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1

AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural

Yongxin Quan; Zeng-Rung Liu

2002-01-01

2

Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

1988-04-01

3

Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

Rainey, Kenneth D.

4

Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

5

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

6

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

7

Agricultural Water Pollution Control - Important Factor for Sustainable Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European model of agriculture gives great opportunities for development of Polish agriculture. The model is based on multifunctional development of rural areas. It relates mainly to traditional environmental friendly tech- nologies of crop production and socio-cultural values. Integration with European Union is accelerating the proc- ess of qualitative changes in Polish agriculture. The key role of the transformation in

Katarzyna Wyporska; Józef Mosiej

8

Relationships between Rural Inhabitants and Their Landscapes in Areas of Intensive Agricultural Use: A Case Study in Quebec (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the relationships between local populations and the landscape is crucial for reintroducing the multifunctional character of landscapes in areas of intensive agricultural use. This study proposes to identify and compare the relationships that local populations, both farmers and non-farmers, maintain with their landscapes in…

Ruiz, Julie; Domon, Gerald

2012-01-01

9

Rural development, agriculture, and food security.  

PubMed

Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development. PMID:12292191

Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

1996-12-01

10

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

11

Gifted Education in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes responses of 35 state gifted education consultants and 76 teachers of gifted students in rural areas to survey of rural gifted programming. Finds many needs for gifted programming involving cooperative efforts, adequate funding, use of community resources, more consistent/appropriate identification methods, teacher influence, and role…

Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances A.

1986-01-01

12

Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

13

Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.

2006-01-01

14

National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... 10000lb Tractor Home > National Children's Center Home National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety The National Children’s Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety ...

15

Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

Ikerd, John

16

Services in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The need for interdisciplinary collaboration and the open exchange of information among professionals in public health, medicine,\\u000a the ministry, and various mental health and social services disciplines is clearly demonstrated when mental health issues\\u000a affecting women are viewed in the context of rurality. This is particularly true when these mental health issues are considered\\u000a in terms of the broader perspective

Pamela L. Mulder; Robert Jackson; Sarah Jarvis

17

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

Monk, David H.

2007-01-01

18

Youth Migration from Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The persistent net loss of young people from rural areas has potentially contradictory implications for educational policy. Believing that youth migration to urban areas is inevitable, one school board might feel obligated to prepare students for urban jobs. Another board might view such actions as community suicide and attempt to slow…

Haller, Emil J.; Monk, David H.

19

An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

20

Non-Agricultural Activities and Income Distribution in Rural Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two problems relating to non-agricultural employment in rural Java, First, four possible determinants of non-agricultural income at the village level are examined: agricultural income, agricultural density, land distribution and location. Of these, the first two appear most significant. Second, the relationship between non-agricultural activities and rural income distribution is evaluated. In relative terms, income from non-agricultural activities

Piet Rietveld

1986-01-01

21

Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a series of 14 scripts focusing on families with disabled children, written in English for radio broadcast in translation to rural village areas in Pakistan. Intended to educate the public concerning disabilities and how families can help their handicapped children participate as fully as possible in community life, the…

Mental Health Centre, Peshawar (Pakistan).

22

Tri-National Agricultural Accord Rural Development Workshop  

E-print Network

/Regional Development: integrate economic, social, and environmental; place based #12;Rural Development: Strategy vs arrangements Municipalities / Municipal Development Corporations Third Sector (co-ops, social, economicTri-National Agricultural Accord Rural Development Workshop Overview of Canadian Provinces April 14

deYoung, Brad

23

Agricultural Insurance in Mesoamerica: An Opportunity to Deepen Rural Financial Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the opportunities and challenges presented by agricultural insurance instruments in the deepening of financial services in rural areas in Mesoamerica. It outlines a public policy framework to guide the decision-making process. It concludes that, in order to support the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in the light of increasing trade liberalization and natural hazard risks, agricultural insurance

Diego Arias; Katia Covarrubias

2006-01-01

24

Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the problem varies across the United States, overall there is a shortage of rural teachers, especially in the subject areas of math, science, and special education. Recruiting teachers for rural settings requires targeting persons with rural backgrounds, attacking the negative stereotypes surrounding rural schools, and stressing the…

Harmon, Hobart L.

25

Rural Areas and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in rural areas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.

26

The study on sustainable development of agricultural economy in three gorges reservoir area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural economic development in three gorges area is restricted by natural conditions and social economic conditions. For vigorously developing agricultural production and improving agricultural productivity, the following strategies can be adopted: improve the natural condition of rural land so as to make full use of rural land resource; grasp opportunities, make scientific decisions and perfect mechanism to promote the

Xiang Gu

2010-01-01

27

[Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].  

PubMed

The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas. PMID:20527170

Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min

2010-04-01

28

Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural abandonment reflects a post war trend in western Europe of rural depopulation to which isolated and poorer areas are most vulnerable. The commercialisation of agriculture, through technological developments, and the influence of Common Agricultural Policy have increased productivity and focused agricultural activity on more fertile and accessible land thus transforming traditional approaches to farming. In many areas this has

D MacDonald; J. R Crabtree; G Wiesinger; T Dax; N Stamou; P Fleury; J Gutierrez Lazpita; A Gibon

2000-01-01

29

Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 49. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document lists 248 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1995, which is available online from the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

30

Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.  

PubMed

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching in rural areas. PMID:17407927

Monk, David H

2007-01-01

31

Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

32

A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

33

Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for nine problem areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, a teacher guide, a competency inventory, an…

Courson, Roger L.; And Others

34

Perceptions of Teacher Educators in Agriculture Relating to Agricultural and Rural Improvements in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the perceptions of agricultural teacher educators (n=176) experienced in international work related to agricultural development and improvement of the well-being of rural populations in developing countries. Although there are many problems, the consensus was that the agricultural education profession could provide some…

Yahya, Ismail Bin; Moore, Gary E.

1988-01-01

35

Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

36

Education in Rural Areas of Scotland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a glimpse of the current picture of education in rural Scotland. Scotland has many small schools, and not all of these are in geographically isolated areas. Although Scotland's population has decreased in the past 20 years, the decline has been mostly in urban areas. Remote areas are becoming more cosmopolitan as highly…

Urch, Mary

37

Influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas—a case study in Lianshui County in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of household biogas digesters in rural areas and integrated use of agricultural wastes has changed the structure of rural household energy consumption and greatly increased the application of highly efficient organic fertilizer, improved soil fertility and promoted sustainable agricultural development. This paper mainly discusses the influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas based

Wang Xiaohua; Li Jingfei

2005-01-01

38

Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

Biondo, Ron; And Others

39

Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

2009-01-01

40

Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on

Terry Marsden; Roberta Sonnino

2008-01-01

41

Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Hunger In Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the International development community. Poverty in Africa is predominately rural, majority of the poor people live in rural areas and are dependent on food production through farming or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. It is estimated that over two hundred million

Zipora Awuor Otieno

2007-01-01

42

Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Hunger In Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the International development community. Poverty in Africa is predominately rural, majority of the poor people live in rural areas and are dependent on food production through farming or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. It is estimated that over two hundred million

Zipora Awuor Otieno

2008-01-01

43

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

Pant, Laxmi Prasad

2012-01-01

44

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

45

Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers at national level. PMID:20442830

Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

2009-01-01

46

SocioEconomic Dimensions of Rural Poverty: An Experience of Barani Areas in Punjab-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out on the Socio-economic factors lying behind the rural poverty in the Barani areas. Using the appropriate economic tools (Descriptive Statistics) on primary data as well as globally famous FGT class of poverty measures were used to see the Socio-economic factors causing poverty. It was observed that agricultural income of those related with agriculture sector is

FAISAL ABBAS; ABDUL SABOOR; NAEEM SARWAR; ASIF MAQBOOL

47

Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs province-level panel data to assess the contributions of decollectivization, price adjustments, and other reforms to China's agricultural growth in the reform period. Decollectivization is found to improve total factor productivity and to account for about half of the output growth during 1978-84. The adjustment in state procurement prices also contributed positively to output growth. Its impact came

Justin Yifu Lin

1992-01-01

48

Collaborative Job Training in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine collaborative efforts by employers to provide job training in rural areas and assess how this collaboration affects the willingness of employers to train workers. Data are drawn from a telephone survey conducted in 2001 of a stratified random sample of 1,590 nonmetropolitan firms in the U.S. The literature on job training suggests that…

Green, Gary Paul; Galetto, Valeria; Haines, Anna

2003-01-01

49

Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

50

Domestic satellite services for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that rural areas can be served by a domestic satellite communications system in an efficient and economical manner. To accomplish such efficiency and economy, the engineering parameters of the satellite communications system must be analyzed and selected with a view toward achieving the desired performance at minimum total cost. The equipment for an entire rural satellite communication system serving 1200 communities can be acquired for approximately $200 million (1983 dollars). An identical system, however, could also be implemented at much lower capital costs by leasing space segment capacity from existing satellite systems (Briskman and Savage, 1983).

Briskman, R. D.

1984-03-01

51

The movement of labor in Chinese rural areas: with a focus on developed regions.  

PubMed

Recent Chinese economic reforms target both agrarian and urban sectors. This paper discusses employment structure change in rural areas and the interindustry movement of labor, with particular attention to relevant institutional aspects. The residencies and population system and the employment-welfare-insurance system are reviewed. Socioeconomic structure and labor market mechanisms in rural areas are considered as the basis for the movement of labor; forms of employment and labor market characteristics in rural areas are identified; and factors influencing job-related behavior of the work force in agricultural households, as well as mechanisms regulating interindustry movement of the work force are quantified. These issues are investigated only for the Sunan area and suburban villages near Shanghai. Review suggests that labor force movement within China's rural areas has gained momentum despite institutional limitations. The rural employment structure has changed to impact the entire national economy. Village and township enterprises have helped raise income levels of farming households, industrialize and urbanize rural areas, and strengthen ties between rural and urban areas. To sustain growth in rural and national economies, however, greater differentiation is needed between the functions of administrative and economic sectors, competitive principles should be introduced in rural areas, and institutional restrictions on population and labor force movements should be relaxed. PMID:12285850

Yan, S P

1990-12-01

52

Digital Development in Rural Areas: Potentials and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on rural-urban differences in access to telecommunications technology suggest that the U.S. "digital divide" is diminishing. However, major shortcomings in telecommunications infrastructure persist in rural America, and more serious barriers to rural development are related to human capital shortages. These may be resolved in some rural areas

Malecki, Edward J.

2003-01-01

53

The Impact of Public Spending in a Low-Income Rural Area: A Case Study of Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic effects of Government spending at public installations in rural areas was investigated. Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, was chosen because of its location in a low-income rural area with relatively high outmigration, a declining agricultural industry base, and few employment opportunities. All of the data relating to Government spending…

Holmes, O. Wendell

54

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

55

CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

RHODES, ALVIN E.

56

Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

2010-01-01

57

Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy

58

Tourism in rural areas: Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an empirical study examining the adequacy of the planning approach and establishment types in developing rural tourism in Malaysia with a focus on rural capacity to absorb tourism. It explores the policy background that encourages the growth of rural tourism and highlights issues and factors hampering the involvement of rural communities in tourism. Three illustrations, which are

Abby Liu

2006-01-01

59

Second Annual Report on Government Services in Rural America. Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Second Annual Report on Government Services in Rural America, Pursuant to the Agricultural Act of 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As required by the Agricultural Act of 1970, the President has submitted to Congress this second annual report on the availability of government and government-assisted services to rural areas. The report pinpoints the strengths and weaknesses of those Federal programs which have a significant impact on rural America and identifies the…

Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

60

Drought insurance for agricultural development and food security in dryland areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential role for and experience with index based insurance for managing drought risks in agriculture\\u000a and rural areas in the dry areas of developing countries. It argues that while index insurance is not a panacea for risk management,\\u000a it could make important, market-based contributions in catalyzing sustainable safety nets and promoting agricultural growth.\\u000a And though the

Peter B. R. Hazell; Ulrich Hess

2010-01-01

61

Rural–urban migration and agricultural productivity: the case of Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between agricultural productivity and rural–urban migration by developing an econometric model and applying it to the case of Senegal. Country level data is used covering the years 1961–1996. Policy implications of reducing rural–urban migration using agricultural output elasticities are developed. The findings support the hypothesis that rural–urban migration is a positive function of the ratio

Peter D. Goldsmitha; Kisan Gunjal; Barnabé Ndarishikanye

2004-01-01

62

Migration from rural to urban areas in China.  

PubMed

During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility. PMID:12285849

Wakabayashi, K

1990-12-01

63

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2010-10-01

64

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2011-10-01

65

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2013-10-01

66

42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

2012-10-01

67

The impact of agricultural development on agricultural employment and rural labour markets: Evidence from Eastern Europe and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural employment is the decisive factor for rural well-being in developing countries, like Africa, as well as in many eastern European transition countries. This is because, differently from Western Europe, there are, in many regions, almost no other employment opportunities than farming. Therefore, the decrease of agricultural employment opportunities yields social and economic distress, especially for the most vulnerable, the

K. Reinsbergb

68

Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

2008-01-01

69

Transition towards multifunctional agriculture in The Netherlands through an innovation network of rural entrepreneurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innovation network Waardewerken is a Dutch network of rural entrepreneurs pioneering in multifunctional agriculture. Multifunctional agriculture explicitly aims to fulfil additional functions in the private and public domain, such as nature conservation, green care, recreation and education. The innovation network aims to contribute to a professional multifunctional agriculture sector in the Netherlands. For this purpose it cooperates with researchers

Daniël De Jong; J. F. Caron-Flinterman; Andries Visser; Gerard Migchels; Eijk van O. N. M

2008-01-01

70

Determination of Key Correlates of Agricultural Labour Migration in Less Resources Endowed Areas of Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been conducted in the backward district of Perambalur, which is a less resource-endowed district of Tamil Nadu, with the following objectives: (i) to identify the major causes and empirically determine the key correlates of agricultural labour migration in the study area, and (ii) to identify the causes for rural out-migration. The study has been conducted by taking

K. R. Sundaravaradarajan; P. Sivakumar; K. R. Jahanmohan

2011-01-01

71

Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.  

PubMed

Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the magnitude and geographic distribution of deforestation is enhanced with the use of remote sensing techniques, such as those used in the 1982 UN Food and Agriculture baseline study. Soil degradation is not so easily measured. The implications are that regional development funds need to directed away from critical zones or areas adjacent to critical zones. Research is needed to understand rural to rural migration. PMID:12343671

Rudel, T I

1991-01-01

72

HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

2005-01-01

73

Children's Services in Rural and Remote Areas: An Australian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined families' needs and expectations of child care services in a rural and remote area of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlighted the restricted number of child care options available in these rural and remote settings. Ways to best meet child care needs of these families were devised, based on findings. (JPB)

Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Morda, Romana; Clyde, Margaret

2000-01-01

74

AN OVERVIEW OF COMMUNITY AND AREA PLANNING FOR RURAL YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING FOR RURAL YOUTH CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE EXISTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PROVIDED BY RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT (RAD), WHOSE CENTRAL IDEA IS ORGANIZING COMMUNITY LEADERS TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS, INVENTORY RESOURCES, AND FURTHER ORGANIZE AND PLAN TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT THESE PROBLEMS. HOWEVER, WHEN COMMUNITY LEADERS FAIL TO…

RUSSELL, GEORGE

75

Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Sudan in Eastern Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. However, its remotely isolated rural areas pose problems to rural energy management and development because of poor road links with the urban centres, and remoteness from the national electrical transmission grid. Development of renewable energy sources, therefore, has a vast potential in Sudan. Solar

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2001-01-01

76

Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

77

Agriculture and the Development Process: Tentative Guidelines for Teaching. Education and Rural Development--1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the application of science and technology to agriculture, this book is intended to be used as a reference for rural education groups and as a guide for teachers in an attempt to formulate a new approach to teaching rural economics by integrating it into the overall analysis of social and economic development. The book is divided…

Malassis, L.

78

Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

79

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.  

PubMed

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-06-01

80

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*  

PubMed Central

Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

81

Energy conversion technologies for rural areas of developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution strategies and the technology required or available for solving the energy and employment problems of developing countries are outlined. They include biomass-based power systems-both small scale (up to 50 kW) and large scale (5-10 MW) and strategies for increasing biomass production in rural areas. A strong plea for international cooperation in developing technologies for rural areas is made

A. K. Rajvanshi

1989-01-01

82

Hydrochemical investigation and quality assessment of ground water in rural areas of Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes was assessed in the rural areas of Delhi based\\u000a on the various water quality parameters. A total of 50 ground water samples were collected randomly from different sources\\u000a viz. hand pump, tube well, boring and analyzed for major ion chemistry to understand the operating mechanism of geochemical\\u000a processes for ground

Masood AlamSumbul RaisMohd Aslam; Sumbul Rais; Mohd Aslam

83

Salvation Army Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes services of the Salvation Army's network of rural local service units. Discusses relationship between local units, community agencies, and regional Service Extension Departments. Provides examples of individuals who received aid coordinated by local volunteers where formal social services were unavailable. Emphasizes Salvation Army's…

Ricken, William

1987-01-01

84

Non-Human Loss in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines non-human loss and its psychological effect upon rural people. It discusses the absence of any ritual response to loss, including farm loss, that would otherwise benefit the loss victims or the surrounding society. The dilemma is comparable to that of the "transitional person," the immigrant experience following World War II.…

Holcomb, Ralph

85

Civil agronomy: a new dimension of agricultural extension to invoke poverty issues for sustainable rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural

Thilak T. Ranasinghe

1997-01-01

86

Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

2003-01-01

87

Restructuring U.S. Agriculture: Implications for Rural Education and Other Community Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restructuring of U.S. agriculture ("neoindustrialization") is having important effects on rural residents, requiring adaptations of supporting institutions such as education. Neoindustrialization involves concentration, specialization, and vertical and horizontal integration of agricultural production and marketing, as well as further reduction of…

Bird, Alan R.

88

Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.  

PubMed

Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities. PMID:21242153

Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

2011-03-01

89

Rural transport in peripheral rural areas : The role of social enterprises in meeting the needs of rural citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of a rural-based, social enterprise organising rural transportation to improve access to remote areas. It highlights the very important impacts of such a service for local residents and describes some of the challenges threatening the long-term sustainability of this local initiative. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study includes both quantitative

Mary OShaughnessy; Enda Casey; Patrick Enright

2011-01-01

90

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office...Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2014-04-01

91

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office...Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2010-04-01

92

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office...Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2013-04-01

93

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office...Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2012-04-01

94

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office...Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

2011-04-01

95

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

E-print Network

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

Kolokolnikov, Theodore

96

Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

2013-01-01

97

Study of cryptosporidiosis in a rural area of Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Human cryptosporidiosis has been reported world wide, both from developed and developing countries and from urban and rural areas. Present study is undertaken to assess the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in human and cattle population (cows and calves) in and around the rural areas of Loni, district Ahmednagar, Maharashtra State. Human stool samples were collected from 220 patients of age ranging between newborn to 85 years, attending the Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni. The samples were examined using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Drug samples were also examined from 101 asymptomatic (apparently healthy and non-diarrhoeic) cows and calves from the same area, to detect Cryptosporidium. Three positive cases (1.36%) in human and 11 positive cases (10.89%) in cattle (cows and calves) were detected. It is assumed that in rural areas the most likely source of human infection is cattle. This is the first report of human infection by Cryptosporidium from rural Maharashtra and also the first report of occurrence in cattle from India. PMID:9145609

Khubnani, H; Sivarajan, K; Khubnani, A H

1997-01-01

98

Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.  

PubMed

A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

2009-01-01

99

76 FR 34839 - Establishment of the White House Rural Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...effectiveness of Federal engagement with rural stakeholders, including agricultural...organizations regarding the needs of rural America; (c) coordinate Federal...geographic regions that encompass both urban and rural areas; and (d) identify and...

2011-06-14

100

THE ROLE OF AMENITIES AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN AGRICULTURE PRODUCTIVITY RURAL ECONOMIC GROWTH A CASE STUDY OF SINDH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the role of amenities facilities on quality of life in Rural Sindh and how it reflects the agriculture production in Rural Sindh. A structural model of regional economic growth is estimated using data from 200 rural households by using simple random technique, for this study a structured questionnaire designed to get the reliable results from the

F. M. SHAIKH; M. SALEEM RAHPOTO

101

Rural Development Progress, January 1977-June 1979. Fifth Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to The Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture on rural development (prepared in response to a directive from the Rural Development Act of 1972) summarizes current rural conditions by presenting the most recently available statistical data on employment, income, population, housing, and community services and facilities and illustrates…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

102

Interdependencies of Agriculture and Rural Communities in the Twenty-First Century: The North Central Region. Conference Proceedings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts of 12 research papers are presented in this proceedings of a 1985 conference specifically focusing on the interdependence of agriculture and rural communities. Titles of Session I papers providing information on the current situation and trends in agriculture and rural communities are "An Overview of the Nonmetro Economy and the Role of…

Korsching, Peter F., Ed.; Gildner, Judith E., Ed.

103

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water in peripheral urban and rural lands, mostly found in slum areas. According to the Rural Sanitary Inventory and sanitary of the Colombian peri-urban and rural population, and its also the way to empower communities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Montana Area Health Education Center & Montana Office of Rural Health  

E-print Network

Montana Area Health Education Center & Montana Office of Rural Health ANNUAL REPORT, JANUARY 2011 Director: Kristin Juliar P.O. Box 170520 Bozeman, MT 59717-0520 (406) 994-6002 www.healthinfo.montana.edu Western MTAHEC Director: Larry White The University of Montana Skaggs Building Rm. 173 Missoula, MT 59812

Dratz, Edward A.

105

Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

Givens, Sharon Leenese

2012-01-01

106

Mapping Urbanized and Rural Drainages in the Bay Area  

E-print Network

Mapping Urbanized and Rural Drainages in the Bay Area: A Tool for Improved Management of Stormwater, and prioritization of local tributaries and urban drainages for research and management will be necessary to improve discharges, and monitoring and modeling the quantity and quality of urban runoff). Setting aside

107

Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

2012-01-01

108

Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the breeding…

Brooks, Eugene C.

1913-01-01

109

An innovation on agricultural insurance mode in the development of new-style rural cooperative economy — Creating “Six in one” mode to extricate agricultural insurance from trouble  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new rural cooperative economy is quite helpful in optimizing the allocation of resources and promoting the development of agricultural modernization, while it also faces more centralized and more kinds of operating risk than it did ever before. Using the experiences of the previous agricultural insurance pilots, this paper proposes a new mode of agricultural insurance, which is \\

Huan Wang; Jing Tan

2011-01-01

110

Poverty, resource distribution and security: The impact of new agricultural technology in rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have examined the relationship between agrarian change and rural poverty in LDCs concentrating on either exchange or non?exchange income. Neither approach employed independently is, however, adequate. Bangladeshi evidence is presented of growing concentration of control of land, of components of new agricultural technology and of ancillary resources. Increasing incidence of landlessness and near landlessness has resulted in greater

Mohammad Alauddin; Clem Tisdell

1989-01-01

111

Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

112

Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions, I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test, Hausman test, panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions. The results show that there is a long-term balanced

Chunling Gao

2011-01-01

113

The Farmland and Rural Improvement Project budget under the Agriculture Basic Law in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmland and Rural Improvement Project (FRIP) system met socioeconomic needs during the time the Agriculture Basic Law (ABL) was in effect. Four hundred and forty publications and revisions of project execution guidelines between fiscal years (FY) 1960 and 1995 addressed the need to modify the FRIP systems. From the viewpoint of budgets, the budget share of the Farmland Improvement

Akio Motosugi

2003-01-01

114

Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

115

Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

2010-01-01

116

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2012-10-01

117

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2011-10-01

118

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2013-10-01

119

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

2010-10-01

120

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas  

PubMed Central

Abstract Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes. Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital. The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country’s need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge

2010-01-01

121

Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

Kimbrough, R.A.

1995-01-01

122

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12...12 What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General...requirements for each category of low-stress pipeline in a rural area set forth...

2014-10-01

123

Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application of SA.

Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

2009-01-01

124

Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

125

[Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

2014-06-01

126

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

2009-07-01

127

The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

1987-12-01

128

Economic Integration, Rural Hardship, and Conservation on Guatemala's Agricultural Frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decades of attention by conservationists, deforestation remains a critical problem in Latin America, particularly in agricultural frontiers like the Amazon and the lowlands of Central America. The limited impact of conservation initiatives in such regions stems partly from a poor understanding of the socioeconomic and land use dynamics that typify frontiers. Moreover, conservation organizations tend to disregard the economic

Avrum J. Shriar

2011-01-01

129

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

Swanjord, Don Edward

130

Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale  

PubMed Central

Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

2014-01-01

131

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

E-print Network

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas Lixia Liao,1 Christopher T affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied, L., C. T. Green, B. A. Bekins, and J. K. Bo¨hlke (2012), Factors controlling nitrate fluxes

132

Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

2012-01-01

133

Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates  

E-print Network

1 Low Elevation Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates (1990, 2000, 2010, 2100 Coastal Zone Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates version 1 data release. Please see Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University. 2012. Low Elevation Coastal Zone: Urban-Rural

Columbia University

134

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007  

E-print Network

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 safety Urban­rural difference Traffic crashes a b s t r a c t A large literature base has found investigated the possible difference of these effects between urban and rural areas. In this study, we used

Levinson, David M.

135

Eradication of murine typhus fever in a rural area  

PubMed Central

An attempt to eradicate murine typhus fever by control of rats and rat-fleas in rural foci was carried out in Georgia between July 1953 and May 1954. Anticoagulant rat poisons and DDT powder were the principal agents used. Rats were eliminated from 89% of rat-infested premises and satisfactory flea reduction was achieved. Although premises cleared of rats have become reinfested at a rate of 25% 10-18 months after clearance, typhus fever has apparently been eliminated. On the results reported, the authors believe that eradication of murine typhus fever from rural areas is economically and practically feasible, and that plague in commensal rats may also be eliminated by measures similar to those adopted in this experiment. PMID:13426757

Mohr, Carl O.; Smith, William W.

1957-01-01

136

Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to this new report from the Economic Research Service, the oldest segment of the US population, those 85 years old and older, grew 37 percent between 1980 and 1990. The "oldest old are more likely to be women, to be in poor health, to live alone, and to be poor." Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas considers this change in the population and the effects of being elderly and poor in the rural parts of the United States. The report concludes that the US needs to be aware of this shift in population and allocate funds in order to cover the costs of Social Security, health care, and other services for the elderly.

Rogers, Carolyn C.

2000-01-01

137

47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...residential rates in rural areas of the state served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers to urban rates nationwide...areas served by non-rural incumbent local exchange...reasonably comparable to urban rates nationwide if...

2011-10-01

138

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2011-01-01

139

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2012-01-01

140

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2013-01-01

141

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2010-01-01

142

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2014-01-01

143

Business Occupational Profiles in an Agricultural Economy. An Investigation to Determine the Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Essential to Satisfactory Performance at the Job Entry Level as Office and Administrative or Management Trainee Personnel in Rural-Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To aid the development of criteria to guide high school curriculum planners and teachers, data for 160 jobs covering six different positions with 112 employers were gathered in 428 executive-employee-supervisor interviews in a 21-county area in northern Mississippi. Based on an analyses of the activities and duties of the six positions according…

Harwood, R. Frank

144

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William...

2013-10-01

145

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William...

2012-10-01

146

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William...

2014-10-01

147

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William...

2010-10-01

148

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL...Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William...

2011-10-01

149

Comprehensive Evaluation on Agricultural Structure and Correlation of Agricultural Internal Structure— A Case of Yimeng Mountainous Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the relevant data from Chinese Statistical Yearbook, the overall agricultural structure and the internal structure of agriculture in Yimeng Mountain area are analyzed. The status quo of the agricultural and the internal structure of agriculture in Yimeng Mountain area are analyzed through the method of comprehensive appraisal of the improved factors. The safety coefficient of the comprehensive appraisal

Zhe Wu; Jian-jian Xu

2011-01-01

150

AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

Sheridan, Scott

151

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF AFRICAN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM POPULATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

E-print Network

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF AFRICAN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM POPULATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL areas. We have assessed length polymorphism at 6­22 microsatellites in four urban and rural sites and Senegal.9 Moreover, geographic genetic differ- entiation exists in Sudan between rural and urban sites.11

152

Mood Disorders Hospitalizations, Suicide Attempts, and Suicide Mortality Among Agricultural Workers and Residents in an Area With Intensive Use of Pesticides in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As suicide rates have increased in rural areas in Brazil, it was postulated that pesticide exposure may play a role in this phenomenon. Our study compared the suicide mortality rates observed among agricultural workers from a pesticide-intensive area in Brazil to the suicide mortality frequency noted in three reference populations. In addition, hospitalization rates attributed to suicide attempts and mood

Armando Meyer; Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Josino Costa Moreira; Juliana de Rezende Chrisman; Yael Abreu-Villaça

2010-01-01

153

Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison.  

PubMed

Mortality rates have sharply decreased throughout the world in the twentieth century. While the communicable diseases that had been the principal killers of mankind have been largely brought under control, the enteric and other diseases, which are directly related to sanitation practices, have not been affected. Improvement in health status in the developing nations, especially in isolated rural areas, will hinge on changes in sanitation norms. Modification of these norms must be based on an awareness of what they are and of the values that are associated with them. Sanitation norms in rural areas of three countries--in the southeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic--are reviewed on the basis of a study in which essentially the same survey instrument was used in the three samples. Sanitation norms relating to the source of water and storage for household use are compared, as are personal hygiene practices and patterns for the disposal of liquid wastes, garbage, and other solid wastes. Selected attitudinal values are also examined. PMID:667407

Belcher, J C

1978-01-01

154

Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the conceived areas.

Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

2011-10-01

155

Wireless-broadband over power lines networks: A promising broadband solution in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas and remote areas the expenditure for new projects related to broadband communications is deterred. In this paper hybrid Wireless-Broadband over Power Lines (W-BPL) technology, suitable for rural and remote areas is presented. This hybrid approach employs BPL technology for the transmission of communication signals via the medium voltage (MV) grid and wireless technology for providing broadband access

Georgios I. Tsiropoulos; Angeliki M. Sarafi; Panayotis G. Cottis

2009-01-01

156

An Experiment of the Life Support Network for Elderly People Living in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide comfortable and safety life for every people in the world, information technologies will be useful in a rural area as well as in a metropolitan area. This paper proposes a new concept of Life Support Network (LSN) for elderly people living in a rural area. The network is a type of Intranet, which incorporates a safety

JUN SASAKI; BAYME ABAYDULLA; KEIZO YAMADA; MICHIRU TANAKA; YUTAKA FUNYU

2007-01-01

157

The development of early childhood education in rural areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as ‘the foundation of basic education’, the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing tremendous difficulties and challenges. This paper provides an

Lin Zhao; Xinyun Hu

2008-01-01

158

The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing…

Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

2008-01-01

159

41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

2014-01-01

160

41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

2013-07-01

161

41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

2010-07-01

162

41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

2011-01-01

163

41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section...SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.90 Do...Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? No, Executive Orders...agencies looking for space in urban...

2012-01-01

164

3 CFR 13575 - Executive Order 13575 of June 9, 2011. Establishment of the White House Rural Council  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...effectiveness of Federal engagement with rural stakeholders, including agricultural...organizations regarding the needs of rural America; (c) coordinate Federal...geographic regions that encompass both urban and rural areas; and (d) identify...

2012-01-01

165

Urban influences on rural schooling in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that low levels of schooling in rural areas of developing economies are a consequence of the low rate of return to schooling in agriculture. This belies the possibility that rural schooling decisions are undertaken in response to the possibility of employment in urban areas. This paper tests this hypothesis, using three cross sections of household data for rural

Anjini. Kochar

2004-01-01

166

[Nonpoint pollution control for rural areas of China with ecological engineering technologies].  

PubMed

Nonpoint pollution from rural areas is the results of the ecosystem degradation, and ecological engineering technologies are good ways for the restoration of watershed and enhancing material cycling. There are two types of treatment strategies: to control the polluted runoff and to reduce the pollutants from the sources. Six control technologies are introduced and they are multipond systems, grassed filter trips, wetland systems, eco-agriculture, slope ecological engineering, ecological treatment of wastewater and solid waste. These technologies need to be combined systematically in order to form a watershed ecological engineering. In the control program, it is important to use countermeasure suitable to the local conditions. In addition, the input of sufficient investment, management and education is necessary. PMID:11993134

Yin, Chengqing; Mao, Zhanpo

2002-02-01

167

Implementing housing first in rural areas: pathways Vermont.  

PubMed

The benefits of Pathways Housing First in addressing chronic homelessness for persons with severe mental illness have been well established. However, the implementation and effectiveness of such programs in rural areas has yet to be examined. We described the model's adaptations in Vermont, including the use of hybrid assertive community treatment-intensive case management teams, which consisted of service coordinators with geographically based caseloads (staff/client ratio of 1:20) and regional multidisciplinary specialists. The program's innovative and widespread inclusion of technology into operations facilitated efficiency and responsiveness, and a pilot telehealth initiative supplemented in-person client visits. The program achieved a housing retention rate of 85% over approximately 3 years, and consumers reported decreased time spent homeless, demonstrating that program adaptations and technological enhancements were successful. PMID:24148038

Stefancic, Ana; Henwood, Benjamin F; Melton, Hilary; Shin, Soo-Min; Lawrence-Gomez, Rebeka; Tsemberis, Sam

2013-12-01

168

Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.  

PubMed

Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty. PMID:21479559

Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

2012-01-01

169

Pesticides in streams draining agricultural and urban areas in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted from April 1993 through April 1994 to describe and compare the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural and a small urban area in Colorado. Twenty-five water samples collected at least monthly at the mouths of two tributary streams of the South Plate River were analyzed for 47 pesticides. The results indicate that both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources for pesticides in streams. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected, and in the urban area, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more samples. Most often, the more frequently detected pesticides in both areas also were some of the more commonly used pesticides. In both areas, pesticide concentrations were higher during the summer (application period) with maximum concentrations generally occurring in storm runoff. The year-round detection of some pesticides in both areas at consistently low concentrations, regardless of season or streamflow volume, could indicate that these compounds persist in the shallow alluvial aquifer year-round.

Kimbrough, R.A.; Litke, D.W.

1996-01-01

170

Neotropical Forest Conservation, Agricultural Intensification, and Rural Out-migration: The Mexican Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin Americaâ??namely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agricultureâ??have helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.

Luis García-Barriosâ?? (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México; Departamento de Sistemas de Producción Alternativos)

2009-11-01

171

Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for

Taylor Ricketts; Marc Imhoff

2003-01-01

172

Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

2006-01-01

173

Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

1990-01-01

174

Energy requirements for rural development  

SciTech Connect

This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

Jones, D.W.

1988-06-01

175

Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.  

PubMed

Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change. PMID:20398079

Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

2010-03-01

176

Hybrid wireless-broadband over power lines: A promising broadband solution in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas, due to the low population density and the poor familiarization with new technologies, new projects related to broadband access are less profitable. In this article a hybrid wireless-broadband over power lines network, suitable for rural and remote areas is presented, offering smart grid applications and broadband access along a 107 km medium voltage power grid in Larissa,

Angeliki M. Sarafi; Georgios I. Tsiropoulos; Panayotis G. Cottis

2009-01-01

177

Riverside and Rangesview: Urban to Rural Migration in Two Areas of Western Australia's Great Southern Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomers can be seen as a source of vital social capital for small rural communities struggling to maintain and grow their population. It is of concern therefore that incomers settle well. This study investigates locals and inmigrators in two areas of the Great Southern Region of Western Australia. Eighty five respondents reported on why they lived in a rural area,

Helen Byles-Drage

178

Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Postmenopausal Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to describe vitamin D status in postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, northern Iran. Between October 2004 and February 2005 a group of 750 women older than 50 years was randomly selected from urban and rural areas in Guilan. The participants were interviewed to collect data on age, educational level, body weight, height, employment

Mohsen Maddah; Seyede Hajar Sharami; Tirang R. Neyestani

2009-01-01

179

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

180

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

181

Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.  

PubMed

Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes. PMID:25521131

Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

2014-01-01

182

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

183

The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.

Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

184

Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

Ballara, Marcela

2007-01-01

185

Primary health care in rural areas: an agenda for research.  

PubMed Central

The confluence of forces slowing the growth of the physician supply despite a continued shortage of primary care physicians, the encouragement of competitive medical practices that centralize resources in larger places, and the changing of the rural population's character to one of more dependence on medical care may bring on another "rural health crisis" in the decade ahead. PMID:2645252

DeFriese, G H; Ricketts, T C

1989-01-01

186

Income and Employment Pattern in Rural Area of Chhattisgarh: A Mircro View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This micro level study, conducted in the state of Chhattisgarh to examine the income and employment pattern, has revealed that farm and non-farm activities are the main sources of income and employment and off-farm activity (agricultural labour) contributes only a negligible portion. The smallholders as well as landless households during the slack agricultural season depend on rural non-farm activities as

R. Bhakar; K. N. S. Banafar; N. P. Singh; A. K. Gauraha

2007-01-01

187

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

188

Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.  

PubMed

We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural

Or?owski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemys?aw; Wuczy?ski, Andrzej; Polecho?ski, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

2014-08-15

189

Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.  

PubMed

A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area. PMID:8472801

Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

1993-01-01

190

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

191

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

192

Predicting the effects of agricultural practices on waterborne human pathogens, livestock helminthes, and the health of rural water-bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The primary goal of the proposed research is to better understand the effects of agricultural practices on rural water quality, with emphases on the abundance of waterborne fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus spp.) and sources of livestock helminthes. Our secondary goal is to use the knowledge resulting from this research to predict when and where these pathogens will

Jason R. Rohr

193

Workshop on Problems of Chronically Depressed Rural Areas (Asheville, N.C., April 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workshop was conducted at which 13 papers were presented on problems of chronically depressed rural areas. Attendees endeavored to assess the existing knowledge with respect to these problems, to point out major gaps in this body of knowledge, and to suggest types of research needed to cope with the problems of rural poverty. It was determined…

Leven, Charles L.; And Others

194

Accessibility and Care in a Rural Area - the case of Tewkesbury Borough  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas, the limited availability of appropriate public transport and the increasing geographic concentration of in any service outlets pose serious difficulties for those social service client groups which exhibit low levels of car ownership. This paper considers the transport needs of elderly and disabled people and carers in the largely rural district of Tewkesbury. It also establishes the

Malcolm Moseley

195

Kristin Juliar, Director Montana Area Health Education Center and Office of Rural Health  

E-print Network

AHEC Host Kristin Juliar, Director Montana Area Health Education Center and Office of Rural Health kjuliar@montana.edu 406-994-6003 Montana State University, 302 Culbertson Hall PO Box 170520 Bozeman, MT 59717-0520 Kristin Juliar is the Director of the Montana Office of Rural Health (MORH) and the Montana

Maxwell, Bruce D.

196

Industrialization of Rural Areas: A Bibliography. SRDC Bibliography Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliography for both practitioners and scholars interested in industrialization of rural areas, this document is one of a series of bibliographies prepared by research Functional Networks for the Southern Rural Development Center. The more than 750 entries, many annotated, cover available research, extension, and action agency literature…

Smith, Eldon D., Comp.; And Others

197

Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

2010-01-01

198

Seasonal Variation in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural Agricultural Community  

PubMed Central

Background Seasonal variation in fruit and vegetable consumption has been documented in a limited number of previous investigations and is important for the design of epidemiologic investigations and in the evaluation of intervention programs. Objective This study investigates fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors among Hispanic farmworkers and non-farmworkers in a rural agricultural community. Methods A larger study recruited 101 farmworker families and 100 non-farmworker families from the Yakima Valley in Washington State between December 2004 and October 2005. All families were Hispanic. An in-person administered questionnaire collected information on consumption of locally-grown fruits and vegetables and sources of obtaining fruits and vegetables. Data on dietary intake asked whether or not the respondent had consumed a given fruit or vegetable in the past month. Data were collected longitudinally coinciding with three agricultural seasons: thinning (June–July); harvest (September–October); and, non-spray (December–January). Statistical analyses performed Generalized estimating equations were used to test for statistical significance between proportions of the population who consumed a given fruit or vegetable across agricultural seasons. Multivariable logistic regression was performed and corresponding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results The proportion of respondents who ate apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, peppers, corn, and cucumbers was highest in the fall harvest season, whereas the proportions of those who ate cherries and asparagus were highest in the summer thinning season. Compared to non-farmworkers, a higher proportion of farmworkers reported having eaten peaches, apricots, cherries, green beans, carrots, peppers, corn, pumpkin, squash, and onions, in the past month. Conclusions Epidemiologic investigations and public health interventions that examine the consumption of fruits and vegetables ought to consider the seasonal variation in consumption patterns, especially in agricultural communities. PMID:19103322

Locke, Emily; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Kuniyuki, Alan

2009-01-01

199

Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main services proposed. • rapid alert: individuation and fast location of fires, also eventually in their starting phase (fire start), carried out through use of satellite data to high and most very high cycle (every 15 minute) to concur and organize a more effective fighti to spread fire; • perimeter of the area burned by the fire, with generation of polygons (compatible scale with the cadastre maps and data) through photo interpretation of spectral images, colours and infrared, at highest resolution (50 cm), and through fine aerial missions purposely planned during summery season, in substitution or in integrate way of the relief in field for: big fires, zones difficult to reach, isolated uneven area (reference scale from 200 to 400 kmq) • validation activity: services for quality control and validation of the activities of covered detail and relief perimeter of the area burned by the fire carried out through the employment end integration of the acquired data from land/aerial/satellite reliefs in application of law 353/2000. Data supplied to the municipalities, the regions and the prefecture for institutional adoptions. • damage statistics: Services of support to the generation of statistics through analysis of the damage and the vegetation resumption in relation to the type of forest with the use of different platform: satellite, aerial and land observation, for a temporal analysis.

Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

2009-04-01

200

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2012-01-01

201

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2010-01-01

202

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2013-01-01

203

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2011-01-01

204

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE... § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs...

2014-01-01

205

Selenium in irrigated agricultural areas of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A logistic regression model was developed to predict the likelihood that Se exceeds the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic life (5 ??g/L) in irrigated agricultural areas of the western USA. Preliminary analysis of explanatory variables used in the model indicated that surface-water Se concentration increased with increasing dissolved solids (DS) concentration and with the presence of Upper Cretaceous, mainly marine sediment. The presence or absence of Cretaceous sediment was the major variable affecting Se concentration in surface-water samples from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program. Median Se concentration was 14 ??g/L in samples from areas underlain by Cretaceous sediments and < 1 ??g/L in samples from areas underlain by non-Cretaceous sediments. Wilcoxon rank sum tests indicated that elevated Se concentrations in samples from areas with Cretaceous sediments, irrigated areas, and from closed lakes and ponds were statistically significant. Spearman correlations indicated that Se was positively correlated with a binary geology variable (0.64) and DS (0.45). Logistic regression models indicated that the concentration of Se in surface water was almost certain to exceed the Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 ??g/L when DS was greater than 3000 mg/L in areas with Cretaceous sediments. The 'best' logistic regression model correctly predicted Se exceedances and nonexceedances 84.4% of the time, and model sensitivity was 80.7%. A regional map of Cretaceous sediment showed the location of potential problem areas. The map and logistic regression model are tools that can be used to determine the potential for Se contamination of irrigated agricultural areas in the western USA.

Nolan, B.T.; Clark, M.L.

1997-01-01

206

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COASTAL URBAN DYNAMICS AND AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF THE COTE D'AZUR  

E-print Network

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COASTAL URBAN DYNAMICS AND AGRICULTURAL AREAS OF THE COTE D'AZUR: STAKES On the Côte d'Azur, agricultural areas are major components of the landscape's beauty and contribute to an intense urbanisation of agricultural areas and a degradation of the local landscape. This paper analyses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared by…

Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

208

A satellite telecommunication system for remote and rural areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of satellite telecommunication services for remote and rural areas in Africa is discussed in the framework of GLODOM, where a global satellite system is to provide domestic services for the rural areas of the developing world. Emphasis is placed on basic requirements, satellite system characteristics, services, and cost. It is noted that the special features of the rural environment necessitate a specially designed satellite system: i.e., a system with higher sensitivity and EIRP for the satellite transponders to allow small, fully transistorized, low-power-consumption earth stations to be employed. The use of the 4/6 GHz band is also a necessity.

Laufenberg, W.

209

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

210

The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

Howley, Craig B.

211

Rural Development in South Korea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

Brandt, Vincent S. R.

1979-01-01

212

Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India. PMID:22295192

Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

2011-01-01

213

Telecommunications satellites for developing countries - Extension of satellite use to rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of telecommunications satellites to improve communications in developing nations, particularly the rural areas, is considered. Requirements for improved telephone, television and radio service in developing nations are indicated, and it is argued that satellites would provide one of the most efficient means of developing networks for telephony, television and radio both for intercity trunk routes and for rural areas. The forms such satellite systems could take for rural telephony and direct, semidirect and redistributed television broadcasting are examined, and an approach to the integration of telephone and television services is proposed. Telephony and television capacity requirements for a typical sub-Saharan country are estimated, and the financial aspects of the systems are considered. It is concluded that satellites can considerably improve the general communications situation in many developing nations, giving vast rural areas access to telecommunications for the first time and with comparatively low funding requirements.

Pinglier, A.

1980-02-01

214

Treating Swallowing Disorders in Rural Areas: Preservice Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A West Virginia preservice program prepares professionals in a variety of fields to work with rural children with swallowing disorders. Program features include graduate assistantships, interdisciplinary academic coursework, a practicum in a swallowing disorders clinic under supervision of a faculty mentor, and a technology project related to…

Ruscello, Dennis M.; Werner, Jeffrey; Price, Kari; Williams, Diane

2000-01-01

215

Replicating Successful Early Intervention in Rural Areas: Model Program Description.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a project to train service providers in replicating the Home Activity Program for Parents and Youngsters (HAPPY). HAPPY is a family-focused program developed to meet the educational needs of disabled children ages birth through 5 years in rural Nevada. Content of the training modules was developed from a review of literature…

Johnson, JoAnn; Whipple, Wendy

216

Mortality, morbidity and drug consumption in a rural area (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive study was made of the health indicators in 5 rural municipalities of the province of Castellón (Spain), with a total of 1428 inhabitants. This population is characterized by its aging, 36.9% of all individuals being older than 65 years. A retrospective evaluation was made of the annual mortality rates between 1940 and 1990, and of morbidity and medications

M. M. Morales Suárez-Varela; L. Segarra Castelló; A. Perez Benajas; A. Llopis González

1995-01-01

217

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

218

Increased Diversity in Rural Areas: One School's Response to Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study examined the ways in which one rural Midwestern high school and its surrounding community responded to increased diversity. The purpose of the study was to explore how teachers, administrators, school staff, and community members in the district understood the character of the community's demographic changes and the…

Rhodes, Megan E.

2011-01-01

219

Families and Early Intervention Professionals in Rural Areas: Unique Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews and focus groups with 50 professionals and 7 parents of children with special needs examined challenges faced by families and early intervention professionals in rural East Texas. Challenges identified by families included transportation, housing, access to medical care, and feelings of isolation. Professionals identified the lack of…

Jephson, Melanie B.; Russell, Kendra P.; Youngblood, L. A.

2001-01-01

220

A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…

Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

221

Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention. PMID:23034263

Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

2012-01-01

222

Assessing preferences for wastewater treatment in a rural area using choice experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas that are still not serviced by a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), economic valuation of the benefits derived from its construction should focus not only on those attributes that are linked to the services provided by the plant, such as cleaner environment and the possibility of reuse, but also on those attributes that are linked to its existence such as possible landscape and odor effects. This paper presents a choice modeling (CM) application that elicits the value of the attributes of a WWTP, where the latter are given by odor and landscape effects, jobs created, water quality, irrigation applications of the produced recycled water, and the additional charging. The results show that for rural populations such as farmers' communities, the potential increase of irrigated agricultural land is the main driver of willingness to pay while concerns over possible odor effects are also important. In addition, ignoring possible correlations across subsets of alternatives and variance heterogeneity would lead to substantial overestimation of willingness to pay.

Genius, Margarita; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

2012-04-01

223

Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings  

PubMed Central

Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas. PMID:23759062

2013-01-01

224

Watershed Modeling in areas with Intensive Agricultural Irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation in agricultural intensive watersheds affects soil moisture content, plays a major role in the overall water balance and also influences the hydrologic regime. Historically, irrigation in watershed modeling has been very difficult to simulate and was simulated in one of three general ways. 1) irrigation water was withdrawan from the model and never applied to the land, 2) ignored and assumed insignificant and 3) input as a constant by modifying atmospheric forcing files. For the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) model developed for the Flint River Watershed in southwest Georgia, we received a summary report of a study conducted to determine irrigation application depth, as well as spatial mapping of irrigated fields in the state of Georgia. The summary report provided minimum, mean, and maximum irrigation depth for both surface water and groundwater sources and the spatial mapping provided over 10,300 irrigated fields located within the boundaries of the Flint River Watershed. With this information we were able to calculate irrigation volume applied to the land by source water type. We discuss how these data were incorporated into the LSPC watershed modeling effort and demonstrate the utility and function of the model for irrigation application. We also investigate impacts to water balance and the hydrologic regime through a series of scenarios in the agriculturally dominated landscape of Ichawaynochaway Creek (HUC 03130009). The scenarios compare and contrast our approach with 1) ignoring irrigation both application and water withdrawal, and 2) only withdrawing the water and not applying it back to the land. We demonstrate the importance of properly simulating irrigation application in heavily influenced areas. The approach we have taken is applicable in other areas in the southeastern United States or any area that is highly influenced by irrigation practices.

Wyss, J. R.; Watson, B. J.

2011-12-01

225

Modern Agricultural Digital Management Network Information System of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area Farm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the need of agriculture management modernization of Heilongjiang reclamation area, further boost large-scale integration level of modern agriculture production and boost management level of agriculture production.On Red Farm, we have established the digital management network information system with the remote sensor technology, GIS technology, GPS technology, database technology, network technology, agriculture intelligent technology, multimedia technology, information auto acquired technology and control technology applied in the system. Modern agriculture digital information system of Red Star farm is composed of base construction of agricultural digital information, digital management system construction of agricultural production, digital technological equipment of agriculture etc. The digital and network management of agriculture can offer all management department the best convenient to master management information in time and boost the technological level of agricultural production, form the digital technological system of farmland, explore new way of agricultural production in information age and seek new production way of high efficiency, high production, high quality, low consumption.

Wang, Xi; Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Wei Dong; Yang, Hui

226

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

227

Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities  

SciTech Connect

The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M. M. [Dept Ciencias do Ambiente, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1399-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-07-01

228

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BREAKFAST INTAKE AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF NSUKKA  

E-print Network

A comparative study of the breakfast intake of school children between the ages of 10-12yeras in Nsukka urban and rural areas was investigated. Sixty urban and thirty rural school children were randomly selected from three primary schools. Data was collected using a structured; pre tested and validated questionnaire which was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) and descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentages). Chi-square analysis was also used to compare the breakfast intake of these school children in the urban and rural areas. The result of the study showed a higher breakfast consumption of children in the rural than the urban areas though the result was not statistically significant. The percentage distribution showed that 90 % of the rural children took breakfast compared to the 78.3 % of the urban school children while 10 % and 21.7 % of the rural and urban children respectively did not consume breakfast. The factors that contributed to the rural children not taking breakfast include unavailability of food, and not being hungry. In the urban area the factors that affect breakfast intake include lack of time, not being hungry and unavailability of food. However, there was a significant difference (Prural homes and the quantity of food purchased in the market compared to the urban dwellers. The rural dwellers had more food in their homes and purchased less food in the market. Poverty was implicated as the major cause of low breakfast intake. Other factors that affected breakfast intake were family size, occupation of the head of the house hold and educational level.

Uchenna Agatha

229

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05). PMID:18777151

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2014-01-01

230

Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

Eccles, Lawrence A.

1979-01-01

231

Chronic Disease Patients’ Experiences With Accessing Health Care in Rural and Remote Areas  

PubMed Central

Background Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. Objective To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. Data Sources This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Review Methods Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Limitations Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic disease; findings emphasize the patient rather than the provider perspective. Conclusions This study corroborates previous knowledge and concerns about access issues in rural and remote areas, such as geographical distance and shortage of health care professionals and services. Unhealthy behaviours and reduced willingness to seek care increase patients’ vulnerability. Patients’ perspectives also highlight rural culture’s potential to either exacerbate or mitigate access issues. Plain Language Summary People who live in a rural area may feel more vulnerable—that is, more easily harmed by their health problems or experiences with the health care system. Qualitative research looks at these experiences from the patient’s point of view. We found 3 broad concerns in the studies we looked at. The first was geography: needing to travel long distances for health care can make care hard to reach, especially if transportation is difficult or the weather is bad. The second concern was availability of health professionals: rural areas often lack health care services. Patients may also feel powerless in “referral games” between rural and urban providers. People with low education or without others to help them may find navigating care more difficult. When rural services are available, patients like seeing clinicians who have known them for a long time, and like how familiar clinicians treat them as a whole person. The third concern was rural culture: patients may feel like outsiders in city hospitals or clinics. As well, in rural communities, people may share a feeling of self-reliance and community belonging. This may make them more eager to take care of themselves and each other, and less willing to seek distant care. Each of these factors can increase or decrease patient vulnerability, depending on how health services are provided. PMID:24228078

Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

2013-01-01

232

Prevalence of Hypertension in Rural Areas of China: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China. Methods Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas) and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9. Results We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%–26.41%). Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%–27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%–26.35%). For 2004–2006: 18.94% (14.41%–23.94%), for 2007–2009, 21.24% (15.98%–27.01%) for 2010–2013: 26.68%, (20.79%–33.02%). For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%–29.32%), for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%–24.08%). Conclusions The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention. PMID:25521114

Chen, Xiaofang; Li, Lezhi; Zhou, Tao; Li, Zhanzhan

2014-01-01

233

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

PubMed Central

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

234

Rural Industrialization in the Ozarks: Case Study of a New Shirt Plant at Gassville, Arkansas. Agricultural Economic Report No. 123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the short term effects of a large apparel plant on the economy of a relatively isolated, highly rural Ozark area (8 counties), characterized by low income and few employment opportunities, this study compared 1959 data on the study area and the state of Arkansas with similar post plant data (1960-1963). Data were compared on income…

Jordon, Max F.

235

Closing gaps in the information society: providing high-speed broadband access to rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband, in particular the national level of broadband penetration is a significant driver for economic growth. Whilst the availability of broadband in terms of bandwidth and variety of competitive communication providers is highly sufficient in population dense areas, rural areas suffer massively from the digital divide effect. The term “digital divide” refers to the absence of high performance broadband connections

Arnold PICOT; Nico GROVE

2010-01-01

236

L'acces des jeunes de regions rurales aux etudes postsecondaires (The Access of Youth from Rural Areas to Postsecondary Studies).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The access to postsecondary education that is offered to students in rural areas differs significantly from the access available to urban students. An overview is given of the various factors and structural obstacles influencing rural access to postsecondary education, including aspirations, college preparation, socioeconomic characteristics of…

Sawh, Natasha; Charron, Jocelyn

2003-01-01

237

Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

Nlerum, F. E.

2012-12-01

238

Echinococcosis (zoonotic hydatidosis) in street dogs in urban and rural areas, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A total of one hundred and ninety street dogs were captured from urban area, Mansoura district and three hundreds and fifty from rural area, Met El-Korama and adjacent villages (Manshet El-Badawy, Talka Center). The overall prevalence of Echinoccocus granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The prevalence was 6% in rural locality and 3.2% in urban locality. E. granulosus in dogs was significantly higher in rural areas but, without significant difference in puppies and males. The overall sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. Apart from E. granulosus, dogs were also, infected with Taenia sp., Diplydium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichurus vulpis and Ancylostoma caninum. The major cross-reactions were with Taenia sp., and D. caninum. Significantly, no correlation was found between ELISA on dogs' sera and E. granulosus burden. PMID:17580584

Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Abdel Tawab, Ahmed H; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-04-01

239

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

240

An Ethnostatistical Comparison of the Forms and Levels of Woman Battering in Urban and Rural Areas of Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociological research informs us that urban areas are more likely than rural areas to witness the blight of violent crime. This likelihood is borne out by crime statistics that show that violent crime is much lower in rural areas. However, violence against women within families does not seem to follow this pattern. Using an ethnostatistical approach that combines ethnography and

Neil Websdale; Byron Johnson

1998-01-01

241

Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

242

Spectrum of illness in rural areas of Ahmednagar District.  

PubMed

At Pravara Medical Trust (PMT), Loni, Ahmednagar, multidiagnostic and treatment camps (MDTC) are organised by PMT every month in remote villages with active participation of villagers, to provide health care to needy and deprived population. From January 1987 to April 1992, 58 camps have been organised and 60,856 patients availed various medical and health services rendered by PMT. Average attendance of patients per camp was 1049, 48.36% being females and 51.64% males. According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) patients were broadly grouped. A total of 21,603 (35.5%) were referred to the Pravara Rural Hospital and 15,700 (72.67%) of them availed the indoor and outdoor services there. PMID:7963613

Goyal, R C; Sachdeva, N L; Mhaske, N S; Patil, A; Kawade, V

1994-08-01

243

Agricultural Policy Reform and Less-Favoured Areas Policy: Application of EU Policy to Japan  

E-print Network

have reformed their agricultural policy to be able to respond to a variety of social problemsAgricultural Policy Reform and Less-Favoured Areas Policy: Application of EU Policy to Japan Sawako communities. With increasing pressure on agricultural policy reform nationally and internationally

Mound, Jon

244

Civil defence in agricultural production areas; Grazhdanskaya oborona na ob'ektakh sel'skokhozyaistvenogo proizvodstva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this textbook for students of agricultural schools the following ; topics are covered: the nature of rocket-nuclear warfare, the role and problems ; of civil defense applicable to agricultural production areas; organization of ; civil defense in agricultural regions, at cooperative farms, and at state farms; ; the nature of biological, chemical, and radiation surveys and dosimetric control; ;

N. I. Akimov; V. G. Ilin

1973-01-01

245

Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253

Ujevi?, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Sasa; Neljak, Boris

2013-03-01

246

Keokuk County rural health study: self-reported use of agricultural chemicals and protective equipment.  

PubMed

The Keokuk County Rural Health Study is a population-based study of an agricultural community in Iowa. The study includes in-depth evaluations of respiratory disease, injury, and other health outcomes in relation to environmental and occupational exposures. This article reports descriptive findings on pesticide use from among the 1191 participants completing occupational surveys. Fifty-one percent (612) of respondents (farmers and non-farmers) had applied insecticides including lawn and garden chemicals at home during the past year. Thirty-three percent (395) of respondents had personally mixed or applied farm chemicals during their life. One-hundred and four had a current pesticide applicator's license. Information on the specific types of pesticides and protective measures used was obtained for the 144 individuals who had mixed or applied pesticides on farms within the previous year. Of these individuals, 67% worked with fertilizers, 49% used herbicides, 48% used crop insecticides, 28% used crop storage insecticides, 45% applied livestock insecticides, and 9% worked with fungicides. The use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, aprons, and respirators varied depending on the chemical. A substantial proportion did not use gloves even for mixing. Thirty-five percent reported at least one suspected work-related symptom after working with pesticides during the previous year. The lack of differences in protective equipment use between applicators who have completed pesticide applicator training courses and those who have not suggests a need to develop more effective training methods. The increased use of protective equipment when applying odorous agrochemicals suggests that addition of an odorant to more toxic pesticides may be a successful intervention strategy. PMID:19042670

Reynolds, Stephen J; Tadevosyan, Artashes; Fuortes, Laurence; Merchant, James A; Stromquist, Ann M; Burmeister, Leon F; Taylor, Craig; Kelly, Kevin M

2007-01-01

247

Intimate partner violence in rural U.S. areas: what every nurse should know.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a major health care issue, affecting nearly 6% of U.S. women annually. Multiple mental and physical health problems are associated with intimate partner violence, and billions of health care dollars are spent in trying to address the consequences. Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are roughly the same in rural and nonrural areas, rural survivors face distinct barriers in obtaining help and services. Because rural women routinely access health care services in nonrural as well as rural settings, it's essential that all providers understand the issues specific to rural survivors. Routine screening for intimate partner violence would create opportunities for women to disclose abuse and for providers to help victims obtain assistance and support that may keep them safer. This in turn would likely decrease serious health sequelae and lower health care costs. This article describes the unique aspects of intimate partner violence in rural populations. It also describes a simple screening tool that can be used in all settings, discusses ways to approach the topic and facilitate disclosure, and addresses interventions; relevant resources are also provided. PMID:24727408

Dudgeon, Amanda; Evanson, Tracy A

2014-05-01

248

Value to Wildlife of Urban-Agricultural Parks: A Case Study from Rome Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban-agricultural parks could have some advantages to wildlife because of less intensive agricultural procedures, absence\\u000a of hunting pressure, and reduced human disturbance. In this study, the breeding and wintering bird communities and the small\\u000a mammal community in an urban-agricultural park of Rome were compared to those of a close urban park and a close agricultural\\u000a area just outside the city.

ALBERTO SORACE

2001-01-01

249

L'agriculture durable, lment de stratgie pour le dveloppement rural communal Cas de la Commune d'Ampitatafika-District d'Antanifotsy-Rgion du Vakinankaratra  

E-print Network

L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le développement rural communal Cas de la Commune,S., Ramananarivo, R., Aubert Gilon, S. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 L'AGRICULTURE DURABLE, ELEMENT DE "ISDA 2010, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;L'agriculture durable, élément de stratégie pour le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

October 2000 The Rise of Rural-to-Rural Labor Markets in China  

E-print Network

Department of Agriculture, and 2 anonymous referees for comments and suggestions on this work. Key Words: rural labor, labor migration, rural industry, genderThe Rise of Rural-to-Rural Labor Markets in China The continued transfer of agricultural labor into the industrial sector is crucial to China’s transformation into an industrial economy. We argue in this paper that rural industry offers an alternative to urban industry for receiving agricultural labor from areas without off-farm employment opportunities. Characteristics of rural industry differ from their urban counterparts. These characteristics may serve to shape the growth in employment for incoming workers in rural areas, provide opportunities for certain types of workers, and affect the impacts these workers have on the local economy. In this paper we examine the features of China’s rural-to-rural labor movement and the villages where these workers are employed. Using a nationally representative sample of 215 villages, we show that the growth in rural-to-rural labor movement between 1988 and 1995 has been much faster than in rural-to-urban movement or in local off-farm employment. The rapid growth in rural-to-rural commuting and migration has not negatively affected off-farm income earning opportunities for workers living in the receiving villages. Rural-to-rural labor movement also has many positive effects. Labor movement into rural villages provides opportunities for workers generally underrepresented in other parts of the off-farm labor market, appears to dampen upward pressure on wages that allows rural industry to maintain labor intensive practices, and promotes national economic integration.

Bryan Lohmar; Scott Rozelle; Changbao Zhao

251

Mortality, morbidity and drug consumption in a rural area (Spain).  

PubMed

A descriptive study was made of the health indicators in 5 rural municipalities of the province of Castellón (Spain), with a total of 1428 inhabitants. This population is characterized by its aging, 36.9% of all individuals being older than 65 years. A retrospective evaluation was made of the annual mortality rates between 1940 and 1990, and of morbidity and medications consumption for the period between June 1991 and May 1992. An increase in general mortality was observed during the study period, though the rates also diminished in relation to age groups, sex and cause of death. In addition, 59.45% of the study population made use of health-care services in the course of one year, an average of 2.59 drugs being prescribed per inhabitant in that same period. Morbidity in decreasing order of importance was attributed to acute respiratory disease, osteomuscular disorders, hypertension, depression and gastric pathology. Medications for the common cold and coughing were the most frequently used drugs, along with pain-killers, cardioactive agents, psycholeptics and non-sterioidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aging causes the mortality variations recorded, despite the socio-sanitary improvements observed in the zone during the study period. Aging may also be related to the important use of healthcare services and of drugs noted in the study. The highest morbidity rates and drug consumption levels corresponded to chronic diseases that deteriorate patient quality of life without actually increasing mortality. PMID:8549707

Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Segarra Castelló, L; Perez Benajas, A; Llopis González, A

1995-08-01

252

Ambient concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid across a rural-urban-agricultural transect in southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variation in ambient atmospheric concentrations of gaseous reactive nitrogen (Nr) species (ammonia [NH3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and nitric acid [HNO3]) were measured at four sites (spanning a transect in land use types: intensive agricultural, urban-agricultural transition, urban, and rural background) across southern Ontario, Canada. Atmospheric concentrations were measured with the Willems badge diffusive passive sampler for one year (April 2010-March 2011) at two-week exposure periods (biweekly integrated concentration measurements); dry deposition was estimated using the inferential method. There was high spatial and temporal variability in the ambient concentrations and estimated dry deposition of NH3, NO2 and HNO3 across the four study sites. Annual average Nr concentrations were greatest at the urban site owing to high NO2 concentrations (>25 ?g m-3), while annual average ambient NH3 concentrations were greatest at the intensive agricultural site (>3 ?g m-3) followed by the urban site (˜2 ?g m-3) suggesting that outside of intensive agricultural areas, urban regions have the highest ambient NH3 concentrations in southern Ontario. The high ambient NH3 and NO2 concentrations resulted in high dry deposition of gaseous Nr (urban [>12 kg N ha-1 yr-1] and intensive agricultural [>8 kg N ha-1 yr-1]), accounting for 50-60% of estimated total Nr deposition (dry gaseous + wet ammonium and nitrate) at the study sites. Atmospheric NH3 and NO2 are significant components of total Nr deposition in southern Ontario and should be routinely monitored.

Zbieranowski, Antoni L.; Aherne, Julian

2012-12-01

253

The applications of mobile telecommunications in new rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the current popularity of information and telecommunication technologies, more and more farmers recognize the important role of information. The urgent need for Chinese farmers is how to make use of information to get rich. Contrast in the newspapers, television, radio and other traditional media, mobile information services have unmatched advantages, such as wide spread in very low cost, spread source of widely dispersed, and diverse forms of communication, simple and easy to operate, with strong participatory and interactive, and so on. The paper proposes that Mobile operators can supply different information in accordance with personalized demands of farmers with various agencies, such as government departments, supply and marketing cooperatives, hospitals, banks, veterinary clinics, agricultural stations. They can unite to supply a number of convenience people, rich people, and love for the people's business through the message, voice, WAP and other forms to meet the needs of farmers. Besides, the paper points out that those farmers can order information on personalized service.

Chen, Xia; Lu, Ting-jie

2009-07-01

254

Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

Akintola, Jacob; And Others

255

Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

256

Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

1980-09-01

257

Why Invest in Rural America--And How? A Critical Public Policy Question for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current rural policies at both the federal and state levels do not meet the needs of rural people and communities; they are designed for the past, not the future. Agricultural subsidies absorb most federal resources directed to rural areas, with no evidence of benefits for rural communities. The continuing state-level pursuit of low-wage,…

Stauber, Karl N.

258

Trial by Satellite: Videoconferencing for Continuing Education for Rural Area Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes LIVE-NET, a compressed videoconferencing network in Australia that was used for continuing education sessions for nurses in rural areas. Results of a survey that evaluated physical presentation, instructional presentation, and interactive communication are reported, and future directions are discussed. (nine references) (LRW)

Latchem, Colin; Rapley, Pat

1992-01-01

259

Health and diet in a rural area: the construction of food choice in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a study of food choice among elderly people living in a rural area. The findings reveal that knowledge about “healthy foods” in this age group is good and that people often choose healthier foods in preference to alternatives, despite finding the alternatives more palatable.

Jeanette M. Lilley; Angela E. Johnson

1996-01-01

260

Perceived Aspects of Home Environment and Home Modifications by Older People Living in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between the “perceived aspects” of current home environment of elderly people living in rural areas and their home modification behavior. To investigate this perception, home satisfaction, perception of home capability, and home safety were used as perceived aspects of the home. Data were collected by a questionnaire. The response rate was 43.1%, with 317 eligible

Mira Ahn; Asha L. Hegde

2011-01-01

261

Teleconsultation service to improve healthcare in rural areas: acceptance, organizational impact and appropriateness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, new organisational strategies should be indentified to improve primary care and its link with secondary care in terms of efficacy and timeliness of interventions thus preventing unnecessary hospital accesses and costs saving for the health system. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the use of teleconsultation by general practitioners in rural areas. METHODS:

Paolo Zanaboni; Simonetta Scalvini; Palmira Bernocchi; Gabriella Borghi; Caterina Tridico; Cristina Masella

2009-01-01

262

Road Traffic Injuries among Middle School Students in a Rural Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a

Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

2009-01-01

263

Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression is defined as a major depressive episode that occurs within four weeks after delivery. However, investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorders after childbirth with the largest risk during 90 days after delivery. We aimed to study the risk factors of postpartum depression in women living in rural areas of Isfahan Province in

Gholam-Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad-Reza Maracy; Mehrdad Salehi; Gholam-Hossein Sadri; Pharm D; Mahnaz Kelishadi BS; Patricia Cassy

2009-01-01

264

Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

265

Towards sustainable energy systems: integrating renewable energy sources is the key for rural area power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of the poorest regions of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia lack access to modern forms of energy services. In addition, currently used sources of energy for cooking and heating (wood, crop residues, charcoal, etc.) are a serious source of indoor pollution, causing environmental and health problems and

Pradeep K Katti; Mohan K Khedkar

2005-01-01

266

Service Delivery to Young Handicapped Children in Rural Areas: A Review of Issues and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines barriers faced by educators and administrators in serving young handicapped children in rural areas and suggests approaches to overcoming these barriers. Among problems identified are transportation; funding shortages due to a lower tax base and higher levels of poverty; unemployment, and seasonal employment; staff shortages;…

Nash, Tina Eaton; And Others

267

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

PubMed

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-01-01

268

Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

Andrews, Rhys

2011-01-01

269

An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

1996-01-01

270

Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in a poor rural area in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to identify and quantify socioeconomic determinants of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the rural area of Virgem das Graças in Minas Gerais State of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis in relation to socioeconomic characteristics of the households. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the

Andrea Gazzinelli; Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez; Sara B. Crawford; Philip T. LoVerde; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Helmut Kloos

2006-01-01

271

Big Guys Eat Big Cakes: Firm Size and Contracting in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been devoted to the analysis of different levels of privatization in urban and rural areas. However, until now no empirical study has been conducted on what types of firms are present in different geographical environments. We find that large firms that operate on a national basis dominate the contracts in the most populated and

Germà Bel; Xavier Fageda

2011-01-01

272

Improving Distance Education for University Students: Issues and Experiences of Students in Cities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined issues related to improving the quality of distance education courses that were raised by university students in Australia. Focus group sessions were held in rural and urban areas in Queensland that discussed student interaction with lecturers, assessment tasks, flexibility, study materials, mentors, and educational technology.…

Purnell, Ken; Cuskelly, Eve; Danaher, Patrick

1996-01-01

273

Comparing Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Rates in Rural and Urban Areas  

E-print Network

exist in incidence and survival rates in oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in rural and urban areas. Methods: Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data from 17 registries for the years 2000-2005 was used for this analysis. A Poisson...

Womack, Catherine Marie

2008-01-01

274

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

275

The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI), implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in rural areas. Conclusion We concluded that women in rural areas were more likely to seek prenatal care in large hospitals, but were not more likely to perceive very convenient transportation to and from prenatal care facilities in the late 1990s than in the early 1990s. In contrast, women in non-rural areas did not have a stronger tendency to seek prenatal care in large hospitals in the late 1990s than in earlier periods. In addition, they did perceive an improvement in transportation for acquiring prenatal care in the late 1990s. More efforts should be made to reduce these disparities. PMID:18373869

Chen, Likwang; Chen, Chi-Liang; Yang, Wei-Chih

2008-01-01

276

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

277

The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed women…

Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

278

Using e-health to enable culturally appropriate mental healthcare in rural areas.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to review relevant research issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare and make recommendations for expanding and prioritizing research efforts in this area. A workshop was convened by the Office of Rural Mental Health Research (ORMHR) at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of California, Davis, the California Telemedicine and e-Health Center, and the California Endowment in December 2005, during which papers were presented concerning culture and e-mental health. Relevant literature was reviewed and research questions were developed. Major issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare were defined, as were the barriers to the provision of such care in rural areas and interventions to overcome these barriers. Rural areas have increased barriers to culturally appropriate mental healthcare because of increased rates of poverty, increasingly large ethnic minority populations, and various degrees of geographical isolation and cultural factors specific to rural communities. Although culture and language are major barriers to receiving appropriate mental healthcare, including e-mental healthcare, they cannot be separated from other related influential variables, such as poverty and geography. Each of these critical issues must be taken into account when planning technologically enabled rural mental health services. This review describes one in a series of ORMHR/NIMH efforts aimed at stimulating research using culturally appropriate e-mental health strategies that address unique characteristics of various racial/ethnic groups, as well as rural and frontier populations. PMID:18578685

Yellowlees, Peter; Marks, Shayna; Hilty, Don; Shore, Jay H

2008-06-01

279

Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

Thomas, Della W.

2010-01-01

280

Access to obstetric care in rural areas: effect on birth outcomes.  

PubMed Central

Hospital discharge data from 33 rural hospital service areas in Washington State were categorized by the extent to which patients left their local communities for obstetrical services. Women from communities with relatively few obstetrical providers in proportion to number of births were less likely to deliver in their local community hospital than women in rural communities with greater numbers of physicians practicing obstetrics in proportion to number of births. Women from these high-outflow communities had a greater proportion of complicated deliveries, higher rates of prematurity, and higher costs of neonatal care than women from communities where most patients delivered in the local hospital. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:2356904

Nesbitt, T S; Connell, F A; Hart, L G; Rosenblatt, R A

1990-01-01

281

Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

2013-04-01

282

What Is Rural?  

MedlinePLUS

... territory and populations." 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers. ... that Define Rural 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service for research and policy. The Atlas ...

283

Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

Podgursky, Michael

284

Development of Infrastructure for Rural Prosperity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite significant advancement in industrial development, Indian economy is dependent on agrobased activities. Over 70% of the population living in rural areas is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. A majority of these families spend over 90% of their earnings on basic needs such as food, fuel and health care. Over 50% of the rural families who are not

N. G. Hegde

285

Costs of rearing children in agricultural economies: an alternative estimation approach and findings from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

There are changes in child costs during demographic transition. This study examines household time allocation from 66 agricultural households in 3 villages in Tangail District in rural north central Bangladesh in 1984-85 (371 days). Component and total child-rearing costs are estimated in alternative ways. Conventional "opportunity wage" measures are considered overestimated. The methodological shortcomings of direct cost accounting procedures and consumer demand methods in computing time cost and monetary cost of child rearing are pointed out. In this study's alternative computation, age standardized equivalent costs are generated. Child food consumption costs were generated from a large national survey conducted in 1983. Nonfood expenditures were estimated by food to nonfood expenditure ratios taken from the aforementioned survey. For estimating breast-feeding costs, an estimate was produced based on the assumption that costs for infant food consumption were a fixed proportion of food costs for older children. Land ownership groups were set up to reflect socioeconomic status: 1) landless households, 2) marginal farm households with 1 acre or .4 hectares of land, 3) middle income households with 1-2 acres of land, 4) upper middle income households with 2-4 acres of land, and 5) upper income or rich households with over 4 acres of land. The nonmarket wage rate for hired household help was used to determine the value of cooking, fetching water, and household cleaning and repairing. The results confirm the low costs of child rearing in high fertility societies. Productive nonmarket activities are effective in subsidizing the costs of children. The addition of a child into households already with children has a low impact on time costs of children; "this economies of scale effect is estimated ... at 20%." The highest relative costs were found in the lowest income households, and the lowest costs were in the highest income households. 5% of total household income is devoted to child rearing in the lowest income households compared to 1% of income in the highest income households. The implications are that fertility decline is more directly related to structural changes in the economy, satisfaction of existing demand for family planning, and the producing additional demand for fertility control. PMID:12286245

Khan, M M; Magnani, R J; Mock, N B; Saadat, Y S

1993-03-01

286

An Empirical Study of Agricultural Insurance—Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the factors that affect the farmers buying or not buying agricultural insurance so that the provider of insurance, state-owned agricultural insurance companies or commercial ones can adjust their strategic to suit the demand of famers based on our results and China's special characteristics in rural area, such as huge rural population and stated-owned land system. In this

Tang Sai; Wang Yulian; Hui Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

287

Preparing, Recruiting, and Retaining Special Education Personnel in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationwide, the shortage of special education teachers is expected to grow, fueled by expanding demand and high teacher attrition rates. The situation in Texas mirrors that of the nation. A needs assessment conducted by Abilene Christian University (ACU) in west central Texas found: a continuing need for special education teachers in the area;…

Whitworth, Jerry

288

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

289

[Nutritional status of urban and rural Chilean school children of the metropolitan area].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of chilean students by geographic area. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 students from elementary and high school was chosen from the Metropolitan Region of Chile (representative of 38.0% of chilean school population). Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements. Percent weight for age (% W/A), height for age (% H/A) and weight for height (% W/H) were compared with WHO standard; head circumference for age (% HC/A) with Tanner standard; arm circumference for age (% AC/A), triceps skinfold for age (% TS/A), arm muscle area for age (% AMA/A) and arm fat area/age (% AFA/A) with Frisancho norms. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar modified scale. Percent W/H is a better indicator of nutritional status due to growth failure which was thus detected in 27.6% of the whole sample (24.2% and 46.8%, respectively, in urban and rural area, p less than 0.001). According to % W/H, the frequencies of obesity were 13.4% and 10.5%, and those for undernutrition 5.7% and 8.2%, in urban and rural area, respectively, (p less than 0.05). Students from rural area showed significantly lower values for % HC/A, % AC/A, % TS/A and % AFA/A (p less than 0.001). There were no differences for % AMA/A. The fact that 90.5% of rural students belong to low SES must be taken into account to explain differences in the nutritional status of students of different geographic areas. PMID:2087594

Ivanovi?, R; Olivares, M; Ivanovi?, D

1990-01-01

290

Analysis of Input and Output of China's Agriculture Based on Canonical Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I select effective irrigated area, consumption of agricultural chemical fertilizer, electricity consumed in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery as input variables of China's agriculture; I select grain, bean, tobacco, oil-bearing crop and fruit as output variables of China's agriculture. By using the data of China Statistical Yearbook in 2010, based on the analysis method of canonical correlation,

Daoping Chen

2011-01-01

291

Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

1983-01-01

292

General Health in the Elderly and Younger Adults of Rural areas in Fars Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: There are critical gaps in assessment and research on health among the elderly living in rural communities. The state of aging and health in rural areas provides a snapshot of our older adults’s need to necessary public health measures .The aim of this study was to determine the self-rated general health of adults residing in rural areas and compare the general health of the elderly with younger adults. Methods: In this population based study using multistage random sampling, 2259 adults aged (?15 years old) were selected from rural areas of Shiraz, southern Iran. The participants were divided into three age groups: young adults (15-39 years old n=1574), middle aged adults (40-59 years old, n=530), and the elderly (?60 years of age, n-155).  Data were gathered using a translated version of the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and analyzed using Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANCOVA analysis.  SPSS software, version 16, was used for analysis. Results:  34.8%, 31.6%, 52.3% and 7.7% of the elderly had a probable mental disorder  in the somatization, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression categories, respectively. Moreover, 9.7, 7.1, 3.9 and 4.5% of the elderly had a  severe mental disorder  in the four mentioned subscales, respectively. Compared with younger adults, the elderly showed a significantly higher disorder in all subscales except for anxiety. Conclusion: Our findings showed that chronic disease had a great effect on general health. Screening programs and prevention of chronic disease by the newly established family physician in rural districts can improve the overall community health. PMID:25553335

Zare, Najaf; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehesh, Tania; Moradi, Fariba

2015-01-01

293

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

PubMed

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

294

Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

295

Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 19702005  

E-print Network

10027; dSchool of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning and School of Sustainability, Arizona State national-level United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data on trends in cropland from 1970 Street, Worcester, MA 01610; gDepartment of Urban Planning, University of California, 3250 School

Uriarte, Maria

296

Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.  

PubMed

An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

2012-03-23

297

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2013-01-01

298

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2014-01-01

299

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2011-01-01

300

7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have become part of an urban area. 1951.232 ...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...have become part of an urban area. A water and...area which was formerly a rural area as defined in...its entirety part of an urban area, will be...

2012-01-01

301

Use of Telephone-Administered Survey for Identifying Nutritional Risk Indicators Among Community-Living Older Adults in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Elderly Nutrition Programs, especially in rural areas, to address increasing needs for disparate program services is linked to determining which older people are most likely to be at nutritional risk and what constitutes the potential risk. The purpose of this study is to characterize nutritional risk factors in a probability sample of rural elders (n = 152)

Joseph R. Sharkey; Pamela S. Haines

2002-01-01

302

Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

2007-01-01

303

Access to Primary Health Care Among Persons With Disabilities in Rural Areas: A Summary of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prevalence of disabilities among persons living in rural areas, scarce data exist on their health care needs. While rural residents generally experience barriers to access to primary health care, these problems are further exacerbated for people with disabilities. This article summarizes findings from the published literature one access to primary health care among people with disabilities living in

Denise M. Lishner; Mary Richardson; Phyllis Levine; Donald Patrick

1996-01-01

304

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

305

Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of ditches (33.7%). The dumping of cassava tuber peelings which allows the collection of pools of water in the farms storage of peeled cassava tubers soaked in water in uncovered plastic containers, digging of trenches, irrigation of farms and the presence of fish ponds were the observed major agricultural practices that favoured mosquito breeding on the farms. A significant association was observed between respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Respondents' wealth quintile level was also seen to be associated with respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Conclusion Farmers' knowledge of malaria causation and signs and symptoms was low, while agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding in the farming communities were common. There is an urgent need to engage farmers in meaningful dialogue on malaria reduction initiatives including the modification of agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding. Multiple intervention strategies are needed to tackle the factors related to malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the communities. PMID:20380703

2010-01-01

306

Design and risk assessment tool for vegetative treatment areas receiving agricultural wastewater: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) are commonly being used as an alternative method of agricultural process wastewater treatment. However, it is also apparent that to completely prevent discharge of pollutants to the surrounding environment, settling of particulates and bound constituents from overland flow through VTAs is not sufficient. For effective remediation of dissolved agricultural pollutants, VTAs must infiltrate incoming wastewater. A

Joshua W. Faulkner; Zachary M. Easton; Wei Zhang; Larry D. Geohring; Tammo S. Steenhuis

2010-01-01

307

The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

Menanteau-Horta, Dario

308

Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

309

Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

310

Stochastic model to forecast ground-level ozone concentration at urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic models that estimate the ground-level ozone concentrations in air at an urban and rural sampling points in South-eastern Spain have been developed. Studies of temporal series of data, spectral analyses of temporal series and ARIMA models have been used. The ARIMA model (1,0,0)×(1,0,1)24 satisfactorily predicts hourly ozone concentrations in the urban area. The ARIMA (2,1,1)×(0,1,1)24 has been developed for

C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; S. Cañete; J. Carretero; E. Liger

2005-01-01

311

Life quality and daily life activities of elderly people in rural areas, Eski?ehir (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain difficulties in daily life activities appear and quality of life (QoL) begins to deteriorate with old age. This study aimed at determining QoL and activities of daily living (ADL) of elderly people in rural areas of Eski?ehir, and at identifying applicable factors in this regard. Cross-sectional study managed to reach 1301 (81.3%) of elderly people. Face-to-face interviews and the

Didem Arslantas; Aleattin Ünsal; Selma Metintas; Filiz Koc; Ali Arslantas

2009-01-01

312

Factors Associated with Faecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in a Rural Area, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in the highland area of Vietnam in order to identify risk factors\\u000a for faecal contamination of household drinking water. In the study, the water supplies of 146 households were assessed initially\\u000a in the rainy season and then were reassessed in the dry season.Water sampling in water sources and at the point-of-use

Vuong Tuan Anh; Kåre Mølbak; Phung Dac Cam; Anders Dalsgaard

313

Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopts the “syndrome approach”, originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), (Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990–2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization–nature

Christof J. Weissteiner; Mirco Boschetti; Kristin Böttcher; Paola Carrara; Gloria Bordogna; Pietro Alessandro Brivio

2011-01-01

314

A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

2014-12-01

315

Informal Health and Legal Rights Education in Rural, Agricultural Communities Using Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this work is on the design of a system for informal education in rural, farmworker populations using mobile devices. We have conducted needs assessment with farmworkers in the California Central Valley in conjunction with engineering and industrial design students as part of a service learning initiative. The community, working with the students, identified key needs related to

Jaspal S. Sandhu; Jonathan Hey; Catherine Newman; Alice M. Agogino

2005-01-01

316

Math Infusion in Agricultural Education and Career and Technical Education in Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased pressure for gains in academic performance in mathematics and science are not going to dissipate, and rural schools must find a way to meet these challenges. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Carl D. Perkins Federal Vocational and Technical Education Act legislations have also put pressure on career and technical education…

Anderson, Shawn

2008-01-01

317

Prospects for China's Rural Vocational Education and the Role of Higher Agricultural Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s saw significant development in China's rural vocational education and the continuation of some problems. Most Chinese secondary (92 percent) and postsecondary (82 percent) students are educated in the countryside. However, only 60 percent of vocational high school students are educated there. There is insufficient enrollment at many…

Ganzi, Peng; Xianguang, Liu

318

Lost in the Rush to National Reform: Recommendations to Improve Impact on Behavioral Health Providers in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

As the United States embarks on the most ambitious national health reform since the 1960s, this article highlights the challenges faced by behavioral health agencies, providers, and clients in rural areas and presents recommendations to improve access to and quality of services. Lessons learned from five years of research on a major systems-change initiative in New Mexico illuminate potential problem areas for rural agencies under national health reform, including insufficient financial resources, shortages of trained staff, particularly clinicians with advanced credentials, and delays in adopting the latest information technology. We recommend that rural states: (1) undertake careful planning for smooth transitions; (2) provide financial resources and technical assistance to expand rural safety-net services and capacity; (3) modify the health home model for the rural context; and (4) engage in ongoing evaluation, which can help ensure the early identification and rectification of unanticipated implementation issues. PMID:22643628

Semansky, Rafael; Willging, Cathleen; Ley, David J.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

2012-01-01

319

Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?  

PubMed Central

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

320

Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.  

PubMed

In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation. PMID:19423594

Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2009-12-01

321

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

322

The Many Faces of Ephraim: In Search of A Functional Typology of Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature of social work and rural sociology lacks conceptualization of the term "rural" and treats the term imprecisely. According to a 1960 survey, authors dealing with rural/urban differences do not agree on the attributes of "rural." However, if the rural concept is to be a useful analytical tool and guide to social work practice, its…

Whitaker, William H.

323

[Rural Development: First Annual] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…

Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

324

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

325

Emerging markets, evolving institutions, and the new opportunities for growth in China's rural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, our goal is to assess the state of China's rural economy and examine whether rural China is capable of participating in the sequence of economic events that will lead to modernization. We examine how agricultural productivity has changed, the nature of the shift of labor moving from rural to urban areas, how commodity markets have evolved, and

Scott ROZELLE; Jikun HUANG; Linxiu ZHANG

2002-01-01

326

Distribution and sharing of palliative care costs in rural areas of Canada.  

PubMed

Few data are available on the costs occurring during the palliative phase of care and on the sharing of these costs in rural areas. This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to all resources used by rural palliative care patients and to examine how these costs were shared between the public healthcare system (PHCS), patients' families, and not-for-profit organizations (NFPOs). A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken of 82 palliative care patients and their main informal caregivers in rural areas of four Canadian provinces. Telephone interviews were completed at two-week intervals. The mean total cost per patient for a six-month participation in a palliative care program was CA$31,678 +/- 1,160. A large part of this cost was attributable to inpatient hospital stays and was assumed by the PHCS. The patient's family contributed less than a quarter of the mean total cost per patient, and this was mainly attributable to caregiving time. PMID:25058986

Dumont, Serge; Jacobs, Philip; Turcotte, Véronique; Turcotte, Stéphane; Johnston, Grace

2014-01-01

327

Environmental and social determinants of aging perception in metropolitan and rural areas of Southern Italy.  

PubMed

The increasing life expectancy is accompanied by a growing request of social and health care services, and social inequalities may contribute to a poor quality of life (QoL) and an increased risk of cognitive impairment and disability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of social, environmental, and economic factors in determining subjective perception of aging in older people coming from two different areas (metropolitan and rural) of Southern Italy. We used data from a survey carried out in three metropolitan and three rural communities in Southern Italy. The cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by conducting structured interviews and assessments during home visits. Life conditions and health at older ages were investigated with a questionnaire. Elderly people were divided into two population cohorts, namely 304 subjects (152 from metropolitan and 152 from rural area) controlling demographic, social, environmental, and health characteristics. For this study we used the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a statistical technique used to highlight the interrelationships between qualitative variables describing a population. More significant environmental and social variable categories linked to negative aging perception were poor education, low income, female gender, widowhood, unsatisfactory health perception, perceived high functional disability, life arrangements, difficulty in reaching services, and environmental problems. Social, ecological, and environmental factors could play a relevant role in determining health status and disability with increasing request of social and health care services. PMID:17597236

Lucchetti, Maria; Corsonello, Andrea; Gattaceca, Romina

2008-01-01

328

GROWTH AND RURAL POVERTY IN SOUTH ASIA: LESSONS LEARNT AND ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection between agricultural growth and reduction in rural poverty in south Asia has been an interesting subject has been much debated and has profound implication for academic discourse as well as in the formulation of public policies. About three-quarters of the total population in the region live in the rural areas, depend to a large extent on agriculture, but

M. A. Sattar Mandal; R. W. Palmer-Jones

329

Prevalence of hepatitis surface antigen among rural population of Loni area in Ahmednagar district of Western Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Three hundred and fifty three subjects among the rural population of Loni area admitted in the hospital, and 188 medical staff members working in the Rural Medical College and Hospital, Loni, were screened for the presence of HBsAg. Reveresed passive haemagglutination assay was used for screening; it showed an HBsAg positivity rate of 21.8% and 15.8% among hepatitis and non hepatitis cases respectively, and 1.2%, 0% and 4.2% among medical students, doctors and nursing staff respectively. A high HBsAg positivity rate has been observed in the rural population of Loni area. PMID:1452565

Jain, R C; Bhat, S D; Sangle, S

1992-06-01

330

Contribution of alternative energies to meet the needs of rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of fulfilling part of the energy demand of an agricultural area in a Northern Italy region (Piedmont) by means of non-conventional sources is being studied. The research is mainly intended to give the local community government a means for a correct energy planning of the whole system and closely parallels other investigations performed on the energy system of

E. Lavagno; P. Ravetto

1980-01-01

331

The importance of neurocysticercosis in stroke in rural areas of a developing Latin American country.  

PubMed

There is limited information on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among stroke patients, and no community-based survey has addressed this issue. We performed a 3-Phase, population-based study, to assess the prevalence and pathogenesis of stroke in a rural village of coastal Ecuador, where cysticercosis is highly endemic. Twenty stroke patients were found among 642 individuals ? 40 years of age. Eighteen of these patients underwent neuroimaging studies and no patient had evidence of NCC or angiitis of intracranial vessels. The serum immunoblot test for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, performed in 15 of these 20 patients during a previous survey, were negative in 13 cases and the remaining two had a normal computed tomography of the head. This study suggests that NCC is not responsible for the increasing burden of stroke in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:23836572

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Lama, Julio

2013-08-01

332

The Importance of Neurocysticercosis in Stroke in Rural Areas of a Developing Latin American Country  

PubMed Central

There is limited information on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among stroke patients, and no community-based survey has addressed this issue. We performed a 3-Phase, population-based study, to assess the prevalence and pathogenesis of stroke in a rural village of coastal Ecuador, where cysticercosis is highly endemic. Twenty stroke patients were found among 642 individuals ? 40 years of age. Eighteen of these patients underwent neuroimaging studies and no patient had evidence of NCC or angiitis of intracranial vessels. The serum immunoblot test for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, performed in 15 of these 20 patients during a previous survey, were negative in 13 cases and the remaining two had a normal computed tomography of the head. This study suggests that NCC is not responsible for the increasing burden of stroke in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:23836572

Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Lama, Julio

2013-01-01

333

Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2002-01-01

334

Echinococcosis in dogs in urban and rural areas in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

A sample of one hundred and ninety stray dogs was captured from Mansoura city (urban) and three hundreds and fifty stray dogs were captured from Meet El-Korama, Mansheit El-Badawy villages (rural). The total prevalence of E. granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The significant prevalence was 6% in the rural area and 3.2% in the urban one. E. granulosus showed higher prevalence in young than old dogs and in males than females but without significant difference in both variants. The overall Echino-ELISA sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. The major cross reactivity was with Taenia spp., and Diplydium caninum, but neither with Toxocara canis or Trichurus vulpis nor Ancylostoma caninum. There was a negative correlation between ELISA and Echinococcus granulosus burden in dogs. PMID:17985582

El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Nagaty, Ibrahiem Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-08-01

335

The Economic Evolution of Rural America. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (May 22, June 13, June 19, July 1, 1985). Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 2 of this congressional hearing contains the testimony and prepared statements of 31 witnesses on the topics of rural community resources, the rural labor force, rural finance, and rural education to assist the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation in identifying the problems and potential of America's rural economy. With emphasis on…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

336

Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

1986-01-01

337

Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services by Primigravida Females in Urban and Rural Areas of India  

PubMed Central

Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

2014-01-01

338

Agricultural exposures and farm-related injuries among adolescents in rural China.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study explored the incidence of farm injuries and the relationship between agricultural exposures and injury among 2053 adolescents aged 13-19 years in Macheng, China. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire was given to adolescents. The cumulative incidence rate of farm injury was 19.8%. Adolescents who were male, aged 10-15 years, left behind, working more days each month and living on the plains, reported higher rates. Specific agricultural exposures, such as large animals, pesticides and operating farm machinery were associated with higher injury rates. Prevention programmes are needed to reduce farm injuries. PMID:22936700

Shen, Min; Wang, Youjie; Yang, Senbei; Du, Yukai; Xiang, Huiyun; Stallones, Lorann

2013-06-01

339

Integrated rural development: commitment and policy-frame.  

PubMed

India's 6th plan accords top priority to rural development with emphasis on development of agriculture and allied activities and rural industries. Rural growth has been slow and rural proverty has been increasing, because most of the low income groups in the rural areas depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood. Primary constraints in the development of rural residents arise from their dependence on agriculture for livelihood, the importance of nonagricultural sources of income, and the compounding effects of natural calamities. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest residents of rural areas -- small farmers, tenants, landless, rural artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Rural development must be designed to increase production and raise productivity. India's 6th plan has recognized that the distribution of unemployment and poverty as well as the potential for development of agriculture and related activities varies both among and within regions. Efforts have now been made to make the programs area specific. The new approach aims at integrating field programs reflecting the economic activity of the rural family whose employment and development is the primary objective. Policy directed at ensuring a flow of new field-tested technical knowledge relevant to small holder production is essential for rural development success. A strong commitment to rural development policies at the national level is necessary if the impact on the problems of rural poverty is to be effective and broad-based. PMID:12336058

Patel, A R

1979-07-01

340

Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

Brody, Z. H.

341

Landlords, sharecroppers and agricultural labourers: Changing labour relations in Rural Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has mainlv been the large landowners in Gondosari who have been in a position to take advantage of the modernisasi of agricultural production. Long before the seventies they enjoyed a dominant economic, social and political position in the village. Closely linked by family ties, they have occupied all the important positions (such as village head and members of the

Frans Hüsken

1979-01-01

342

The Outlook for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Americas 2011 -2012  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since late 2010 and continuing into 2011, price volatility, in relation to basic agricultural commodities, has occupied center stage on the agendas of decision makers. An additional concern has been uncertainty about a new global economic crisis in the wake of the macroeconomic difficulties experienced in the economies of several European countries and the United States. In recent months, this

2011-01-01

343

How Agricultural Science Trumps Rural Community in the Discourse of Selected U.S. History Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…

Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen

2013-01-01

344

Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.  

PubMed

With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

2015-01-01

345

Simazine, metribuzine and nitrates in ground water of agricultural areas of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1996 to 1998, residues of simazine, metribuzine and nitrates in ground water (irrigation and drinking) were monitored in wells of the main vineyard, apple and pear orchards, potato and tomato growing areas of “Ribatejo e Oeste”;, an important agricultural region of Portugal.Of a total of 214 samples collected in nine different areas, simazine was the most frequently detected herbicide.

M. J. Cerejeira; E. Silva; S. Batista; A. Trancoso; M. S. L. Centeno

2000-01-01

346

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

2002-01-01

347

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

348

Endemicity of cholera among rural areas of Loni, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.  

PubMed

A total of 130 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated during November 1989 to December 1992 from the rural population of Loni areas--Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra were characterised. Of these isolates, 124 were El tor vibrios serotype Ogawa, and 6 were El tor vibrios serotype Inaba. One hundred twenty two strains belonging to T4 phage, while 8 strains of El tor vibrio serotype Ogawa were untypable. All the strains isolated, showing haemolytic and non-haemolytic colony variants of El tor V. cholerae, and had resistance of one or more antibiotics. Maximum incidence was observed in November-December, the illness had a mild onset and no fatality was reported. PMID:7959973

Jain, R C; Basutkar, S H

1994-09-01

349

Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas  

PubMed Central

The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2012-01-01

350

Knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to malaria control in an endemic rural area of Myanmar.  

PubMed

Malaria is a global health problem, in particular, a major health problem within Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate malaria control within a rural area of Myanmar, where traditionally non-western medicine is the preferred treatment. Whilst malaria was perceived by the local people to be a major health problem, knowledge about the mode of transmission and correct treatment for malaria was relatively low. Consequently, the practices of the local people to control malaria were often ill-informed or based on cultural and traditional beliefs. PMID:15272745

Kyawt-Kyawt-Swe; Pearson, Alan

2004-03-01

351

A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran.  

PubMed

Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. In this case report, 2 patients from an Afghan family infested with this parasite in rural area of Isfahan, Iran are presented. Clinical signs and symptoms including pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing, yellow nasal and ears discharges, which started 2-3 hours after eating raw goat liver. Nymphs of Linguatula serrata were isolated from their tongues and later, several more parasites were discharged by coughing and sneezing. An ancient belief about nutritional benefits of eating raw liver may causes more Halzoun syndrome in future. PMID:23326773

Hamid, Tabibian; Hossein, Yousofi Darani; Mehran, Bahadoran-Bagh-Badorani; Masood, Farahmand Soderjani; Hamid, Enayatinia

2012-01-01

352

Distinguishing social and cultural features of cholera in urban and rural areas of Western Kenya: Implications for public health.  

PubMed

Urban and rural areas have distinctive health problems, which require consideration. To examine sociocultural features of cholera and its community context, a semi-structured explanatory model interview based on vignettes depicting typical clinical features of cholera was used to interview 379 urban and rural respondents in Western Kenya. Findings included common and distinctive urban and rural ideas about cholera, and its prevention and treatment. The three most commonly perceived causes among urban and rural respondents collectively were drinking contaminated water, living in a dirty environment and lacking latrines. However, a dirty environment and flies were more prominently perceived causes among urban respondents. Rural respondents were less likely to identify additional symptoms and more likely to identify biomedically irrelevant perceived causes of cholera. Oral rehydration therapy was the most frequently reported home treatment. Health facilities were recommended unanimously at both sites. For prevention, rural respondents were more likely to suggest medicines, and urban respondents were more likely to suggest health education and clean food. Findings indicate community priority, demand for and potential effectiveness of enhanced efforts to control cholera in Western Kenya, and they suggest strategies that are particularly well suited for control of cholera in urban and rural areas. PMID:23672503

Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Akeyo, Lilian; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

2013-01-01

353

Organization of Public Service Delivery Systems for Rural Areas: Concepts and Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major considerations for efficient resource use in organizing and providing rural service systems include analysis of the supply and demand conditions for services in a dynamic rural economy, projection of economic factors influencing supply and demand conditions for rural services, and physical planning for rural services to meet efficiently the…

Jones, Lonnie L.

354

Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities.  

PubMed

This research aimed at assessing the properties of guinea pig manure digestate from low-cost tubular digesters for crops fertilization in rural Andean communities. To this end, field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of the digestate on two common Andean crops: potato (Solanum tuberosum) and forage (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium pratense L.). The potato yield (20-25 tha(-1)) increased by 27.5% with digestate, by 15.1% with pre-compost and by 10.3% with the mixture, compared to the control. The forage yield (20-21 tha(-1)) increased by 1.4% with digestate - 50% dose, and by 8.8% with digestate - 100% dose and digestate - 150% dose, compared to the control. The results suggest that the digestate is an appropriate substitute of manure pre-compost for potato fertilization. The results with forage indicate that it can be applied in a range of doses, according to the amount produced by the digester. Currently, manure is either used for cooking or as fertilizer. With low-cost tubular digesters implementation, it could be used to feed the digester, using the digestate for crops fertilization and biogas for cooking; improving household living conditions and protecting the environment. Since soil properties in rural Andean communities differ from experimental layouts, the effect of fertilizers should be re-evaluated in-situ in future research studies. PMID:21903373

Garfí, Marianna; Gelman, Pau; Comas, Jordi; Carrasco, William; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-12-01

355

Pro-Poor, Entrepreneur-Based Innovation and it’s Role in Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation spurs economic growth and development. Pro-poor innovation in rural areas is more likely to occur through small-scale ventures and entrepreneurs than industrial research and development. Whilst previous rural development policies have focussed on small-holder agriculture, the fact is that most rural poor are landless poor and therefore unlikely to benefit greatly from agriculture-based policies. Instead most poor are entrepreneurs,

Lina Sonne

2010-01-01

356

Future Agricultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future Agricultures group is a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded consortium comprised of the Institute of Development Studies, Imperial College London, and Overseas Development Institute. The group is committed to examining the issues that surround agriculture and rural development across the world, with a particular focus on the developing world. Their work includes reports on water management in Ethiopia, a potential second "Green Revolution", and food security. The materials on their site are found in sections that include "News and Events", "Debates", and "Publications". The "Debates" area is a good one, as it includes thoughtful conversations on timely topics like pastoralism, the "Green Revolution" in Africa, and soil fertility. Scholars in the field will appreciate the "Publications" area, which includes policy briefs on poverty reduction in Kenya, coffee commercialization in Malawi, and rising food prices. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and provide feedback on their work.

357

Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report. MA 5-79, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1974, the Rural Manpower Service provided a comprehensive program of service to all agricultural workers and employers in both rural and urban areas. This program was accomplished through employer relations and applicant registration programs, placement services, promotion of training programs, counseling and testing programs, collection…

Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

358

Pesticides residues and metals in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The objective of study was to assess the levels of selected metals and pesticides in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia in order to indicate their possible sources and risks of contamination and to evaluate their sanitary probity and safety. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were below limits established by national and international regulations (maximum found concentrations were 0.028, 1.91, 11.16, 1.77, 0.605, 0.073 and 1.76 mg kg(-1) respectively). Only residue of one of examined pesticides was found in amount below MRL (bifenthrin 2.46 ?g kg(-1)) in only one of analysed samples, while others were below detection limits. Obtained results indicate that crops from examined agricultural areas are unpolluted by contaminants used for plant protection and nutrition, indicating good agricultural practice regarding pesticides and fertilizer usage as well as moderate industrial production within examined areas. PMID:22139297

Ethor?evi?, Tijana; Ethurovi?, Rada

2012-03-01

359

The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: The contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting in communal areas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of South Africa's rural population resides in the former homelands. Although cash from urban and government sources is the mainstay of the rural economy in many areas, the multiple and diverse livelihood base of rural households is not widely recognised. This diversity includes the land-based strategies of arable farming, livestock husbandry and consumption and trade in natural resources.

Charlie Shackleton; Sheona Shackleton; Ben Cousins

2001-01-01

360

Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.  

PubMed

Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4. PMID:25401067

Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

2014-01-01

361

The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

2013-01-01

362

Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach  

PubMed Central

People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

2015-01-01

363

Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in a poor rural area in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to identify and quantify socioeconomic determinants of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the rural area of Virgem das Graças in Minas Gerais State of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis in relation to socioeconomic characteristics of the households. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the data on both the household and individual levels, analyzing the prevalence ratios for the association of schistosomiasis and socioeconomic variables related to the head of the household. Multiple comparisons through mixed effect modeling were used to examine the relationship between intensity of infection (geometric mean egg counts) and different levels of socioeconomic variables, respectively. In the univariate analysis, place of residence, number of persons per room, and lack of motorized transport were associated with schistosomiasis at the household level and age and unsafe water contact at the individual level. Age, unsafe water contact, number of persons per room, household possessions and lack of education of head of household remained significant predictors of schistosomiasis in the multivariable analysis. Only age was significantly associated with intensity of infection of individuals. It is concluded that widespread poverty, the rural environment, and weak socioeconomic differentiation that result in intense contact with infective water appear to minimize the protective effect of piped water supply and other socioeconomic parameters on schistosomiasis found in other studies. The potential role of socioeconomic development in conjunction with schistosomiasis control is described and areas for further studies are identified. PMID:17045559

Gazzinelli, Andrea; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Crawford, Sara B; LoVerde, Philip T; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Kloos, Helmut

2006-10-01

364

A Comparative Study to Assess the Awareness of Palliative Care Between Urban and Rural Areas of Ernakulum District, Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward palliative care among people residing in urban and rural areas. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 urban and 165 rural households. Senior-most member of the household present was interviewed using a questionnaire. Only those people who have heard about palliative care were included in the study. Results: Out of 350 people, 47 (13.4%) have heard about palliative care. Of these 38 (20.5%) belonged to urban and 9 (5.4%) belonged to rural areas (P < 0.0001).Twenty-nine (15.7%) participants in urban and 7 (4.2%) in rural areas had some knowledge about palliative care (P = 0.0002). Source of information for 25 (53.2%) participants was newspapers followed by television 17 (36.2%). Thirty-three (86.8%) participants in urban and 7 (77.8%) in rural areas felt that palliative care helps in improving quality of life. Twenty (52.6%) participants in urban and 4 (44.4%) participants in rural areas felt that palliative care can be better provided at homes than hospitals. Thirty (78.9%) urban participants felt that bad news about the patient's condition needs to be told to the patient first and then to their family members. In case of rural participants majority 7 (77.8%) said vice versa (P = 0.0039). Conclusion: Overall awareness of palliative care was poor. This calls for large-scale awareness campaigns. As home-based palliative care was preferred by many, home visits by care providers and training of family members of patient's needing palliative care needs to be practiced widely. PMID:20668590

Joseph, Nitin; S, Jayarama; Kotian, Shashidhar

2009-01-01

365

Spatial distribution of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis within a rural area of Mexico.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

366

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

367

COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight interometry over rural areas: the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the last 7 years, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with resolution of better than a meter acquired by satellites in spotlight mode offered an unprecedented improvement in SAR interferometry (InSAR). Most attention has been focused on monitoring urban areas and man-made infrastructure exploiting geometric accuracy, stability, and phase fidelity of the spotlight mode. In this paper, we explore the potential application of the COSMO-SkyMed® Spotlight mode to rural areas where decorrelation is substantial and rapidly increases with time. We focus on the rapid repeat times of as short as one day possible with the COSMO-SkyMed® constellation. We further present a qualitative analysis of spotlight interferometry over the Slumgullion landslide in southwest Colorado, which moves at rates of more than 1 cm/day.

Milillo, Pietro; Fielding, Eric J.; Schulz, William H.; Delbridge, Brent; Burgmann, Roland

2014-01-01

368

Issues in the Development of HIV-Preventive Interventions for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions aimed at reducing HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been highly successful in urban areas in reducing the incidence of new cases of HIV infection. In rural areas, where the rates of infection are increasing, issues of culture, population density, isolation, and lack of access to health care services present different challenges

Deborah Bray Preston; Anthony R. D'Augelli; Richard E. Cain; Frederick W. Schulze

2002-01-01

369

Issues in the Development of HIV-Preventive Interventions for Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions aimed at reducing HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been highly successful in urban areas in reducing the incidence of new cases of HIV infection. In rural areas, where the rates of infection are increasing, issues of culture, population density, isolation, and lack of access to health care services present different challenges

Deborah Bray Preston; Anthony R. D'Augelli; Richard E. Cain; Frederick W. Schulze

2002-01-01

370

Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.  

PubMed

The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys may be more suitable for the unique challenges of water contact in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:11251909

Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

2001-02-01

371

Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Paw?owska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation. PMID:25528919

Paw?owska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; K?dzierski, Zbigniew

2014-11-26

372

Integrated Waste Management for Rural Development in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural areas generate a large amount of plant and animal residues that can be recycled and utilized instead of relocation and\\/or burning. This will lead to increasing the benefits from agricultural sector in rural communities and ensuring a better environment. To increase the economic output and environmental benefits of recycling agricultural residues, integrated system should be considered, e.g., energy–compost-recycled water

S. M. Shehata; S. A. El Shimi; M. H. Elkattan; B. E. Ali; M. El-Housseini; S. A. El Sayad; M. S. Mahmoud; A. M. Zaki; Y. A. Hamdi; A. S. El-Nawawy

2004-01-01

373

Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or ‘ash storms’.\\u000a The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash\\u000a storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study

T. M. Wilson; J. W. Cole; C. Stewart; S. J. Cronin; D. M. Johnston

2011-01-01

374

Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model  

PubMed Central

The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

Bandali, Sarah

2014-01-01

375

Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model.  

PubMed

The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

Bandali, Sarah

2014-01-01

376

Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

2015-01-01

377

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

378

Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

Hammer, Patricia Cahape

379

The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland  

PubMed Central

Background The Greenlandic Healthcare Reform (2010) required improved quality of services for health promotion, prevention of infectious and lifestyle diseases, family nursing and evidence-based clinical nursing. Aim To investigate current nursing practice in Greenland and to identify whether it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55, participated in this study. Four were working at healthcare centres in towns and four were working at nursing stations in villages. The nurses were educated in Greenland or a Nordic country and had been practicing nursing for at least 2 years in an Arctic region. They were observed for 1–5 days, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive work with conflict between health strategies and everyday realities, where unpredictable tasks often lead to prioritisation of urgent, acute work. There is interaction between personal and professional skills. Everyday life is characterised by opportunities and challenges in the grey areas, namely nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care, preventive care, social work, humanistic approaches and information technology to implement the ideology of health strategies. PMID:23984291

Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, Anne Birgitte; Wilche, Julie Præst; Dolmer, Ilone

2013-01-01

380

Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas of Iran. Methods: The study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method (Graneheim approach). Twenty people from the earthquake-stricken areas and seven qualified experts were selected via purposeful sampling .Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes from August 2013 to January 2014. Data collection continued to the point of data saturation (no new information was provided by interviewees). Data saturation supported the sample size. Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis principles. Results: “Social uncertainty and confusion” was the most prominent challenge of return to the normal life after earthquake, which was categorized into six concepts of social vulnerability, lack of comprehensive rehabilitation plan, incomplete reconstruction, ignorance of local social capital, waste of assets, and psychological problems. Conclusions: Findings showed that social uncertainty and confusion occurs as a result of negligence of some important social aspects in process of returning to the normal life. This issue, in turn, can greatly interrupt the normal developmental processes. Understanding the challenges of life recovery after disasters will help policy makers consider social rehabilitation as a key factor in facilitation of return to normal life process after earthquakes. Keywords: Disaster; earthquake; social rehabilitation; social uncertainty.

Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

2014-01-01

381

Prevalence of Gingivitis among Children of Urban and Rural Areas of Bhopal District, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Gingivitis is inflammation of the soft tissue without apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Redness, oedema and bleeding on probing characterize this condition. Untreated cases may lead to a more complex and destructive entity known as chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are the main cause of tooth loss. Poor oral health has thus the potential of hampering the quality of life. So the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of gingivitis, among school-going children of urban and rural areas of Bhopal district, India. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 & 15 y old middle and high school government rural and urban school children of Bhopal district. It was conducted of a period of two months. 1100 Children were examined by using WHO (modified) oral health assessment form, Loe and Silness index was used for recording gingival status. For statistical analysis SPSS version 20 was used. The chi-square test was applied for categorical data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of gingivitis was 59% found. 584 (53.09 %) children had mild gingivitis,61(5.5%) children had moderate gingivitis. Conclusion: This indicates the need for community health activities and awareness program.

Reddy, Venugopal; Bhambal, Ajay; Agrawal, Rohit

2014-01-01

382

Multihop relaying for broadband wireless access systems at 800 and 3500 MHz in rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

paper addresses the coverage enhancement for broadband wireless access (BWA) at 800 and 3500 MHz in a rural scenario in north Germany using multi-hop relay concepts. The investigation is divided into two phases: In phase I, the coverage of a single BWA system in a rural area is predicted and verified with measurement data. In phase II, the coverage from the BWA system is analyzed and enhanced through the deployment of relay stations. The number of relay stations required for each carrier frequency is determined, and the positions of the relay stations are identified via three different relay placement algorithms, namely path-loss-based, distance-based, and hybrid algorithms. At 800 MHz, the path-loss-based algorithm requires seven relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 95%. The hybrid and distance-based algorithms require 11 and 14 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. At 3500 MHz, path-loss based and hybrid algorithms require 19 and 16 relay stations, respectively, to achieve the same coverage. The distance-based requires 20 relay stations to achieve an overall coverage of 82%. Further increase of relay stations has led to higher interference. Lastly, the transmit power of the relay station is optimized via an intelligent power allocation scheme. The results show that 20% of the total transmit powers from 14 relay stations can be saved at 800 MHz whereas 18% of the total transmit powers from the 20 relay stations can be saved at 3500 MHz.

Chee, Kin Lien; Feng, Wei; Kürner, Thomas

2014-02-01

383

Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest  

PubMed Central

Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

2014-01-01

384

Predictors of contraceptive use among married youths and their husbands in a rural area of Myanmar.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the predictors of contraceptive use among married female youths and their husbands using the behavioral theory of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A community-based survey was conducted in a rural area of Myanmar in 2008. A total of 444 respondents (222 couples) were interviewed separately using a pretested, structured questionnaire. Significant predictors of contraceptive use were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Wife's HBM perception was a highly significant predictor of contraceptive use in married youths (adjusted odds ratio = 10; 95% confidence interval = 2.7, 37.6). Wives aged 20 to 24 years and having their own income, experience of spousal communication, and shorter distance from home to health center were also significant predictors of contraceptive use. A poor agreement on HBM perception between wife and husband was noted. This study highlights the importance of HBM perceptions, wife's income, spousal communication, and geographic barriers in contraceptive use among married youths in rural Myanmar. PMID:20829275

Mon, Myo-Myo; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

2012-01-01

385

[Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a semi-arid rural area in Bahia].  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in a semi-arid rural area in Bahia, motivated by the increase of impaired glucose tolerance in rural populations and the scant national data about the occurrence of MS. Total sample involved 240 adults > or = 25 years, randomly selected, 102 (42.5%) men and 138 (57.5%) women, mean age 49.5 +/- 14.9, ranging from 25 to 87 years. Diagnosis was based on the I Diretriz Brasileira de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da SM. Crude prevalence was 30.0% while the age-adjusted prevalence was 24.8%. MS frequency was higher in women (38.4%) than in men (18.6%), more elevated among individuals with age > or = 45 years (41.4%) than among those with age < 45 years (15.9%). Stratification performed according to sex and age revealed higher prevalence among women > or = 45 years (56.9%), probably associated to menopause. Presence of MS in the absence of impaired fasting glycemia and obesity, namely its best-established constituents, suggests the importance of the syndromic diagnosis, indicated by the high predictive value of some isolated metabolic alterations. High prevalence of MS requires attention for the treatment of the whole syndrome, retarding or preventing future consequences, like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:16936986

de Oliveira, Ernesto P; de Souza, Mirabeau Levi A; de Lima, Maria das Dores A

2006-06-01

386

Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.  

PubMed

We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

2014-01-01

387

Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in rural area in Brazil  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective To estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. Methods The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ? 18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index, body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. Results The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h2=52%), glucose (h2=51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc; h2=58%), and waist circumference (WC; h2=49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin with body mass index (BMI;?g=0.48), WC (?g=0.47) and HDLc (?g= ?0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g=0.53) and HDLc (?g=?0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. Conclusions Glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

PENA, GEÓRGIA G.; DUTRA, MÍRIAM SANTOS; GAZZINELLI, ANDREA; CORRÊA-OLIVEIRA, RODRIGO; VELASQUEZ-MELENDEZ, GUSTAVO

2013-01-01

388

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms  

E-print Network

Lake Okeechobee to the Everglades. Water from Lake Okeechobee flows generally south down four majorEvaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms Kathleen Lockhart University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department Major Advisor

Ma, Lena

389

The Value of Water Rights in Agricultural Properties in the Phoenix Active Management Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the value of water rights in the Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA), Arizona. Within AMAs groundwater rights cannot be transferred separately from the agricultural land to which they apply. As a result there is no separate market for ground water rights. The lack of a market creates two problems: there is no direct signal of the scarcity

James Yoo; Charles Perrings; Ann Kinzig; Joshua K. Abbott; Silvio Simonit; John P. Connors; Paul J. Maliszewski

2012-01-01

390

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

391

Phytoremediation of a heavy metal contaminated agricultural area combined with energy production in the Campine (BE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to atmospheric deposition of dust, a large agricultural area in Belgium is moderately superficially (0-40 cm) contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). Phytoremediation is a technique that uses plants for the removal of pollutants or to render them harmless. Rapeseed and SRC seem a good choice because of high accumulation of metals. When income and energy

Van Slycken; E. Meers; K. Adriaensen; L. Meiresonne; J. Vangronsveld

392

Reforming Welfare: What Does It Mean for Rural Areas? Issues in Food Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2000, a conference on the rural dimensions of welfare reform and food assistance policy brought together researchers, welfare policy experts, and rural scholars. This issue brief summarizes some major findings of the conference and suggests future policy options to better address the differing needs of rural and urban families. Between 1994…

Whitener, Leslie A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Weber, Bruce A.

393

77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...electronically to HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject line. Written...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. Obtaining a Copy of the...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...

2012-02-21

394

77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EAC at HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject line. Written...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. Obtaining a Copy of the...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...

2012-05-17

395

Activity Pattern of Family Travelers in a Rural Area—A Case in Southern Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family leisure is held in high esteem as an important and essential component of family life. This research examines family travelers' leisure activity participation patterns and the influence of family composition. Based on data from rural Southern Indiana, the study has identified four rural activity groups of family travelers, which are “Gamers,” “Campers,” “Rural heritage trekkers,” and “Social visitors.” Comparisons

Yi Chen; Xinran Y. Lehto; Liping A. Cai

2012-01-01

396

An assessment of dietary intake and state of nutritional in hypertensive patients from rural and urban areas of Greater Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Pozna? (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants. PMID:23020021

Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Duda, Gra?yna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Pi?tek, Jacek; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

2012-01-01

397

Sustainable Development of Rural Areas of the Czech Republic in the Context of Instruments of the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of agricultural policy and the balanced growth of the countryside, the European Union promotes technological development and creation of jobs in ways that fulfil the criteria of ecological sustainability. The latest reforms to the Common Agricultural Policy are focused on the development of the countryside, which should greatly contribute to the solution of economic, social and environmental

Milan Vošta

2010-01-01

398

The Measuring and Impacting Factors Analysis of Rural Straw Yield — Based on the perspective of constructing low-carbon agricultural economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of expounding the status quo and using developmental trend of China’s straw, 4 indices are selected: straw yield, planting area, using amount of fertilizer and effective irrigation area. According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook from 1991 to 2008, by using linear regression model, we calculate China’s rural straw yield, analyze the factors impacting straw

Li-sha Yang

2011-01-01

399

Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two herbicides (atrazine and prometon), and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine). Samples from the urban/residential water-supply well network contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), and three herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor, and prometon). Pesticides were detected in samples from depths of less than 2 to more than 70 m. Pesticides were detected in samples with nitrate concentrations ranging from less than the detection limit of 0.05 mg/L to 16 mg/L. These results indicate that pesticides are detected most frequently in shallow ground water beneath agricultural areas, and that pesticides can be detected in wells with a wide range of depths and nitrate concentrations.

Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Ryan, C.M.

2000-01-01

400

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

E-print Network

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

401

Presence and viability of V. Cholerae in the waters of rural Bangladesh (Matlab area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilize a portable flow cytometer, which allows for absolute counts of particle concentration, along with specific staining to analyze the waters of the rural area of Matlab, Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, in the month of January 2012. Such period is interepidemic, as conditions for V. cholerae survival are less apt, because of low temperature; the presence of the bacterium in surface waters of inland reservoirs is debated and has been acknowledged rarely in literature. The hydrologic system is composed by a river and a succession of ponds; the latter constitute the basic water reservoir of each human community. We run a survey of each possible habitat to understand whether local reservoirs can host V. cholerae populations in interepidemic periods, which contrasts the common hypothesis which assumes that bacteria are brought inland by coastal water intrusion. We also analyze the relation of bacteria survival with environmental quantities and the variations in bacterial community structure in different samples.

Righetto, L.; Islam, S.; Mahmud, Z. H.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Blokesch, M.; Rinaldo, A.

2012-04-01

402

Low traffic density, small terminal network, and satellite antenna design for communications in the rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applications of satellite communications techniques for improving the telecommunications scenario in developing countries and access to isolated and disperse users are discussed. The main issues determining the strategy for solving communications problems are summarized, and the main requirements for both the earth and space segments are outlined. System considerations for satellite-network design and the main criteria correlated to rural-area requirements are presented, and emphasis is placed on two proposed concepts for satellite multiple-access techniques: single channel per carrier/demand assignment multiple access (SCPC/DAMA) and code division multiple access/spread spectrum (CDMA/SS). A CDMA/SS network architecture design for 9600 b/s voice-communication and TV-program distribution in African countries and an onboard reconfigurable multispot antenna design for the coverage optimization of African regions are considered as examples.

Bardelli, L.; Martinino, F.; Rispoli, F.

403

The Influence of Wildfires on Aerosol Size Distributions in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of wildfires on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14??m, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in time—before, during, and after the passing of the smoke plume from the wildfires—shows that the mean geometric diameter of the fine mode in the measurements affected by the fire is smaller than the one obtained in the measurements carried out immediately before and after (0.14??m) and presents average values of 0.11??m. PMID:22629191

Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; Fraile, R.; Castro, A.

2012-01-01

404

Epidemiological Correlates of Cataract Cases in Tertiary Health Care Center in Rural Area of Maharashtra  

PubMed Central

Background: The most recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract. Cataract has been documented to be the most significant cause of bilateral blindness in India. The most recent estimates from WHO reveal that 47.8% of global blindness is due to cataract and in south Asia region which includes India, 51% of blindness is due to cataract. In India cataract is the principal cause of blindness accounting for 62.6% cases of blindness. The key to the success of the Global Vision 2020: The right to sight initiative is a special effort to tackle cataract blindness which includes estimation of magnitude of the problem and understanding factors associated with it. Therefore, a study was conducted in the hospital to estimate the magnitude of cataract and study various epidemiological factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary health center in rural area. Total 746 patients who availed services from ophthalmology department during study period were included in the study and relevant data was collected from them. Data analysis was done by percentages, proportions, and tests of significance (Chi-square test). Results: Out of 746 patients, 400 (53.6%) were suffering from cataract. Senile cataract was the most common cause (54%). Fifty-five percent patients were in the age group of 60-80 years and majority of them were from low socioeconomic strata. Conclusion: The prevalence of cataract in a medical college hospital in rural area was 53.6%. Age, sex, and educational status were significantly associated with cataract. PMID:24791236

Avachat, Shubhada Sunil; Phalke, Vaishali; Kambale, Suchit

2014-01-01

405

Household income, health and education in a rural area of Myanmar.  

PubMed

This study was to determine the relationship between a commonly used social stratification indicator, net equivalent income, and self-rated health, long-term disability, visual acuity status, death rate, birth rate, unsafe delivery and school enrollment in a rural area of Myanmar. Data were collected from 3,558 respondents in 805 households of all ages. Data analysis for various items was based on different age groups. The results from two income groups (highest and lowest) are as follows: the percent of those who self-rated their health as very good were 17.8% and 10.4% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted coefficient = 0.30, 95% Cl 0.11-0.50); those with an acute medical condition were found in 16.3% and 20.8% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% Cl 1.08-1.68); those with long-term disability were found in 15.3% and 21.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% Cl 1.05-1.84); and those with poor visual acuity at a distance of 13 feet were found in 8.1% and 13.5% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% Cl 1.18-2.30). The birth rate ratio was 1.3, the death rate ratio was 1.2, and school enrollment was found in 92.8% and 83.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95% Cl 0.1-0.8). These results indicate that there is an urgent need to strengthen the health care infrastructure and educational system, targeting the poor in rural areas. PMID:15916066

Ohnmar; Than-Tun-Sein; Ko-Ko-Zaw; Saw-Saw; Soe-Win

2005-03-01

406

Community-based research on the benign prostatic hyperplasia prevalence rate in Korean rural area  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the prevalence rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among Korean males in a rural area through a cross-sectional, community-based epidemiologic survey and analyzed the correlation with epidemiologic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 779 males who lived in Yangpyeong County participated in a prostate examination campaign. Targeting these men, we collected the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), medical history, demographic information, serum prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasonography. The data for 599 participants were analyzed, excluding 180 men who had a possibility of prostate cancer. BPH was defined as an IPSS of 8 points or higher and a prostate volume of 25 mL or more. Results The prevalence rate of BPH was 20.0%. The prevalence rate increased with age. There were 2 subjects (4.4%) in the age group of 40-49 years, 18 subjects (10.9%) in the age group of 50-59 years, 44 subjects (22%) in the age group of 60-69 years, and 56 subjects (26.6%) in the age group of over 70 years; this increase with age was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the BPH group, the average IPSS was 14.67±5.95, the average prostate volume was 37.04±11.71 g, and the average prostate-specific antigen value was 1.56±0.88 ng/mL. In the analysis of correlations between the epidemiologic factors and the risk of BPH, smoking was the only statistically significant factor. Conclusions The total prevalence rate of BPH in this study was 20.0%, which was a little lower than the rate reported in other cities or rural areas.

Goh, Hyeok Jun; Kim, Shin Ah; Nam, Ji Won; Choi, Bo Youl

2015-01-01

407

Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 ?g/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 ?g/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 ?g/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 ?g/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa. PMID:12689341

Dalvie, Mohamed A; Cairncross, Eugene; Solomon, Abdullah; London, Leslie

2003-01-01

408

Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

2013-01-01

409

Dietary intake and food habits of pregnant women residing in urban and rural areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19-42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women's overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C

2013-08-01

410

IMPROVED URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES AS AN EU RURAL DEVELOPMENT PO LIC Y MEASURE  

E-print Network

In EU discourses, urban-rural linkages are usually constructed from an urban perspective, with rural areas conceptualised as residuals between dynamic urban growth nodes. References to urban-rural linkages, where in evidence, have generally been confined to the domain of Spatial planning and Cohesion policy. However, the Commission’s recent communication, ‘The CAP towards 2020 ’ (European Commission 2010), proposes improving the links between rural and urban areas as a means of contributing to the balanced territorial development of rural areas. This instrument from Spatial planning and Cohesion policy with the wider aims of regional and societal development becomes dedicated to providing benefits to rural areas. The more territorial aspects of the CAP to date have been addressed in its ‘second pillar ’ and have focused on: improving the competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sector; improving the environment and the countryside; improving the quality of life in rural areas and encouraging diversification of the rural economy; and building local capacity for employment and diversification (European Council 2006). CA P towards 2020 suggests that there is still much support for a rural development policy that continues to contribute to:

Hilary Talbot; Paul Courtney; Intro Duction

411

Effects of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function of women living in urban and rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The health effects of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution were studied among two populations of adult women. One population was living in a rural area, one in an urban area. Exposure to NO{sub 2} was measured in the homes of the complete study population. Over 500 women were studied. Data on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were used to assess the respiratory health of the women. Significant associations were found between exposure to NO{sub 2} and pulmonary function among the non-smoking women living in the rural area, but not among the smoking women in that area, or among the non-smoking and smoking women living in the urban area.

Fischer, P.; Brunekreef, B.; Biersteker, K.; Boleij, J.S.M. (Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands)); van der Lende, R.; Schouten, J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)); Quanjer, P.H. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

1989-01-01

412

Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor-A Case Study of Zhangye city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources;

Yu Chen

2010-01-01

413

“Embracing the present and fearing the future”: The meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area  

PubMed Central

In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life. PMID:25361532

Ness, Tove M.; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

2014-01-01

414

Wood fuel use in the traditional cooking stoves in the rural floodplain areas of Bangladesh: A socio-environmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted, using a multistage simple random sampling design, to determine the structural characteristics of the traditional cooking stoves, amount of wood fuel consumed in the rural floodplain areas in Bangladesh, and also to figure out the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood fuel usage in the traditional cooking stove. The study showed that family size, income, amount

Harun Al Rashid; Man Yong Shin

2009-01-01

415

"Embracing the present and fearing the future": the meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area.  

PubMed

In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life. PMID:25361532

Ness, Tove M; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

2014-01-01

416

The Road Less Travelled: Tracing the Path of First-Generation Students from Rural Areas to College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative inquiry was used to trace the educational journeys of 11 first-generation university students from rural areas of Colorado in an effort to identify the experiences, beliefs, and people that impacted their decision to attend a 4-year institution. Students were asked to convey their experiences growing up within the contexts of their…

Hodsdon, Michelle Caron

2012-01-01

417

Final Report of the PRIMEX-Family Nurse Training Program in Rural Areas, March 1, 1972 - June 30, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Largely descriptive, this final report of the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) chronicles development and implementation of a Family Nurse Practitioner (PRIMEX) training program in a rural area from 1972-76. Centered in Leslie County, Kentucky, this project was one of seven PRIMEX programs in the nation; accomplishments in all of the projects far…

Isaacs, Gertrude

418

MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN A PLANNED COMMUNITY. BACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STORMWATERS IN DEVELOPING RURAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation of low flow and stormwater runoff bacteria content from rural and urban areas was conducted over a two and a half year period. Data were obtained from total coliform, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Staphylococcus sp. for ...

419

An innovative partnership framework for sustainable development of rural areas in South Africa : The role of project management firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that South African Project Management Firms (SAPMF) can play towards supporting government initiatives for sustainable development of rural areas (RA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A research methodology is designed to achieve three objectives. First, literature is used to review the concepts of public-private partnerships, sustainable development of RA, government legislations

Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman; Neil Sirbadhoo

2009-01-01

420

Combined methods for the study of water contact behavior in a rural schistosomiasis-endemic area in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined methodology consisting of direct observation and two types of interviews (internal and external interviews) was evaluated for use in exposure risk assessment in schistosomiasis. Specific objectives were to determine its usefulness in achieving equitable coverage of gendered exposure risk and its efficiency in identifying water contact behavior in a rural area in Brazil with different settlement patterns,

Helmut Kloos; Julio Cézar Alves Paixão Rodrigues; Wesley Rodrigues Pereira; Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez; Phillip LoVerde; Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira; Andréa Gazzinelli

2006-01-01

421

A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

2005-01-01

422

Montana Healthcare Workforce Advisory Committee Prepared by the Montana Office of Rural Health/Area Health Education Center  

E-print Network

Montana Healthcare Workforce Advisory Committee Prepared by the Montana Office of Rural Health/Area Health Education Center May8, 2007 1 HEALTHCARE WORKFORCE DEMAND IN MONTANA A Report by the Montana Healthcare Workforce Advisory Committee May 2007 I. Background In the spring of 2006, the Montana Office

Maxwell, Bruce D.

423

Commodification of Rural Places: A Narrative of Social Fields, Rural Development, and Football  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…

Floysand, Arnt; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

2007-01-01

424

An environment for e-commerce and ICT enabled logistics services in rural areas of transition countries: the case of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot has been done regarding the deployment of e-commerce and logistics solutions in rural areas, but despite of these efforts one still encounters the ineffectual and unsustainable application of ICT-enabled logistics services. The developers of such services for rural areas lack readily available supportive tools and methodologies. This paper identifies the need for a support environment for the development

Sam M. Muniafu; Elisabeth van de Kar; Johann van Rensburg

2005-01-01

425

Rural Prairie Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

Conrad, Kari

426

Respiratory Symptoms among Crop Farmers Exposed to Agricultural Pesticide in Three Rural Communities in South Western Nigeria: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The improper use of pesticide is associated with respiratory morbidity in many developing countries. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and its association with the use of agricultural pesticide among crop farmers in three rural communities in Ekiti State, South Western Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Ijero local government in Ekiti State, Nigeria from June 2009 to August 2009. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain clinical information and exposure to pesticide and this was followed by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurement using wright peak flow meter. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Corp., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 228 farmers participated in the study and 8.3% (19/228)of the farmers reported a lifetime exposure to pesticides. Recurrent breathlessness (odds ratio [OR] = 4.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-10.86), chronic cough (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.21-7.23), chronic sputum (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.12-6.24) and nasal symptoms (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.21-7.25) were independently associated with pesticide exposure. Mean PEFR was lower in farmers using pesticide (323 [217] L/min) when compared with those not using pesticide (467 [189] L/min) P < 0.01. All the 228 (100.0%) respondents in this study were aware of the adverse effect of pesticide and only 2 (10.5%) of those exposed used a respiratory protective device. Previous pesticide education was not significantly associated with lower occurrence of respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: The use of pesticide among crop farmers is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations. Our results support the need for continuing pesticide education and promotion of safe practices among the farmers as the majority of them do not use protective devices. PMID:25221725

Desalu, OO; Busari, OA; Adeoti, AO

2014-01-01

427

Feasibility Study: Home Telemonitoring for Patients With Lung Cancer in a Mountainous Rural Area  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To explore the feasibility of rural home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer. Design Exploratory, descriptive, observational. Setting Patient homes within a 75-mile radius of the study hospital in West Virginia. Sample 10 patients hospitalized with lung cancer as a primary or secondary-related diagnosis. Methods Data included referral and demographics, chart reviews, and clinical data collected using a HomMed telemonitor. Five patients received usual care after discharge; five had telemonitors set up at home for 14 days with daily phone calls for nurse coaching; mid- and end-study data were collected by phone and in homes through two months. Main Research Variables Enrollment and retention characteristics, physiologic (e.g., temperature, pulse, blood pressure, weight, O2 saturation) and 10 symptom datapoints, patient and family telemonitor satisfaction. Findings Of 45 referred patients, only 10 consented; 1 of 5 usual care and 3 of 5 monitored patients completed the entire study. Telemonitored data transmission was feasible in rural areas with high satisfaction; symptom data and physiologic data were inconsistent but characteristic of lung cancer. Conclusions Challenges included environment, culture, technology, and overall enrollment and retention. Physiologic and symptom changes were important data for nurse coaching on risks, symptom management, and clinician contact. Implications for Nursing Enrollment and retention in cancer research warrants additional study. Daily monitoring is feasible and important in risk assessment, but length of time to monitor signs and symptoms, which changed rapidly, is unclear. Symptom changes were useful as proxy indicators for physiologic changes, so risk outcomes may be assessable by phone for patient self-management coaching by nurses. PMID:24578075

Petitte, Trisha M.; Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Coole, Charles; Forth, Tara; Frick, Kevin D.

2015-01-01

428

Estimating inter-annual diversity of seasonal agricultural area using multi-temporal resourcesat data.  

PubMed

The present study aims at analysis of spatial and temporal variability in agricultural land cover during 2005-6 and 2011-12 from an ongoing program of annual land use mapping using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data aboard Resourcesat-1 and 2. About 640-690 multi-temporal AWiFS quadrant data products per year (depending on cloud cover) were co-registered and radiometrically normalized to prepare state (administrative unit) mosaics. An 18-fold classification was adopted in this project. Rule-based techniques along with maximum-likelihood algorithm were employed to deriving land cover information as well as changes within agricultural land cover classes. The agricultural land cover classes include - kharif (June-October), rabi (November-April), zaid (April-June), area sown more than once, fallow lands and plantation crops. Mean kappa accuracy of these estimates varied from 0.87 to 0.96 for various classes. Standard error of estimate has been computed for each class annually and the area estimates were corrected using standard error of estimate. The corrected estimates range between 99 and 116 Mha for kharif and 77-91 Mha for rabi. The kharif, rabi and net sown area were aggregated at 10 km × 10 km grid on annual basis for entire India and CV was computed at each grid cell using temporal spatially-aggregated area as input. This spatial variability of agricultural land cover classes was analyzed across meteorological zones, irrigated command areas and administrative boundaries. The results indicate that out of various states/meteorological zones, Punjab was consistently cropped during kharif as well as rabi seasons. Out of all irrigated commands, Tawa irrigated command was consistently cropped during rabi season. PMID:25435154

Sreenivas, K; Sekhar, N Seshadri; Saxena, Manoj; Paliwal, R; Pathak, S; Porwal, M C; Fyzee, M A; Rao, S V C Kameswara; Wadodkar, M; Anasuya, T; Murthy, M S R; Ravisankar, T; Dadhwal, V K

2014-11-27

429

Agriculture, Rural Development, and the Use of Land. A Series of Papers Compiled by the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate. Committee Print, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session, April 16, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled by the members of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Rural Development, this series of papers presents varying views on rural land-use issues. The 19 papers are titled as follows: (1) "Planning: Some questions, Answers, and Issues"; (2) "Evolution of Planning Theory and Practice: A Response to Changing Problems and Institutions"; (3) "The…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

430

Influence of stressors and possible pathways of onset of seventh graders’ suicidal ideation in urban and rural areas in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in Taiwan. However, few studies have investigated children’s suicidal ideation, and longitudinal studies are particularly rare. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the proportion of students with suicidal ideation in one month and incidence of suicidal ideation in the 7th graders (the first year of junior high school) living in urban and rural areas; (2) to realize the influence of perceived stressors on the onset of 7th graders’ suicidal ideation; and (3) to explore possible pathways through which trigger factors and perceived stressors lead to suicidal ideation. Methods A total of 1,589 students were followed from grade 4 to grade 7. Logistic regression was then used to investigate the influence of perceived stressors on the onset of suicidal ideation in grade 7. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze possible pathways through which trigger factors led to increased pressure from certain stressors which in turn resulted in suicidal ideation. Results The proportion of students with suicidal ideation in one month was 2 to 3 times higher in both areas compared to that in elementary school. However, the incidence in the rural area showed a large increase from 10.2% and 9.5% in grades 5 and 6 to 15.5% in grade 7. Urban–rural difference was observed. Important stressors and pathways of suicidal ideation differ between urban and rural areas. Conclusions This study showed that the influential stressors in urban and rural areas might be different. Thus, interventions focused on coping skills for regional specific stressors and trigger factors could be beneficial in the transition time. PMID:24369819

2013-01-01

431

The effect on cardiovascular risk factors of migration from rural to urban areas in Peru: PERU MIGRANT Study  

PubMed Central

Background Mass-migration observed in Peru from the 1970s occurred because of the need to escape from politically motivated violence and work related reasons. The majority of the migrant population, mostly Andean peasants from the mountainous areas, tends to settle in clusters in certain parts of the capital and their rural environment could not be more different than the urban one. Because the key driver for migration was not the usual economic and work-related reasons, the selection effects whereby migrants differ from non-migrants are likely to be less prominent in Peru. Thus the Peruvian context offers a unique opportunity to test the effects of migration. Methods/Design The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) study was designed to investigate the magnitude of differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific CVD risk factors. For this, three groups were selected: Rural, people who have always have lived in a rural environment; Rural-urban, people who migrated from rural to urban areas; and, Urban, people who have always lived in a urban environment. Discussion Overall response rate at enrolment was 73.2% and overall response rate at completion of the study was 61.6%. A rejection form was obtained in 282/323 people who refused to take part in the study (87.3%). Refusals did not differ by sex in rural and migrant groups, but 70% of refusals in the urban group were males. In terms of age, most refusals were observed in the oldest age-group (>60 years old) in all study groups. The final total sample size achieved was 98.9% of the target sample size (989/1000). Of these, 52.8% (522/989) were females. Final size of the rural, migrant and urban study groups were 201, 589 and 199 urban people, respectively. Migrant's average age at first migration and years lived in an urban environment were 14.4 years (IQR 10–17) and 32 years (IQR 25–39), respectively. This paper describes the PERU MIGRANT study design together with a critical analysis of the potential for bias and confounding in migrant studies, and strategies for reducing these problems. A discussion of the potential advantages provided by the case of migration in Peru to the field of migration and health is also presented. PMID:19505331

Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; García, Héctor H; Smeeth, Liam

2009-01-01

432

Compulsory service programmes for recruiting health workers in remote and rural areas: do they work?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Compulsory service programmes have been used worldwide as a way to deploy and retain a professional health workforce within countries. Other names for these programmes include ”obligatory”, ”mandatory”, ”required” and ”requisite.” All these different programme names refer to a country’s law or policy that governs the mandatory deployment and retention of a heath worker in the underserved and/or rural areas of the country for a certain period of time. This study identified three different types of compulsory service programmes in 70 countries. These programmes are all governed by some type of regulation, ranging from a parliamentary law to a policy within the ministry of health. Depending on the country, doctors, nurses, midwives and all types of professional allied health workers are required to participate in the programme. Some of the compliance-enforcement measures include withholding full registration until obligations are completed, withholding degree and salary, or imposing large fines. This paper aims to explain these programmes more clearly, to identify countries that have or had such programmes, to develop a typology for the different kinds and to discuss the programmes in the light of important issues that are related to policy concepts and implementation. As governments consider the cost of investment in health professionals’ education, the loss of health professionals to emigration and the lack of health workers in many geographic areas, they are using compulsory service requirements as a way to deploy and retain the health workforce. PMID:20461136

Mullan, Fitzhugh; Payne, Perry W; Ross, Heather

2010-01-01

433

Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

2011-01-01

434

Sources and factors controlling the disposal of biodegradable municipal solid waste in urban and rural areas of Cyprus.  

PubMed

An inventory of sources of biodegradable municipal soil waste (BMSW) was constructed for urban and rural areas in the EU accession region of Cyprus. Composition analysis was performed on source-separated BMSW collected from households in the rural Ergates Community and an urban area within the Agglanjia Municipality. The data were statistically scrutinized to identify the main factors influencing the quantities of BMSW disposed by urban and rural communities in Cyprus. The results were extrapolated to predict the quantities and types of BMSW disposed by the entire communities. Significantly more BMSW was disposed in the urban area compared to the rural community due to lower diversion rates for green waste and the disposal of food waste from commercial sources. The quantity of food waste collected from households was influenced by socio-economic (household size, income, percentage of children) and behavioural (feeding of food waste to domestic animals, consuming processed 'ready' food) factors, whereas garden size, the type of vegetation, the reuse of trimmings and home composting were the main factors controlling the disposal of green waste. PMID:18578157

Skourides, Iakovos; Smith, Stephen R; Loizides, Michael

2008-04-01

435

Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

Chichester, Douglas C.

1988-01-01

436

Education in Chronically Poor Rural Areas Lags across Generations. Issue Brief Number 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the Community and Environment in Rural America (CERA) initiative, the Carsey Institute has been investigating broad trends between rural community types, including the education level of residents and their parents. Since 2007, Carsey researchers have conducted over 17,000 telephone surveys with randomly selected adult Americans from…

Ulrich, Jessica D.

2011-01-01

437

Listening to Country Voices: Preparing, Attracting and Retaining Teachers for Rural and Remote Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the need for better preparation of teachers to live and work in rural Australia. Uses responses from a rural Queensland community meeting to discuss preparation needs related to multiage classrooms, cultural differences, and school-community involvement. Describes a new internship/mentor program at Queensland University of Technology that…

Yarrow, Allan; Herschell, Paul; Millwater, Jan

1999-01-01

438

Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?  

PubMed

Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by bringing employment to rural areas. 5 ways are suggested for treating rural poverty in situ: increasing productivity of those with land, group peasants with land in settlements or agrarian reforms, increase health and skill levels, increase employment options, and direct government spending to the rural poor. Egalitarianism with rapid economic growth is assured to reduce poverty. A new way is the introduction of grass roots efforts of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) which can mobilize and maximize economic activity. Examples are given of NGO Programs of merit. PMID:12285366

Thiesenhusen, W C

1991-01-01

439

Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.  

PubMed

The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

Kabir, Zubair

2003-07-01

440

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

441

New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

1974-01-01

442

Rural-urban variation in incidence of psychosis in France: a prospective epidemiologic study in two contrasted catchment areas  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of our study is to provide data on the incidence of psychotic disorders in France and compare the incidence rates in populations with different levels of urbanization. Methods We prospectively included the incident cases of psychotic disorders from two catchment areas with contrasted levels of urbanization. In the more rural area, we also calculated incidence rates in three different groups of population defined by the size of towns in which they live (small, medium and large towns). Results The annual incidence of psychosis was greater in the urban area (36.02/100000 person-year at risk) than in the rural area (17.2/100000 person-year at risk). Non-affective psychoses were the majority of cases and their incidence was greater in males and younger subjects. The affective psychoses were slightly more frequent in women and showed less variation with age. In the rural centre, greater levels of urbanicity were associated with an increase in the incidence of all psychoses (affective and non-affective). Conclusions Our study confirms previous observations of increased incidence rates for non-affective psychoses in the more urbanized areas and suggests that a similar pattern might be present for affective psychoses. PMID:24636392

2014-01-01

443

Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

1984-01-01

444

The effects of clouds and wind on the difference in nocturnal cooling rates between urban and rural areas  

SciTech Connect

The urban warming effect is interesting in its own right and is important for understanding global warming. The aim of this study is to determine how the urban warming effect changes with cloud conditions and with wind speed. Studies of the urban warming effect have mostly concentrated on the urban-rural difference in daily maximum or minimum temperatures. The problem was approached using a new technique, instead of comparing a city, represented by a first-order weather station, with the surrounding rural area, represented by data collected by cooperative observers; pairs of cities, each with a first-order weather station, were studied. One city was large. The other city was small enough to have a minimal warming effect and was close enough to the larger city to approximately represent the rural area. In this way, hourly temperatures, cloud cover, and wind data could be studied rather than only the differences between the daily maxima or minima. Results show that wind disrupts the normal nocturnal cooling pattern in which the smaller city, with lower thermal inertia, cools more quickly than the larger city. Clouds also disrupt this pattern, at least to the extent that one must be careful about extrapolating either magnitudes or patterns of urban-rural temperature difference observed by satellites under clear sky conditions to partly cloudy or cloudy conditions. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Kidder, S.Q.; Essenwanger, O.M. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)] [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-11-01

445

REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

446

Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

447

Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study) of 11,982 households located in the province?s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42%) households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information). The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p<0.0001). Diabetes risk increased with age and affected almost 17% of those older than 65 (OR 2.57; CI? 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45). Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI?s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI?s 2.44, 3.98] if mother), obesity (OR 2.66; CI?s 1.86, 3.78), as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI?s 1.15, 2.91). Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada. PMID:23289729

2013-01-01

448

Behavioural and material determinants of production relations in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay we develop a framework for analysing the major institutions governing the production and exchange of output and the primary factors of production in rural areas. The analysis incorporates general considerations of risk and information constraints jointly with the principal material attributes of agriculture and of agricultural production factors. The framework is used to analyse barriers to the

Hans P. Binswanger; Mark R. Rosenzweig

1986-01-01

449

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Tobacco Consumers in a Rural Area of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Bangladesh typifies many developing countries experiencing an increasing trend in tobacco consumption. However, little is known about the general pattern of tobacco consumption and about population groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption. This paper aimed at generating knowledge on tobacco consumption, especially emphasizing the identification of sociodemographic groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption vis-à-vis tobacco-related health consequences in a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Information on the tobacco consumption status of 6,618 individuals (52.1% males, 47.9% females), aged over 15 years, was collected in 1994. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Individuals were categorized as consumers if they consumed tobacco in any form at all, i.e. smoke or chew. The independent variables included various characteristics of individuals and households. Overall, 43.4% of the study subjects consumed tobacco. Males were 9.38 times more likely to consume tobacco than their female counterparts. Individuals with no education were 3.62 times more likely to consume tobacco than those who had completed six or more years of schooling, and the poor were almost twice as likely to consume tobacco than the rich. Tobacco consumption in both smoke and chewing form has been a part of household consumption in Bangladesh from time immemorial. Only aggressive anti-tobacco programmes on various fronts may salvage the vulnerable groups from the menace of tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. PMID:18402189

Choudhury, Kaneta; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Bhuiya, Abbas

2007-01-01

450

Reproductive Health Rights of Women in the Rural Areas of Meherpur District in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (?30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (<18 years) and about half of them (53.3%) had taken contraceptives based on their husbands’ choice. Finally, multi-variate analysis identified the relationship between the profession of the respondents, yearly income, number of family members, and the availability of modern facilities with age at marriage (Model 1). The study also identified the relationship between the age of respondents, education, occupation, yearly income, and the total number of family members with family planning acceptance (Model 2). Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh. PMID:23926496

Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz

2011-01-01

451

Optimal Design of Biomass Utilization System for Rural Area Includes Technical and Economic Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to design optimal biomass utilization system for rural area, OMNIBUS (The Optimization Model for Neo-Integrated Biomass Utilization System) has been developed. OMNIBUS can derive the optimal system configuration to meet different objective function, such as current account balance, amount of biomass energy supply, and CO2 emission. Most of biomass resources in a focused region e.g. wood biomass, livestock biomass, and crop residues are considered in the model. Conversion technologies considered are energy utilization technologies e.g. direct combustion and methane fermentation, and material utilization technologies e.g. composting and carbonization. Case study in Miyakojima, Okinawa prefecture, has been carried out for several objective functions and constraint conditions. Considering economics of the utilization system as a priority requirement, composting and combustion heat utilization are mainly chosen in the optimal system configuration. However gasification power plant and methane fermentation are included in optimal solutions, only when both biomass energy utilization and CO2 reduction have been set as higher priorities. External benefit of CO2 reduction has large impacts on the system configuration. Provided marginal external benefit of more than 50,000 JPY/t-C, external benefit becomes greater than the revenue from electricity and compost etc. Considering technological learning in the future, expensive technologies such as gasification power plant and methane fermentation will have economic feasibility as well as market competitiveness.

Morioka, Yasuki; Nakata, Toshihiko

452

Individual treatment of hotel and restaurant waste water in rural areas.  

PubMed

About 25 hotels, restaurants and pubs in the rural community Heuvelland are situated in the area designated for individual water treatment. In order to meet the legislation by the end of 2015, each business needs to install an individual waste water treatment system (IWTS). To study this situation, three catering businesses were selected for further research. The aim of the study was to quantify the effluent quality and to assess IWTS performance for these catering businesses. First of all, the influence of discharging untreated waste water on the receiving surface water was examined. The results showed a decrease in water quality after the discharge point at every business. With the collected data, simulations with the software WEST were performed. With this software two types of IWTSs with different (buffer) volumes were modelled and tested for each catering business. The first type is a completely mixed activated sludge reactor and the second type is a submerged aerobic fixed-bed reactor. The results of these simulations demonstrate that purification with an IWTS is possible if the capacity is large enough and if an adequate buffer volume is installed and if regular maintenance is performed. PMID:22629640

Van Hulle, S W H; Ghyselbrecht, N; Vermeiren, T J L; Depuydt, V; Boeckaert, C

2012-01-01

453

Patients' Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Video consultation (VC) can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme “confident with the technology” was constructed from the categories “possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters” and “advantages and disadvantages of the technology.” The theme “personal satisfaction with the VC encounters” was constructed from the categories “support from the healthcare personnel,” “perceived security,” and “satisfaction with the specialist consultation.” Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients' perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient's perception of security during the VC encounter. PMID:25243009

Johansson, Annette M.; Lindberg, Inger; Söderberg, Siv

2014-01-01

454

A Study on Morbidity Profile and Associated Risk Factors in a Rural Area of Dehradun  

PubMed Central

Background: First few years of life is the most crucial period of life as this age is known for accelerated growth and development, warranting regular monitoring. During this period about 40% of physical growth and 80% of mental development occurs. Any adverse influences during this period may result in severe limitations in their development. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre. Mothers of children between 0-3 years of age were enquired about the morbidity in the past two months. Results: Diarrhea (47.9%) followed by ARI (22.21%), Pica (13%) and Worm Infestation (9.21%) were the commonest morbidities found in the study population. Morbidities were found to be common in males as compared to females. Amongst the nutritional deficiencies anaemia & Vitamin B deficiencies were the commonest. Conclusion: There was considerable sickness load amongst the toddlers. Morbidity can be reduced by improvement in the health care system at peripheral level PMID:25302220

Kandpal, SD; Semwal, Jayanti; Deepshikha

2014-01-01

455

Research on 3G Technologies-Based Agricultural Information Resource Integration and Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the urgent demand of agricultural information for farmers and quick development of telecommunications industry in china, the convenience, quickness and validity of agricultural information service are becoming more important. Now, the problem of the digital divide between rural and urban areas comes from the shortage of effective information transmission means. But the agricultural information services limited by network bandwidth and geography will be changed completely with the mobile phone network coverage to rural areas, especially TD-SCDMA network into rural areas in china. The paper will introduce the development of the 3G technologies-based effect on the agriculture informationization, and discuss the problems of agricultural information resource integration and service adapted to 3G technologies in detail, based on which a 3G technologies-based agricultural information resource application mobile service hierarchy (3GAIMSH) is provided.

Xie, Nengfu; Wang, Wensheng

456

Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in rural area of Hmawbi and urban Yangon city.  

PubMed

With improvements in life expectancy and as more and more people have access to modern medicine, non-communicable diseases are emerging as a health problem in both urban and rural communities in Myanmar. Of all non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are known to be the major health problem. Since many studies that have been conducted in both developed and developing countries have shown a difference between rural and urban communities with regard to cardiovascular diseases, our study had the objective of finding out the prevalence of ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease and rheumatic heart disease in a rural and urban community. The risk of obesity and smoking in the occurrence of CVD was also studied. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three urban townships of Yangon City (Sanchaung, Latha and Pabedan) and one rural township of Hmawbi. The results showed that CVD were a health problem in both the urban and rural communities. Coronary heart disease was seen to be more prevalent in the urban townships than in the rural Hmawbi Township, but hypertension (HT) and rheumatic heart diseases (RHD) were more prevalent in the rural township of Hmawbi. Obesity which has been blamed as the major risk factor for CHD and HT in the developed countries was not found to be a risk factor in the study townships, but smoking was. PMID:1345445

Myo Thet Htoon; Thein Ngwe; Nyan Tun; May Mon Kyaw

457

Evaluation of Self Medication Practices in Rural Area of Town Sahaswan at Northern India  

PubMed Central

Background: Many of the studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self-medication. It is a common type of self-care behavior among the populace of various countries. World Health Organization promotes the practice of self-medication for effective and quick relief of symptoms without medical consultations to reduce the burden on health-care services, which are often understaffed and inaccessible in rural and remote areas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the extent and pattern of self-medication among the population (patients) attending pharmacies at study sites and to note the association of self-medication variables with demographic factors. Subjects and Methods: The present study was a community based cross sectional study aimed to gather information about the prevalence of self-medication in the rural town of Sahaswan, Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to July 2012. The sample size comprised of 600 respondents. Data were collected through a prepared questionnaire. All descriptive data were coded, entered and analyzed using the statistical package for Social sciences program version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive data analysis was conducted and reported as frequencies and percentage. Results: The percentage of patients who were seeking self-medication was approximately 50% (300/600). Most of the patients were seeking self-medication for headache and other pain (23.3% [140/600]), fever (14.5% [87/600]), urinary tract infections (9.7% [58/600]) and respiratory tract infections (11.7% [70/600]). The drugs most commonly purchased for practicing self-medication were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25.3% [152/600]), medications used for gastro intestinal problems (20.8% [125/600]) and antibiotics (16.7% [100/600]). Conclusion: Prevalence of self-medication was high primarily among illiterate males aged above 15 years with a low income. Patient health awareness programs, assistance by community pharmacists and pharmacist continuing education are necessary for controlling self-medication. There is a need for planning interventions to promote rational self-medication through mass medias such as newspaper, magazine and TV. PMID:25184092

Ahmad, A; Patel, I; Mohanta, GP; Balkrishnan, R

2014-01-01

458

CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

459

Increased risk of suicide with exposure to pesticides in an intensive agricultural area. A 12-year retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports have suggested that exposure to agricultural pesticides (mainly chronic exposure to organophosphates) produces depression, and depression is a major risk factor for suicide. A retrospective epidemiological study of 251 suicide cases was undertaken to explore the possible relationship between the high suicide rates in an intensive agricultural area, and a specific group of population at risk, namely farmers

Tesifón Parrón; Antonio F. Hernández; Enrique Villanueva

1996-01-01

460

U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH WESTERN HEMISPHERE COUNTRIES AND THE EFFECT OF THE FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations to create the largest single market in the world, the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), are in progress. Such an agreement could have significant effects on U.S. agriculture; it could create an opportunity to increase U.S. exports of agricultural commodities and products, and could also lead to an increase in imports. The objective of this study is

Jeremy W. Mattson; Won W. Koo

2002-01-01

461

Agricultural Land Ownership Change and Natural Resource Management: Comparing Australian and US Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rural areas throughout the developed world are undergoing significant restructuring due to a number of socio-economic factors.\\u000a One aspect of recent rural change has to do with demographic\\u000a shifts and in-migration to rural areas formerly dominated by agricultural enterprises and other types of working landscapes.\\u000a Since ownership is a major determinant of land use, and different cohorts of owners interact

Emily Mendham; Hannah Gosnell; Allan Curtis

462

Validity of two physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ and PAQA) for Vietnamese adolescents in rural and urban areas  

PubMed Central

Background Although physical activity is recognised to be an important determinant of health and nutritional status, few instruments have been developed to assess physical activity in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a locally adapted version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQA) for use in school going adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Methods Sixteen year old adolescents from rural areas (n = 137) and urban areas (n = 90) completed the questionnaires in 2006. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing registrations after 2 weeks. Criterion validity was assessed by comparison with 7 days continuous accelerometer logging. Validity of the two methods was assessed using Spearman correlation coefficient, intra class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa statistics. Results Reliability of both questionnaires was poor for both the IPAQ (ICC = 0.37) and the PAQA (ICC = 0.40). Criterion validity of both questionnaires was acceptable and similar for the IPAQ (? = 0.21) and the PAQA (? = 0.27) but a significantly lower validity was observed in rural areas. Both forms poorly estimated time spent on light, moderate and vigorous physical activity. Agreement of both questionnaires to classify individuals was also low but the IPAQ performed better than the PAQA. Conclusion Both questionnaires have a similar and overall poor validity to be used as a population instrument in Vietnam. Low reliability and classification properties in rural areas call for further research for specific use in such settings. PMID:18616798

Lachat, Carl K; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Khanh, Le Nguyen Bao; Hagströmer, Maria; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Van, Nguyen Do Anh; Dung, Nguyen Quang; Kolsteren, Patrick W

2008-01-01

463

Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 ?m) and coarse (2.5-10 ?m) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 ?m). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

2014-10-01

464

7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22...the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities...Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural...

2010-01-01

465

7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22...the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities...Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural...

2014-01-01

466

7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22...the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities...Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural...

2012-01-01