural America. This issue contains articles about the impact on rural areas of economic trends, employment, and industry changes. A general overview indicates that moderate improvements in rural employment since 1986 have been tempered by slow income growth.…

Mazie, Sara Mills, Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

108

Gender Contribution and Constrains to Rural Agriculture and Household Food Security in Kenya: Case of Western Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of gender with special emphasis on women farmers towards rural agriculture as well as factors constraining access to rural agricultural production and consequently household food security in Western Province of Kenya. Data were collected from a total of 161 women farmers, 32 women groups as well as 254 individual males farmers engaged in small-scale production

J. N. Omwoha

2008-01-01

109

Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

110

Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

111

Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

Reed, John C.

112

Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

Givens, Sharon Leenese

2012-01-01

113

Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

Brooks, Eugene C.

1913-01-01

114

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

E-print Network

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas Lixia Liao,1 Christopher T 30 December 2011; published 24 February 2012. [1] The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied

115

Capital for agriculture and rural America: redefining the federal role  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. agriculture depends on capital for its success. Nearly a trillion dollars of capital is at work in production agriculture, with trillions more at work in the rest of the U.S. food system. Public policy has always been concerned with ensuring that farmers have access to adequate amounts of capital at competitive terms. But as is true for many other

Mark Drabenstott

1995-01-01

116

Engendering Rural Livelihoods in Malawi through Agricultural Innovation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluates the gendered impacts of Agricultural Innovation Systems driven research on livelihood improvements in Africa. Using a case study from Malawi, the study employs a quasi-experimental research design with propensity score matching to establish a counterfactual and single differencing to measure impact. Results demonstrate that innovation systems driven agricultural research programs impact positively and significantly upon the livelihood

Mariam A. T. J. Mapila; Makina Anesu

2012-01-01

117

Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

2012-01-01

118

An Interactive Medical Support System for Dermatology in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A shortage of doctors in rural areas of Japan, especially specialists, has been a serious problem for several years. This\\u000a has created a need for alternative forms of care in these areas, and telemedicine is a potential solution for this problem.\\u000a However, in spite of a governmental policy to provide nationwide coverage with a fiber optic cable network, there are

E. Hanada; K. Ikebuchi; M. Miyamoto; M. Kitani; S. Yamaguchi; I. Dekio; E. Morita

119

[The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].  

PubMed

Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should be possible for training sessions to be held jointly for both sexes, but cultural tabus and sexual division of labor may be such that different programs and personnel are required for men and women. There are currently numerous limitations on the inclusion of women in extension programs, including official policies against female employment and ignorance of the contribution of female agricultural work and social customs which discourage female social participation. There may be few or no women extension workers, female extension agents may try to avoid fieldwork, they may spend most of their time training women in household management, or their mobility may be strictly limited by family responsibilities. PMID:12340319

Martius Von Harder, G

1985-01-01

120

Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

2010-01-01

121

While Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for rural youth to participate in  

E-print Network

-Poultry Health Programs Printed by SC Farm Bureau #12;Fair Management Responsibilities - To ensure maximum effort to protect the health of all exhibitors animals, fair management should: ! Ensure that a veterinarianWhile Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for rural youth to participate in animal oriented

Bolding, M. Chad

122

Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

123

Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

124

Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

Ethridge, Jim; And Others

125

Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

126

Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units F-H.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final three of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on soil science and conservation of natural resources are collecting soil samples and applying soil sample test results. Growing vegetables and…

Ethridge, Jim; And Others

127

Rural banking in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people in the vast rural areas of Africa lack access to financial services, and most commercial banks are not interested in moving into these areas due to their low income levels, lack of scale economies, and poor infrastructure. Also, few banks actually understand the most common economic activity in rural areas: agriculture. Consequently, the absence of financial institutions in

Gerard van Empel

2010-01-01

128

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

PubMed Central

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population. PMID:23507738

Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

2013-01-01

129

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.  

PubMed

Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

2010-05-01

130

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

2011-10-01

131

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

2012-10-01

132

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

2014-10-01

133

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

2013-10-01

134

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. METHODS: We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from

Kethi Mullei; Sandra Mudhune; Jackline Wafula; Eunice Masamo; Michael English; Catherine Goodman; Mylene Lagarde; Duane Blaauw

2010-01-01

135

Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

136

Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale  

PubMed Central

Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

2014-01-01

137

The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

1987-12-01

138

Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application of SA.

Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

2009-01-01

139

Sustainability assessment for agriculture scenarios in Europe's mountain areas: lessons from six study areas.  

PubMed

Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene (Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene's lessons for the further development and application of SA. PMID:18953599

Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

2009-01-01

140

Is access to home health care a problem in rural areas?  

PubMed Central

In 1987, urban Medicare beneficiaries were 13.7% more likely than their rural counterparts to use Medicare home health care services. Regression analysis shows that rural use rates, particularly those in sparsely populated areas, fall short of those in urban areas, other things being equal. Rural areas have lower Medicare ceilings, proportionately fewer visiting nurse associations, and lower availability of auxiliary services. These factors combined account for 82% of the difference between rural and urban use rates. PMID:8438982

Kenney, G M

1993-01-01

141

Neighborhood perceptions and health-related outcomes among latinos with diabetes from a rural agricultural community.  

PubMed

Little is known about how neighborhood perceptions are related to diabetes outcomes among Latinos living in rural agricultural communities. Our objective was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood problems and diabetes outcomes. This is a cross-sectional survey study with medical record reviews of a random sample of 250 adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes. The predictor was a rating of patient ratings of neighborhood problems (crime, trash and litter, lighting at night, and access to exercise facilities, transportation, and supermarkets). The primary outcomes were the control of three intermediate outcomes [LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 100 mg/dl, AlC < 9.0 %, and blood pressure (BP) < 140/80 mmHg], and body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m(2). Secondary outcomes were participation in self-care activities (physical activity, healthy eating, medication adherence, foot checks, and glucose checks). We used regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, education, income, years with diabetes, insulin use, depressive symptoms, and co-morbidities. Forty-eight percent of patients perceived at least one neighborhood problem and out of the six problem areas, crime was most commonly perceived as a problem. Perception of neighborhood problems was independently associated with not having a BP < 140/80 [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.22, 0.92], and BMI < 30 (AOR = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77), after controlling for covariates. Receipt of recommended processes of care was not associated with perception of neighborhood. Perception of neighborhood problems among low-income rural Latinos with diabetes was independently associated with a higher BMI and BP. PMID:24599665

Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S; Nuñez de Jaimes, Fatima; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Isiordia, Marilu; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M

2014-12-01

142

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

Swanjord, Don Edward

143

Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois

2008-01-01

144

LINKING WATER QUALITY WITH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN A RURAL WATERSHED  

E-print Network

. Fertilizers are applied to crops in addition to manure because manure does not promote plant growth; accepted 19 May 2000) Abstract. Agricultural intensification was linked to streamwater pollution in a case quality indicators suggesting that it is possible to use the budget/GIS linked techniques for pollution

Short, Daniel

145

Rural housing land consolidation in the hilly area of Chongqing: A rural household perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of rural economy, consolidation of rural housing land has been focused on by officials and scholars. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts of rural household's willingness to use rural housing. This paper took Banan District in Chongqing as a case study and explored the impacts of the rural households’ willingness to moving to the

Xinyue Yang; Chaofu Wei; Yong Liu; Yan Ouyang; Longran Chang

146

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...section does not apply to a rural low-stress pipeline regulated under this part...

2010-10-01

147

Specialty products, rural livelihoods and agricultural marketing reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a market efficiency theoretical framework to analyse and postulate solutions to the challenges confronting China in engaging smallholders in higher value, specialty, agricultural product markets. A marketing experiment\\/trial to test these ideas is evaluated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case of fine-wool marketing is used to illustrate issues associated with specialty product

Colin Brown; Scott Waldron; John Longworth

2011-01-01

148

Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this new report from the Economic Research Service, the oldest segment of the US population, those 85 years old and older, grew 37 percent between 1980 and 1990. The "oldest old are more likely to be women, to be in poor health, to live alone, and to be poor." Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas considers this change in the population and the effects of being elderly and poor in the rural parts of the United States. The report concludes that the US needs to be aware of this shift in population and allocate funds in order to cover the costs of Social Security, health care, and other services for the elderly.

Rogers, Carolyn C.

2000-01-01

149

The Hmong in Rural Areas: Critical Issues in Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses differences between the Hmong culture and American culture and resulting implications for provision of special education services. The Hmong population in the Fresno County (California) area has consistently grown since 1977, reaching approximately 26,500 in 1990. The major reason that Hmong refugees settled in agricultural

Iverson, Landa J.; Krabo, Judith J.

150

50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska...

2014-10-01

151

50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska...

2012-10-01

152

50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska...

2010-10-01

153

50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska...

2013-10-01

154

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.  

PubMed

Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

2011-05-01

155

Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized. It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture, rural areas and peasants, but due to the shortage of capital, deficit and many other reasons, the outlets is fewer, which can not serve the agriculture, rural areas and

Jin-feng Sun; Xue-sheng Zhou

2010-01-01

156

Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.  

PubMed

Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

2014-09-01

157

[Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].  

PubMed

This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural environment, the government has invested heavily in agricultural development and the prices of agricultural products have been raised repeatedly since 1976. Improved road networks and other infrastructure, provision of credit for agricultural improvements, and provision of affordable building materials and housing credits are among related efforts. Health interventions such as an immunization program which has achieved 50% coverage through 17 medical centers have caused some decline in the infant mortality rate. By the year 2000 according to current plans there will be 300 health centers or 1/10,000 population, and 35 hospitals compared to the 29 currently operating. The number of physicians has increased from 111 in 1980 to 216 in 1984 following addition of a medical school to the University of Burundi. The number of medical technicians has increased from 450 to 555, of auxiliary nurses from 453 to 575, of sanitary technicians from 11 to 28. In pursuit of the government objective of basic education for all children by 1987, the number of students increased from 159,729 in 1979-80 to 296,672 in 1983-84. Practical work in agriculture, artisanry, and other areas is to be introduced, and classes will be conducted in local language rather than French. Centers for nonformal education are also being introduced. Attempts are being made to assure that rural development efforts are in harmony with the culture and social aspects of life in the countryside. PMID:12268240

Mworoha, E

1986-01-01

158

Poverty and biodiversity in rural areas based on two investigations in Pujiang County, China.  

PubMed

This study presents an integrated framework for the analysis of options of agricultural development and natural resource management at the ecosystem level. Pujiang County in Zhejiang Province, China, is used as a case-study area. The IMGLP model is applied to maximize regional agricultural economic surplus and labor market conditions in Pujiang. The consequences of four poverty reduction strategies (intensification of production, diversification toward livestock production, land expansion, and exit from agriculture) are determined for a set of regional poverty and biodiversity indicators. Diversification seems to be the most promising poverty reduction strategy, but requires an efficient use of animal manure in cropping systems to avoid environmental problems. Improved nutrient management in cropping systems is effective in reducing the regional nitrogen surplus, but less effective in increasing per capita income. The exit strategy is beneficial for reducing poverty and achieving biodiversity, but may have important social consequences that are not addressed in this study. Further reduction of rural poverty is hampered by labor constraints during the harvesting period for high-value crops such as vegetables and fruits. These constraints can be overcome by intensive research and development in the field of agricultural mechanization. PMID:19232457

Fang, Bin

2009-04-01

159

How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark

160

Free Preconceptual Screening Examination Service in Rural Areas of Hubei Province, China in 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective This work aims to collect and summarize the outcomes on free preconceptual screening examination in rural areas of Hubei Province in 2012. Moreover, this review promotes further understanding of the status of this activity to provide the Family Planning Commission valid scientific data upon which to construct effective policies. Methods Couples, who complied with the family planning policy and were the residents in agricultural areas or lived in a local rural area for more than six months, were encouraged to participate in the free preconceptual screening examination service provided by the Hubei Provincial Population and Family Planning Commission. This service included 19 screening tests. All the data, including forms, manuals, and test results, were collected from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in rural areas in Hubei Province. Results A total of 497,860 individuals participated in the free preconceptual screening examination service, with a coverage rate of 97.1%. 4.0% and 4.8% of the participants exhibited with abnormal blood levels of ALT and creatinine, respectively; 0.36% of the participants tested positive for syphilis; 0.44% and 3.6% of the female participants tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively; and 0.84% and 1.8% of the female participants tested positive for cytomegalovirus (IgM) and Toxoplasma gondii (IgM), respectively. After risk assessment, 59,935 participants might have high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 2012, the prevalence of birth defects among the parturient who participated in the preconceptual screening examination service was 0.04%, while the prevalence was 0.08% among those who did not participate in the service. Conclusion Preconceptual screening examination service may help to address the risk factors that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. More studies on the relationship between preconceptual screening examination service and prevalence of birth defect or other adverse pregnancy outcomes should be conducted. PMID:25375642

Li, Hui; Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Sun, Rong-ze; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-01-01

161

Contraceptive practices of women living in rural areas of Bihar.  

PubMed

A prospective survey of 972 married (sexually active) women living in rural areas of Lalganj block of Vaishali district in Bihar state of India was carried out. The study was aimed at obtaining first hand information from the rural women regarding their contraceptive practices and to use the information thus gained to identify those spheres of concern where greater attention needs to be paid to make the family planning system more efficient. The population investigated consisted of women attending the combined obstetric and gynaecology clinic located at Lalganj. Tubal sterilisation was the commonest method of contraception among women surveyed ( 20.6 per cent of women). The incidence of sterilisation increased significantly as the age increased-11.6 per cent of women aged 21 to 30 had tubal sterilisation, whereas the incidence was 51 per cent in women aged 31 to 40 years. Reversible forms of contraception (IUD, oral pills and condoms) were used by only 6.8 per cent of women included in the study. Married girls aged 15 to 20 were not using any contraceptive. It was also noted that none of the women surveyed had used any contraceptive prior to her first pregnancy. Fortyper cent of women in the age group 21 to 30 years and a similar percentage (41.1 per cent) in the age group 31 to 40 years had two or more live children but did not use any contraceptive. The results reveal that tubal sterilisation is the most popular method of contraception among women living in rural areas of the state. Birth spacing, or delaying the birth of the first child by the use of reversible forms of contraception, is not the common practice among these women. PMID:9719714

Kumari, C

1998-07-01

162

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs) (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience). Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies. PMID:20594367

2010-01-01

163

Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children?s behavior in England.  

PubMed

Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children?s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems. PMID:25460905

Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

2014-11-01

164

Capitated Medicaid Managed Care in a Rural Area: The Impact of Minnesota's PMAP Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although states have had difficulty extending Medicaid managed care (MMC) to rural areas, rural models of capitated MMC are expected to grow in response to new federal regulations and the serious budget problems facing nearly all states. As such, understanding the effects of capitated MMC in rural settings is important for policy considerations.…

Long, Sharon K.; Coughlin, Teresa A.; King, Jennifer

2005-01-01

165

Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

1996-03-01

166

The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

2007-01-01

167

Mood Disorders Hospitalizations, Suicide Attempts, and Suicide Mortality Among Agricultural Workers and Residents in an Area With Intensive Use of Pesticides in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As suicide rates have increased in rural areas in Brazil, it was postulated that pesticide exposure may play a role in this phenomenon. Our study compared the suicide mortality rates observed among agricultural workers from a pesticide-intensive area in Brazil to the suicide mortality frequency noted in three reference populations. In addition, hospitalization rates attributed to suicide attempts and mood

Armando Meyer; Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Josino Costa Moreira; Juliana de Rezende Chrisman; Yael Abreu-Villaça

2010-01-01

168

Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

169

Income and Employment Generation in Rural Areas in Relation to Alternative Farm Programs (with Special Emphasis on the North Central Region).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four alternative government farm policies were analyzed to determine their effect upon farm income and employment generation in rural areas and agriculturally related industries. A linear programming model of interregional competition was used to determine the impact of alternative farm policies on the quantity of major commodities produced, the…

Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

170

ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

171

Soil physical quality in a Sicilian agricultural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the soil physical quality for two contiguous agricultural areas under annual crops (A) and vineyard (V), respectively, located at the Riserva Naturale Integrale Grotta di Santa Ninfa site, in Sicily. The A and V areas had different textural fractions and organic matter content. Soil water holding parameters did not vary substantially between

V. Bagarello; A. Giangrosso; M. Iovino; A. Sgroi

172

Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines the rural teacher shortage from a policy perspective and suggests strategies to address the problem. The rural teacher recruitment and retention problem varies across states. An adequate number of teachers are trained each year nationwide, but the problem is with distribution. Recent research on rural teacher recruitment and…

Collins, Timothy

173

Rural KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide. Measures of Child Well-Being in the Nation's Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the "2004 KIDS COUNT Special Report: City & Rural KIDSCOUNT Data Book." It is designed to give state-level policymakers a better understanding of conditions faced by families in their rural communities and how they compare to those in the rural parts of other states, as well as the country as a whole. This…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

2004-01-01

174

Social and economic aspects of the introduction of gasification technology in rural areas of developing countries (Tanzania)  

SciTech Connect

According to the evaluation criteria presented, the gasification of corn cobs is acceptable from the economical and agricultural point of view in the rural areas around Arusha (Tanzania). The gasification system is of relatively simple construction and local maintenance is possible. If the system is connected to the already existing corn mills in the villages, it is appropriate to the existing socio-cultural system. The economic calculations made clear that the use of gasification is attractive for both the owners of the corn mill and the government. The advantages for the government are the savings on imported oil and the extra income created for the users of the corn mill (inhabitants of the rural villages). The government loses income from taxes and from the production and transport of diesel oil. Evaluation methods presented can and should be used for gasification projects in other areas.

Groeneveld, M.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1980-01-01

175

Neotropical Forest Conservation, Agricultural Intensification, and Rural Out-migration: The Mexican Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin Americaâ??namely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agricultureâ??have helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.

Luis García-Barriosâ?? (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México; Departamento de Sistemas de Producción Alternativos)

2009-11-01

176

Context counts: training health workers in and for rural and remote areas.  

PubMed

Access to well trained and motivated health workers is the major rural health issue. Without local access, it is unlikely that people in rural and remote communities will be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (i) a rural background; (ii) positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; and (iii) targeted training for rural practice at the postgraduate level. This paper presents evidence for policy initiatives involving the training of medical students from, in and for rural and remote areas. We give examples of medical schools in different regions of the world that are using an evidence-based and context-driven educational approach to producing skilled and motivated health workers. We demonstrate how context influences the design and implementation of different rural education programmes. Successful programmes have overcome major obstacles including negative assumptions and attitudes, and limitations of human, physical, educational and financial resources. Training rural health workers in the rural setting is likely to result in greatly improved recruitment and retention of skilled health-care providers in rural underserved areas with consequent improvement in access to health care for the local communities. PMID:20931063

Strasser, Roger; Neusy, Andre-Jacques

2010-10-01

177

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

178

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is vital for access to health care, especially in rural areas, where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimated the impacts of transportation and travel distance on the utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. With data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

179

Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is a vital issue for access to health care, especially in rural areas where travel distances are great and access to alternative modes such as transit is less prevalent. This study estimates the impacts of transportation and geography on utilization of health care services for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Using data collected from a survey,

Jeremy Mattson

2011-01-01

180

Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

2014-01-01

181

CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR RURAL AREAS INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY  

E-print Network

1 CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR RURAL AREAS INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY Piped-economic feasibility of piped water supply to this region as well to establish a universally applicable design methodology for rural piped water supply systems. The target area within the Karjat block spans 120 sq. km

Sohoni, Milind

182

thistrainingwillprovideparticipantswithabroadunderstanding of the rights of peasants and other people working in rural areas  

E-print Network

working in rural areas g Understand the roles of states, human rights bodies, civil society in the United Nations (UN) Human Rights council to elaborate a UN Declaration on the rights of peasants, and representatives of peasants and other people working in rural areas in the promotion and protection

Laemmli, Ulrich

183

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

184

Planning and Providing End-of-life Care in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Approximately 20% of North Americans and 25% of Europeans reside in rural areas. Planning and providing end-of-life (EOL) care in rural areas presents some unique challenges. Purpose: In order to understand these challenges, and other important issues or circumstances, a literature search was conducted to assess the state of science on…

Wilson, Donna M.; Justice, Christopher; Sheps, Sam; Thomas, Roger; Reid, Pam; Leibovici, Karen

2006-01-01

185

Multiple Effects of Education in Rural Areas: Action Research for Development Strategies in Croatia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of development in rural areas of Croatia includes several factors. Among them is education. The education system in Croatia has a number of institutional, infrastructural and regional characteristics that are a frame of research for this article. Rural areas confront additional factors such as population migrations, poor…

Persuric, Anita Silvana Ilak; Gautier, Patrick

2005-01-01

186

Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Postmenopausal Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to describe vitamin D status in postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, northern Iran. Between October 2004 and February 2005 a group of 750 women older than 50 years was randomly selected from urban and rural areas in Guilan. The participants were interviewed to collect data on age, educational level, body weight, height, employment

Mohsen Maddah; Seyede Hajar Sharami; Tirang R. Neyestani

2009-01-01

187

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005  

PubMed Central

Does the intensification of agriculture reduce cultivated areas and, in so doing, spare some lands by concentrating production on other lands? Such sparing is important for many reasons, among them the enhanced abilities of released lands to sequester carbon and provide other environmental services. Difficulties measuring the extent of spared land make it impossible to investigate fully the hypothesized causal chain from agricultural intensification to declines in cultivated areas and then to increases in spared land. We analyze the historical circumstances in which rising yields have been accompanied by declines in cultivated areas, thereby leading to land-sparing. We use national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970–2005, with particular emphasis on the 1990–2005 period, for 10 major crop types. Cropland has increased more slowly than population during this period, but paired increases in yields and declines in cropland occurred infrequently, both globally and nationally. Agricultural intensification was not generally accompanied by decline or stasis in cropland area at a national scale during this time period, except in countries with grain imports and conservation set-aside programs. Future projections of cropland abandonment and ensuing environmental services cannot be assumed without explicit policy intervention. PMID:19955435

Rudel, Thomas K.; Schneider, Laura; Uriarte, Maria; Turner, B. L.; DeFries, Ruth; Lawrence, Deborah; Geoghegan, Jacqueline; Hecht, Susanna; Ickowitz, Amy; Lambin, Eric F.; Birkenholtz, Trevor; Baptista, Sandra; Grau, Ricardo

2009-01-01

188

Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area  

E-print Network

for wildlife · Native plants encouraged · Water management wildlife friendly · Exotic species control management affect wildlife ­ Harvest does not affect wildlife populations #12;Questions? #12;Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area Elise V. Pearlstine, Michelle L

Mazzotti, Frank

189

Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

190

Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

Ballara, Marcela

2007-01-01

191

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

192

Identification of nitrate and sulfate sources in groundwater using dual stable isotope approaches for an agricultural area with different land use (Chuncheon, mid-eastern Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of sources and behavior of agricultural contaminants is important to control and manage groundwater quality of aquifer systems in rural areas. In this study, hydrogeochemistry of major constituents and stable isotope ratios of NO3? and SO42? in groundwater were determined to identify contamination sources and transformation processes occurring in soils and shallow groundwater of Yupori (Chuncheon district), a

Dugin Kaown; Dong-Chan Koh; Bernhard Mayer; Kang-Kun Lee

2009-01-01

193

Rural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative  

E-print Network

Department of Agriculture Annual Report 2006 ­ 2007 (August 1, 2007) The Sustainable Rural CommunitiesRural Studies Program Sustainable Rural Communities Initiative Image provided courtesy of Oregon ................................................................................................................................................................4 HISTORY OF THE SUSTAINABLE RURAL COMMUNITIES INITIATIVE

Tullos, Desiree

194

The Challenge of Educating English Language Learners in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural school districts are experiencing an influx of language minority students. Rural communities generally have little experience with people from other cultures and have fewer resources and bilingual people. At the district level, leaders who view the influx of immigrants in a positive light are more likely to prepare a well thought out plan…

Wrigley, Pamela

195

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

196

Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

2002-01-01

197

Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.  

PubMed

We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural

Or?owski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemys?aw; Wuczy?ski, Andrzej; Polecho?ski, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

2014-08-15

198

Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture  

E-print Network

's Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources promotes sustainable land use and embraces the landOklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma agriculture affects each of us every day, young and old, whether we live in largely rural regions or the state

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

199

Modeling demand for public transit services in rural areas  

SciTech Connect

Accurate estimates of demand are critical for planning, designing, and operating public transit systems. Previous research has demonstrated that the expected demand in rural areas is a function of both demographic and transit system variables. Numerous models have been proposed to describe the relationship between the aforementioned variables. However, most of them are site specific and their validity over time and space is not reported or perhaps has not been tested. Moreover, input variables in some cases are extremely difficult to quantify. In this article, the estimation of demand using the generalized linear modeling technique is discussed. Two separate models, one for fixed-route and another for demand-responsive services, are presented. These models, calibrated with data from systems in nine different states, are used to demonstrate the appropriateness and validity of generalized linear models compared to the regression models. They explain over 70% of the variation in expected demand for fixed-route services and 60% of the variation in expected demand for demand-responsive services. It was found that the models are spatially transferable and that data for calibration are easily obtainable.

Attaluri, P.; Seneviratne, P.N.; Javid, M. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-05-01

200

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

201

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

202

[How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].  

PubMed

After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

Xiao, S H

1982-05-29

203

The Health Services Use Among Older Canadians in Rural and Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though universal health care is one of the fundamental pillars of Canadian society, the rising cost of all services has resulted in the relocation and redistribution of funding and services between rural and urban areas. While most econometric analyses of health service use in Canada include broad controls by province and rural\\/urban status, there has been relatively little econometric

Heather Conde; James Ted McDonald

2007-01-01

204

Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

2010-01-01

205

How Does Real Exchange Rate Influence Income Inequality Between Urban And Rural Areas In China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

Sylviane GUILLAUMONT JEANNENEY; Ping HUA

1999-01-01

206

How does real exchange rate influence income inequality between urban and rural areas in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

S. Guillaumont Jeanneney; P. Hua

2001-01-01

207

Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

2006-01-01

208

Into Another Kind of Country: The College Matriculation of Youth from Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth from rural areas are consistently under-represented in 4-year college institutions. This is particularly true for those whose parents did not go to college. Historically, a high school degree was sufficient for employment in rural communities. However, as blue-collar jobs continue to disappear, lesser educated residents are increasingly…

Tucker, Sarah Armstrong

2010-01-01

209

Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

2010-01-01

210

THE RAPID GROWTH OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND THEIR ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE COURSE OFFERINGS IN SOME JUNIOR COLLEGES FAIL TO MEET ADEQUATELY THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH. A STUDY IN 1964 REVEALED THAT ONLY TWENTY OF THE SEVENTY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA OFFERED TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, ALTHOUGH THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED "DIRECTORY OF JUNIOR COLLEGES" SHOWS AN INCREASE TO SIXTY. FURTHER STATISTICS REVEAL THAT 253…

ELDRIDGE, DONALD A.

211

Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

2002-01-01

212

Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural Areas  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural ... 9, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Asthma in Children Health Disparities THURSDAY, April 9, 2015 ( ...

213

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2013-01-01

214

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2010-01-01

215

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2012-01-01

216

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2014-01-01

217

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2011-01-01

218

[Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].  

PubMed

The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

2010-01-01

219

LAND CONSOLIDATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is growing inequality between rural and urban areas in Central and Eastern Europe. This situation occurs for many reasons and efforts to enhance the quality of rural life must include improvements to agricultural production, employment, infrastructure, environment and housing. The success of projects to improve rural areas will depend to a large extent on how they address the

David Palmer; Paul Munro-Faure; Fritz Rembold

220

Fatal motor vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas: decomposing rates into contributing factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Design: Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. Results: As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in rural areas. Conclusions: Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash. PMID:15691985

Zwerling, C; Peek-Asa, C; Whitten, P; Choi, S; Sprince, N; Jones, M

2005-01-01

221

Abstract Housing growth is prevalent in rural areas in the United States and landscape frag-  

E-print Network

Abstract Housing growth is prevalent in rural areas in the United States and landscape frag in recreational amenities. The question is how housing growth has affected landscape frag- mentation. We thus

Radeloff, Volker C.

222

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2014-01-01

223

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2010-01-01

224

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2011-01-01

225

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2013-01-01

226

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2012-01-01

227

41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management... Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management...PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83...other than— (a) A city or town that has a...

2014-01-01

228

41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management... Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management...PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83...other than— (a) A city or town that has a...

2010-07-01

229

41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management... Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management...PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83...other than— (a) A city or town that has a...

2013-07-01

230

41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management... Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management...PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83...other than— (a) A city or town that has a...

2012-01-01

231

41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

41 Public Contracts and Property Management... Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management...PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83...other than— (a) A city or town that has a...

2011-01-01

232

THE RISE OF RURAL-TO-RURAL LABOR MARKETS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China's transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for receiving agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth

Bryan Lohmar; Scott Rozelle; Changbao Zhao

2000-01-01

233

THE RISE OF RURAL-TO-RURAL LABOR MARKETS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China's transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for employing agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth

Bryan LOHMAR; Scott ROZELLE; Changbao ZHAO

2001-01-01

234

Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both eulogised and reviled as a development option, rural tourism is increasingly viewed as a panacea, increasing the economic viability of marginalised areas, stimulating social regeneration and improving the living conditions of rural communities. Less developed countries, afflicted by debilitating rural poverty, have considerable potential in attracting tourists in search of new, authentic experiences in areas of unexploited natural and

Jenny Briedenhann; Eugenia Wickens

2004-01-01

235

A satellite telecommunication system for remote and rural areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of satellite telecommunication services for remote and rural areas in Africa is discussed in the framework of GLODOM, where a global satellite system is to provide domestic services for the rural areas of the developing world. Emphasis is placed on basic requirements, satellite system characteristics, services, and cost. It is noted that the special features of the rural environment necessitate a specially designed satellite system: i.e., a system with higher sensitivity and EIRP for the satellite transponders to allow small, fully transistorized, low-power-consumption earth stations to be employed. The use of the 4/6 GHz band is also a necessity.

Laufenberg, W.

236

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

237

L'agriculture durable, lment de stratgie pour le dveloppement rural communal Cas de la Commune d'Ampitatafika-District d'Antanifotsy-Rgion du Vakinankaratra  

E-print Network

L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le développement rural communal Cas de la Commune,S., Ramananarivo, R., Aubert Gilon, S. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 L'AGRICULTURE DURABLE, ELEMENT DE "ISDA 2010, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

239

Rural America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made a rural development publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Rural Development Perspectives, issued three times annually, "track... economic and social trends in rural America," and present "nontechnical articles on the results of new rural research,." Selected archives of the publication is available, and articles can be downloaded individually.

240

Telecommunications satellites for developing countries - Extension of satellite use to rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of telecommunications satellites to improve communications in developing nations, particularly the rural areas, is considered. Requirements for improved telephone, television and radio service in developing nations are indicated, and it is argued that satellites would provide one of the most efficient means of developing networks for telephony, television and radio both for intercity trunk routes and for rural areas. The forms such satellite systems could take for rural telephony and direct, semidirect and redistributed television broadcasting are examined, and an approach to the integration of telephone and television services is proposed. Telephony and television capacity requirements for a typical sub-Saharan country are estimated, and the financial aspects of the systems are considered. It is concluded that satellites can considerably improve the general communications situation in many developing nations, giving vast rural areas access to telecommunications for the first time and with comparatively low funding requirements.

Pinglier, A.

1980-02-01

241

Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To compare the effectiveness of a mobile screening unit with a non-mydriatic polaroid camera in detecting diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. To estimate the cost of the service. DESIGN--Prospective data collection over two years of screening for diabetic retinopathy throughout Tayside. SETTING--Tayside region, population 390,000, area 7770 km2. SUBJECTS--961 patients in rural areas and 1225 in urban areas who presented for screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Presence of diabetic retinopathy, need for laser photocoagulation, age, duration of diabetes, and diabetic treatment. RESULTS--Compared with diabetic patients in urban areas, those in rural areas were less likely to attend a hospital based diabetic clinic (46% (442) v 86% (1054), p < 0.001); less likely to be receiving insulin (260 (27%) v 416 (34%), p < 0.001 and also after correction for differences in age distribution); more likely to have advanced (maculopathy or proliferative retinopathy) diabetic retinopathy (13% (122) v 7% (89), p < 0.001); and more likely to require urgent laser photocoagulation for previously unrecognised retinopathy (1.4% (13) v 0.5% (6), p < 0.02). The screening programme cost 10 pounds per patient screened and 1000 pounds per patient requiring laser treatment. CONCLUSION--The mobile diabetic eye screening programme detected a greater prevalence of advanced retinopathy in diabetic patients living in rural areas. Patients in rural areas were also more likely to need urgent laser photocoagulation. Present screening procedures seem to be less effective in rural areas and rural patients may benefit more from mobile screening units than urban patients. PMID:8443485

Leese, G P; Ahmed, S; Newton, R W; Jung, R T; Ellingford, A; Baines, P; Roxburgh, S; Coleiro, J

1993-01-01

242

Music Education in Rural Areas: A Few Keys to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community dynamics play a major role in determining the duties of music educators. What music educators do each day can vary greatly depending on their location. A middle school band director's job description in suburban New York is likely to look nothing like that of a music educator in rural Iowa. There is a substantial lack of literature to…

Isbell, Daniel

2005-01-01

243

APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN RURAL AREAS OF CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese Government has made strong policy commitments to expand the use of renewable energy systems in rural electrification as a means of achieving sustainable development. International experience has shown that there are technical, social, cultural, institutional and economic barriers to the deployment of renewable energy systems and, thus, to their ability to contribute to the development goals of the

Long Seng To

244

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

245

THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

WALLACE, HELEN M.

246

Wireless Networks in Rural Areas: Challenges and Solutions  

E-print Network

in the rural environment very well. Therefore, two new technologies--WiMAX and VANET-- are proposed to solve keep the cost low. We show resource allocation problems in the WiMAX relay and VANET networks for the future research. The expected research achievements are discussed for both WiMAX and VANET problems

Dyer, Bill

247

Education's Role in Rural Areas of Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large rural surveys from Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay were used to examine education's role. Education has a consistently important effect that differs across countries. It is strongest in the modernizing environment context and consistently related to social differentiation, except in Guatemala. Productivity effects…

Jameson, Kenneth P.

1988-01-01

248

Information Access in Rural America: January 1979 - September 1991. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 92-18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography contains 159 entries related to information dissemination in rural areas and the role of rural libraries in accessing information. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agriculture Library (United States Department of Agriculture) and cover such topics as information needs in rural

John, Patricia La Caille

249

Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average ?18O and ?D in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average ?18O and ?D in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The ?18O in function of ?D was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher ?18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, ?18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

2008-12-01

250

Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.  

PubMed

Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

2014-05-01

251

Assessing preferences for wastewater treatment in a rural area using choice experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.

Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

2012-04-01

252

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

253

Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

2015-04-01

254

Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

2014-05-01

255

Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas — A case study of Gongcheng  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of “New Rural Construction” in China due to intensive energy consumption\\u000a and environmental pollution in rural areas. As a kind of renewable energy, biogas is helpful for new energy development and\\u000a plays an important role in the sustainable development of agroecosystem in China. To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem

Jin Yang; Weichao Chen; Bin Chen

2011-01-01

256

Testimony Before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Hearing on Farm Bill Policy Proposals Relating to Farm and Rural Energy Issues and  

E-print Network

Testimony Before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Hearing on Farm Bill Policy Proposals Relating to Farm and Rural Energy Issues and Rural Development May 9, 2007 Lee Lynd ­ have the greatest potential for energy production and will be the focus of my remarks. I will address

Lotko, William

257

Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

258

A reconstruction of global agricultural areas and land cover for the last millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have substantially modified the Earth's land cover, especially by transforming natural ecosystems to agricultural areas. In preindustrial times, the expansion of agriculture was probably the dominant process by which humankind altered the Earth system, but little is known about its extent, timing, and spatial pattern. This study presents an approach to reconstruct spatially explicit changes in global agricultural areas

J. Pongratz; C. Reick; T. Raddatz; M. Claussen

2008-01-01

259

Policy interventions that attract nurses to rural areas: a multicountry discrete choice experiment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different policies in attracting nurses to rural areas in Kenya, South Africa and Thailand using data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Methods A labelled DCE was designed to model the relative effectiveness of both financial and non-financial strategies designed to attract nurses to rural areas. Data were collected from over 300 graduating nursing students in each country. Mixed logit models were used for analysis and to predict the uptake of rural posts under different incentive combinations. Findings Nurses’ preferences for different human resource policy interventions varied significantly between the three countries. In Kenya and South Africa, better educational opportunities or rural allowances would be most effective in increasing the uptake of rural posts, while in Thailand better health insurance coverage would have the greatest impact. Conclusion DCEs can be designed to help policy-makers choose more effective interventions to address staff shortages in rural areas. Intervention packages tailored to local conditions are more likely to be effective than standardized global approaches. PMID:20461141

Erasmus, E; Pagaiya, N; Tangcharoensathein, V; Mullei, K; Mudhune, S; Goodman, C; English, M; Lagarde, M

2010-01-01

260

Information Technologies: Do They Have the Potential To Bring Change to U.S. Rural Areas? Policy Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities have long experienced an outmigration of talented people to urban areas for better employment opportunities. The traditional rural economic model, especially prevalent in Appalachia and the rural South, involves outside capital promoting industrial development separated from community needs and culture. This, at worst, is…

Burton, John K.; Lockee, Barbara B.

261

Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

2007-01-01

262

Food and Resource Economics 340 International Agricultural Development  

E-print Network

attention to rural areas and the agricultural sector. This will include -the factors responsible for growth and transformation in urban and rural areas -the role of agriculture in poorer countries' economic development, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press and World Bank, 1983. #12;2 World Bank, World Development Report

Farrell, Anthony P.

263

Does Agricultural Liberalization Reduce Rural Welfare in Less Developed Countries? The Case of CAFTA  

E-print Network

survey, Honduras 1998. Rural population: World Bank 2005. d.rural LDC households by depressing world prices for farm goods (World Bankrural household survey conducted by the University of Wisconsin and The World Bank

Taylor, J. Edward; Yunez Naude, Antonio; Jesurun-Clements, Nancy

2007-01-01

264

Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

2013-01-01

265

Prevalence of Hypertension in Rural Areas of China: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China. Methods Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas) and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9. Results We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%–26.41%). Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%–27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%–26.35%). For 2004–2006: 18.94% (14.41%–23.94%), for 2007–2009, 21.24% (15.98%–27.01%) for 2010–2013: 26.68%, (20.79%–33.02%). For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%–29.32%), for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%–24.08%). Conclusions The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention. PMID:25521114

Chen, Xiaofang; Li, Lezhi; Zhou, Tao; Li, Zhanzhan

2014-01-01

266

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

PubMed Central

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

267

A decision support system for rainfed agricultural areas of Mexico 2272  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rural inhabitants of arid lands lack sufficient water to fulfill their agricultural and household needs. They do not have readily available technical information to support decisions regarding the course of action they should follow to handle the agro-climatic risk. In this paper, a computer model (...

268

Potential Supply of Cultivated Land under the Land Consolidation of Rural Residential Areas Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land consolidation of rural residential areas is an important step for dynamic equilibrium of the total cultivated land. As a case of Jiayu county in Hubei province, an evaluation model of land consolidation potential was established based on 3 factors of policy index, households' willingness and spatial distribution, analyzed the realistic potential of land consolidation in consolidating areas and planning

Kong Xuesong; Liu Yanfang; Zou Yafeng; Chen Yiyun

2010-01-01

269

Gender Pay Gap Lower in Large Cities than in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, the difference between the gross hourly earnings of women and of men has remained constant for German white-collar employees at about 30 percent. It is obvious that regional factors play an important role in explaining this difference. In rural areas, the gender pay gap is especially pronounced (2006: 33 percent) while in metropolitan areas it is considerably lower

Anne Busch; Elke Holst

2008-01-01

270

Policies for Universal Access to Telecommunications in Rural Areas of Developing Countries - An Institutional Economics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical element of most national telecom policy objectives in developing countries is advancing universal access. Due to specific characteristics, rural areas in developing countries are of the most challenging regions. It is widely recognized that there are limits to how well the market can or will function in extending service in these areas. Therefore telecom policy has to intervene

Thorsten Scherf

2006-01-01

271

Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities  

SciTech Connect

The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-07-01

272

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted

S. Adl; D. Iron; T. Kolokolnikov

2011-01-01

273

Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

274

A Bibliography of Rural Development: Listings by Topic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 776 journal articles pertaining to rural development are cited. Entries are arranged by topic: agriculture, area development, community, economic development, environmental improvement, facilities and services, human resource development, leadership, organization, rural development, rural-urban relationships, and social action. Some articles…

Parker, Carrie G.; And Others

275

Migration, rural development, poverty and food security: a comparative perspective  

E-print Network

rural underdevelopment, poverty and food insecurity in rural areas? The case studies provide mixed1 Migration, rural development, poverty and food security: a comparative perspective Thomas Lacroix-border migration for the pro-poor development of Commonwealth states. In this context, the Food and Agriculture

Boyer, Edmond

276

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05). PMID:18777151

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2014-01-01

277

Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

Eccles, Lawrence A.

1979-01-01

278

China's rural logistics distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only including agricultural products logistics, agricultural means of production logistics, rural daily consumer goods logistics, as well as rural reverse logistics, it really be considered ldquorural logisticsrdquo. This paper analyzes the distribution of agricultural products, and distribution of daily consumer goods, agricultural means of production distribution, rural reverse logistics; states that chain management should be one of its meaning in

Guojun Ji; Weiwang Huang

2009-01-01

279

Heterogeneity in Rural California and the Example of Shandon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a 22-month ethnographic study of rural Shandon (California), a community that demonstrates the social and demographic changes resulting from agricultural intensification in rural California. Changes in the Shandon area's agricultural production have produced a demographic shift from the homogeneous Anglo-American farming and…

Haley, Brian

280

A Comparison of Wireless Local Loop Technologies with Reference to their Application in Rural Areas of Pakistan  

E-print Network

Areas of Pakistan Muhammad Usman Ilyas Department of Computer Science, School of Arts & Sciences, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. muilyas@lums.edu.pk Abstract: In this paper LMDS in rural areas of Pakistan. The low population density and great distances in Pakistan's rural areas make

Radha, Hayder

281

Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

2012-01-01

282

Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic. PMID:23351567

2013-01-01

283

Private and public health care in rural areas of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In many low and middle income countries, the private sector is increasingly becoming an important source of health care, filling gaps where no or little public health care is available. However, knowledge on the private sector providers is limited The objective of this study was to determine the type and number of different types of health care providers, and the quality, cost and utilization of care delivered by those providers in rural Uganda. Methods The study was carried out in three rural districts. Methods included (1) mapping of health care providers; (2) a household survey to determine morbidity and health care utilization; (3) a health facility survey to assess quality of care; (4) focus group discussions to get qualitative information on providers and provider choice; and (5) key informant interviews to further explore service characteristics. Results 95.7% of all 445 facilities surveyed were private while 4.3% were public. Traditional practitioners and general merchandise shops that sold medicines comprised 77.1% of all providers. They had limited infrastructure and skills but were often located in the villages and therefore easily accessible. Among the formal providers there were 4 times as many private for profit providers than public, 76 versus 18. However, most of the private units were one-person drug shops. In the household survey, 2580 persons were interviewed. 1097 (42%) had experienced illness during the preceding month. Care was sought in 54.1% of the cases. 35.6% were given self-treatment and in 10.3% no action was taken. Of the episodes for which people sought care at a health care facility, 37.0% visited a public health care provider, 39.7% a for profit provider, 11.8% a private not for profit provider, and 10.6% a traditional practitioner. Private for profit facilities were the most popular for ambulatory health care, while public facilities were preferred for more serious conditions and for hospitalization. Traditional practitioners were many but saw relatively few patients. They were mostly used for social problems and limited medical specific conditions. Conclusions Private providers play a major role in health care delivery in rural Uganda; reaching a wide client base. Traditional practitioners are many but have as much a social as a medical function in the community. The significance of the private health care sector points to the need to establish a policy that addresses quality and affordability issues and creates a strong regulatory environment for private practice in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21106099

2010-01-01

284

Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studies of AHI or TDR take into account both the spatial aspects of residence at time of infection and the genetic characteristics of the viruses, and questions remain about how viruses are transmitted across space and the rural-urban divide. Using AHI strains from North Carolina, we examined whether differences exist in the spatial patterns of AHI versus AHI with TDR, as well as whether the genetic characteristics of these HIV infections vary by rural-urban status and across Health Service Areas. The highest amounts of TDR were detected in persons under age 30, African Americans, and men who have sex with men (MSM) - similar to the populations where the highest numbers of AHI without TDR are observed. Nearly a quarter of patients reside in rural areas, and there are no significant differences between rural and urban residence among individuals infected with drug resistant or drug susceptible viruses. We observe similar levels of genetic distance between HIV found in rural and urban areas, indicating that viruses are shared across the rural-urban divide. Genetic differences are observed, however, across Health Service Areas, suggesting that local areas are sites of genetic differentiation in viruses being transmitted to newly infected individuals. These results indicate that future efforts to prevent HIV transmission need to be spatially targeted, focusing on local-level transmission in risky populations, in addition to statewide anti- HIV efforts. PMID:24520392

Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; Hurt, Christopher B.

2014-01-01

285

Denitrification of Shallow Groundwater in an Agriculture Area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was initiated to assess the potentials for nitrate contamination of water supply from the up-gradient agricultural areas. The study site is a small farmland, located in the upper stream of Gwang-gyo reservoir, a water supply source for the Suwon City, Korea. Livestock manure has been used in many of small farmlands as a natural fertilizer in the area. Water levels and quality has been monitored 12 monitoring wells installed into the shallow unconfined aquifer from a since Feb., 2007. Field survey with sampling was conducted in February, April and June representing before, in the beginning of and after the application of fertilizer, respectively. Nitrate levels in groundwater exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Guideline of 10 mg/L of NO3-N only in April samples of mw12 and mw7 with 10.2 mg/L and 11.2 mg/L, respectively. During that sampling period, much manure was found on the land surface, indicating fertilizer application for farming. However, mw8, only 7-m apart from mw7, showed nitrate level of 1.5 mg/L NO3-N. The mw8 shows lower DO and higher DOC, HCO3, and Fe and Mn concentrations than those of mw7, implying more reduced conditions. Consequently, the significant spatial variation in nitrate levels was attributed to the biogeochemical reactions and subsequent denitrification in the shallow aquifer.

Lee, E.; Woo, N.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, M.; Hyun, S.

2007-12-01

286

Rural health, family practice, and area health education centers: a national study.  

PubMed

The National Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program and the family practice specialty were both created around 1970, in part to help meet the health care needs of medically underserved populations. Because these two entities share the common goal of alleviating physician shortages in rural areas, a study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of their interaction. Questionnaires were mailed to all AHEC projects and all nonmilitary family practice residency programs. Response rates were 100% and 79%, respectively. Elective rural rotations (usually preceptorships) are offered by 135 (49%) residencies, but only 84 (31%) require them. Fourteen (64%) AHEC projects interact with family practice residencies; however, only 9% (15/167) of the programs in those states utilize AHEC resources. The authors conclude that additional rural rotations could be offered to family practice residents by taking advantage of under-utilized resources of the National AHEC Program. PMID:2744284

Blondell, R D; Smith, I J; Byrne, M E; Higgins, C W

1989-01-01

287

About Kings Area Rural Transit The Kings County Area Public Transit Agency operates the Kings  

E-print Network

is the Agricultural Industries Transportation Services Program (AITS), which provides farm workers with safe, reliable of farm workers. Led by KART's Executive Director, Ron Hughes, the Agricultural Industries Transportation transportation to and from work. Operating across California's agricultural Central Valley, AITS provides more

Greenberg, Albert

288

Conflicting Implementation of Agricultural and Water Policies in Irrigated Areas in the EU  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Objectives and Background Irrigated agriculture is very important in terms of area, value of production and employment in Mediterranean regions devoted to continental agriculture. T his paper analyses the impact of CAP reform and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in irrigated agriculture through a case study in Central Spain. We believe that this research will contribute to our understanding

José A. Gómez-Limón; Manuel Arriaza; Julio Berbel

2002-01-01

289

Civil defence in agricultural production areas; Grazhdanskaya oborona na ob'ektakh sel'skokhozyaistvenogo proizvodstva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this textbook for students of agricultural schools the following ; topics are covered: the nature of rocket-nuclear warfare, the role and problems ; of civil defense applicable to agricultural production areas; organization of ; civil defense in agricultural regions, at cooperative farms, and at state farms; ; the nature of biological, chemical, and radiation surveys and dosimetric control; ;

N. I. Akimov; V. G. Ilin

1973-01-01

290

Why Invest in Rural America--And How? A Critical Public Policy Question for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current rural policies at both the federal and state levels do not meet the needs of rural people and communities; they are designed for the past, not the future. Agricultural subsidies absorb most federal resources directed to rural areas, with no evidence of benefits for rural communities. The continuing state-level pursuit of low-wage,…

Stauber, Karl N.

291

Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds.  

PubMed

Most states in the USA have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles that frequently occurring storms can initiate surface runoff from fields. Once initiated, this hydrological pathway has a high potential to transport P to the stream. In regions where hydrologically active areas of watersheds vary in time and space, surface runoff generation by "saturation excess" has been linked to distance from stream, with larger events resulting in larger contributing distances. Thus, storm-return period and P loss from a 39.5-ha mixed-land-use watershed in Pennsylvania was evaluated to relate return-period thresholds and distances contributing P to streams. Of 248 storm flows between 1997 and 2006, 93% had a return period of 1 yr, contributing 47% of total P (TP) export, while the largest two storms (10-yr return period) accounted for 23% of TP export. Contributing distance thresholds for the watershed were determined (50-150 m) for a range of storm-return periods (1-10 yr) from hydrograph analysis. By modifying storm-return period thresholds in the P Index and thereby contributing distance, it is possible to account for greater risk of P loss during large storms. For instance, increasing return period threshold from 1 (current P indices) to 5 yr, which accounted for 67% of TP export, increased the P-management restricted area from 20 to 58% of the watershed. An increase in impacted area relative to a decreased risk of P loss creates a management-policy dilemma that cannot be ignored. PMID:18574180

Sharpley, Andrew N; Kleinman, Peter J A; Heathwaite, A Louise; Gburek, William J; Weld, Jennifer L; Folmar, Gordon J

2008-01-01

292

Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

Thomas, Della W.

2010-01-01

293

The Human Ecology of Rural Areas: An Appraisal of a Field of Study with Suggestions for a Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paper (1) explains the absence of a unifying conceptual framework for study of human ecology in rural areas; (2) proposes outline for such a framework with emphasis on its format, scope, and principal concepts; and (3) demonstrates the utility of the proposed framework for current areas of rural sociological research. (Author/DS)

Perez, Lisandro

1979-01-01

294

Violent and destructive behavior among the severely mentally Ill in rural areas: Evidence from Arkansas' community mental health system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of rates of violence among admissions to the Arkansas State Hospital system between urban and rural areas tested the hypothesis that thresholds for admission to the hospital were greater in rural than in urban areas. Data on violent and destructive behavior were recorded from the medical records of 609 patients. Logistic regression was used to model the presence

Brian J. Cuffel

1994-01-01

295

Satellite Services for Internet Access in Rural Areas1 McClure School of Communication Systems Management  

E-print Network

of direct satellite services for internet access in rural areas. The broad success of direct to home describes the use of direct satellite services to provide high-speed internet access cSatellite Services for Internet Access in Rural Areas1 Hans Kruse McClure School of Communication

Kruse, Hans

296

Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

Scott, David M.

2010-01-01

297

Vision, Action and the Future Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

. W. Date-Appropriate Technology, Rural systems U. N.Gaitonde-Mechanical Engineering, Energy, hamlets, gram-panchayats, villages, towns and cities Basic areas-soil, water, energy, livelihoods, public solutions and knowledge-technology, policy, study, capacity Act locally and then think globally Objectives

Sohoni, Milind

298

Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression is defined as a major depressive episode that occurs within four weeks after delivery. However, investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorders after childbirth with the largest risk during 90 days after delivery. We aimed to study the risk factors of postpartum depression in women living in rural areas of Isfahan Province in

Gholam-Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad-Reza Maracy; Mehrdad Salehi; Gholam-Hossein Sadri; Pharm D; Mahnaz Kelishadi BS; Patricia Cassy

2009-01-01

299

The LAMBDA project: using advanced telematics to deliver services and information to rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The LAMBDA project was a two year European funded project to bring practical services and information to remote rural areas. It has utilised multimedia, interactive public access terminal units linked by ISDN to service provider sites. The project has involved the local communities at all stages and has shown how a combination of social

J. Brogden

1996-01-01

300

Education, Human Development, and Food Security in Rural Areas: Assessing Causalities 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food insecurity and illiteracy involve more than 800 million people today, most of whom live in rural areas. In this paper I aim to explain the linkages existing between education, development, and food security. First, I explore the role given to education in the different development theories, evolved since 1960s on, and then I concentrate on the double role attributed

Francesco Burchi

301

Geotourism and Geoparks as Gateways to Sociocultural Sustainability in Qeshm Rural Areas, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural sustainability is the concept for the recovery and protection of cultural identities. It is linked to previous traditional practices through celebrating local and regional histories and passing down cultural values to future generations. Nowaday, geoparks as an innovation for the protection of natural and geological heritage play an important role in cultural sustainability in rural areas. Moreover, a geopark

Neda Torabi Farsani; Celeste Coelho; Carlos Costa

2012-01-01

302

Geotourism and Geoparks as Gateways to Sociocultural Sustainability in Qeshm Rural Areas, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural sustainability is the concept for the recovery and protection of cultural identities. It is linked to previous traditional practices through celebrating local and regional histories and passing down cultural values to future generations. Nowaday, geoparks as an innovation for the protection of natural and geological heritage play an important role in cultural sustainability in rural areas. Moreover, a geopark

Neda Torabi Farsani; Celeste Coelho; Carlos Costa

2011-01-01

303

Title VII Funding and Physician Practice in Rural or Low-Income Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether Title VII funding enhances physician supply in underserved areas has not clearly been established. The purpose was to determine the relation between Title VII funding in medical school, residency, or both, and the number of family physicians practicing in rural or low-income communities. A retrospective cross sectional analysis was carried…

Krist, Alex H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Callahan, David; Woolf, Steven H.; Marsland, David

2005-01-01

304

Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

2012-01-01

305

What Is Well Yield? Private wells are frequently drilled in rural areas to  

E-print Network

1 What Is Well Yield? Private wells are frequently drilled in rural areas to supply water lowering the water level in the borehole below the pump intake is called the well yield. Low-yielding wells describes several steps that can be used to increase the adequacy of a low-yielding well. Peak Demand

Keinan, Alon

306

Nature of Domestic Violence against Women in a Rural Area of Bangladesh: Implication for Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports finding from a study carried out in a remote rural area of Bangladesh during December 2000. Nineteen key informants were interviewed for collecting data on domestic violence against women. Each key informant provided information about 10 closest neighbouring ever-married women covering a total of 190 women. The questionnaire included information about frequency of physical violence, verbal abuse,

Abbas Bhuiya; Tamanna Sharmin; S. M. A. Hanifi

2003-01-01

307

Rethinking policies for the retention of allied health professionals in rural areas: A social relations approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRetaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem. Generally the literature has concentrated on three elements: practitioner needs, community needs and organisational needs. There has been little attempt to focus other types of social relations in which health practitioner retention and recruitment takes place. The aim of this paper is to question the present dominant hierarchical approach

Kevin O’Toole; Adrian Schoo; Karen Stagnitti; Kate Cuss

2008-01-01

308

Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

1999-01-01

309

Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

Andrews, Rhys

2011-01-01

310

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

tested. In Colombia, drinking water and sewage are provided by public or private companies, under alternative, and contribute to reach a better local development based on access to drinking water and sewage operators. Nevertheless, the situation in rural areas are critical, because the drinking water coverage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Web-Based Strategies for Professional Induction in Rural, Regional and Remote Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In regional, rural, and remote areas of Australia, geographic and professional isolation take their toll on professionals, particularly in the first 5 years of practice. The attraction and retention of human service professionals and paraprofessionals in regional Australia is a significant problem affecting the sustainability and social cohesion…

Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan

312

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007  

E-print Network

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

Levinson, David M.

313

Center for Support of Mental Health Services in Isolated Rural Areas. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, the University of Denver received a grant to develop and operate the Frontier Mental Health Services Resource Network (FMHSRN). FMHSRN's principal aim was to improve delivery of mental health services in sparsely populated "frontier" areas by providing technical assistance to frontier and rural audiences. Traditional dissemination methods…

Ciarlo, James A.

314

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

PubMed

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-01-01

315

Mental Health Service Delivery in Rural Areas: Organizational and Clinical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rural community mental health center tends to serve a large geographic area, have decentralized service delivery, require its professionals to function as generalists, and coordinate closely with other agencies. The last decade has seen an increasing strain placed on this pattern. As block grant and fee-for-service shifts resulting from the…

Wagenfeld, Morton O.; Murray, J. Dennis; Mohatt, Dennis F.; DeBruyn, Jeanne C.

316

Planning sustainable land use in rural areas at different spatial levels using GIS and modelling tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-oriented planning in rural areas requires a holistic approach in which the different spatial levels are combined within a framework. The highest level of this framework (e.g. a federal state) has to provide general ideas for the development of landscapes. Modified methods have to be used at the regional and local levels, in order to visualise the consequences of different

S. Herrmann; E. Osinski

1999-01-01

317

Ambient concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid across a rural-urban-agricultural transect in southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variation in ambient atmospheric concentrations of gaseous reactive nitrogen (Nr) species (ammonia [NH3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and nitric acid [HNO3]) were measured at four sites (spanning a transect in land use types: intensive agricultural, urban-agricultural transition, urban, and rural background) across southern Ontario, Canada. Atmospheric concentrations were measured with the Willems badge diffusive passive sampler for one year (April 2010-March 2011) at two-week exposure periods (biweekly integrated concentration measurements); dry deposition was estimated using the inferential method. There was high spatial and temporal variability in the ambient concentrations and estimated dry deposition of NH3, NO2 and HNO3 across the four study sites. Annual average Nr concentrations were greatest at the urban site owing to high NO2 concentrations (>25 ?g m-3), while annual average ambient NH3 concentrations were greatest at the intensive agricultural site (>3 ?g m-3) followed by the urban site (˜2 ?g m-3) suggesting that outside of intensive agricultural areas, urban regions have the highest ambient NH3 concentrations in southern Ontario. The high ambient NH3 and NO2 concentrations resulted in high dry deposition of gaseous Nr (urban [>12 kg N ha-1 yr-1] and intensive agricultural [>8 kg N ha-1 yr-1]), accounting for 50-60% of estimated total Nr deposition (dry gaseous + wet ammonium and nitrate) at the study sites. Atmospheric NH3 and NO2 are significant components of total Nr deposition in southern Ontario and should be routinely monitored.

Zbieranowski, Antoni L.; Aherne, Julian

2012-12-01

318

The applications of mobile telecommunications in new rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the current popularity of information and telecommunication technologies, more and more farmers recognize the important role of information. The urgent need for Chinese farmers is how to make use of information to get rich. Contrast in the newspapers, television, radio and other traditional media, mobile information services have unmatched advantages, such as wide spread in very low cost, spread source of widely dispersed, and diverse forms of communication, simple and easy to operate, with strong participatory and interactive, and so on. The paper proposes that Mobile operators can supply different information in accordance with personalized demands of farmers with various agencies, such as government departments, supply and marketing cooperatives, hospitals, banks, veterinary clinics, agricultural stations. They can unite to supply a number of convenience people, rich people, and love for the people's business through the message, voice, WAP and other forms to meet the needs of farmers. Besides, the paper points out that those farmers can order information on personalized service.

Chen, Xia; Lu, Ting-jie

2009-07-01

319

[Tularemia seroprevalence in the risky population living in both rural and urban areas of Erzurum].  

PubMed

Tularemia which is a zoonotic infection, caused by Francisella tularensis, has become a re-emerging disease in Turkey. Infection is often transmitted to human by handling animal tissues and products, but it is also possible to acquire the disease from contaminated water or food. Recently several cases and epidemics of tularemia have been reported in the northwest areas of Turkey, particularly in Marmara and West Black Sea regions. Erzurum is a city in Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey and animal husbandry is the main agricultural activity in that area. However, neither tularemia cases were reported from this province nor seroprevalence studies were performed. In this study we aimed to determine F.tularensis antibody seropositivity in the risky population living at both rural and urban area of Erzurum. Blood samples from 240 volunteer subjects (134 male with mean age: 36.2, age range: 17-75 years and 106 female with mean age: 39.1, age range: 16-77 years) whose occupations were farming and animal husbandry, were included in the study. Serum samples were screened for the presence of F.tularensis antibodies by slide agglutination method (BD, USA) and Serazym ELISA kit (anti-F.tularensis IgG/IgA/IgM, Seramun, Germany). The positive samples with those tests were also retested by microagglutination test (MAT) in National Tularemia Reference Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, using antigen prepared in the same laboratory from the local strain. The serum samples were also searched for the presence of Brucella and Salmonella antibodies in terms of cross-reactivity. Seropositivity was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 subjects by slide agglutination test (SAT), whereas only 5 (2.1%) gave positive result for total antibody by ELISA. Twenty-five of the 71 SAT positive samples yielded F.tularensis antibodies by MAT, of which 21 were between 1/20-1/40 and four were between 1/80-1/160 titers. However, all of the MAT positive samples (n= 25) were found reactive in Brucella and/or Salmonella antibody tests. One of the four MAT positive samples with 1/40 titer and all of the four MAT positive samples with ? 1/80 titer yielded positive results in ELISA. Since MAT gave very high cross reactive results, the five subjects (2.1%) found positive with ELISA were evaluated as seropositive for tularemia. Of those subjects (four were female, one was male; age range: 27-38 years), four were the inhabitants of the same village, and one from another neighboring village. All of the seropositive subjects were dealing with raising livestock and two were also farming. No history of contact with rat and wild animals or tick bite were detected, however it was noted that non-chlorinated fountain water has been used in both of these villages. In conclusion, our data emphasized that, populations inhabiting especially in rural area and dealing with farming and stock raising in our region are at risk for tularemia. PMID:21341161

Yazg?, Halil; Uyan?k, M Hamidullah; Ertek, Mustafa; K?l?ç, Selçuk; Kireçci, Ekrem; Ozden, Kemalettin; Ayy?ld?z, Ahmet

2011-01-01

320

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

321

Delivery of Rural Community Services: Some Implications and Problems. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 635.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing research conducted under the Western Regional Research Project on the delivery of rural community services, this report presents explications of the following generalizations which have been supported by research: (1) Many rural service institutions need reorganization and renewal, (2) Regionalization increases organizations' ability…

Carruthers, Garrey E.; And Others

322

Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

Akintola, Jacob; And Others

323

Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. (Faculty of Pharmacy, UFMG, Botucatu (Brazil)); Vassilieff, I. (Institute of Biosciences, UNESP, Botucatu (Brazil))

1989-06-01

324

CURRENT ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY THE SWEDISH UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES SEPTEMBER 2006 AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2008 will address Ag- riculture and Development, which has chains, diversification of household incomes towards off-farm incomes and eventually to leave agriculture

325

Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

Podgursky, Michael

326

On the variability of streamflow - urban versus rural areas  

E-print Network

of this type have been pre- pared by Sawyer (1961) and Waananen (1961) for fairly large watersheds (10 to 90 mi ). In this study, the effects of urbanization on runoff were investigated by uti!izing data from two small. watersheds in the same geographical... stream on Burton Creek 0. 2 mi longer; however, it has a drainage area that is only 70 per cent of the area of Hudson Creek. The most important effect of urbanization is the decrease in lag time. Carter (1961) found that for a watershed...

Feddes, Robert George

1970-01-01

327

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

328

Stated Preferences of Doctors for Choosing a Job in Rural Areas of Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors’ scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors’ stated preferences for rural jobs. Methods and Findings A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho’s capital) and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54). Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. Conclusions Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden. PMID:23272065

Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Lema, Claudia; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Huicho, Luis

2012-01-01

329

Understanding physicians' decisions to practice in rural areas as a basis for developing recruitment and retention strategies.  

PubMed

The shortage of providers in rural areas is threatening the quality and availability of health care in many communities. The causes of the provider shortage are many and varied-from economic to social to personal. Government programs have addressed the issue of provider supply by offering scholarships and loan repayment programs for medical students who then must fulfil service obligations in underserved settings, among which are rural areas. Experience has shown that once providers complete their obligations under these grant programs, retention of providers in rural areas becomes an even more critical issue. Using focus group research, this study explores the practice setting choices of a group of physicians currently practicing in rural areas. The discussion reveals that personal values are one of the primary motivators for choosing to practice in rural settings while lack of availability of career opportunities for spouses and educational opportunities for children are major obstacles. The health care system poses barriers to success for providers in rural settings. The key rewards from rural practice are the ability to become integrated into the local community and the provider/patient relationships that develop in such settings. These findings are used as the basis for proposing recruitment and retention strategies for providers to improve access to medical care by patients in rural areas. PMID:10165487

Scammon, D L; Williams, S D; Li, L B

1994-01-01

330

High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the lifetime risk of maternal death, and from that the estimated approximate maternal mortality ratio. Results The 2,039 respondents reported 4,628 sisters who had reached reproductive age. Of these 4,628 sisters, almost a third (1,233; 27%) had died, and 429 (9%) had died during pregnancy or childbirth. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 20% and a maternal mortality ratio of 3,131 per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 2,967-3,296), with a time reference around 1999. Conclusions We found a very high maternal mortality in rural Mali and this highlights the urgent need for obstetric services in the remote rural areas. PMID:21812951

2011-01-01

331

Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

2014-01-01

332

General Health in the Elderly and Younger Adults of Rural areas in Fars Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: There are critical gaps in assessment and research on health among the elderly living in rural communities. The state of aging and health in rural areas provides a snapshot of our older adults’s need to necessary public health measures .The aim of this study was to determine the self-rated general health of adults residing in rural areas and compare the general health of the elderly with younger adults. Methods: In this population based study using multistage random sampling, 2259 adults aged (?15 years old) were selected from rural areas of Shiraz, southern Iran. The participants were divided into three age groups: young adults (15-39 years old n=1574), middle aged adults (40-59 years old, n=530), and the elderly (?60 years of age, n-155).  Data were gathered using a translated version of the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and analyzed using Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANCOVA analysis.  SPSS software, version 16, was used for analysis. Results:  34.8%, 31.6%, 52.3% and 7.7% of the elderly had a probable mental disorder  in the somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression categories, respectively. Moreover, 9.7, 7.1, 3.9 and 4.5% of the elderly had a  severe mental disorder  in the four mentioned subscales, respectively. Compared with younger adults, the elderly showed a significantly higher disorder in all subscales except for anxiety. Conclusion: Our findings showed that chronic disease had a great effect on general health. Screening programs and prevention of chronic disease by the newly established family physician in rural districts can improve the overall community health. PMID:25553335

Zare, Najaf; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehesh, Tania; Moradi, Fariba

2015-01-01

333

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

PubMed

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

334

Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.  

PubMed

In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

2013-10-01

335

Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

1983-01-01

336

The role of urban?to?rural remittances in rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the effects of rural?to?urban migration is the return of money and resources by the migrants to their respective home areas. Recently, it has been argued by several authors that such remittances represent a significant means for removing supply constraints to improved productivity in agriculture. In this paper the authors examine critically the available evidence on the rural impact

Henry Rempel; Richard A. Lobdell

1978-01-01

337

Study of working experience in remote rural areas after medical graduation.  

PubMed

Background Posting of doctors in remote rural areas has always been a priority for Government; however data are scarce in the country about experience of doctors of working in remote areas after medical graduation. Objective A questionnaire survey of doctors was planned to analyze their experience of working after graduation in remote rural areas in various parts of the country. Method The cross-sectional survey was done by convenience sampling method. A one-page questionnaire with one partially closed-end and five open-end type questions was distributed to the doctors who had worked in remote rural areas after graduation under various governments' postings. Result Two-third of participants had their home in urban areas and 89.8% had stayed for 1 to 5 years. About half of the participants had difficulty in getting the posting in the remote areas of their choice. Most participants indicated provision of opportunities for Residential (postgraduate) Training as their reasons of going to remote areas as well as their suggestions to encourage young graduates to go there. Similarly most also suggested appropriate career, salary and incentives to encourage doctors to go to work in remote areas. About 85% of participants pointed out the major problem faced while posted in remote areas as difficulty in handling varied situations with no guidance or seniors available around. Conclusion The notable points indicated by the participants are centered on the opportunity for Residential Training and difficulties faced without such training. Residential Training is a priority to be considered while planning the health policy for optimum health care of people. PMID:25552217

Thapa, K R; Shrestha, B K; Bhattarai, M D

2014-01-01

338

Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

2007-01-01

339

Unravelling the extent of inequalities in health across urban and rural areas: Evidence from a national sample in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of inequalities in health between rural and urban settings have produced mixed and sometimes conflicting results, depending on the national setting of the study, the level of geographic detail used to define rural areas and the health indicators studied. By focusing on morbidity data from a national sample of individuals, this study aims to examine the extent of inequalities

Mylene Riva; Sarah Curtis; Lise Gauvin; James Fagg

2009-01-01

340

Demonstration Program in Individualized Adult Education in Rural Areas, July 1, 1974-December 31, 1975. Final Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of a demonstration project in individualized adult education in rural areas of Arkansas, which took place during the period of July 1974 through December 1975, is presented. Program goals included: (1) to recruit and retain rural male adults who are operating at less than a fourth grade educational level, with emphasis on the…

Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Div. of Continuing Education.

341

Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

342

Time and energy costs of distance in rural life space of Zimbabwe: Case study in the Chiduku Communal Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time cost of distance (TCD) and energy cost of distance (ECD) devoted to routine activities for supporting the basic human requirements of rural households have become a major source of concern because of the high proportion of the daylight TCDs and ECDs expended on such tasks in most rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. The high burden of TCDs and ECDs

Assefa Mehretu; Chris Mutambirwa

1992-01-01

343

Entrepreneurial origin and the configuration of innovation in rural areas: the case of Cumbria, North West England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the incidence of innovation and the configuration of innovation systems in rural areas, which are viewed as possessing weak knowledge-generating subsystems. Drawing on the results of a microlevel study in rural Cumbria, North West England, the paper shows that entrepreneurs were able to access nonlocal knowledge infrastructure. Thus, the emergent actor-constructed regional innovation system stretched well beyond

Christos Kalantaridis; Zografia Bika

2011-01-01

344

Dr. Echeverra, a citizen from Uruguay, has worked on agricultural and rural development issues for over 30 years. As Director General of CIAT, he plans to reinforce his organization as the epicenter for mobilizing global science, technology, and  

E-print Network

Dr. Echeverría, a citizen from Uruguay, has worked on agricultural and rural development issues the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C. where he helped develop several agricultural and rural development projects in Latin America. From 2000 to 2004, Dr. Echeverría was Director

Ginzel, Matthew

345

[Incentives to attract and retain the health workforce in rural areas of Peru: a qualitative study].  

PubMed

The study aimed to identify the main incentives for attracting and retaining health workers in rural and remote health facilities in Ayacucho, Peru. In-depth interviews were performed with 80 physicians, obstetricians, nurses, and nurse technicians in the poorest areas (20 per group), plus 11 health managers. Ayacucho lacks systematic policies for attracting and retaining human resources. The main incentives, in order of relevance, were higher wages, opportunities for further training, longer/permanent contracts, better infrastructure and medical equipment, and more staff. Interviewees also mentioned improved housing conditions and food, the opportunity to be closer to family, and recognition by the health system. Health workers and policymakers share perceptions on key incentives to encourage work in rural areas. However, there are also singularities to be considered when designing specific strategies. Public initiatives thus need to be monitored and evaluated closely in order to ensure the intended impact. PMID:22488318

Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G

2012-04-01

346

Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

347

Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-03-01

348

Factors Associated with Faecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in a Rural Area, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in the highland area of Vietnam in order to identify risk factors\\u000a for faecal contamination of household drinking water. In the study, the water supplies of 146 households were assessed initially\\u000a in the rainy season and then were reassessed in the dry season.Water sampling in water sources and at the point-of-use

Vuong Tuan Anh; Kåre Mølbak; Phung Dac Cam; Anders Dalsgaard

349

A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China  

PubMed Central

Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas) to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public health work. We chose 7 townships and 49 administrative villages in Chongyi County as the intervention sites; 3 townships and 9 administrative villages in Luxi County as the comparison sites. Officers from county health bureaus and postgraduates from School of Public Health, Nanchang University visited each township hospital and village clinic in field together and made observations and interviewed clinic staff. Results There was little change in health facilities or workforce in the two areas. However, there was an increase in the use of public health services at township and village level in the intervention sites in Chongyi. In these, the proportion of clinics which had developed a child health (under the age of 3) management system, maternal postpartum visit and chronic disease management increased from 53%, 51% and 47% to 78%, 73%, and 71% respectively. There was no significant change in the comparison sites. Conclusions The trial demonstrated that it was feasible to implement a model of community health service delivery that was adapted to depressed rural areas because it required little organizational change, additional funding or personnel. The model had a positive impact on the provision of public health programs, a finding which has implications for efforts to improve access to primary health care in rural China. PMID:23244489

2012-01-01

350

A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

2014-12-01

351

Rural Industrialization: Prospects, Problems, Impacts, and Methods. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 93d Congress, 2d Session, April 19, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 9 papers in this compilation on rural industrial development are titled as follows: (1) "U.S. Employment Shifts Through 1985" (gains, regional losses, relation to per capita income and economic activities, geographic concentration, and national basis of regional projections); (2) "Large Industry in a Rural Area: Demographic, Economic, and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

352

Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

2013-01-01

353

Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study tour of the diverse environments of southern Patagonia affected by ash storms, with an emphasis on determining the impacts of repeated ash storms on agriculture and local practices that were developed in an attempt to mitigate these impacts. Ash storms produce similar effects to initial tephra eruptions, prolonged for considerable periods. These have included the burial of farmland under dune deposits, abrasion of vegetation and contamination of feed supplies with fine ash. These impacts can then cause problems for grazing animals such as starvation, severe tooth abrasion, gastrointestinal problems, corneal abrasion and blindness, and exhaustion if sheep fleeces become laden with ash. In addition, ash storms have led to exacerbated soil erosion, human health impacts, increased cleanup requirements, sedimentation in irrigation canals, and disruption of aviation and land transport. Ash deposits were naturally stabilised most rapidly in areas with high rainfall (>1,500 mm/year) through compaction and enhanced vegetation growth. Stabilisation was slowest in windy, semi-arid regions. Destruction of vegetation and suppression of regrowth by heavy tephra fall (>100 mm) hindered the stabilisation of deposits for years, and reduced the surface friction which increased wind erosivity. Stabilisation of tephra deposits was improved by intensive tillage, use of windbreaks and where there was dense and taller vegetative cover. Long-term drought and the impracticality of mixing ash deposits with soil by tillage on large farms was a barrier to stabilising deposits and, in turn, agricultural recovery. The continuing ash storms motivated the partial evacuation of small rural towns such as Chile Chico (Chile) and Los Antiguos (Argentina) in September-December 1991, after the primary tephra fall in August 1991. Greatly increased municipal cleanup efforts had to be sustained beyond the initial tephra fall to cope with the ongoing impacts of ash storms. Throughout the 1990s, ash storms contributed to continued population migration out of the affected area, leaving hundreds of farms abandoned on the Argentine steppe. The major lesson from our study is the importance of stabilisation of ash deposits as soon as possible after the initial eruption, particularly in windy, arid climates. Suggested mitigation measures include deep cultivation of the ash into the soil and erecting windbreaks.

Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.

2011-04-01

354

A Review of Effectiveness of Riparian Buffers in Agricultural Areas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies in recent years. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffer systems have been st...

355

Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most states in the U.S. have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles whereby frequently occurring storms have a given potential to in...

356

Landscape change with agricultural intensification in a rural watershed, southwestern Ohio, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialized cash grain production, emergent in the midwestern United States during the post-WWII era, typifies the Upper Four Mile Creek watershed in southwestern Ohio. This style of agriculture intensifies cropland use, with consequent increases in soil erosion and stream sedimentation - a serious problem in the lower reservoir, Acton Lake. Agricultural statistics and aerial photographs compiled between 1934 and 1984

Kimberly E. Medley; Brian W. Okey; Gary W. Barrett; Michael F. Lucas; William H. Renwick

1995-01-01

357

Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

358

Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

359

The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

Menanteau-Horta, Dario

360

Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

2009-01-01

361

Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

Liebenow, J. Gus

362

Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?  

PubMed

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

363

Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?  

PubMed Central

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

364

Point of care investigations in pediatric care to improve health care in rural areas.  

PubMed

The good quality laboratory services in developing countries are often limited to major urban centers. As a result, many commercially available high-quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases are neither accessible nor affordable to patients in the rural areas. Health facilities in rural areas are compromised and this limits the usability and performance of the best medical diagnostic technologies in rural areas as they are designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. The advent of new technologies have allowed miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which has made it possible for sophisticated diagnostic tools to move out of the developed-world laboratory in the form of a "point of care"(POC) tests. Many diagnostic tests are being developed using these platforms. However, the challenge is to develop diagnostics which are inexpensive, rugged and well suited to the medical and social contexts of the developing world and do not compromise on accuracy and reliability. The already available POC tests which are reliable and affordable, like for HIV infection, malaria, syphilis, and some neglected tropical diseases, and POC tests being developed for other diseases if correctly used and effectively regulated after rigorous evaluation, have the potential to make a difference in clinical management and improve surveillance. In order to use these tests effectively they would need to be supported by technically competent manpower, availability of good-quality reagents, and healthcare providers who value and are able to interpret laboratory results to guide treatment; and a system for timely communication between the laboratory and the healthcare provider. Strengthening the laboratories at the rural level can enable utilization of these diagnostics for improving the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases among children which require prompt treatment and thus, considerably reduce morbidity and mortality among the pediatric age group. PMID:23564518

Walia, Kamini

2013-07-01

365

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

366

Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

Anderson, Shawn

2008-01-01

367

Agricultural Extension for the Invisible Actors in Hunger Drama in Rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now an undisputable fact that rural women farmers produce more than half of all the food grown in Nigeria. They are mainly responsibility for providing food for their families as they plant, harvest and fish, gather fuel wood, fetch water, cook as well as process and sell foodstuffs. This paper describes them as invisible actors in the hunger

Ngozi Egbuna

2005-01-01

368

African rural settlement patterns.  

PubMed

Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658

Kaloko, F R

1983-11-01

369

[Rural Development: First Annual] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…

Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

370

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report.  

PubMed

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

371

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

372

Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas.  

PubMed

The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries - the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa - and provides a broader perspective in two regions - Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported. PMID:24347707

Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina; Dolea, Carmen

2013-11-01

373

Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

1995-01-01

374

Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2002-01-01

375

Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention.  

PubMed

Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the <0.45?m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1?g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48?g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7?g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (>1kDa i.e. >c. 1-2nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. PMID:21353288

Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

2011-04-15

376

Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

Perry, C.A.; Robbins, F.V.; Barnes, P.L.

1988-01-01

377

Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

378

Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

2010-01-01

379

Lead in deciduous teeth of children living in a non-ferrous smelter area and a rural area of the FRG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead concentrations were measured in the deciduous teeth (incisors) of 302 children living in a lead-smelter area in the FRG (Stolberg, Rheinland) and of 86 children living in a nonpolluted rural area (Gummersbach, Bergisches Land). Blood lead levels were determined in 83 of the children living in the lead smelter area. On average, tooth lead levels of children living in

U. Ewers; A. Brockhaus; G. Winneke; I. Freier; E. Jermann; U. Krämer

1982-01-01

380

Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

2013-01-01

381

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

382

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

383

A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and rural areas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability. PMID:21470420

2011-01-01

384

Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.  

PubMed

With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

2015-01-01

385

Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

1986-01-01

386

Distinguishing social and cultural features of cholera in urban and rural areas of Western Kenya: Implications for public health.  

PubMed

Urban and rural areas have distinctive health problems, which require consideration. To examine sociocultural features of cholera and its community context, a semi-structured explanatory model interview based on vignettes depicting typical clinical features of cholera was used to interview 379 urban and rural respondents in Western Kenya. Findings included common and distinctive urban and rural ideas about cholera, and its prevention and treatment. The three most commonly perceived causes among urban and rural respondents collectively were drinking contaminated water, living in a dirty environment and lacking latrines. However, a dirty environment and flies were more prominently perceived causes among urban respondents. Rural respondents were less likely to identify additional symptoms and more likely to identify biomedically irrelevant perceived causes of cholera. Oral rehydration therapy was the most frequently reported home treatment. Health facilities were recommended unanimously at both sites. For prevention, rural respondents were more likely to suggest medicines, and urban respondents were more likely to suggest health education and clean food. Findings indicate community priority, demand for and potential effectiveness of enhanced efforts to control cholera in Western Kenya, and they suggest strategies that are particularly well suited for control of cholera in urban and rural areas. PMID:23672503

Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Akeyo, Lilian; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

2013-01-01

387

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater quality depends on the interactions of biogeochemical and hydrologic factors. To identify key processes affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied at 14 sites across the U.S. Simulated vertical profiles of NO3-, N2 from denitrification, O2, Cl-, and environmental tracers of groundwater age were matched to observations by adjusting the parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, fractions of N and Cl- inputs leached to groundwater, O2 reduction rate, O2 threshold for denitrification, and denitrification rate. Model results revealed important interactions among biogeochemical and physical factors. Chloride fluxes decreased between the land surface and water table possibly because of Cl- exports in harvested crops (averaging 22% of land-surface Cl- inputs). Modeled zero-order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated. Denitrification rates at depth commonly exceeded overlying O2 reduction rates, likely because shallow geologic sources of reactive electron donors had been depleted. Projections indicated continued downward migration of NO3- fronts at sites with denitrification rates -1 yr-1. The steady state depth of NO3- depended to a similar degree on application rate, leaching fraction, recharge, and NO3- and O2 reaction rates. Steady state total mass in each aquifer depended primarily on the N application rate. In addition to managing application rates at land surface, efficient water use may reduce the depth and mass of N in groundwater because lower recharge was associated with lower N fraction leached. Management actions to reduce N leaching could be targeted over aquifers with high-recharge and low-denitrification rates.

Liao, Lixia; Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Böhlke, J.K.

2012-01-01

388

Trial of a centralized IgE allergy service to general practitioners in a rural area.  

PubMed

We describe a pilot study of a community IgE service which serves a large rural area and is centred on the biochemistry laboratory and allergy clinic of a district general hospital. The service has proved useful because in many cases it has made attendance at an outpatient department unnecessary. The results appear to be reliable and have provided the general practitioners with additional knowledge of their patients. Other benefits included the investigation of larger numbers of patients, the performance of fewer skin tests and greater precision in test results because the tests were carried out by one investigator under standard conditions. PMID:7277301

Parker, J H; Moore, R M; Wilson, R S

1981-04-01

389

Cost Effective Simulation of the Hybrid Solar/wind and Diesel Energy System in Rural Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization of a hybrid energy system model. Currently in Sarawak, people living in the rural areas still depend on diesel generators to generate electricity. This increases the demand for fossil fuel, creates noise pollution and toxic gas is emitted to the environment. Hence, hybrid energy systems were introduced to replace this conventional energy system as well as improving the living standard in the villages. In this paper, several hybrid energy system configurations were investigated in order to find out the most cost effective hybrid system through Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewability (Homer) software. Homer simulates, optimizes, and analyzes the sensitivity variables for each of the system configurations.

Sim, Ee. Y.; Barsoum, Nader

2008-10-01

390

Scenario analysis for reduction of effluent load from an agricultural area by recycling the run-off water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed rates of nitrogen (N) removal in paddy fields and wetlands. Then we developed a numerical model to simulate N flow in an agricultural paddy field area and analyzed scenarios for recycling the agricultural run-off, including field drainage, from an agricultural area with an irrigation\\/drainage system. In it, we considered N removal in paddy fields, a regulating reservoir, and

E. Shiratani; I. Yoshinaga; Y. Feng; H. Hasebe

391

How Agricultural Science Trumps Rural Community in the Discourse of Selected U.S. History Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…

Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen

2013-01-01

392

ATTITUDES OF RURAL PEOPLE IN MALI AND NIGERIA TO HUMAN WASTE REUSE IN AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining the quality of the soil is of paramount importance to food production and an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Farmers through the ages have recognised the importance of fertilisers in improving and maintaining soil fertility. Chemical fertilisers have gradually taken over from natural fertilizers as soil maintenance agents with overall impressive results. However, using chemical fertilizers has its attendant

Mercy Akeredolu; Ibiyemi Ilesanmi; Ralf Otterpohl

393

Consolidation in U.S agriculture : the new rural landscape and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year just past was one of turbulent markets and unmet expectations for most of U.S. agriculture. Public and private attention focused mainly on the steep drop in farm commodity prices, and when the soggy markets might show signs of recovery. Yet while they captured most of the headlines, weak prices were also contributing to subtle, and some not so

Mark Drabenstott

1999-01-01

394

Challenging the populist perspective: Rural people's knowledge, agricultural research, and extension practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in agricultural science have emphasized the need to make local people active participants in the research and development process. Working under the populist banner “Farmer First”, the focus has been on bridging gaps between development professionals and local people, pointing to the inadequate understanding of insiders' knowledge, practices, and processes by outsiders.

John Thompson; Ian Scoones

1994-01-01

395

Geographic and Occupational Mobility of Rural Manpower. Documentation in Agriculture and Food, 75.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative statistics and the interaction of a group of experts provide the base for this study of occupational and geographic mobility of agricultural manpower. The countries studied were Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Emphasis was placed upon the transfer…

Bishop, C. E.

396

Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

2008-01-01

397

Education and Rural Development with Reference to Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking full use of the educational resources available to developing countries in the areas of rural education and agricultural training, this paper is concerned with ways in which the efforts of organizations and institutions concerned with rural development might be improved and expanded. A generalized critical analysis of different facets of…

Coverdale, G.M.

398

Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report, MA 5-79, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1975, the Rural Manpower Service provided a comprehensive program of service to agricultural workers and employers in both rural and urban areas. This program was accomplished through employer relations and applicant registration programs, placement services, promotion of training programs, counseling and testing programs, collection and…

Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

399

Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions  

E-print Network

Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions Preliminary report to the Agricultural Alliance, Rural Australia Providing Climate Solutions. Preliminary report to the Australian Agricultural Alliance of Australia South Australian Farmers Federation Visy Western Australian Farmers Federation (Inc) Westpac

Queensland, University of

400

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the

Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye

2011-01-01

401

Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities.  

PubMed

This research aimed at assessing the properties of guinea pig manure digestate from low-cost tubular digesters for crops fertilization in rural Andean communities. To this end, field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of the digestate on two common Andean crops: potato (Solanum tuberosum) and forage (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium pratense L.). The potato yield (20-25 tha(-1)) increased by 27.5% with digestate, by 15.1% with pre-compost and by 10.3% with the mixture, compared to the control. The forage yield (20-21 tha(-1)) increased by 1.4% with digestate - 50% dose, and by 8.8% with digestate - 100% dose and digestate - 150% dose, compared to the control. The results suggest that the digestate is an appropriate substitute of manure pre-compost for potato fertilization. The results with forage indicate that it can be applied in a range of doses, according to the amount produced by the digester. Currently, manure is either used for cooking or as fertilizer. With low-cost tubular digesters implementation, it could be used to feed the digester, using the digestate for crops fertilization and biogas for cooking; improving household living conditions and protecting the environment. Since soil properties in rural Andean communities differ from experimental layouts, the effect of fertilizers should be re-evaluated in-situ in future research studies. PMID:21903373

Garfí, Marianna; Gelman, Pau; Comas, Jordi; Carrasco, William; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-12-01

402

AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING IN MISSOURI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE…

GRIFFITH, WARREN L.

403

Airborne multispectral data for quantifying leaf area index, nitrogen concentration, and photosynthetic efficiency in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne multispectral data were acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectral Imager (CASI) for an agricultural area in Denmark with the purpose of quantifying vegetation amount and variations in the physiological status of the vegetation. Spectral reflectances, vegetation indices, and red edge positions were calculated on the basis of the CASI data and compared to field measurements of green leaf area

Eva Boegh; H. Soegaard; N. Broge; C. B. Hasager; N. O. Jensen; K. Schelde; A. Thomsen

2002-01-01

404

Employment Opportunities in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations in the Metropolitan Area of Chicago.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on questionnaire data collected from a sample of employers, this phase of a larger research project ascertained employment opportunities in the area of applied biological and agricultural occupations in the metropolitan area of Chicago. Specific fields of business surveyed by stratified random sample were animal care, animal health care,…

Thomas, Hollie B.; Neavill, Arthur

405

Reconciling biodiversity conservation, people, protected areas, and agricultural suitability in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — Methods are needed to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation that min- imize conflict with agricultural productivity. Analysis of georeferenced datasets for breeding birds, mammals, and amphibians in Mexico indicates that only 94 of 3,040 areas are needed to include all unprotected species within a reserve system. An examination of socioeconomic data reveals that in most of these

Katrina Brandon; Larry J. Gorenflo; Ana S. L. Rodrigues; Robert W. Waller

2005-01-01

406

Impact of Infrastructure and Agroclimate on the Location of Rural Bank Branches in Pakistan: A Preliminary Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural financial institutions play an important role in development and growth of the agricultural sector. In developing economies some rural areas are adequately served by financial institutions, while others have little or no access to these institutions. This uneven pattern of geographic location of rural bank branches has been attributed largely to regional differences in agroclimatic conditions and infrastructural endowments.

Kalbe Abbas; Musleh-Ud Din; Ejaz Ghani; Sarfraz K. Qureshi

1996-01-01

407

Applications of TIMS data in agricultural areas and related atmospheric considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While much of traditional remote sensing in agricultural research was limited to the visible and reflective infrared, advances in thermal infrared remote sensing technology are adding a dimension to digital image analysis of agricultural areas. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) an airborne sensor having six bands over the nominal 8.2 to 12.2 m range, offers the ability to calculate land surface emissivities unlike most previous singular broadband sensors. Preliminary findings on the utility of the TIMS for several agricultural applications and related atmospheric considerations are discussed.

Pelletier, R. E.; Ochoa, M. C.

1986-01-01

408

Mercury Cycling in Agricultural and Non-agricultural Wetlands of the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, California: Sediment Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) is part of the larger Yolo Bypass floodwater protection zone associated with the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Land use in the YBWA consists of white and wild rice fields, seasonally flooded fallow agricultural fields, and permanently and seasonally flooded non-agricultural wetlands used for resident and migratory waterfowl. A recent assessment of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) loads indicates that the Yolo Bypass is responsible for a high proportion of the aqueous MeHg entering the Delta, and that biota from the Yolo Bypass are considerably elevated in MeHg. The current study examines benthic MeHg production and biogeochemical controls on this process, as a function of YBWA land use, wetland management, and agricultural practices during the 2007 rice growing season (June to October). Preliminary results indicate that in the week following initial flooding of agricultural fields, prior to the establishment of rice plants, the microbial community in the 0-2 cm surface sediment zone exhibited very little potential Hg(II)-methylation activity compared to the permanent wetland habitat (as assessed via the 203Hg(II)- methylation assay). Approximately 1 month after flooding, rice plants were established and the activity of the resident Hg(II)-methylating microbial community had increased substantially in all agricultural fields, although the observed rates of MeHg production were still much lower than those observed in the permanent wetland setting. Ongoing field sampling includes analysis of reactive Hg(II) in sediments and of iron and sulfur redox species in sediments and pore waters.

Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Windham-Myers, L.; Alpers, C. N.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M. H.; Kakouros, E.; Wren, S. L.

2007-12-01

409

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

410

Guidelines for the Planning of Rural Areas in Europe. A Contribution to an Overall European Regional Planning Policy. Conference Report Presented by the Belgian and German Delegations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural regional planning that will satisfy man's real needs, and not merely those of an economic nature, must take into consideration all factors, all possible interactions, and most important of all, those values which cannot be expressed in terms of money. The report details the functions and problems of rural areas revealed by analyses of rural

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

411

Rural banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the late 1970s, rural dwellers in Ghana had almost no access to institutional credit for farm and nonfarm activities, and in many rural communities, secure, safe, and convenient savings and payment facilities hardly existed. In response to this situation, the Government of Ghana took several measures to increase access to credit in rural areas, including facilitating the establishment of

Ajai Nair; Azeb Fissha

2010-01-01

412

Comparison of fecal microflora of elderly persons in rural and urban areas of Japan.  

PubMed Central

The Fecal microflora of 15 healthy elderly persons with a median age of 84 years in a rural area whose inhabitants tend to be long-lived (Yuzurihara-area, Uenohara, Yamanashi Prefecture) was compared with the microflora of individuals with a median age of 68 years in an urban area (Tokyo). The diet of the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area is characterized by a high intake of dietary fiber. Total numbers of anaerobic bacteria were significantly smaller in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area than those in the Tokyo area. A significantly large number of bifidobacteria, but not of lecithinase-negative clostridia, was observed in the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area. Large numbers and high incidences of bacilli and lecithinase-positive clostridia (mainly Clostridium perfringens) were found in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Twenty-five genera and over 81 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Yuzurihara area, and 25 genera and over 92 species were isolated from the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. Furthermore, significantly larger numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Fusobacterium mortiferum strains were found in the Yuzurihara group, but significant reductions in the Bacteroides buccae-oris group, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides spp., C. coccoides, C. paraputrificum, and Clostridium spp. were observed in the same group. A significantly higher isolation rate of Bacillus subtilis was observed in the elderly persons in the Tokyo area. The difference in the fecal microflora between elderly persons in Yuzurihara and those in the Tokyo area might be due to a difference in the intake of dietary fiber. PMID:2547333

Benno, Y; Endo, K; Mizutani, T; Namba, Y; Komori, T; Mitsuoka, T

1989-01-01

413

Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO 3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO 4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP levels. The importance of agricultural sources of SRP is questioned.

Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

2005-03-01

414

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

415

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Wildflower areas within revitalized agricultural matrices boost  

E-print Network

by land consolidation and widespread use of agro- chemicals have led to a dramatic decline in plant / Published online: 8 January 2010 Ó Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2010 Abstract Agro-ecosystems have areas managed in that way might contribute to restore functional links in food webs within agro

Alvarez, Nadir

416

Specialization and Diversfication in Agricultural Transformation: The Case of Rural Punjab, c.1900-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the role of crop specialization and diversification in the process of agricultural transformation is empirically investigated for the case of Punjub. The analytical innovation of this paper is that changes in aggregate land productivity are structurally as-sociated with inter-crop, inter-district, and inter-household reallocation of land use. This structual association enables us to characterize the nature of market

Takashi Kurosaki

2001-01-01

417

[The impact of guidelines for the management of acute cholecystitis in a rural area of Japan].  

PubMed

We monitored the management of acute cholecystitis in a rural area of Japan to determine the effectiveness of new guidelines for the management of acute cholecystitis and cholangitis. Between January 2000 and September 2011, 366 patients were treated for acute cholecystitis. Of these, 59 had common bile duct stones (CBDS) and 307 did not. Patients in both groups were further subdivided into two groups: a before guidelines group (BGG; n=153) and an after guideline group (AGG; n=154). Among the patients without CBDS, early cholecystectomy was more common in the AGG group (n=53) than in the BGG group. Furthermore, the length of hospital stay was four days shorter in the AGG group than in the BGG group (n=23). Among the patients with CBDS, the timing of cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was seven days earlier in the AGG group than in the BGG group. Even in a rural area of Japan, early cholecystectomy appears safe and can decrease the length of hospital stay. PMID:24097148

Yamasaki, Yasushi; Takenaka, Ryuta; Okazaki, Noriko; Baba, Yuki; Hamada, Kenta; Takayama, Hiroki; Takemoto, Koji; Taira, Akihiko; Tsugeno, Hirofumi; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Doufu; Fujiki, Shigeatsu

2013-10-01

418

Wind Energy Development as an Economic Development Strategy for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

Why does wind development make sense for rural areas? In many rural areas, utility scale wind energy developments can be a great way to expand and grow the economy through direct investment and job creation, in addition to significant potential spinoff development activities. Because of renewable state standards and incentives, including the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) and the Ohio SB 232 (which levels the playing field for wind projects by setting a property tax ceiling), more wind companies view Ohio as a new and exciting market for investment. Siting requirements for wind are also prevalent in Ohio, including good transmission lines and available land and wind resources. Ohio also has a skilled workforce that can construct and provide maintenance on wind systems as well as manufacture component parts for the industry. Utility Wind Basics Utility scale wind developments are large “wind farms ” that generate 5 megawatts per hour or greater. They are governed by the Ohio Power Siting Board (OPSB) under provisions found in House Bill 562, 2008

Nancy Bowen-ellzey

419

The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

2013-01-01

420

PREVALENCE OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS INFECTION BY INTRADERMAL REACTION IN RURAL AREAS IN ALFENAS, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paracoccidioidal infection by intradermal reaction (Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity, DTH) to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rural areas in Alfenas, Southern Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil, and to assess risk factors (gender, occupation, age, alcohol intake and smoking) associated with infection. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using intradermal tests with gp 43 paracoccidioidin in 542 participants, who were previously contacted by local health agents and so spontaneously attended the test. Participants underwent an interview by filling out a registration form with epidemiological data and were tested with an intradermal administration of 0.1 mL of paracoccidioidin in the left forearm. The test was read 48 hours after injection and was considered positive if induration was greater than or equal to 5 mm. Out of 542 participants, 46.67% were positive to the skin test. Prevalence increased in accordance with an increase of age. There was statistical significance only for males. Occupation, alcohol intake and smoking habits were not significantly associated with the risk of paracoccidioidomycosis infection. There is relevance of paracoccidioidomycosis infection in such rural areas, which suggests that further epidemiological and clinical studies on this mycosis should be done in the southern part of Minas Gerais State. PMID:25076426

Magalhães, Evandro Monteiro de Sá; Ribeiro, Carla de Fátima; Dâmaso, Carla Silva; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro; Ferreira, Eric Batista; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Velloso, Tânia Regina Grão; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta

2014-01-01

421

Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach  

PubMed Central

People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

2015-01-01

422

Consequence of indoor air pollution in rural area of Nepal: a simplified measurement approach.  

PubMed

People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3-7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K C; Connel, Fredric A

2015-01-01

423

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-05-01

424

Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept  

PubMed Central

Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL?1 and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L?1) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL?1 and 4.78 [±0.10] g L?1, respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4. PMID:25401067

2014-01-01

425

Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.  

PubMed

Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4. PMID:25401067

Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

2014-01-01

426

Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

427

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

428

Uniting Idaho: A Small Newspaper Serves Hispanic Populations in Distributed Rural Areas  

E-print Network

Print-media needs of Hispanics in non-metropolitan areas of America are often overlooked. One newspaper editor in Idaho found Hispanics to be invisible in her small community and its newspaper, except in crime reports. So she began publishing the bilingual Idaho Unido. This study addresses the publisher’s business model and motivation for publication. It is based on two research streams: theories of the press from Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm in 1956 through McQuail in 2005 and cultural maintenance perspectives. The Idaho Unido story represents a revelatory case, demonstrating the power of a motivated individual to essentially subvert the dominant media paradigm by creating a successful, independent publication specifically intended to serve the information, entertainment and cultural-identity needs of a small, marginalized population living in widely distributed rural areas.

Martine Robinson Beachboard

429

Case-Control Study of Diarrheal Disease Etiology in a Remote Rural Area in Western Thailand  

PubMed Central

The objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in Thailand. Stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. Standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. Campylobacter, Plesiomonas, Salmonella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were commonly isolated from cases and controls (22% versus 25%, 10% versus 11%, 6% versus 9%, and 10% versus 6%, respectively). Only Shigella, rotavirus, and adenovirus were identified significantly more frequently in cases than controls (9% versus 0%, 18% versus 3%, and 16% versus 2%, respectively), whereas Giardia lamblia was detected less often in cases than controls. Most pre-school children were infested with enteric pathogens; laboratory-based studies are important to understand the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in remote areas among marginal populations. PMID:21036846

Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; McDaniel, Philip; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Mason, Carl J.

2010-01-01

430

Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.  

PubMed

In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

2014-12-01

431

COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight interometry over rural areas: the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the last 7 years, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with resolution of better than a meter acquired by satellites in spotlight mode offered an unprecedented improvement in SAR interferometry (InSAR). Most attention has been focused on monitoring urban areas and man-made infrastructure exploiting geometric accuracy, stability, and phase fidelity of the spotlight mode. In this paper, we explore the potential application of the COSMO-SkyMed® Spotlight mode to rural areas where decorrelation is substantial and rapidly increases with time. We focus on the rapid repeat times of as short as one day possible with the COSMO-SkyMed® constellation. We further present a qualitative analysis of spotlight interferometry over the Slumgullion landslide in southwest Colorado, which moves at rates of more than 1 cm/day.

Milillo, Pietro; Fielding, Eric J.; Schulz, William H.; Delbridge, Brent; Burgmann, Roland

2014-01-01

432

High-Value Agriculture in India: Past Trends and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the declining share of traditional agricultural commodities in production, consumption and trade, horticulture and other non-traditional high-value agriculture represent an important area of potential income growth in rural areas. The high-value agriculture-led-growth strategy also provides significant scope for achieving greater commercialization of smallholder agriculture. Despite the potential, the contribution of high-value agricultural exports is still small but increasing. This

Vijay Paul Sharma; Dinesh Jain

433

Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Paw?owska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation. PMID:25528919

Paw?owska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; K?dzierski, Zbigniew

2014-01-01

434

Roundtable: Social Work in Small Towns and Rural Areas. A Compendium of Teaching Materials for Rural Social Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inventory of types of teaching materials relevant for teachers of rural social work includes general suggestions of useful literary works (modern American literature, ethnic literature, locality-specific literature, drama), video-tape productions, government publications, music and architecture. Other generally-indicated possibilities include…

Mermelstein, Joanne; Sundet, Paul

435

How New Manufacturing Industry Affects Rural Areas--A Synthesis. Rural Development Synthesis Series No. 1A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In assessing impacts of rural industrial development, it is important to include not only economic impacts but the interface between organizational, political, and behavioral aspects with economic aspects. Though effects depend on a variety of economic and institutional circumstances, several observations can be made about how new manufacturing…

Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

436

XXIII ESRS Congress, Vaasa 2009 1 Working Group 2.5: Governing the Local? Rural Power, Rural Needs and Rural Policy  

E-print Network

", a number of scientists and politicians have proclaimed the rebirth of an agriculture that focuses "green" fuels to offset the world energy crisis. In contrast, since the beginning of the 1990s, other scientists and politicians have highlighted the decline of productive agriculture in rural areas (Hervieu B

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

The assessment of groundwater nitrate contamination by using logistic regression model in a representative rural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater has been used a main source to provide a drinking water in a rural area with no regional potable water supply system in Korea. More than 50 percent of rural area residents depend on groundwater as drinking water. Thus, research on predicting groundwater pollution for the sustainable groundwater usage and protection from potential pollutants was demanded. This study was carried out to know the vulnerability of groundwater nitrate contamination reflecting the effect of land use in Nonsan city of a representative rural area of South Korea. About 47% of the study area is occupied by cultivated land with high vulnerable area to groundwater nitrate contamination because it has higher nitrogen fertilizer input of 62.3 tons/km2 than that of country’s average of 44.0 tons/km2. The two vulnerability assessment methods, logistic regression and DRASTIC model, were tested and compared to know more suitable techniques for the assessment of groundwater nitrate contamination in Nonsan area. The groundwater quality data were acquired from the collection of analyses of 111 samples of small potable supply system in the study area. The analyzed values of nitrate were classified by land use such as resident, upland, paddy, and field area. One dependent and two independent variables were addressed for logistic regression analysis. One dependent variable was a binary categorical data with 0 or 1 whether or not nitrate exceeding thresholds of 1 through 10 mg/L. The independent variables were one continuous data of slope indicating topography and multiple categorical data of land use which are classified by resident, upland, paddy, and field area. The results of the Levene’s test and T-test for slope and land use were showed the significant difference of mean values among groups in 95% confidence level. From the logistic regression, we could know the negative correlation between slope and nitrate which was caused by the decrease of contaminants inputs into groundwater with high surface runoff. The influence of nitrate to groundwater was sequentially increased at resident, upland, paddy, and field area. The calculations of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy from confusion matrix of logistic regression analysis were executed to decide the optimum model of the prediction of nitrate contamination. The 4mg/L of threshold value with the minimum difference between sensitivity and specificity was determined as optimum model in the study area. Application of two different methods, DRASTIC and logistic regression model, for assessing the groundwater pollution potential showed that correlation coefficients between index or probability and nitrate-nitrogen indicating the accuracy of the prediction for nitrate contamination were improved from the 0.109 of DRASTIC to 0.292 of the logistic regression model with threshold of 4 mg/L. Consequently, the logistic regression model might be more appropriate to predict the groundwater pollution than that of DRASTIC model because it include land use as a factor of the groundwater pollution sources and the logit equation was defined by a real nitrate-nitrogen concentration.

Ko, K.; Cheong, B.; Koh, D.

2010-12-01

438

The Process and Consequences of the Diffusion of Avocado and Drumstick Trees into the Lives of Rural Women in Hazaribag, India after an Agricultural and Nutrition Training Program  

E-print Network

FFS Farmer Field School IU International Units KVK Krishi Vigyan Kendra MUAC Mid-Upper Arm Circumference RDI Recommended Daily Intake T1 20-Question Multiple Pretest T2 20-Question Multiple Posttest T3 20-Question Multiple Post-Posttest T4... convenience sampling to recruit a group of 24 rural women to participate in the agriculture and nutrition education program (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003). The women were selected with the help of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), from three villages of Hazaribag...

Luckett, Meghan

2013-04-08

439

Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

440

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

441

The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland  

PubMed Central

Background The Greenlandic Healthcare Reform (2010) required improved quality of services for health promotion, prevention of infectious and lifestyle diseases, family nursing and evidence-based clinical nursing. Aim To investigate current nursing practice in Greenland and to identify whether it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55, participated in this study. Four were working at healthcare centres in towns and four were working at nursing stations in villages. The nurses were educated in Greenland or a Nordic country and had been practicing nursing for at least 2 years in an Arctic region. They were observed for 1–5 days, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive work with conflict between health strategies and everyday realities, where unpredictable tasks often lead to prioritisation of urgent, acute work. There is interaction between personal and professional skills. Everyday life is characterised by opportunities and challenges in the grey areas, namely nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care, preventive care, social work, humanistic approaches and information technology to implement the ideology of health strategies. PMID:23984291

Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, Anne Birgitte; Wilche, Julie Præst; Dolmer, Ilone

2013-01-01

442

Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. Methods: The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. Results: “Social uncertainty and confusion” was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Conclusions: Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Keywords: Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty. PMID:25685625

Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

2014-01-01

443

The association between endotoxin and lung function among children and adolescents living in a rural area  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of the effects of domestic endotoxin on children’s lung function is limited. The association between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze and lung function among school-age children (six to 18 years of age) was examined. The interaction between endotoxin and other personal and environmental characteristics and lung function was also assessed. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in and around the rural community of Humboldt, Saskatchewan, between 2005 and 2007. Parents of cases reported either doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the previous year. Controls were randomly selected from those not reporting these conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and conditions, while spirometry was used to measure lung function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Dust collected from the child’s play area floor and the child’s mattress was used to quantify endotoxin, and saliva was collected to quantify cotinine levels and assess tobacco smoke exposure. RESULTS: There were 102 cases and 207 controls included in the present study. Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with higher mattress endotoxin load among female cases (beta=?0.25, SE=0.07 [P<0.01]). There was a trend toward lower forced vital capacity, which was associated with higher play area endotoxin load among cases with high tobacco smoke exposure (beta=?0.17, SE=0.09 [P<0.10]). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicated that high endotoxin levels present in common household areas of rural children with asthma or wheeze may also affect their lung function. These associations may be potentiated by tobacco smoke exposure and female sex. PMID:22187693

Lawson, Joshua A; Dosman, James A; Rennie, Donna C; Beach, Jeremy; Newman, Stephen C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2011-01-01

444

Multihop relaying for broadband wireless access systems at 800 and 3500 MHz in rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the coverage enhancement for broadband wireless access (BWA) at 800 and 3500 MHz in a rural scenario in north Germany using multi-hop relay concepts. The investigation is divided into two phases: In phase I, the coverage of a single BWA system in a rural area is predicted and verified with measurement data. In phase II, the coverage from the BWA system is analyzed and enhanced through the deployment of relay stations. The number of relay stations required for each carrier frequency is determined, and the positions of the relay stations are identified via three different relay placement algorithms, namely path-loss-based, distance-based, and hybrid algorithms. At 800 MHz, the path-loss-based algorithm requires seven relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 95%. The hybrid and distance-based algorithms require 11 and 14 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. At 3500 MHz, path-loss based and hybrid algorithms require 19 and 16 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. The distance-based requires 20 relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 82%. Further increase of relay stations has led to higher interference. Lastly, the transmit power of the relay station is optimized via an intelligent power allocation scheme. The results show that 20% of the total transmit powers from 14 relay stations can be saved at 800 MHz whereas 18% of the total transmit powers from the 20 relay stations can be saved at 3500 MHz.

Chee, Kin Lien; Feng, Wei; Kürner, Thomas

2014-02-01

445

Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.  

PubMed

We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

2014-01-01

446

Prevalence of Gingivitis among Children of Urban and Rural Areas of Bhopal District, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Gingivitis is inflammation of the soft tissue without apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Redness, oedema and bleeding on probing characterize this condition. Untreated cases may lead to a more complex and destructive entity known as chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are the main cause of tooth loss. Poor oral health has thus the potential of hampering the quality of life. So the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of gingivitis, among school-going children of urban and rural areas of Bhopal district, India. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 & 15 y old middle and high school government rural and urban school children of Bhopal district. It was conducted of a period of two months. 1100 Children were examined by using WHO (modified) oral health assessment form, Loe and Silness index was used for recording gingival status. For statistical analysis SPSS version 20 was used. The chi-square test was applied for categorical data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of gingivitis was 59% found. 584 (53.09 %) children had mild gingivitis,61(5.5%) children had moderate gingivitis. Conclusion: This indicates the need for community health activities and awareness program. PMID:25584317

Reddy, Venugopal; Bhambal, Ajay; Agrawal, Rohit

2014-01-01

447

Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in rural area in Brazil  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective To estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. Methods The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ? 18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index, body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. Results The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h2=52%), glucose (h2=51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc; h2=58%), and waist circumference (WC; h2=49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin with body mass index (BMI;?g=0.48), WC (?g=0.47) and HDLc (?g= ?0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g=0.53) and HDLc (?g=?0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. Conclusions Glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

PENA, GEÓRGIA G.; DUTRA, MÍRIAM SANTOS; GAZZINELLI, ANDREA; CORRÊA-OLIVEIRA, RODRIGO; VELASQUEZ-MELENDEZ, GUSTAVO

2013-01-01

448

Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest  

PubMed Central

Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

2014-01-01

449

The Satisfaction of Community Mental Health Professionals with Life and Work in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of 185 Washington rural mental health center professionals reveals moderately high levels of job/lifestyle satisfaction and higher levels of readiness for rural life/work among those taking rural courses/practicum during their educational experience. Study supports concept of anticipatory socialization correlating with higher levels of…

Miller, Robert S.; Ray, JoAnn

1986-01-01

450

Safety Evaluation and Countermeasure Research on the Passenger Transportation in Chongqing Mountainous Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the continual improvement of rural residents' living conditions, the passenger transport demand grows increasingly. However, the present backward vehicles, the traffic mode, the supervision system and the rural residents' consciousness of traffic safe can not adapt to the realistic demand of safe transportation under the current rural road condition; which makes traffic accidents show a growing tendency in

Yao Hongyun; Cao Yuanwen; Zhou Zheng

2010-01-01

451

Can curriculum innovations create incentives for young veterinarians to practise in remote rural areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Research on the problem of decreasing numbers of rural veterinarians has identified that rural practice employment periods following graduation are getting shorter and replacing the graduates who leave is becoming increasingly difficult. One way of addressing these problems would be to develop a Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) curriculum that motivates young graduates to seek work in rural and

P. Windsor

2009-01-01

452

Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.  

PubMed

Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment. PMID:19285206

Sharkey, Joseph R

2009-04-01

453

Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

2015-01-01

454

An estimation of the spatial distribution of agricultural ammonia emissions in the Greater Athens Area.  

PubMed

An assessment of the magnitude and the spatial distribution of ammonia emissions originating from agricultural practices in the Greater Athens Area (GAA) is performed due to the primary role of ammonia in aerosol formation. As no emission factors are available for the area of interest, the emissions were estimated using typical emission factors for the emissions from animals, fertilized and unfertilized cultures, as well as the 1996 primary statistical data of the agricultural census for the GAA. Our analysis estimated the annual ammonia emissions from agricultural sources to be approximately 13,250+/-40% t of ammonia per year. This detailed ammonia emission record can and will be used for the study, via modeling, of the serious aerosol problem in the GAA. PMID:14654282

Sotiropoulou, R E P; Tagaris, E; Pilinis, C

2004-01-01

455

Helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in Greece.  

PubMed

Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680

Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K

1997-09-01

456

Low traffic density, small terminal network, and satellite antenna design for communications in the rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applications of satellite communications techniques for improving the telecommunications scenario in developing countries and access to isolated and disperse users are discussed. The main issues determining the strategy for solving communications problems are summarized, and the main requirements for both the earth and space segments are outlined. System considerations for satellite-network design and the main criteria correlated to rural-area requirements are presented, and emphasis is placed on two proposed concepts for satellite multiple-access techniques: single channel per carrier/demand assignment multiple access (SCPC/DAMA) and code division multiple access/spread spectrum (CDMA/SS). A CDMA/SS network architecture design for 9600 b/s voice-communication and TV-program distribution in African countries and an onboard reconfigurable multispot antenna design for the coverage optimization of African regions are considered as examples.

Bardelli, L.; Martinino, F.; Rispoli, F.

457

PREVALENCE OF PRIORITY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of priority psychiatric disorders in a rural area in Kerala and to find out the sociodemographic correlates of the morbidity. A door to door survey had been conducted by trained surveyors to identify individuals with priority psychiatric disorders. The detected cases were examined by a psychiatrist at their houses in the village itself, to confirm as to whether they were having any psychiatric disorder. Out of the 1094 households surveyed (having a population of five thousand two hundred and eighty four), seventy seven individuals were found to have priority psychiatric disorders giving a prevalence rate of 14.57 per thousand. Females in general showed increased mental morbidity. An increased prevalence rate has been observed among Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes. An increased morbidity is noticed among the people belonging to the lower socioeconomic status. PMID:21743722

Shaji, S.; Verghese, Abraham; Promodu, K.; George, Benny; Shibu, V.P.

1995-01-01

458

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

459

Design of small photovoltaic power supplies for remote and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of photovoltaic power is more and more attractive to supply small loads located in remote and rural areas. A program was developed to optimize the photovoltaic array and battery sizes, bearing in mind their unit costs, the load characteristics, battery self-discharge and maximum depth of discharge, the site solar radiation data and latitude. The tilt of the arrays is also made to change to obtain the minimum cost solution. A voltage regulator was made to avoid overcharge and loss of electrolyte of the batteries which works in shunt with the load, thus avoiding any voltage drop. The voltage regulator has a very small stand-by power consumption, with a current drain of 300 microamperes. An Ampere-hour meter was also developed to monitor the energy flows from the photovoltaic arrays and into loads.

Traca-de-Almeida, A.

460

Epidemiological Correlates of Cataract Cases in Tertiary Health Care Center in Rural Area of Maharashtra  

PubMed Central

Background: The most recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract. Cataract has been documented to be the most significant cause of bilateral blindness in India. The most recent estimates from WHO reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract and in south Asia region which includes India, 51% of blindness is due to cataract. In India cataract is the principal cause of blindness accounting for 62.6% cases of blindness. The key to the success of the Global Vision 2020: The right to sight initiative is a special effort to tackle cataract blindness which includes estimation of magnitude of the problem and understanding factors associated with it. Therefore, a study was conducted in the hospital to estimate the magnitude of cataract and study various epidemiological factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary health center in rural area. Total 746 patients who availed services from ophthalmology department during study period were included in the study and relevant data was collected from them. Data analysis was done by percentages, proportions, and tests of significance (Chi-square test). Results: Out of 746 patients, 400 (53.6%) were suffering from cataract. Senile cataract was the most common cause (54%). Fifty-five percent patients were in the age group of 60-80 years and majority of them were from low socioeconomic strata. Conclusion: The prevalence of cataract in a medical college hospital in rural area was 53.6%. Age, sex, and educational status were significantly associated with cataract. PMID:24791236

Avachat, Shubhada Sunil; Phalke, Vaishali; Kambale, Suchit

2014-01-01

461

Human Coronaviruses Associated with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Three Rural Areas of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in Africa. This study sought to determine whether human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections among older children and adults in Ghana. Methods We conducted a case control study among older children and adults in three rural areas of Ghana using asymptomatic subjects as controls. Nasal/Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), HCoV-22E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Out of 1,213 subjects recruited, 150 (12.4%) were positive for one or more viruses. Of these, single virus detections occurred in 146 subjects (12.0%) and multiple detections occurred in 4 (0.3%). Compared with control subjects, infections with HCoV-229E (OR?=?5.15, 95%CI?=?2.24–11.78), HCoV-OC43 (OR?=?6.16, 95%CI?=?1.77–21.65) and combine HCoVs (OR?=?2.36, 95%CI?=?1.5?=?3.72) were associated with upper respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were found to be seasonally dependent with significant detections in the harmattan season (mainly HCoV-229E) and wet season (mainly HCoV-NL63). A comparison of the obtained sequences resulted in no differences to sequences already published in GenBank. Conclusion HCoVs could play significant role in causing upper respiratory tract infections among adults and older children in rural areas of Ghana. PMID:25080241

Owusu, Michael; Annan, Augustina; Corman, Victor Max; Larbi, Richard; Anti, Priscilla; Drexler, Jan Felix; Agbenyega, Olivia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

2014-01-01

462

Heavy metals in agricultural soils of Mouriki-Thebes area (central Greece) and environmental impact implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil geochemical survey was undertaken in the agricultural region of Mouriki-Thebes, Central Greece, in order to determine and evaluate the heavy metal concentrations and identify possible sources of contamination that can explain the chemical elements variability. Early October 2009, 51 surface soil samples, covering an area of 150 km, were collected and analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineralogical

Antivachi N. Danae; Kelepertzis Efstratios; Kelepertsis Akindynos

2012-01-01

463

Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency in Arid and Semiarid Areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage in China, particularly in the north and northwest of China, is very serious. The region accounts for half of the total area of China, but has less than 20% of total national available water resources. While the water shortage in this region is severe, irrigation water use efficiency is only about 40%, with a typical agricultural water use

Xi-Ping Deng; Lun Shan; Heping Zhang; Neil C. Turner

2004-01-01

464

Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage in China, particularly in the north and northwest of China, is very serious. The region accounts for half of the total area of China, but has less than 20% of total national available water resources. While the water shortage in this region is severe, irrigation water use efficiency is only about 40%, with a typical agricultural water use

Xi-Ping Deng; Lun Shan; Heping Zhang; Neil C. Turner

2006-01-01

465

Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

466

Hydrogeochemistry of alluvial groundwaters in an agricultural area: an implication for groundwater contamination susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics

Gi-Tak Chae; Kangjoo Kim; Seong-Taek Yun; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Soon-Oh Kim; Byoung-Young Choi; Hyoung-Soo Kim; Chul Woo Rhee

2004-01-01

467

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

468

Can curriculum innovations create incentives for young veterinarians to practise in remote rural areas?  

PubMed

Research on the problem of decreasing numbers of rural veterinarians has identified that rural practice employment periods following graduation are getting shorter and replacing the graduates who leave is becoming increasingly difficult. One way of addressing these problems would be to develop a Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) curriculum that motivates young graduates to seek work in rural and remote communities and ensures they are more 'practice-ready' as soon as they leave university and start working. Developments in a series of curriculum initiatives to address this strategy are discussed, including: encouraging deeper learning in livestock health and production, provision of extramural rotations in rural locations in the final year, offering opportunities to study abroad and emphasising the global impact of farm animal medicine, developing rural support enhancements for students on rural placements, and adjusting admission requirements to increase access for rural students. PMID:20128480

Windsor, P

2009-08-01

469

Dietary intake and food habits of pregnant women residing in urban and rural areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C

2013-08-01

470

Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

2013-01-01

471

Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 ?g/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 ?g/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 ?g/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 ?g/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa. PMID:12689341

Dalvie, Mohamed A; Cairncross, Eugene; Solomon, Abdullah; London, Leslie

2003-01-01

472

Rural Poverty, Agrarian Reform and the Role of the State in Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central Eurasia Ten Propositions regarding Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty Reduction Technical Consultation Meeting, FAO Regional Office for Central Asia (FAO\\/SEC) Ankara, Turkey, 11-13 July 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten propositions are presented, that analyze the trends and causes of rural poverty, the possibilities for its reduction, its link with agricultural and agro-industrial development, the context of changing markets and institutions, and the role of government in these countries. Each proposition is empirically analysed, using existing data sets available from FAO, the World Bank, UNDP, UNICEF, CISSTAT, and national

MAX SPOOR

473

Impact Assessment of University-Based Rural Youths Agricultural Extension Out-Reach Program in Selected Villages of Kaduna-State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concern about youths development borders on the believe that they constitute an important labour force which can easily become leaders in employing and innovating modern techniques of agricultural production. The National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in recognition of these potentials has established a rural youths extension out-reach Program to encourage the youths to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of this program on agricultural production. This study was carried out during the 2005/2006 cropping season by comparing the performance of the program participants with non-participants. The results revealed that the participants had an adoption level of improved practices higher than the non-participants. This was further confirmed by the significant relationship found between respondents access to extension services and level of adoption (R = 0.46, p = 0.01). Yield of major crops and income of farmers were slightly higher among the participants than the non-participants. The results of the study have helped to identify for the benefit of policy makers, the type of extension approaches required to encourage rural youths to adopt modern farming techniques.

Gambo Akpoko, Joseph; Kudi, Thomas M.

474

Effects of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function of women living in urban and rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The health effects of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution were studied among two populations of adult women. One population was living in a rural area, one in an urban area. Exposure to NO{sub 2} was measured in the homes of the complete study population. Over 500 women were studied. Data on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were used to assess the respiratory health of the women. Significant associations were found between exposure to NO{sub 2} and pulmonary function among the non-smoking women living in the rural area, but not among the smoking women in that area, or among the non-smoking and smoking women living in the urban area.

Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands)); van der Lende, R.; Schouten, J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)); Quanjer, P.H. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

1989-01-01

475

Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.  

PubMed

Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural