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1

EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention

A. J. Oskam; G. Meester; H. J. Silvis

2010-01-01

2

Agriculture and Rural Viability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

3

Analysis of an Agricultural Transformation Prototype (ATP) for Raising Rural Area's Superiority in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under globalized capitalism, prospering industry and commerce and continuously expanding cities, the importance of agriculture has been gradually diminishing with the relatively backward rural development. This has been the common phenomenon all over the world. Therefore, thinking deeply on how to make a modulation on the rural industrial structure and how to start, economically, the re-development of the rural area

Pei-Chi Chang; I-Jyh Wen; Chi-ming Lai

2008-01-01

4

Potential Assessment of Establishing a Renewable Energy Plant in a Rural Agricultural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste

Ming-Chien Su; Nien-Hsin Kao; Wen-Jar Huang

2012-01-01

5

Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

1988-04-01

6

Promoting the multifunctionality of agriculture, forestry, and rural areas - design and implementation of public policies in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple roles and functions of agriculture and forestry beyond those of supplying food and fibre, such as the provision of environmental benefits and the contribution to the socio-economic viability of rural areas, account for a growing recognition in both scientific debates and political decision making. In order to foster further research in the field of multifunctionality of agriculture, forestry,

Paul Lehmann; Christian Schleyer; Henry Wüstemann; Martin Drechsler; Konrad Hagedorn; Frank Wätzold

2005-01-01

7

[Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].  

PubMed

This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

Kelodjoue, S

1989-06-01

8

Economic and financial analysis on rainwater harvesting for agricultural irrigation in the rural areas of Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2006, around 600 rainwater harvesting systems have been constructed for agricultural irrigation in Beijing. The financial and economic implications of using these systems are discussed less. It is important to understand the effectiveness of the investments spent on the rainwater harvesting systems. The paper aims to analyze economic and financial performance of the constructed rainwater harvesting systems in rural

Xiao Liang; Meine Pieter van Dijk

2011-01-01

9

Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

Rainey, Kenneth D.

10

Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

2012-06-01

11

Rural land use and agricultural production in Dinokana Village, Bophuthatswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years geographers have researched the problems of many rural areas of the third world. However, analysis of rural and agricultural development in the Bantustans of South Africa has been conspicuously absent. Although mythically ‘independent’, the Bantustans have their own Departments of Agriculture, as well as parastatal bodies, which develop and implement agricultural policies. This paper examines agricultural policy

J. H. Drummond

1990-01-01

12

Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

McElwee, Pamela D.

2010-01-01

13

The Role of Organic Agriculture in Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be

Csaba SARUDI; Zoltán SZAKÁLY; Attila MÁTHÉ; Viktória SZENTE

2003-01-01

14

Assessment of Rural Groundwater Contamination by Agricultural Chemicals in Sensitive Areas of Michigan,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability of drinking water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamina...

J. L. Ervin K. M. Kittleson

1988-01-01

15

RETHINKING AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KOSOVO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of percentage of households or population, Kosovo is one of the most ru- ral and agrarian areas in Europe. Not unexpectedly, considerable stress is given to advancement through rural development and promotion of agriculture, including protective or, at least, 'level playing field' approaches to customs. In this paper, it is argued that this view is wrong. The potential

RICHARD BEILOCK

16

SOLERAS: Rural/Agricultural Project Technical Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local i...

F. S. Huraib J. P. Adcock R. D. Knect

1987-01-01

17

PROCESSES OF MARGINALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE: THE ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS TO SUPPORT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL GROWTH IN RURAL AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of rural realities showing peculiar socio-political conditions, systemic changes, transformation of consolidated lifestyles, marginalization and weak socio-economic positions, policies to restructure agriculture can face complex implications. The definition, development and implementation of strategies focused at a \\

18

Monthly deposition of cadmium in rural and industrial areas of Germany (Bayern, Pfalz, Ruhr district) and its influences upon an agricultural model system.  

PubMed

Monthly depositions of cadmium were collected by a modified Bergerhoff method and measured by AAS during a 3-year period in rural areas of the Pfalz and in an industrial area of the Ruhr district. Another one year period included measurements in rural areas of southern Bavaria and on a Dutch island. The log-normally distributed deposition rates of cadmium at the rural areas in southern Germany amounted to only 20% of those of the industrial district. The depositions on the Dutch island were twice as high as the depositions on the rural areas of southern Germany. The monthly cadmium deposition rates show only little periodical fluctuation during the year and scatter around more or less constant median values of 25 and 120 micrograms . m-2 . month-1 at the rural and industrial areas, respectively. When open air mass cultures of algae were taken as an agricultural model, the organisms, depending on their growth rate, accumulated 0.4-4.0 ppm of cadmium (dry matter based). The course of the cadmium accumulation reflects the deposition rate of the area where the algae were grown. No growth depression of the algae due to cadmium can be observed under the given deposition rates. PMID:6303745

Runkel, K H; Payer, H D

1983-02-01

19

Interrelationships of Animal Agriculture, the Environment, and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agriculture is closely interrelated to both the natural environment and human systems, including rural communities. Accordingly, changes in animal agriculture can have wide-ranging consequences across many areas. During the past 50 yr, there has been tremendous change in animal agriculture, involving an increase in the size of production units, greater reliance on technology, a corresponding decrease in human labor,

M. G. Hogberg; S. L. Fales; F. L. Kirschenmann; Mark Honeyman; John Miranowski; P. Lasley

2005-01-01

20

Linkages among energy, agriculture and environment in rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnections between energy, agriculture and environment in rural India are analyzed in this paper using a systems perspective. Rural areas of developing countries use biomass for fuel, fodder, fertilizer and other purposes, and it is necessary to understand the fuel-fodder–fertilizer relationships for optimal biomass allocation. The allocation is explored using a linear programming model. First, the model is validated

Jyoti K. Parikh; R. Ramanathan

1999-01-01

21

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

22

SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

1987-04-01

23

Monthly deposition of cadmium in rural and industrial areas of Germany (Bayern, Pfalz, Ruhr district) and its influences upon an agricultural model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly depositions of cadmium were collected by a modified Bergerhoff method and measured by AAS during a 3-year period in rural areas of the Pfalz and in an industrial area of the Ruhr district. Another one year period included measurements in rural areas of southern Bavaria and on a Dutch island. The log-normally distributed deposition rates of cadmium at the

K. H. Runkel; H. D. Payer

1983-01-01

24

Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide, the second part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the final two units in a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the first unit are the following aspects of agricultural mechanics: selecting and…

Courson, Roger; And Others

25

Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section. Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eight papers on rural sociology which were presented at the 1969 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are included in this volume. Titles of the papers are "A Regional, Longitudinal Study of Family Adjustments in Low-Income Areas of the South" by Charles L. Cleland, University of Tennessee; "Inter-State Differences…

1969

26

Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

Ikerd, John

27

Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

Ikerd, John

28

Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.

2006-01-01

29

Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

Rivera, William M.

2006-01-01

30

Core IV Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide, the first part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the first seven units of a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: educational and…

Courson, Roger; And Others

31

Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

32

Collaborative Information Technology Center (CITC) for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital divide remains a formidable issue in rural areas where the only broadband access to the Internet may be at public schools or city governments. As the only locations in rural areas with adequate technological resources, schools, libraries, health facilities, and agricultural extension facilities can be places where citizens learn about…

Fontenot, Dean; Driskill, David A.

33

Rural Economic Development in the 1980s. A Summary. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 533.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Structural change in the economy is causing economic stress in rural America, especially in areas with a heavy dependence on agriculture, mining and energy, and manufacturing. This contrasts sharply with the 1970s, when widespread economic growth and vitality were the dominant rural themes. Rural economies in the 1980s are characterized by slow…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

34

Agriculture as a Key Issue for Rural Development in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

with a specific focus on agriculture, and using available data at Eurostat the main aim of this work has been to characterise the spatial components of rural are as within Europe. This data has been used to develop different typologies of 'rural', contributing to a fuller understanding of some of the similarities, differences and diversity between rural areas in regions

C. Vidal; Bâtiment Eurostat; Joseph Bech; G. Eiden; Rue Wenceslas

35

Human Resources in the Rural Area of Slavonia and Baranja - the New Rural Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural area is most often defined by the type of settlements (village), the dominating profession (agriculture) and by the prevailing social interactions (typical for the community). The “vicinity” of nature is also a significant determination of a rural area. Industrialization and the modernization stimulated by it in the second half of the twentieth century have changed the village image,

Antun Sundalic

2009-01-01

36

KEES: A PRACTICAL ICT SOLUTION FOR RURAL AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for\\u000a knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment\\u000a for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information\\u000a and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning

Xiaoye Dai; Sabin Tabirca; Eamon Lenihan

2009-01-01

37

Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical

Ultanir

1983-01-01

38

Core II Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units A-D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are orientation to agricultural occupations (orientation to vocational agricultural course and developing effective study…

Biondo, Ron; And Others

39

Services in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The need for interdisciplinary collaboration and the open exchange of information among professionals in public health, medicine,\\u000a the ministry, and various mental health and social services disciplines is clearly demonstrated when mental health issues\\u000a affecting women are viewed in the context of rurality. This is particularly true when these mental health issues are considered\\u000a in terms of the broader perspective

Pamela L. Mulder; Robert Jackson; Sarah Jarvis

40

Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss

S. Förster; B. Kuhlmann; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; A. Bronstert

2008-01-01

41

Early psychosis in rural areas.  

PubMed

Early psychosis (EP), in which the terms first-episode psychosis or first-break psychosis are also considered, is an area of developing research intensity. Although it is apparent that considerable progress has been made in establishing best practice criteria and protocols for EP in general, the particular issues pertaining to rural areas have not received the same attention. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature of early psychosis programmes, initiatives and research in rural areas in order to help establish the best available evidence. The authors conducted a systematic search of major electronic databases, based on the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence, an established scale, for identified early psychosis cross-referenced with multiple rural terms, between the years 1995 and 2005. A total of 637 articles met the initial search criteria; 206 were identified as having primary significance; three dealt specifically with rural areas. There is a paucity of research findings or published literature concerning the specific needs or characteristics of early psychosis practice or service delivery in rural areas. A number of inferences and suggestions for further research, investigations and policy directions are put forward for consideration. PMID:17508318

Welch, Mark; Welch, Twilla

2007-06-01

42

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)|

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

43

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

44

The Rural Health Study: A Comparison of Hospital Experience between Farmers and Nonfarmers in a Rural Area of Minnesota (1976-1977).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rural health study used hospital records and brief occupational histories to identify problem health areas for agricultural workers and residents in a selected area of the Midwest. A population-based analysis according to residence in two rural counti...

J. A. Burkart C. F. Egleston R. J. Voss

1978-01-01

45

Dental Health in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concentration of dental health services in urban areas creates a problem for the rural population of America. The problem is analyzed in this document by looking at the population distribution today and the ratio of dental services per population, the location of dental education resources, and the concern of society for the quality of living.…

Howell, Charles S.

46

Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document presents a series of 14 scripts focusing on families with disabled children, written in English for radio broadcast in translation to rural village areas in Pakistan. Intended to educate the public concerning disabilities and how families can help their handicapped children participate as fully as possible in community life, the…

Mental Health Centre, Peshawar (Pakistan).

47

Selection of sustainable rural agriculture projects in south Africa: case studies in the landcare programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of natural resources has a direct and significant impact on those living in rural areas. The resultant increasing pressure that is placed on the livelihoods of rural people leads to desperate and poor agricultural practices, which in turn cause further degradation of natural resources. The LandCare programme of the South African national government aims to address these problems

A. C. Brent; J. Mulder

2005-01-01

48

Agricultural and Rural Development in China: Achievements and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made great advances in its agricultural and rural development since the reforms and opening-up that began in 1978. It has not only fed its population of 1.3 billion, but has also contributed to international agricultural development and food security. Agricultural production registered great development, providing sufficient food and clothes for 21 per cent of the world's population with

Chen Xiaohua

2009-01-01

49

Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the problem varies across the United States, overall there is a shortage of rural teachers, especially in the subject areas of math, science, and special education. Recruiting teachers for rural settings requires targeting persons with rural backgrounds, attacking the negative stereotypes surrounding rural schools, and stressing the…

Harmon, Hobart L.

50

ICT AND INNOVATION IN RURAL AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ICTs in innovation processes play an increasingly more important role in rural areas. Regional innovation performance varies widely between regions and is much lower in rural areas. The growing requrements for developing new applications and services depends on increasing access to wireless and broadband services in rural areas. Some EU supported RTD projects have served to develop the agri-food sector

Miklós Herdon; Ian Houseman

51

Effects of the 1924 Agricultural Recession on Rural Missouri Hebdomadals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between the agricultural slump of 1924 and the economic vitality of rural weekly newspapers in Missouri. "Rural weekly newspaper" was defined as any weekly newspaper in a predominantly agrarian locale with a city population of fewer than 5,000 and a county population of fewer than…

Koski, Steven D.; Kahan, Robert S.

52

Meeting Special Education Personnel Needs in Rural and Developing Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article presents a teacher training model based on the Agricultural Extension Service Agent Model to meet the educational needs of handicapped students in rural areas. The model involves training regular classroom teachers to become in-house specialists on maintaining the mildly handicapped student in the regular classroom. (DB)|

McIntosh, Dean; Raymond, Gail I.

1990-01-01

53

Heritage and wine as tourist attractions in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, the search for a new relationship with nature, of quality and safety of foodstuffs and in particular the need for “identity”, of characterizing places as bearers of values and traditions have led an increasing number of people to see rural areas as places of values, resources, culture and products to discover and enjoy. Agriculture has taken on

Donatella Privitera

2010-01-01

54

National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety (NCCRAHS) serves as the only NIOSH funded agricultural center designated to focus on children (0 to 18 years). Formally established in 1997, the NCCRAHS has been a leader in: (1) ...

B. Lee

2009-01-01

55

Rural out-migration and smallholder agriculture in the southern Ecuadorian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the consequences of out-migration and migrant remittances for smallholder agriculture in a rural and\\u000a environmentally marginal study area in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Migration and remittances have the potential for transformative\\u000a impacts on agriculture in origin areas of migration due to consequent declines in labor availability and increases in income,\\u000a but previous studies have primarily found mixed

Clark L. Gray

2009-01-01

56

Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units A-G.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 12 areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, teacher guide, competency inventory, information sheet,…

Courson, Roger L.; And Others

57

Core III Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units H-I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for nine problem areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in rural agricultural programs in Illinois. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: suggestions to the teacher, a teacher guide, a competency inventory, an…

Courson, Roger L.; And Others

58

Health care in rural areas.  

PubMed

In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit. PMID:12288590

Nath, L M

1994-02-01

59

A study on measurement of integration of urban and rural areas based on Clustering Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

developed tertiary industry is a sign of high-level urbanization for any places and cities. In urban economics, it is suggested that the rural areas based it's general development on the agriculture industry and the development level of the tertiary industry in rural areas are far behind that in urban areas. Therefore, the development level of the tertiary industry is one

Deying Sun

2011-01-01

60

Potential links between rural tourism and agriculture in the Northern Great Plain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture has played and still plays a significant role in the life of rural communities and in rural development. But, because agriculture yields low revenues, agricultural workers often need a source of additional income. Agriculture combines excellently with the growing of medicinal herbs, organic farming, handicrafts and tourism. Rural tourism, as originally conceived, is a source of revenue to supplement

Bernadett Szabo; Laszlo Posta

2009-01-01

61

Soil Subsidence in the Everglades Agricultural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), an agricultural region in Florida south of Lake Okeechobee growing primarily sugarcane and winter vegetables, and addresses how the soils are changing with time. The objective is to describe soil loss in the EAA since this region was converted from wetlands to agricultural use, and to illustrate how these changes affect future sustainability. The organic soils

Alan L. Wright; George H. Snyder

62

Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

63

Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

2005-01-01

64

The impact of agricultural shocks on households growth performance in rural Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

(english) This paper tests if agricultural and climatic shocks have persistent impacts on consumption growth in 7 rural areas from Madagascar. The empirical framework is inspired by a standard Solow growth model. Shocks are introduced directly in the reduced form model as controls for factor productivity and investment level. This model is estimated on a panel of 6175 households observed

Anne-Claire Thomas

2009-01-01

65

Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

Biondo, Ron; And Others

66

Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

2009-01-01

67

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

Pant, Laxmi Prasad

2012-01-01

68

Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

2013-01-01

69

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new directions for developing learning and innovation competence in international development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach:

Laxmi Prasad Pant

2012-01-01

70

Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

Pant, Laxmi Prasad

2012-01-01

71

How China utilizes biogas in rural areas  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of how China utilizes biogas in rural areas. Already, 7,140,000 small biogas digesters have been built. Sichuan province has 4,160,000 digesters including about 20,000 large digesters which operate diesel engines to generate electricity. This is seen as the key area for further research and development. In rural areas, biogas is used principally for cooking and to power stationary units such as grinding mills, electric generators and crop driers.

Ji, M.

1981-05-01

72

ORGANIZATION OF ALZHEIMER'S SERVICES FOR RURAL AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current number of diagnosed Alzheimer's patients, nationally estimated to be at least two million people, is a major social and policy problem. Research on the management of Alzheimer's disease has a decidedly urban focus, even though a quarter of the U.S. population is rural. Different models of providing care to Alzheimer's patients in rural areas are explored, including (a)

Yvonne M. Vissing; Jeffrey C. Salloway; David L. Siress

1994-01-01

73

Multicultural Experiences Exist in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Legislation requiring multicultural education for teacher preparation programs could help dispel misconceptions about the homogeneity of rural American (all redneck farmers/ranchers, no poverty). Using field experiences in rural areas/schools for beginning teachers to observe cultural pluralism may have serendipitous effects of promoting positive…

Lotven, Brian

1983-01-01

74

Planning Educational Services for Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The report showed ways of providing rural youths with quality schooling while keeping costs down. An Oklahoma survey of student needs measured quality differences between rural and urban areas. Students from farms, ranches, and small towns consistently ranked below students in middle and large cities on achievement tests in each grade level…

White, Fred; Tweeten, Luther

75

Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas.

Christianson, J B

1989-01-01

76

David H. Monk - Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas - The Future of Children 17:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities—small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes

David H. Monk

2007-01-01

77

Community health in a rural area of Sudan.  

PubMed

A community survey was conducted in Al awayda village, one of eight villages selected for study in the rural Gezira province of Sudan. The objective of the survey was to identify the main health, social and economic problems of people in rural areas and to set priorities as a first phase in a rural development program. The results showed a high illiteracy rate and poor socioeconomic status aggravated by the drought and famine which affected this area of Africa in the years 1983-85. There was an inadequate safe water supply, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate primary health care services. The major disease problems were malaria, diarrheal diseases and schistosomiasis. The implementation of primary health care services with special emphasis on maternal and child health and health education is a clear need. The impact of Sennar Sugar Agricultural Scheme on this village is also discussed. PMID:2212096

Taha, A Z; Merghani, O A

1990-08-01

78

Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

Barros, Vicente

2008-09-01

79

Influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas—a case study in Lianshui County in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of household biogas digesters in rural areas and integrated use of agricultural wastes has changed the structure of rural household energy consumption and greatly increased the application of highly efficient organic fertilizer, improved soil fertility and promoted sustainable agricultural development. This paper mainly discusses the influence of using household biogas digesters on household energy consumption in rural areas based

Wang Xiaohua; Li Jingfei

2005-01-01

80

Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Hunger In Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the International development community. Poverty in Africa is predominately rural, majority of the poor people live in rural areas and are dependent on food production through farming or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. It is estimated that over two hundred million

Zipora Awuor Otieno

2008-01-01

81

Agricultural Growth, Rural Poverty and Hunger In Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the International development community. Poverty in Africa is predominately rural, majority of the poor people live in rural areas and are dependent on food production through farming or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. It is estimated that over two hundred million

Zipora Awuor Otieno

2007-01-01

82

Organization of Health Services for Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organizational patterns of health services in rural areas are described and discussed. Two frames of reference for viewing the organization of any community service are considered. The elements of the first include three structures (provider, consumer, an...

C. O. Crawford

1973-01-01

83

Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

84

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's rural areas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.

Zhou, Aiming

85

Business Productivity and Area Productivity in Rural England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Webber D., Curry N. and Plumridge A. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England, Regional Studies. Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) definition of ‘rural’. Labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less

Don Webber; Nigel Curry; Anthony Plumridge

2009-01-01

86

Can Rural Public Works Affect Agricultural Wages? Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been hypothesised that public works programmes, in addition to the welfare effect on those directly employed, can influence equilibrium wage rates. In this paper we test the impact of the Indian government’s major public works programme, the National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG), on agricultural wages. The rollout of NREG in three phases is used to identify difference-in-difference

Erlend Berg; Sambit Bhattacharyya; Rajasekhar Durgam; Manjula Ramachandra

2012-01-01

87

Balaban Valley Project: Improving the Quality of Life in Rural Area in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 % of the Turkish population live in small villages, often under poor conditions. In these regions the main source of income is agriculture. The recent globalization trend in the world makes the sustainable living conditions in rural areas very difficult. There are high cost of fertilizers and pesticides used in conventional agriculture, high fuel costs, there is the

Ali Gökmen; Sinan Kayaligil; Gerhard-W. Weber; Mehmet Ecevit; Yildiz Ecevit; Haluk Gökmen; Dorien J. DeTombe

88

Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

2008-01-01

89

The Role of Rural Women in Agriculture and it's Allied Fileds: A Case Study of Pakitan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the role of rural women in agriculture and its allied fields. It is argued that the rural women in Pakistan have been actively involved in agriculture and its allied fields. Rural women's work ranges from crop production to harvesting operations, from live stock rearing to raising babies. In addition to her daily work routine, consisting of, cooking,

Khalida Jamali

90

Attitude of Coastal Rural Youth towards Some Selected Modern Agricultural Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to determine the attitude of the coastal rural youth towards some selected modern agricultural technologies. Data were collected from randomly selected 91 coastal rural youth of Patuakhali district using a pre-tested structured interview schedule during 15 May to 31 May 2007. Attitude of the coastal rural youth towards some selected modern agricultural technologies

M. E. UDDIN; M. U. RASHID; M. G. R. AKANDA

2008-01-01

91

Indian agriculture and rural development: Strategic issues and reform options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, the authors suggest five areas for action to put rural India on a higher growth trajectory that would cut hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment at a much faster pace than has been the case so far. The five areas for action are interlinked and would best work if pursued in conjunction. The authors emphasize investments with a human

Joachim von Braun; Ashok Gulati; P. B. R. Hazell; Mark W. Rosegrant; Marie T. Ruel

2005-01-01

92

Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

93

Young people and transport in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people in the countryside often experience particular difficulties with transport to get to education and work and to maintain a social life. This study, carried out by Pamela Storey and Julia Brannen at the Thomas Coram Research Unit, Institute of Education, examines young people's experience of transport in rural areas. Three representative cohorts of young people aged between 15

Pamela Storey; Julia Brannen

2000-01-01

94

Communicating Agricultural Research in Africa: The New Role of Rural Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

New developments in rural radio in Africa hold promise for the application of farming systems thinking for agricultural innovation and development. This paper examines the challenge of international and national agricultural research institutions moving beyond the conventional \\

Helen Hambly Odame

95

The Impact of Public Spending in a Low-Income Rural Area: A Case Study of Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The economic effects of Government spending at public installations in rural areas was investigated. Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, was chosen because of its location in a low-income rural area with relatively high outmigration, a declining agricultural industry base, and few employment opportunities. All of the data relating to Government spending…

Holmes, O. Wendell

96

RURAL ELEMENTARY STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDINGS OF SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION BENCHMARKS RELATED TO MEAT AND LIVESTOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural educators and agricultural industry leaders have called for a basic level of agricultural literacy for Americans of all ages. Benchmarks have been developed by science and agricultural educators for students at all levels regarding an understanding of meat and livestock concepts. This qualitative study sought to ascertain rural fifth grade students' cognitive structures about these concepts. Through interviews and

Deanna L. Meischen; Cary J. Trexler

2003-01-01

97

Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

98

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

99

Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

2010-01-01

100

Early Childhood Education: Promising Practices in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to suggest types of early childhood education programs which may be implemented in rural areas at reasonable cost and which capitalize upon the rural environment's unique characteristics, this booklet describes 12 programs (many of which use Elementary and Secondary Education Title I or III funds) currently operating in rural areas. The…

Lehnhoff, Nora; And Others

101

Developing Primary Health Care for Rural Areas in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experience and potential of North Carolina's primary health care program for rural areas is reviewed. North Carolina's rural health centers were first funded in 1973. Medical care is provided by a Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) or a Physician's Assis...

D. Howard D. H. Ashley

1977-01-01

102

Sex ratio in the Iranian urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the sex ratio are examined using data for 1,169,489 births occurring in rural and urban districts of Tehran, Iran, between 1971 and 1979. Attention is given to geographic, socioeconomic, psychological, and nutritional factors. It is found that "male births occurred more in Winter and Spring in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Female births occurred more in Fall in both urban and rural areas. Mean sex ratio was 108.20 in rural and 105.44 in urban areas." Reasons for the differentials between urban and rural areas are suggested. PMID:12268183

Farhud, D D; Kamali, M S; Marzban, M; Nevisi, N

1986-06-01

103

Gender Issues in Agriculture and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Role of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most farmers in Nigeria operate at the subsistence, smallholder level in an extensive agricultural system; hence in their hands lies the country's food security and agricultural development. Particularly striking, however, is the fact that rural women, more than their male counterparts, take the lead in agricultural activities, making up to 60-80 percent of labour force. It is ironical that their

Yemisi I. Ogunlela; Aisha A. Mukhtar

104

Climate change, rural livelihoods and agriculture (focus on food security) in Asia-Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a major challenge for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for billions of people including the poor in the Asia-Pacific region. Agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather and because people involved in agriculture tend to be poorer compared with urban residents. More than 60 per

S. Mahendra Dev

2011-01-01

105

24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section...THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL...13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved...

2013-04-01

106

Sources of nitrate exposure in residents of rural areas in Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate exposure was investigated in a group of 187 people using well water and living in four areas of rural Quebec (Canada) with intensive agricultural activities. Nitrate intake was evaluated using a 24-h dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire, in conjunction with a validated food database and measurements of nitrate concentrations in private wells. The total internal dose was

P LEVALLOIS; P AYOTTE; R LOUCHINI; T DESROSIERS; H BARIBEAU; D PHANEUF; S GINGRAS; P DUMAS; J ZEE; G POIRIER

2000-01-01

107

Gender and Quality of Life in Rural Areas: The Relevance of Training Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing nations could greatly improve the quality of life in rural areas by adequately involving women in agricultural extension and training programs. Policy objectives of many developing countries neglect the contributory role of girls and women and often constrain them from seizing opportunities for individual development. In Nigeria, the…

Williams, Stella B.

108

Impact of the food safety policies on the reduction of poverty in Tunisian rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed trend of decreasing poverty in Tunisian rural areas, where agriculture is still dominated by family and where illiteracy rate and family size are high, questions may be raised about the economic policies adopted by the state. This article puts the analyses of these policies in the framework of food safety issue as food and poverty are tightly related

Raoudha Khaldi; Mohamed Zied Dhraief; Samia Haddad; Zouhair Rached; Martine Padilla

2007-01-01

109

Transportation Services in Rural Areas. January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography contains 137 entries of English-language materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database. Each of the bibliography's 137 entries pertains to some aspect of transportation services in rural areas. Each entry, including books, reports, studies, and so forth, offers bibliographical information…

La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

110

Multicriteria hub decision making for rural area telecommunication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to emerging telecommunications technologies, rural area networks (RAN) can be built via hub cities that function as service centers for neighboring smaller rural communities. The hub decision requires compromise among economic and social goals. This paper demonstrates the use of a zero–one compromise programming coupled with an eigenvalue estimation method to accommodate the goal setting process in rural telecommunications

Heeseok Lee; Yong Shi; Sufi M. Nazem; Sung Yeol Kang; Taeho Park; Myung Ho Sohn

2001-01-01

111

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

112

[Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1995-01-01

113

Training, Recruiting, and Retaining Personnel in Rural Areas. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series of Rural Network monographs concerning rural service delivery to young handicapped children and their families, this collection of four papers identifies problems inherent in finding appropriate personnel to work in rural areas, suggests strategies for retaining staff, and describes three distinctly different training programs…

Casto, Glendon; And Others

114

RURAL RECREATION ENTERPRISES FOR PROFIT, AN AID TO RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MANY RURAL AREAS OF THE U.S. POSSESS ENOUGH SPACE AND NATURAL ATTRACTIONS TO SERVE AS A BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING EITHER PART OR FULL-TIME RECREATIONAL ENTERPRISES. MOST OUTDOOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES CENTER AROUND WATER, HUNTING AND FISHING, ADMIRING SCENERY, AND ENJOYING THE NATURAL RURAL LANDSCAPE. THUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL RECREATION RESOURCES IS…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

115

HPV Vaccine Acceptability in a Rural Southern Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although cervical cancer rates in the United States are highest in Southern and rural areas, research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability has focused on other geographic areas. Methods: To address this gap, we surveyed women from a rural area in North Carolina with elevated rates of cervical cancer to identify predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability for them- selves

Karah I. Fazekas; Noel T. Brewer; Jennifer S. Smith

2008-01-01

116

Social work in rural areas: a personal and professional challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australians live in diverse areas, city and country, coast and hinterland, desert and rainforest, urban and remote areas. While much social work practice is located in large population centres, the problem of providing a social work service in rural and remote areas is a challenging one. This article examines some of the issues for rural social workers practicing where networks

Rosemary Green

2003-01-01

117

Information and Communication Technologies, Agricultural Profitability, and Child Labor in Rural Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the impact of access to information and communication technologies on agricultural profitability and child labor among isolated villages in rural Peru. We exploit an intervention that provided at least one public (satellite) payphone to 6,509 rural villages that did not previously have any kind of communication services (either landlines or cell phones). We show that the timing of

Diether W. Beuermann

2011-01-01

118

Educational and Occupational Motivation and Adoption of Agricultural Technology among Rural Residents: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A random sample, predominantly black, of about 100 rural Louisiana residents was interviewed in 1979-80 to determine the extent to which rural residents' educational and occupational motivations were related to their adoption of agricultural technology. Published literature relevant to the subject was reviewed. With the exception of an…

Hunte, Christopher N.

119

Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

Foght, H. W.

1917-01-01

120

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon

Aiming Zhou

2006-01-01

121

The Agricultural Crisis as it Affects Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The farm crisis is spilling over into rural communities. The crisis is and will continue to occur in many rural communities as long as farmers are liquidating their farming operations. When farmers are forced to quit, they look for off-farm jobs. If none are available, they will be forced to move to urban centers for employment. As they move, rural

Gerald Doeksen

1987-01-01

122

Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

2008-01-01

123

Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

2008-01-01

124

The effect of environmental good scarcity on own-farm labor allocation: the case of agricultural households in rural Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

As environmental goods such as fuelwood and fodder become more scarce, rural households in developing countries spend more time in their collection. It has been suggested that as a result households may reallocate labor away from own-farm agricultural production. This paper examines whether this is the case for a sample of agricultural households from rural Nepal. Cross-sectional estimates of agricultural

PRISCILLA A. COOKE

1998-01-01

125

Medical schools in rural areas - necessity or aberration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Introduction: There is major maldistribution of physicians in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). While 70% of Congolese live in rural areas, relatively few doctors practice there. Of the 25 medical schools in the DRC (14 public and 11 private) only one private medical school is located in a rural area.

AO Longombe

126

Why do Fertility Levels Vary between Urban and Rural Areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kulu H. Why do fertility levels vary between urban and rural areas?, Regional Studies. This study examines the causes of fertility variation across settlements. It uses rich longitudinal data from Finland and applies event history analysis. Analysis shows that fertility levels are the highest in small towns and rural areas and the lowest in the capital city, as expected. The

Hill Kulu

2011-01-01

127

[The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].  

PubMed

In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas. PMID:22699644

Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

2012-06-01

128

RURAL AND URBAN INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and perception of rural and urban inner-city students in two Midwestern states regarding agriculture, food, and natural resources. Since this study was a pilot project, these two subgroups of the United States population were assessed to provide baseline data reflecting the knowledge and perceptions of United States residents regarding agriculture and the

Martin J. Frick; Robert J. Birkenholz; Harrison Gardner; Krissanna Machtmes

129

Agrarian change and occupational diversification: Non?agricultural employment and rural development in West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on evidence from the quinquennial surveys on employment by the National Sample Survey Organisation, it has been argued that, as part of the process of change associated with the Green Revolution, rural India is witnessing an agricultural growth?induced diversification in economic activity in favour of non?agricultural actvities. This article examines that argument using evidence relating to India as a

C. P. Chandrasekhar

1993-01-01

130

Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

2003-01-01

131

Civil agronomy: a new dimension of agricultural extension to invoke poverty issues for sustainable rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the outcome of a PhD study conducted in two villages of Sri Lanka in relation to technological change and the rural poor with specific reference to agricultural extension: more precisely, extension messages and methods, cultivation choices, and institutional linkages. The paper reveals that reformulation of the concept of extension (including the civil agronomy dimension) will allow agricultural

Thilak T. Ranasinghe

1997-01-01

132

Characterization of Agricultural Tasks Performed by Youth in the Keokuk County Rural Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury and illness among youth working on farms are important problems. The types of farm tasks performed by children and the ages at which they begin these activities have not been well characterized. This cross-sectional study characterized agricultural work performed by adolescents in a rural Iowa county to better understand the patterns and extent of exposures to agricultural risk factors.

Hyesook Park; Stephen J. Reynolds; Kevin M. Kelly; Ann M. Stromquist; Leon F. Burmeister; Craig Zwerling; James A. Merchant

2003-01-01

133

Public Health and the Agricultural Rural Ecosystem (PHARE): Sixth International Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 6th International Symposium: Public Health & the Agricultural Rural Ecosystem, was held October 19-23, 2008, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It was organized by the Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture with assistance of the NIOSH-funded N...

B. C. Lee J. R. Gordon

2009-01-01

134

Sustaining sustainable agriculture: The rise and fall of the Fund for Rural America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agriculture has lately madesignificant inroads into US agricultural policydiscourse. An examination of the ``life\\u000a cycle'' of theFund for Rural America, a component of the 1996 farmbill, provides an example of the complex and contestedways\\u000a in which the goals of sustainable agriculture areadvocated, negotiated, and implemented at the level ofnational policy, in\\u000a the context of the evolvingpolitical and institutional arrangements

Andrew Marshall

2000-01-01

135

Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.  

PubMed

Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the magnitude and geographic distribution of deforestation is enhanced with the use of remote sensing techniques, such as those used in the 1982 UN Food and Agriculture baseline study. Soil degradation is not so easily measured. The implications are that regional development funds need to directed away from critical zones or areas adjacent to critical zones. Research is needed to understand rural to rural migration. PMID:12343671

Rudel, T I

1991-01-01

136

Impact of the Changing Farm Economy on Rural Communities. Evaluation of Interrelationships between Agriculture and the Economy of Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A reduction in agricultural activity in a rural farming community will result in reduced activity in almost every sector of the local economy. The result may be measured in loss of employment and income. This report provides a method to estimate such economic impacts with a minimum of data collection and manipulation. Most of the input data…

Lansford, Notie H., Jr.; Jones, Lonnie L.

137

Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

Adewumi, B. A.

2008-01-01

138

Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

Adewumi, B. A.

2008-01-01

139

Biodiversity: Function and Assessment in Agricultural Areas: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity has become a central concept in agronomical research since the Rio de Janeiro summit in 1992. Agricultural areas include a unique biological diversity which is the basis of human activities. Conservation of this biodiversity in agricultural and protected areas is therefore fundamental and requires an operational approach. Biodiversity is a complex entity which can be spread over several levels

Boris Clergue; Bernard Amiaud; Frank Pervanchon; Françoise Lasserre-Joulin; Sylvain Plantureux

140

Television in Rural Areas; A Low Cost Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arguments in favor of radio over television as a low cost alternative for reaching rural areas cite the fact that installation and programming costs for television are three to five times that of radio. But new technology can now bring television to rural audiences. The concept of decentralizing transmitting stations, so that each mini-station…

Bourret, Philip L.

141

Mediterranean rural ozone characteristics around the urban area of Athens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic analysis of surface ozone observations in rural areas surrounding Athens is presented. The analysis is based on ozone data for the rural station Aliartos about 80km NW of Athens center and for two stations on the northern periphery of the Athens basin: Demokritos, located 10km NE of Athens center and Liossia, 12km to the north. The data for

Pavlos D Kalabokas; Loizos G Viras; John G Bartzis; Christos C Repapis

2000-01-01

142

Children's Services in Rural and Remote Areas: An Australian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined families' needs and expectations of child care services in a rural and remote area of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlighted the restricted number of child care options available in these rural and remote settings. Ways to best meet child care needs of these families were devised, based on findings. (JPB)

Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Morda, Romana; Clyde, Margaret

2000-01-01

143

AN OVERVIEW OF COMMUNITY AND AREA PLANNING FOR RURAL YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING FOR RURAL YOUTH CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE EXISTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PROVIDED BY RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT (RAD), WHOSE CENTRAL IDEA IS ORGANIZING COMMUNITY LEADERS TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS, INVENTORY RESOURCES, AND FURTHER ORGANIZE AND PLAN TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT THESE PROBLEMS. HOWEVER, WHEN COMMUNITY LEADERS FAIL…

RUSSELL, GEORGE

144

Internet in Rural Areas of Zambia: A User Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews in rural Zambia taught us how people use the internet and the benefits they experience. The study showed that people and communities in rural areas do benefit from ICT both socially and economically. Basically, they use the internet for the same purposes as people in Western countries, such as to communicate, to search for information and to buy things.

Paula VAN HOORIK

145

50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure...E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300âAlaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2010-10-01

146

Study on problems and countermeasures of China's information construction in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural information is an important content of national economy and social information, an important part of the transformation of traditional agriculture and developing modern agriculture, and also the inevitable choice to accelerate the realization of agricultural modernization of China's development. This paper first analyzed the construction of rural information on the urgency, followed by information on the current construction of

Yanjun Shi; Chenghua Shi

2010-01-01

147

Agricultural Landscape Externalities, Agro-Tourism, and Rural Poverty Reduction in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an empirical analysis of agricultural landscape externalities and an economic valuation of their potential\\u000a impacts to reduce rural poverty in Morocco’s Western High Atlas Mountains. The externality concept is applied at the farm\\u000a level to inventory landscape externalities, to analyze their internalization forms, and to evaluate their economic benefits\\u000a on rural households. Of 134 farms studied, the

Khalil Allali

148

Prevalence of Self-medication in Rural Areas of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the prevalence of self-medication among pharmacy customers in rural areas of Portugal, to assess possible predictors of self-medication and to find out whether there was a seasonal dependence in the purchase of drugs for self-medication. Method: A cross-sectional study during four different periods of a year was conducted. Community pharmacies of rural areas of Portugal were invited

Magda Nunes de Melo; Brenda Madureira; Ana Patrícia Nunes Ferreira; Zilda Mendes; Ana da Costa Miranda; Ana Paula Martins

2006-01-01

149

Crop area monitoring within an advanced agricultural information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for an image processing procedure for operational agricultural crop area estimation. This operational framework has been conceived within the development of an Advanced Agricultural Information System (AAIS) for the “Regione del Veneto “ (RdV ? Veneto Region) in northeastern Italy. The objective of this program is to develop the ability to generating timely and accurate

Daniele Ehrlich; John E. Estes; Joseph Scepan; Kenneth C. McGwire

1994-01-01

150

Contextualising Teaching and Learning in Rural Primary Schools: Using Agricultural Experience. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project examined the potential role of agricultural experiences as a vehicle for meeting the diverse learning needs of rural primary students in developing countries. Volume 1 of the project report represents a literature review that investigated a "new role" for agriculture as a key element for developing rural students' basic…

Taylor, Peter; Mulhall, Abigail

151

Agriculture and Rural Life Day: Material for Its Observance. Bulletin, 1913, No. 43. Whole Number 553  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In several States one day in the fall of the year is set apart as "Agriculture and Rural-Life Day," to be observed in the schools in such ways as to emphasize the importance of agriculture to the nation and to the world of mankind, to call attention to the worth and worthiness of the tillage of the soil, the cultivation of plants, and the…

Brooks, Eugene C.

1913-01-01

152

Development of bioengineering strategies in rural mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural mountain areas in the moist tropical and subtropical zones tend to be prone to high erosion risks; to be areas where population expansion and development place high demands on the land; and to lack the very high levels of finances required to develop infrastructure with maximum safety. Bioengineering technology offers such areas a cost effective means of surface erosion

J. E. CLARK; J. H. HOWELL

1992-01-01

153

[The role of national rural organization and agricultural extension services in relation to women].  

PubMed

Rural extension services are designed to provide rural dwellers with information needed to further technical or social development and to solve problems. Extension agents should be fully aware of their responsibility for the advice they provide. The number of rural and agricultural development and extension agencies has multiplied greatly in the past 2 decades. Agricultural extension is the principal component of most rural development strategies. Training given to men is usually economic, while that for women is devoted to household and social functioning. Programs for women usually lag general development programs. Training of women is usually not included in agricultural extension programs, especially in countries practicing segregation of the sexes. Agricultural extension programs are generally limited to cultivation techniques and neglect transformation and storage of crops and seed preparation for increased production. Measures that could improve productivity of women's agriculture-related work are expected to be delivered through the intermediacy of their husbands, but the husbands may not appreciate the import of such messages if they are not familiar with their wives' work. Agricultural training should consider all stages of production, should be delivered to the individuals actually performing the tasks, and should be ecologically appropriate. The overall objective of agricultural extension is to increase production, but most programs do not specify who is to use the surplus or to benefit from it. The rural population or the urban population may be the prime beneficiary, or cash crops may be produced for export. Although increased production should benefit the rural population through a better food supply, in reality most extension programs are devoted to cash crops for export and are less than fully successful because of problems of crop distribution and marketing and other shortcomings. Where men and women perform the same agricultural work, it should be possible for training sessions to be held jointly for both sexes, but cultural tabus and sexual division of labor may be such that different programs and personnel are required for men and women. There are currently numerous limitations on the inclusion of women in extension programs, including official policies against female employment and ignorance of the contribution of female agricultural work and social customs which discourage female social participation. There may be few or no women extension workers, female extension agents may try to avoid fieldwork, they may spend most of their time training women in household management, or their mobility may be strictly limited by family responsibilities. PMID:12340319

Martius Von Harder, G

154

SocioEconomic Aspects Influencing Food Consumption Patterns Among Children under Age of Five in Rural Area of Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of

Muna A. Abdalla; Saad A. Sulieman; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdul Gader H. Khattab

2009-01-01

155

Prospect of a Pico Hydro power plant based on irrigation pump in perspective of rural areas in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper presents the design aspects of a Pico Hydro power plant (PHP) using the water from conventional irrigation pumps, which are widely used for agricultural purposes in the rural areas of Bangladesh. In addition, it also presents the viable prospects of PHP as an electricity generating system in perspective of Bangladesh. Bangladesh, being a developing country with perpetual shortage

Musaddeque Anwar Al-Abedin Syed; M. M. Naushad Ali; Fakir Sharif Hossain; Shah Ahsanul Haque; Abdul Hasib Siddique

2011-01-01

156

Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units F-H.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final three of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on soil science and conservation of natural resources are collecting soil samples and applying soil sample test results. Growing vegetables and…

Ethridge, Jim; And Others

157

Regendering the Rural: The Agricultural Training of Office Ladies in Hokkaido  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the gendering nature of depopulation and rural revitalization in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. After outlining the cultural politics of these twin phenomena, I explore them further through a case study of the depopulated community of Shintoku. By establishing the Ladies Farm School in 1996, the town hoped that the agricultural training of single urban women

Mohácsi Gergely

2004-01-01

158

Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

159

Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

2010-01-01

160

Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

161

Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

Ethridge, Jim; And Others

162

An intensive cultural experience in a rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

More well-trained mental health professionals serving rural and minority populations are needed. This article describes an intensive clinical experience for psychiatric mental health nursing graduates in the rural, culturally diverse Tri-Cities (Pasco, Richland, and Kennewick) of Washington. Before discussing the short-term learning experience and outcomes, the social history of the area is explained because of its impact on current health

Mary Durand Thomas; Sergio A Olivares; Hyun Jung Kim; Cheryle Beilke

2003-01-01

163

Child care in rural areas: Needs, attitudes, and preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to assess the needs and preferencesfor child care services in rural areas. We examined data from interviews with 525 mothers of children up to 12 years of age in two southeastern states. Results indicated that, while rural mothers expressed a desire for more chiM care services, many were ambivalent about other-than-mother care. On the

Sarah M. Shoffner

1986-01-01

164

Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

165

Agriculture-related severe craniofacial injuries in rural children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The severe craniofacial injuries connected with agricultural work in rural children and adolescents were analysed. The analysis took into account the causes for injuries, their types and treatment. The studied group were hospitalized and constituted 18.6% of the patients of the specialized surgery department. The most severe injuries of the face and the bone structure occurred during operating or assisting in operating farming equipment, wood processing, as a result of the fall from a height, or were injuries inflicted by an animal. Causes of injuries sustained by rural children are analogous to factors causing injuries in adult agricultural workers. The practice of employing children to perform agricultural work should be prohibited because severe injuries of the facial skeleton and soft tissues may lead to disorders in children's physical and mental development. PMID:18581980

Lewandowski, Bogumil; Szymanska, Jolanta

2008-06-01

166

Agricultural Areas Under Metropolitan Threats: Lessons for Perth from Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A common reason for rural demographic change is peri-urban or peri-metropolitan in-migration. This pattern inevitably causes\\u000a the loss of farmland\\u000a on the edge of the city. Agricultural land reduction in this spatial context has received attention from a large body of\\u000a international literature. The focus of this chapter is the strategic value, in productive terms, that fringe farmland represents\\u000a as

Valerià Paül; Fiona Haslam McKenzie

167

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural)

Gîdiu Valeria; Toader Valentin

2011-01-01

168

The Physician Pipeline to Rural and Underserved Areas in Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: An implicit objective of a state's investments in medical education is to promote in-state practice of state educated physicians. Purpose: To present a tool for evaluating this objective by analyzing the "pipeline" from medical education to patient care, primary care, rural areas, and underserved areas in Pennsylvania. Methods: AMA…

Schwartz, Myron R.

2008-01-01

169

Small Cities Can Help to Revitalize Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades the United States increasingly has experienced an unbalanced pattern of settlement. The nation's population has become proportionally more and more concentrated into a relatively few large metropolitan areas. Rural areas have lost population as the number of jobs in farming and other activities declined. Thus, at the same time that urban congestion has aggravated big-city problems, many

Robert L. Wrigley

1973-01-01

170

A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German,…

Swanjord, Don Edward

171

Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight

Roger Popper; Karla Andino; Mario Bustamante; Beatriz Hernandez; Luis Rodas

1996-01-01

172

Impacts of Higher Energy Prices on Agriculture and Rural Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agricultural production is sensitive to changes in energy prices, either through energy consumed directly or through energy-related inputs such as fertilizer. A number of factors can affect energy prices faced by U.S. farmers and ranchers, including devel...

P. Westcott R. Sands

2011-01-01

173

Smoke Impacts from Agricultural Burning in a Rural Brazilian Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rondônia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within

Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar; Carlos Castilla

2001-01-01

174

A partnership approach to park expansion in poor rural areas  

Treesearch

Note: This article is part of a larger document. ... the communities), private landowners, and the state (agricultural land leases to local farmers). ... Keywords: wilderness, biodiversity, protected areas, economics, subsistence, tourism, traditional ...

175

Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.  

PubMed

A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

2009-01-01

176

Linking Water Quality with Agricultural Intensification in a Rural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural intensification was linked to streamwaterpollution in a case study watershed using GIS andnutrient budgeting techniques. The results showed thatsurplus nitrogen applications from fertilizers andmanure averaged 120 kg ha-1 yr-1. In some parts of the watershed surplus applications exceeded 300 kg ha-1 yr-1. A consistent increase in pig and chickennumbers (59 and 165% increase between 1986 and1996) is considered the

C. Berka; H. Schreier; K. Hall

2001-01-01

177

Chronic disease and injury in an agricultural county: The Keokuk County Rural Health Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The Keokuk County Rural Health Study (KCRHS) was designed as a 20-year, prospective cohort study focusing on chronic disease and injury in an agricultural southeastern Iowa county. The goals of the KCRHS are to prospectively describe, measure, and analyze prevalent rural and agriculturally related adverse health outcomes and their respective risk factors and to provide the basis for future community-based intervention programs to reduce disease and injury incidence. Methods of data collection included in-person interviews, medical screenings, and environmental assessments of homes and farms. All households studied were rural; comparisons were made among farm, rural nonfarm, and town households, between men and women, and between smokers and nonsmokers. The present paper reports selected adult baseline data from Round 1 of this study. Residents of farm households were somewhat younger and better educated than residents of rural nonfarm and town households; smoked less; were more likely to have ridden an all-terrain vehicle; and were more likely to report firearms in the home. Eighty-nine percent of the men and 66% of the women engaged in farming or did so in the past. Men more often reported hearing loss, were more often overweight and obese, more often reported an injury, less often reported asthma, and less often saw a medical practitioner. Women reported poorer emotional health and higher rates of depression symptoms. The KCRHS has identified several modifiable health outcomes and risk factors as candidates for further analysis and targets for community-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:12380895

Merchant, James A; Stromquist, Ann M; Kelly, Kevin M; Zwerling, Craig; Reynolds, Stephen J; Burmeister, Leon F

2002-01-01

178

Occupational Injuries in a Commune in Rural Vietnam Transitioning From Agriculture to New Industries  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the impact on work-related injuries of workers splitting time between industry and agriculture, a common situation in developing countries. Methods. In 2005, we administered a cross-sectional survey to 2615 households of Xuan Tien, a developing rural community of Vietnam, regarding self-reported injuries and hours worked for 1 year. We defined groups as working in industry, agriculture, or a mix of both. Results. Overlapping employment (part time in agriculture and up to full time in industry) increased the risk of injury in both agricultural and industrial work. This pattern held across all work groups defined by the relative amount of time worked in agriculture. Those working fewer than 500 hours annually in agriculture had an agricultural injury rate (872 per 1000 full-time equivalents) that was more than 4 times higher than the average rate overall (203 per 1000) and the rate for workers employed only in industry (178 per 1000). Conclusions. Working in agriculture for short durations while working in industry increased the risk of injury substantially in both types of work.

Leamon, Tom B.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Wegman, David H.; Kriebel, David

2011-01-01

179

Problems of rodent control in rural tropical areas  

PubMed Central

Rodent control strategies, techniques, and research needs in rural tropical environments are reviewed and discussed with special reference to Mastomys natalensis, the possible reservoir of Lassa fever in West Africa. Public health rodent problems are far more serious and widespread in rural tropical areas than in developed countries. In the latter, only the commensal rodents constitute a major problem, whereas in rural tropical areas, native semidomestic species also serve as disease reservoirs and sources of infection to man. The success of rodent control programmes in developed countries depends in large part on the willingness and ability of people and governments to spend relatively large sums on research and control, on an acquired intolerance of people to rats and disease, and on a substantial economic base. These prerequisites are not usually to be found in rural tropical areas. Consequently, the rodent control techniques and programme organizations of developed countries are not directly applicable to such areas, even though the principles are the same. For this reason, it is suggested that a well-funded, integrated research and control programme should be undertaken in a known Lassa fever area, stressing public education, personnel training, and environmental management as well as rodenticidal approaches.

Barnes, Allan M.

1975-01-01

180

Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.  

PubMed

Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

2001-03-01

181

Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence  

PubMed Central

Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613) of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN), median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs). Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003) and low levels of education (p < 0.001) but not unemployment (p = 0.147), was associated with a low self-poisoning incidence. Areas where a high proportion of the population worked in agriculture had low overall levels of self-poisoning (p = 0.002), but a greater proportion of episodes in these areas involved pesticides (p = 0.01). An association with extent of cultivated land was found only for non-pesticide poisoning (p = 0.01). Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim; Dawson, Andrew; Wijeratne, Ishika K; Konradsen, Flemming

2008-01-01

182

Child feeding practices in a rural area of Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports preliminary results from a study of child feeding practices in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Although Zimbabwe has relatively low infant mortality rates, it still has high child malnutrition rates. Several factors, including sex roles and relations between the sexes, access to resources, food costs and availability, time and energy costs of food production and preparation, and

Sheila Cosminsky; Marvellous Mhloyi; Douglas Ewbank

1993-01-01

183

Studies Regarding the Ground Water Pollution in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presents studies regarding the pollution of the ground water, in a rural area. Samples of drinking water from 10 wells have been analyzed in order to evaluate if their quality was affected as result of farming activities. We find out that the water from some of the wells in polluted, the values of some of the quality parameters

Cornelia Muntean; Petru Negre; Mihaela Ciopec; Lavinia Lup; Ioan Ursoiu; Giannin Mosoarca; Ramona Ghiga

184

Alpha 94: Literacy and Cultural Development Strategies in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book compiles 21 action research articles from 12 countries that describe community-based initiatives in adult literacy education in peripheral rural areas. These initiatives represent dynamic experiments in cultural action that explicitly link individual basic education and a collective change in the conditions of local life. The reports…

Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

185

Asthma and Allergies in Rural Areas of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of studies have consistently shown that growing up on a farm in various rural areas in Europe confers protection from the development of hay fever, atopic sensitization, and less consistently of asthma fromchildhood into young adulthood. Expo- sures to livestock as well as consumption of unpasteurized milk are likely to be distinct and relevant sources of protective

Erika von Mutius

2007-01-01

186

Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

Reed, John C.

187

?????????????????????????? Health and Happiness Outcomes in Urban and Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explain the relationship between socio-economic factors and physical health and happiness outcomes of the Thai people. The study specifically investigates the differences between health and happiness outcomes of people who live in the urban and rural areas in Thailand. Unlike results found in other countries, income is found to not affect the level of happiness for

Piriya Pholphirul

188

Health care for women with diabetes living in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of equitable access to effective and appropriate health services for people with chronic disease in rural and remote areas is essential. A number of Medicare initiatives have been introduced in recent years to improve the care of people with chronic disease such as diabetes. This paper aims to evaluate the access to quality diabetes care for women living

Anne Young; Julie Byles; Julia Lowe; Xenia Dolja-Gore

189

Status of Thai Women in Two Rural Areas. Survey Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chachoengsao Province and Lampang Province were selected in 1976 as sites for an "action survey" to identify appropriate program areas for rural women so that governmental and voluntary agencies could be assisted in planning. During December 994 families and 1,272 women (ranging from 15-70 years old) were surveyed. Interviews were conducted by 30…

National Council of Women of Thailand.

190

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

191

An intensive cultural experience in a rural area.  

PubMed

More well-trained mental health professionals serving rural and minority populations are needed. This article describes an intensive clinical experience for psychiatric mental health nursing graduates in the rural, culturally diverse Tri-Cities (Pasco, Richland, and Kennewick) of Washington. Before discussing the short-term learning experience and outcomes, the social history of the area is explained because of its impact on current health needs and the kinds of learning opportunities available. In addition, personal reflections of student participants are included. PMID:12836142

Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

192

THEORETICAL AND POLICY BACKGROUND TO THE TOP-MARD PROJECT (TOWARDS A POLICY MODEL OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOP-MARD project is a 3-year, 11 country, project supported by the EU’s Framework 6 Programme for Research and Technology Development1. The aim of the research project was to build a policy model of multifunctional agriculture and rural development which would link the multiple functions of agriculture with the development and quality of life of rural regions, and explore the

John Marshall Bryden; Amaia Arandia; Thomas G. Johnson

2008-01-01

193

ROAD SAFETY IN RURAL AND REMOTE AREAS OF AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Road trauma,in rural and remote,areas of Australia is a major national road safety problem. Although well over half of all fatal crashes occur on roads within these environments, it has not been,until the past decade,that road safetystrategies,and programs,have focused,on these areas. In an endeavour,to provide a more comprehensive understanding,of the nature and causes

Colin Edmonston; Mary Sheehan

194

An Interactive Medical Support System for Dermatology in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A shortage of doctors in rural areas of Japan, especially specialists, has been a serious problem for several years. This\\u000a has created a need for alternative forms of care in these areas, and telemedicine is a potential solution for this problem.\\u000a However, in spite of a governmental policy to provide nationwide coverage with a fiber optic cable network, there are

E. Hanada; K. Ikebuchi; M. Miyamoto; M. Kitani; S. Yamaguchi; I. Dekio; E. Morita

195

The Rural Area Project (RAP) in Thailand: curriculum development.  

PubMed

The Rural Area Project is a collaborative developmental project of Chulalongkorn University and the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand. The main objective of the project is to increase the number of doctors in the country in such a way that they would be posted in rural districts and have appropriate knowledge, skill and attitude for rural practice. Curriculum development for the project has been carried out to serve the project objective as well as to ensure that the project graduates are accepted as qualified doctors. Several principles and assumptions have been used as strategies in the developmental process. They include co-operative participation in curricular planning, systematic formulation of educational objectives, organization of common courses, utilization of existing health services, planning innovative courses in community medicine and general practice, extensive use of self-instructional modules, efficient use of teachers' time and planned gradual delegation of responsibility to students. PMID:6633309

Sriratanaban, A; Sangprasert, B

1983-11-01

196

Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Drains, Southeastern Desert Area, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the south-eastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the firest year ...

L. A. Eccles

1979-01-01

197

Analysis of Public Goods Supply of New Generation Migrant Workers ' Urban and Rural Double Marginalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status quo of urban and rural public goods supply is analyzed in China. Firstly, public goods supply in rural areas is inadequate, for example, inadequate supply of agricultural infrastructure, lack of expenditure in agricultural science and technology, problems of rural drinking water safety, problems of rural roads and transportation, low levels of health care, weak rural public culture, short supply

Le-jun Li

2010-01-01

198

Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1971. A Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this second annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

199

Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1972. Third Annual Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the first part of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this third annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

200

Rural Development: Part 1. Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1973. Fourth Annual Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part 1 of a four part report to the U.S. Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 of the Agricultural Act of 1970, this fourth annual report is limited to rural development activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) delivery system (the USDA National Rural Development Committee, State Rural Development Committee, and county…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

201

Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

1996-03-01

202

Neotropical Forest Conservation, Agricultural Intensification, and Rural Out-migration: The Mexican Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest loss in the tropics is one of the most critical contemporary environmental problems. Understanding the complex sociopolitical and ecological forces operative in producing this problem has thus become an important scientific mandate. Some recent literature has suggested that modern market economy trends in Latin AmericaâÂÂnamely, rural out-migration and policies strongly favoring high-input, industry-based agricultureâÂÂhave helped curtail and sometimes revert the net loss of tropical forests, mainly through afforestation of land abandoned by smallholders. Government in Mexico, a megadiverse country with one of the biggest out-migration and remittance economies in the world, has excelled in applying free-market policies and in discouraging historical smallholder agriculture. Our analysis of Mexico's development path and of recent deforestation and reforestation trends at the national, regional, and local levels shows that, contrary to expectations, net deforestation is still occurring, and that other development, agricultural, and reforestation strategies are needed.

Luis García-Barriosâ (El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México;Departamento de Sistemas de Producción Alternativos)

2009-11-01

203

Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.  

PubMed

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population. PMID:23507738

Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

2013-03-18

204

78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public transportation to rural areas. In addition, States may...percent of the costs of safety certification training...Section 5311 funds are in addition to those awarded...used specifically for rural area needs. The Job...

2013-09-26

205

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This...

2009-10-01

206

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This...

2008-10-01

207

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section 195.12...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? (a) General. This...

2010-10-01

208

The strategic significance of wastewater sources to pollutant phosphorus levels in English rivers and to environmental management for rural, agricultural and urban catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural\\/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km2 scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total (TP), Dissolved Hydrolysable (DHP) and Particulate (PP) forms correlated with effluent markers

Colin Neal; Helen P. Jarvie; Paul J. A. Withers; Brian A. Whitton; Margaret Neal

2010-01-01

209

The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

2007-01-01

210

The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

2007-01-01

211

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA – THE MAIN MODALITIES TO ATTENUATE THE CRISIS EFFECTS AND TO RESUME ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main modalities and solutions by which agriculture and rural development can represent factors of economic-financial crisis shock attenuation and resuming economic growth. It is without doubt that the main modality to increase agriculture contribution to the general economic growth is the capital injection into economic factors (investments that create jobs, increase production and productivity on the

Paun Ion Otiman; Filon Toderoiu; Violeta Florian; Cecilia Alexandri; Camelia Gavrilescu; Iuliana Ionel; Mariana Grodea; Cornelia Alboiu; Minodora Moldovan; Vasile Gosa; Andreea Nagy

2010-01-01

212

Agriculture and rural development in Romania. The main modalities to attenuate the crisis effects and to resume economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main modalities and solutions by which agriculture and rural development can represent factors of economic-financial crisis shock attenuation and resuming economic growth. It is without doubt that the main modality to increase agriculture contribution to the general economic growth is the capital injection into economic factors (investments that create jobs, increase production and productivity on the

Paun Ion OTIMAN; Filon TODEROIU; Violeta FLORIAN; Cecilia ALEXANDRI; Camelia GAVRILESCU; Iuliana IONEL; Mariana GRODEA; Cornelia ALBOIU; Minodora MOLDOVAN; Vasile GOSA; Andrea NAGY

2010-01-01

213

PREVALENCE DE L'ASTHME CHEZ UNE POPULATION RURALE UTILISANT LES EAUX USEES EN AGRICULTURE, SETTAT, MAROC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to value the risk of occurrence of asthma in connection with the use of raw wastewater in agriculture and the presence of the intestinal parasitosis. A survey was conducted on 216 persons, aged 28.6 ± 19.4 years, belonging to two rural clusters, using wastewater in agriculture, and 120 persons aged 32.3 ± 19.5 years,

Saïd El Kettani; Abdelaziz Aichane; Ibn Rochd

2008-01-01

214

Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

215

Does living in rural areas make a difference for health in Québec?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study offers an overview of the health status of rural populations and its major determinants in Québec. A wide range of indicators are examined along a spatial grid that allows rural–urban as well as intrarural comparisons. Differences between urban and rural populations mainly concern specific health problems and determinants, while notable variations on these are noted within rural areas.

Robert Pampalon; Jérôme Martinez; Denis Hamel

2006-01-01

216

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas  

PubMed Central

Abstract Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes. Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital. The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country’s need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals.

Pena, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge

2010-01-01

217

Agricultural Land Resources and Conservation Areas Inventory for Livingston County, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an inventory and analysis of agricultural and resources and conservation areas in Livingston County. The purpose of the section on agriculture is to indicate the changing role of agriculture in the County within the broader framework o...

1972-01-01

218

The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

1987-12-01

219

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Ying-Bao; Liu, Chao-Ying; Song, Zhe-Ying

2009-07-01

220

The Hmong in Rural Areas: Critical Issues in Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses differences between the Hmong culture and American culture and resulting implications for provision of special education services. The Hmong population in the Fresno County (California) area has consistently grown since 1977, reaching approximately 26,500 in 1990. The major reason that Hmong refugees settled in agricultural

Iverson, Landa J.; Krabo, Judith J.

221

A geochemical survey of trace elements in agricultural and non-agricultural topsoil in Dexing area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, soil pollution is very serious, which has jeopardized the ecology, food safety, the people's health, and even the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to investigate the soil pollution situation, a total of 874 agricultural and non-agricultural topsoil samples were collected from Dexing area, northeast of Jiangxi Province, China. The total elemental concentrations of 17 elements (As, Hg,

Yanguo Teng; Shijun Ni; Jinsheng Wang; Rui Zuo; Jie Yang

2010-01-01

222

The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming. Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.

Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

223

[The assessment of quality of prevention activities in rural area].  

PubMed

The quality of health education and prevention activities within the medical institutions in rural area is assessed by the patients as adequate on all hallmarks (3.30 points). The higher indicators are established in relation to the development of interpersonal interactions of medical staff and patients (3.42 points), regularity and continuity (3.41 points) and timeliness (3.38 points) of educational and training activities in the area of healthy life-style. The lower assessment was established for availability (3.29 points), effectiveness and achieved satisfaction of patients (both 3.28 points). The lowest indicator was established for sufficiency of implemented measures in the area of formation of sanitary skillfulness of inhabitants of district (3.07 points). The study permitted to establish that the inhabitants of rural area doesn't dispose the needed knowledge in the area of one's own health preservation and promotion. In addition to that, the inadequate health education activities of medical personnel of the area related to the population is noted. PMID:20232504

Sinel'nikova, M V

224

The Discussion on the Interaction and Integration of Modern Agriculture and Rural tourism Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis summarizes the connotation of rural tourism and divides it into six types, including rural sightseeing and leisure tour, rural sports and fitness tour, rural folk culture tour, rural farming experience tour, rural business activity tour and rural learning and development tour. It outlines the theory of rural tourism sustainable development and points out that what sustainable development of

Xiao Xiao; Peng Song

2010-01-01

225

78 FR 40092 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development mission area, announces...deadline for receipt of applications in the USDA Rural Development State Office is no...

2013-07-03

226

Center for Rural Affairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As their mission statement states, the Center for Rural Affairs is "committed to building communities that stand for social justice, economic opportunity, and environmental stewardship." One of the highlights of the Center's site is their monthly newsletter that offers a range of pertinent news stories dealing with national events affecting rural America. For persons in rural areas, the Rural Enterprise Assistance Project section will be most helpful, offering numerous outreach programs, such as a Women's Business Center, information on small business loans, and a newsletter. Also of interest is an area that highlights legislative actions and current bills affecting rural areas (most notably, legislation related to agriculture and farming).

227

COPING WITH GROWTH IN RURAL AREAS: RECENT ZONING CHANGES IN SHAWANGUNK MOUNTAIN MUNICIPALITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, regions of greatest population growth in the United States have shifted, to some extent, from metropolitan areas to small towns and rural areas. Before this rural and nonmetropolitan resurgence, environmentally sensitive lands and open spaces were often protected by simple lack of demand for such land for nonagricultural uses. Many rural towns (townships) are now

George A Schnell; Peter Fairweather

228

Study on the fatal crashes of rural roads in mountainous area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural roads which are main parts of the national highway network contribute a lot to the prosperous of social and economics of rural area. With the gradual perfection of highway network, the mileage of national highway grows rapidly. It's of great importance to study and analyze the current safety situation of rural roads, especially those in mountainous areas where the

Li Jinhai; Wu Lintao; Wu Jingmei; Mi Xiaoyi

2011-01-01

229

Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.  

PubMed

To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (?-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 ?g/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size. PMID:22323047

Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

2012-02-10

230

The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural

Bradshaw, Ted K.

231

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE...Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for...

2009-01-01

232

7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE...Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for...

2010-01-01

233

7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas...INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural...

2013-01-01

234

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda.  

PubMed

Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes. PMID:23718775

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Katureebe, Sheila K; Gitta, Sheba N; Mwaka, Amos D; Atuyambe, Lynn

2013-05-23

235

Contract Farming System: A Tool to Tranforming Rural Society in Sabah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent decades have seen major change in agricultural technologies as a consequence to various programs for an agricultural development in rural areas of Sabah. Villagers in Sabah have always been receptive to new agricultural technologies that promises to improve their standard of living and as a reflection from the promotion of new agricultural technologies, many peoples in rural areas in

Kasim Mansur; Mansur Tola; Romzi Ationg

2009-01-01

236

What interventions do rural doctors think will increase recruitment in rural areas: a survey of 2778 health workers in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Background A shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers’ perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. Results Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. Conclusions From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing.

2013-01-01

237

Income and Employment Generation in Rural Areas in Relation to Alternative Farm Programs (with Special Emphasis on the North Central Region).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four alternative government farm policies were analyzed to determine their effect upon farm income and employment generation in rural areas and agriculturally related industries. A linear programming model of interregional competition was used to determine the impact of alternative farm policies on the quantity of major commodities produced, the…

Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

238

Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison.  

PubMed

Mortality rates have sharply decreased throughout the world in the twentieth century. While the communicable diseases that had been the principal killers of mankind have been largely brought under control, the enteric and other diseases, which are directly related to sanitation practices, have not been affected. Improvement in health status in the developing nations, especially in isolated rural areas, will hinge on changes in sanitation norms. Modification of these norms must be based on an awareness of what they are and of the values that are associated with them. Sanitation norms in rural areas of three countries--in the southeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic--are reviewed on the basis of a study in which essentially the same survey instrument was used in the three samples. Sanitation norms relating to the source of water and storage for household use are compared, as are personal hygiene practices and patterns for the disposal of liquid wastes, garbage, and other solid wastes. Selected attitudinal values are also examined. PMID:667407

Belcher, J C

1978-01-01

239

Rural Sociology in the South: 1980. Proceedings of the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 3-6, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A total of 47 papers representing the broad research and extension interests related to rural areas are included in this volume. The 13 sessions are entitled Rural Structure and Process, Industrialization, Migration, Health and Alcohol, Quality of Life, Occupations and Work, Applied Sociology, Education, Network Analysis, Poverty, Status…

Frese, Wolfgang, Ed.

240

Volunteer Organizations: Odds or Obstacle for Small Business Formation in Rural Areas? Evidence from Swiss Municipalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schulz T. and Baumgartner D. Volunteer organizations: odds or obstacle for small business formation in rural areas? Evidence from Swiss municipalities, Regional Studies. Rural development strategies often claim to stimulate new firm foundations, for example, by supporting locally active volunteer organizations for economic development. Based on survey data from 254 rural Swiss municipalities, this paper analyses the influence of different

Tobias Schulz; Daniel Baumgartner

2011-01-01

241

Educational Planning Methodology for the Integrated Development of Rural Areas. Reports Studies... S.83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of educational planning methodologies tested in Argentina, Guatemala, Brazil, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the document offers opinions and proposals about integrated rural development. Integrated rural development is seen as a social, economic, political, and cultural process in rural areas, designed to improve living conditions. Chapters…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

242

Educational Planning Methodology for the Integrated Development of Rural Areas. Reports Studies... S.83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A summary of educational planning methodologies tested in Argentina, Guatemala, Brazil, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the document offers opinions and proposals about integrated rural development. Integrated rural development is seen as a social, economic, political, and cultural process in rural areas, designed to improve living conditions. Chapters…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

243

A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted

S. Adl; D. Iron; T. Kolokolnikov

2011-01-01

244

Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average ?18O and ?D in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average ?18O and ?D in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The ?18O in function of ?D was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher ?18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, ?18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

2008-12-01

245

Does living in rural areas make a difference for health in Québec?  

PubMed

This study offers an overview of the health status of rural populations and its major determinants in Québec. A wide range of indicators are examined along a spatial grid that allows rural-urban as well as intrarural comparisons. Differences between urban and rural populations mainly concern specific health problems and determinants, while notable variations on these are noted within rural areas. Some avenues for further research and public health policies in Québec are presented. PMID:15955720

Pampalon, Robert; Martinez, Jérôme; Hamel, Denis

2005-06-13

246

Ecosystem services, agriculture, and rural poverty in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon: Interrelationships and policy prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers seeking to modify financial incentives to increase the flows of ecosystem services in and around tropical moist forests must consider where to focus their attention and what collection of incentives can effectively achieve policy objectives. In most cases, policymakers focus on extensively forested areas where the flows of ecosystem services between agriculture and the environment is generally characterized by

Jan Börner; Arisbe Mendoza; Stephen A. Vosti

2007-01-01

247

Sports and recreational injuries: regional rural injury study-II: impact on agricultural households and operations  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the incidence, severity, and potential risk factors for sports/recreational injuries incurred by children and adults in a five state, rural, Midwest, agricultural household population. Methods Computer assisted telephone interviews that included questions about all injuries were completed for eligible, participating households for 1999; 16?538 people participated, including 8488 children less than 20 years of age. Rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and causal models guided multivariate models. Results Of a total of 2586 injuries, 1301 (50%) were not related to agricultural activity. Among these, 733 (28%) were associated with sports/recreational activities including multiple person sports (64%), general play activities (19%), and single person sports (14%). The overall rate was 46.4 injury events per 1000 persons per year. Rates for children were 99.4 for boys and 64.3 for girls. For adults (aged 20 and above), rates were 11.9 for men and 4.8 for women. For children, 93% received health care, 44% were restricted for seven or more days, and 18% lost agricultural work time of seven or more days; the respective proportions for adults were 88%, 45%, and 17%. Multivariate analysis for children showed increased risks for Nebraska residents, males, and those 10–14 or 15–19 years. For adults, increased risks were identified for males and those 20–24 years; decreased risks were observed for Nebraska residents and those 45–54 years. Conclusions Sports/recreational activities are an important source of injury with relevant consequences for this population, including significant restricted daily activity and lost agricultural work time. Key findings provide a basis for further study to address these burdens.

Kurszewski, L S; Gerberich, S G; Serfass, R C; Ryan, A D; Renier, C M; Alexander, B H; Carlson, K Ferguson; Masten, A S

2006-01-01

248

Predicting the effects of agricultural practices on waterborne human pathogens, livestock helminthes, and the health of rural water-bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The primary goal of the proposed research is to better understand the effects of agricultural practices on rural water quality, with emphases on the abundance of waterborne fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus spp.) and sources of livestock helminthes. Our secondary goal is to use the knowledge resulting from this research to predict when and where these pathogens will

Jason R. Rohr

249

The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing…

Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

2008-01-01

250

Wireless-broadband over power lines networks: A promising broadband solution in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas and remote areas the expenditure for new projects related to broadband communications is deterred. In this paper hybrid Wireless-Broadband over Power Lines (W-BPL) technology, suitable for rural and remote areas is presented. This hybrid approach employs BPL technology for the transmission of communication signals via the medium voltage (MV) grid and wireless technology for providing broadband access

Georgios I. Tsiropoulos; Angeliki M. Sarafi; Panayotis G. Cottis

2009-01-01

251

An Experiment of the Life Support Network for Elderly People Living in a Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide comfortable and safety life for every people in the world, information technologies will be useful in a rural area as well as in a metropolitan area. This paper proposes a new concept of Life Support Network (LSN) for elderly people living in a rural area. The network is a type of Intranet, which incorporates a safety

JUN SASAKI; BAYME ABAYDULLA; KEIZO YAMADA; MICHIRU TANAKA; YUTAKA FUNYU

2007-01-01

252

RURAL LANDSCAPE VALUATION IN A CROSS-BOARDER REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rural landscape is one of the most valuable agricultural externalities and it is often affected by modifications in the agricultural production process. Moreover, some rural areas are deteriorating because of the depopulation process and others are being transformed owing to socio-economic pressures. Since the European Conference on Rural Development hosted in Cork in 1996, efforts have been made in

253

Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

Eccles, Lawrence A.

1979-01-01

254

Rural development policy in the United States: a critical analysis and lessons from the “still birth” of the rural collaborative investment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a comprehensive rural development policy in the United States has been stymied repeatedly. A number of factors account for the low salience of rural development on the domestic policy agenda, from misconceptions about the economic composition of rural areas to the pitting of agriculture against broader rural development constituencies. The Rural Collaborative Investment Program (RCIP) from the

Beth Walter Honadle

2011-01-01

255

SOURCES AND IMPLICATIONS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME FOR IMPROVING RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFRICA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BOTSWANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many African countries, a high proportion of the population resides in the rural areas and derives their incomes mainly from agriculture. This notwithstanding, there is a growing evidence that incomes from nonfarm employment sources are increasingly becoming important among the rural population. Using Botswana's rural household survey data, this paper examines the relative contributions and implications of agriculture and

A. Panin; M. Mahabile; I. Mphoh; U. Batlang

1993-01-01

256

Toward an "Efficient and Contented" Agriculture: The Goals of Rural Education Reform, 1900-1920.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural education reform manifest in the U.S. "Country Life Movement" of the early 1900's centered on the doctrine of economic efficiency. Rural education reformers believed that high food prices were due to the inefficiency of farmers and the general discontent of rural peoples exemplified by the rural to urban migration. The rural education system…

Danbom, David B.

257

Rural KIDS COUNT Pocket Guide. Measures of Child Well-Being in the Nation's Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Pocket Guide" is derived from the "2004 KIDS COUNT Special Report: City & Rural KIDSCOUNT Data Book." It is designed to give state-level policymakers a better understanding of conditions faced by families in their rural communities and how they compare to those in the rural parts of other states, as well as the country as a whole. This…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

2004-01-01

258

Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports," prepared…

Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

259

Energy requirements for rural development  

SciTech Connect

This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

Jones, D.W.

1988-06-01

260

Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

2006-01-01

261

Community governance and active citizenship in rural areas: the relationship between parish councils and voluntary and community organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

NCVO's rural project is a programme of research and policy development focusing specifically on the needs of voluntary organisations working in rural areas. Our aim is to increase awareness and understanding of the scope and impact of rural voluntary activity and develop and promote policy to support the work of the voluntary sector in rural areas. This three year project

Claire Steel; Véronique Jochum; Jemma Grieve

262

The prevalence of tinea pedis and tinea manuum in adults in rural areas in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of tinea pedis and manuum (dermatophyte infections of the hands and feet) in adults in rural areas of Turkey, the risk factors and self-administered treatment options. A total of 2,574 people living in a rural area were enrolled in the study. Participants were asked demographic data, hygienic habits in a

Nuri Kiraz; Selma Metintas; Yasemin Oz; Filiz Koc; Esra Ayse Koku Aksu; Cemalettin Kalyoncu; Nilgün Kasifoglu; Esin Cetin; ?nci Ar?kan

2010-01-01

263

Study on the relationship between redistributional fiscal expenditure and disparity between urban and rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disparity between urban and rural area can be rectified and made up by redistributional fiscal expenditure. Divide disparity between Urban and Rural Area into consumption disparity and income disparity, it can be found that redistributional fiscal expenditure can significantly narrow consumption disparity while its effect on income disparity is not significant. A higher inequality demands a higher redistributional fiscal expenditure.

Xiaohua Yang

2011-01-01

264

WORKING TOWARDS ORAL HEALTH EQUITY FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AND REMOTE AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current health reform agenda frequently cites those living in rural and remote areas as disadvantaged. Rightfully so — when it comes to health, those living in rural and remote areas experience inequalities in access to health services. They experience higher levels of mortality, morbidity and health risk factors than those who live in major cities. Access to dental care

265

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

266

Differences between burns in rural and in urban areas: implications for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify typical features of burns in rural areas and to improve their prevention by comparing the characteristics of burnt patients and their burns in rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 19 of the 23 French burns units over one year, using a structured questionnaire. We analysed the resulting database. Of the 1422

G Vidal-Trecan; S Tcherny-Lessenot; C Grossin; S Devaux; M Pages; J Laguerre; D Wassermann

2000-01-01

267

Coordination Risk and Cost Impacts on Economic Development in Poor Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues relevant to a critical problem in economic development: how to get rapid pro-poor economic growth in poor rural areas in Africa and South Asia where most of the world's dollar a day poor live. It examines constraints to the development of coordinated exchange systems in poor rural areas, focusing on the core problem of thin markets

Andrew Dorward; Jonathan Kydd; Colin Poulton; Dirk Bezemer

2009-01-01

268

Planning and Providing End-of-life Care in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Approximately 20% of North Americans and 25% of Europeans reside in rural areas. Planning and providing end-of-life (EOL) care in rural areas presents some unique challenges. Purpose: In order to understand these challenges, and other important issues or circumstances, a literature search was conducted to assess the state of science on…

Wilson, Donna M.; Justice, Christopher; Sheps, Sam; Thomas, Roger; Reid, Pam; Leibovici, Karen

2006-01-01

269

Riverside and Rangesview: Urban to Rural Migration in Two Areas of Western Australia's Great Southern Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomers can be seen as a source of vital social capital for small rural communities struggling to maintain and grow their population. It is of concern therefore that incomers settle well. This study investigates locals and inmigrators in two areas of the Great Southern Region of Western Australia. Eighty five respondents reported on why they lived in a rural area,

Helen Byles-Drage

270

Border Node Based Routing Protocol for VANETs in Sparse and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvements in MANET technology and the ever-increasing safety requirements have turned vehicle safety communication into an important research topic. In rural and sparse areas where there is very little or no fixed infrastructure available, VANETs will play an important role in providing public safety communications. VANETs in rural and sparse areas are characterized as partially connected mobile ad hoc

Mingliu Zhang; Richard S. Wolff

2007-01-01

271

The Feasibility and Value of Broadband Communications in Rural Areas. A Preliminary Evaluation, April 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study was conducted to determine the feasibility and value of using broadband communications (transmission of many television, voice and/or data signals through a single system) to provide public services for rural areas. Applications of broadband communications to rural areas were divided into public services (health, education, law…

Mills, William; And Others

272

Ageing in rural areas of East and West Germany: increasing similarities and remaining differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since unification in 1990, living conditions in Germany’s “New Länder” have slowly converged to the conditions in the “Old Länder”. One can assume, however, that West–East differences persist more strongly in remote rural areas neglected by economic development. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate and compare the living conditions of older adults in rural areas in East and West Germany

Heidrun Mollenkopf; Roman Kaspar

2005-01-01

273

Resonant Ballast for Photovoltaic Powered Street Lighting System in Remote Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, electronic resonant ballast for a small photovoltaic powered street lighting system in remote rural area was pro- posed. The street lighting system was designed for rural area where the electrical transmission line cannot be commonly serviced and it is the cascade systems of the solar arrays, switching battery charger, and electronics ballast with small fluorescent lamp. The ballast

Tanes Tanitteerapan; Suriyan Pan-A

274

Development of a School Based Hearing Conservation Program for Use in Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to develop and evaluate hearing loss prevention programs for use with youth in grades 4 and 7 in rural areas. There is a high prevalence of hearing impairment among adolescents living in rural areas, particularly those with farmi...

G. A. Flamme S. Myers-Verhage J. A. Merchant A. M. Stromquist C. Zwerling

2005-01-01

275

Understanding rural areas dynamics from a complex perspective. An application of Prospective Structural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rural areas continues to be an international priority. The urgent need to fight poverty (mainly concentrated in rural areas) in developing countries, and the demand for increasing economic and social cohesion in developed countries, explain this priority on the political agendas of multilateral bodies, the EU and most other countries. When Development Economics was acknowledged as part

Mateo Ambrosio Albala; Maria del Mar Delgado

2008-01-01

276

The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

Walker, Bruce

2004-01-01

277

Development of Productive Forces and the Changes of Rural President's Consumption Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental status of productivity in Chinese rural area is introduced. Since the implementation of the agriculture supporting policies in 2004, the productive forces in rural areas have been improved greatly. It is reflected on the following aspects: great enhancement of rural labors' cultural quality; the quantity of agricultural machines has been increased; the level of production management and decision

Xiangyang Huang

2011-01-01

278

Addressing Suicide Potential and Prevention in Rural and Frontier Areas: Suicide Prevention Toolkit for Rural Primary Care Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suicide rates in rural areas are significantly higher than they are in urban areas for men of all ages and for young women.a Research shows that many people visit their primary care physician instead of a mental health provider for mental health problems....

C. Smith J. Ciarlo J. Demmler M. McFaul T. DeHay

2009-01-01

279

Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper identifies the basic factors affecting rural development and the social consequences of rural policies and structural changes in agriculture; it also suggests research areas relating some of these factors to what is happening in America's rural communities. Data sources such as congressional hearings, rural sociologists' critiques,…

Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

280

SWOT Analysis of New-type Industrialization in Traditional Agricultural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWOT analysis method is used to discuss the new-type industrialization in traditional agricultural areas. Among them, advantages of new-type industrialization in traditional agricultural areas are analyzed from four aspects of labor advantage, land advantage, product advantage and environmental advantage. Disadvantages of new-type industrialization in traditional agricultural areas are also analyzed from four aspects of geographical disadvantage, inferior labor quality, informal

Yanling Wu

2009-01-01

281

AGRICULTURAL & NON-AGRICULTURAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT IN THE EU: ISSUES AND STRATEGIES, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ACCESSION & CANDIDATE COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural unemployment and rural depopulation are common concerns of European countries, especially the new EU accession and candidate countries. The context for this paper is the substantial change in labour requirements, opportunities and responses of the labour force following the collapse of communism, coupled with the current emphasis on market liberalisation. Associated changes in the structure of farming are reviewed,

Martin M. Turner; E. John Wibberley

282

7 CFR 1955.137 - Real property located in special areas or having special characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND... Real property located in special areas or having special characteristics...not likely endanger the safety of dwelling...

2013-01-01

283

Energy utilisation in rural industries in Karnataka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a vital component in rural industries such as the Agro processing industries and the brick and tile industries. In rural areas, population pressure and low agricultural productivity are among factors forcing people into marginal and ecologically fragile lands. Forests are being logged to meet the energy demand of a region in addition to clearing forests for agricultural purposes

T. V. Ramachandra

1998-01-01

284

Family Literacy Service Design and Delivery in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…

Statewide Initiative News, 2002

2002-01-01

285

Increasing Mammography Screening among African American Women in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a church-based breast cancer screening education program on mammography attainment by African American women 40 years old and older in rural Alabama. The sample consisted of 192 women who volunteered to participate in the study through 13 African American churches in a rural, economically-depressed Alabama county. The design was

Mary Edith Powell; Vivian Carter; Eunice Bonsi; Gwendolyn Johnson; Licia Williams; Lucile Taylor-Smith; Quanita Hayes; Pamela C. Hull; Van A. Cain; Baqar A. Husaini

2005-01-01

286

Family Literacy Service Design and Delivery in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural and urban family literacy programs share similar challenges in helping families work through obstacles to participation, such as transportation and childcare. However, the scope and nature of these challenges and the program management strategies to deal with them differ in rural and urban settings. Some of the most creative solutions to…

Statewide Initiative News, 2002

2002-01-01

287

Approaches to Locating Urban Functions in Developing Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares two approaches to planning the locations of urban functions in developing rural regions. The prevailing functional integration approach gives more weight to integrating and articulating an urban hierarchy than to increasing the access of rural populations to urban-based services. It relies on supply-side descriptions of functional urban hierarchies and linkages and fails to consider effective demand when

Eric S. Belsky; Gerald J. Karaska

1990-01-01

288

Aspects of Planning for Public Services in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of a rural development conference, this publication emphasizes the theory of rural public service planning and is addressed to middle and/or top level planners and public administrators and/or researchers concerned with the delivery of public services. The objectives of this 12-paper collection are: to review existing methods and…

Rogers, David L., Ed.; Whiting, Larry R., Ed.

289

Improving Service for Handicapped Students in Rural Areas: A Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year cooperative program between the College of Saint Rose (Albany, New York) and surrounding rural school districts has two main goals: to help rural Chief School Officers (CSOs) design staff development activities to meet educational needs of mainstreamed handicapped students and to improve the college's preservice teacher education program…

Grippin, Pauline; And Others

290

Methodology for Integral Water Pollution Assessment within Agricultural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main economy branch in the Province of Vojvodina is agriculture, which has significantly influenced water quality of watercourses as well as groundwater. Both nonpoint and point source of pollution are present in the form of agricultural runoff from arable land and point sources from farm wastewater discharges. Pollution assessment stated by the EU Water Framework Directive requires the application

Jasna Piperski; Pavel Benka; Atila Bezdan; Atila Salvai

2010-01-01

291

Energy balance modeling of agricultural areas by remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated water resource management required to face the water scarcity situation in semiarid regions relies on the ability to obtain accurate information about the use of water by crops and natural vegetation. Thermal remote sensing provides key data about the vegetation water status. The integration of this remotely sensed data into water and energy balance models help to better estimate evapotranspiration under heterogeneous cropping and natural vegetation patterns, extending the field of application of these models from point to basin and regional scales. In this work, we present an approach to estimate spatially distributed surface energy fluxes using a series of Landsat TM satellite images combined with simulation modeling and ground-based measurements. A physically-based method for the energy budget partitioning following the Two Source Model [1, 2] has been applied over an heterogeneous agricultural area located in southern Spain. The study was performed during 2009 crop growing season and the results were validated with field data collected with an eddy covariance system installed over a corn field during the season. The instantaneous and daily estimations were compared to the measured data, obtaining a general good adjustment at both scales and setting the basis for a larger scale application that may assist a decision - making tool for water resources planning in the region.

Andreu, A.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Polo, M. J.; Padilla, F. L. M.; Gavilán, P.

2011-10-01

292

THE RAPID GROWTH OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND THEIR ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE COURSE OFFERINGS IN SOME JUNIOR COLLEGES FAIL TO MEET ADEQUATELY THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH. A STUDY IN 1964 REVEALED THAT ONLY TWENTY OF THE SEVENTY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA OFFERED TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, ALTHOUGH THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED "DIRECTORY OF JUNIOR COLLEGES" SHOWS AN INCREASE TO SIXTY. FURTHER STATISTICS REVEAL THAT 253…

ELDRIDGE, DONALD A.

293

Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease…

Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

2010-01-01

294

Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

2002-01-01

295

Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas: The TRAILS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urban- ization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and rural area and to examine the contributory factors. Methods: We obtained data from the first

Sijmen A. Reijneveld; Rene Veenstra; Andrea F. de Winter; Frank C. Verhulst; Johannes Ormel

2009-01-01

296

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

297

Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

2007-01-01

298

Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.  

PubMed

Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

Charzy?ska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Go?dziewska, Ma?gorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Ga??ziowska, Edyta

2013-09-20

299

Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

1980-09-01

300

Effect of ecological compensation areas on floristic and breeding bird diversity in Swiss agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s the Swiss agricultural policy was reformed and new environmental objectives were formulated. The aims of the reform were to halt the loss of agro-biodiversity and to enable the spread of endangered species. As a result, the utilised agricultural area (UAA) is now interspersed with low input ecological compensation areas (ECA), making up 13% of the UAA (extensified

F. Herzog; S. Dreier; G. Hofer; C. Marfurt; B. Schüpbach; M. Spiess; T. Walter

2005-01-01

301

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

302

Determinants of utilisation of health services by women in rural and urban areas in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the factors that influence the utilisation of health services by women in the rural and urban areas in Ghana. The systematic sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from women aged 18 and above with diverse backgrounds from Ahafo-Ano South district, representing the rural districts and Kumasi metropolis, representing the urban districts. The research instruments used

Daniel Buor

2005-01-01

303

The Health Services Use Among Older Canadians in Rural and Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though universal health care is one of the fundamental pillars of Canadian society, the rising cost of all services has resulted in the relocation and redistribution of funding and services between rural and urban areas. While most econometric analyses of health service use in Canada include broad controls by province and rural\\/urban status, there has been relatively little econometric

Heather Conde; James Ted McDonald

2007-01-01

304

Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

2006-01-01

305

The Periphery of Care: Emergency Services for Homeless People in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Until recently, homelessness in rural areas has received little recognition because of overwhelming assumptions about the urban-centeredness of homeless people and their needs. This paper seeks to build on recent research that has begun to uncover some of the problems and characteristics of rural homelessness, by suggesting two significant…

Cloke, Paul; Johnsen, Sarah; May, Jon

2007-01-01

306

Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a…

Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

2006-01-01

307

Cognitive radio on TV bands: a new approach to provide wireless connectivity for rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing wireless technologies to provide connectivity for rural areas is an active topic in the academic and industrial communities. In this article we begin by discussing the challenges of rural communications and reviewing existing wireless technologies that have been proposed or implemented for this market. We then focus on an emerging technology, cognitive radio, that promises to be a viable

Ying-Chang Liang; Anh Tuan Hoang; Hsiao-Hwa Chen

2008-01-01

308

The pricing mechanism for safety drinking water supply in rural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of quasi-public goods along with its price determination is one of the key problems in public finance theory. The focus of this work is on such quasi-public goods as rural drinking water. How to supply safety drinking water to the rural areas becomes more and more imminent because of the serious pollution in the supply network caused by

CAI Yanbing; LIU Peng

2011-01-01

309

HIV Education, Prevention, and Outreach Programs in Rural Areas of the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes HIV education, prevention, and outreach activities, including barriers to providing these services, to clients in rural areas of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. We present responses from 222 AIDS service and public health organizations. The questionnaire defined rural “as a town, village, or county with fewer than 50,000 people that is not part of

Miguel A. Zuniga; Robert J. Buchanan; Bonnie J. Chakravorty

2006-01-01

310

Demographic and Disease Characteristics of People With Multiple Sclerosis Living in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares demographic and disease-related characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in urban and rural areas. The data analyzed for this study were collected from a survey of 1518 people with MS living throughout the United States from October 2004 through January 2005. We found significant urban-rural differences in various MS characteristics, including type of MS. A

Robert J. Buchanan; Randolph Schiffer; Alexa Stuifbergen; Li Zhu; Suojin Wang; Bonnie J. Chakravorty; MyungSuk Kim

311

The social situation of motherless children in rural and urban areas of Guinea-Bissau  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of HIV infection and the high maternal mortality, orphans are a rapidly growing problem in Africa. However, few studies describe the social conditions of these children. Our study focuses on motherless children in urban and rural areas of Guinea-Bissau.A rural and an urban cohort of children (128 and 192, respectively) that had been followed by demographic

Tania Nicole Masmas; Henrik Jensen; Domingos da Silva; Lars Høj; Anita Sandström; Peter Aaby

2004-01-01

312

Determinants Of Household Access To Formal Credit In The Rural Areas Of The Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the factors affecting the access of rural individual and group-based households to formal credit in the Mekong Delta (MD), Vietnam. Poverty levels in the Mekong Delta have declined significantly over the last decades, but in the rural areas they remain significant. If it is assumed that access to credit is a suitable vehicle for poverty alleviation, it

Duy Vuong Quoc

2012-01-01

313

Accessibility and Care in a Rural Area - the case of Tewkesbury Borough  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rural areas, the limited availability of appropriate public transport and the increasing geographic concentration of in any service outlets pose serious difficulties for those social service client groups which exhibit low levels of car ownership. This paper considers the transport needs of elderly and disabled people and carers in the largely rural district of Tewkesbury. It also establishes the

Malcolm Moseley

314

Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

2007-01-01

315

How does real exchange rate influence income inequality between urban and rural areas in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The channels through which the real exchange rate influences urban\\/rural per capita real income inequality are analyzed using yearly data for 28 Chinese provinces. Due to the higher share of tradable goods produced in urban than rural areas, the real depreciation of the Chinese currency raised the urban bias, contrary to the effect usually expected. This rise was, however, mitigated

S. Guillaumont Jeanneney; P. Hua

2001-01-01

316

Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of…

Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

317

Into Another Kind of Country: The College Matriculation of Youth from Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth from rural areas are consistently under-represented in 4-year college institutions. This is particularly true for those whose parents did not go to college. Historically, a high school degree was sufficient for employment in rural communities. However, as blue-collar jobs continue to disappear, lesser educated residents are increasingly…

Tucker, Sarah Armstrong

2010-01-01

318

Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1974. Fifth Annual Report to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key role of the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to help local people make rural America a better place to live and work. The Rural Development (RD) Committee structure, conceived in 1969, consists of national, state, regional, and local committees which aid the USDA. During fiscal year 1974, USDA and the State Extension Services…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

319

Current Situation and Countermeasures of Agricultural Information Construction in Jiamusi Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning with the current situation of agricultural information construction in Jiamusi area, the achievements obtained from agricultural information construction are clearly known by discussing current work conditions. On the basis of thorough investigation, the existing problems of agricultural information construction are found. The reasons of these problems are analyzed in detail, and then the general idea of agricultural information construction is laid out in this paper. At last, aiming at how to develop agricultural information construction, the feasible measures are proposed from the aspects of strengthening infrastructure construction, enhancing the quality of talent teams and integrating information resources.

Shao, Dongwei; Wang, Junfa; Jiang, Donghua; Liu, Qisheng

320

Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.  

PubMed

A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity. PMID:12286961

Zhu, W

1992-10-01

321

The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs,…

Howley, Craig B.

322

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.  

PubMed

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

2001-07-01

323

Perceived Needs and Barriers of Rwandan Rural Women to Participate in Agricultural Extension Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine perceived needs and barriers of Rwandan rural women to participate in Extension services in Gikongoro province, Rwanda. Data were collected from a sample of 120 rural women farmers using face-to-face interviews. Results of this study indicated that rural women's immediate needs were farm inputs and farm tools and the long- term needs

Olive M. Kemirembe; Frank Brewer; Dave Krueger

324

WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - TURKISH CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case in most developing and developed countries in the world, women play a vital role in rural areas of Turkey in contributing to agricultural activities in addition to household duties and non-agricultural activities such as industry and services. Women's role in the daily economic life in Turkey has always been very important especially in the agricultural

B. Özekici; O. Tekinel; S. Kiymaz

325

REGIONAL DISPARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE IN ROMANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accession to the European Union has opened new challenges for Romanianagriculture, which must implement the principles of the Common Agricultural Policy. These principlesaim at achieving high performance agriculture, capable to ensure food security for the population andto adequately develop the rural area. The paper intends to analyse the performance of Romanianagriculture in relation to the agriculture in the European

Vasile Burja

2011-01-01

326

Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while…

Quigley, John M.

327

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicant must agree that if licensed as a RBIC, it will make Developmental Venture Capital investments in Enterprises that will create wealth and job opportunities in Rural Areas and among individuals living in those...

2009-01-01

328

Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook provides guidelines and tools to help providers of transit in rural and small urban areas make employee compensation decisions. These decisions are critical to the economic health of your organization and can provide the key to good custome...

S. Knapp

2008-01-01

329

Feasibility of Intermodal Goods Movement Facilities in Small and Medium Cities and Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes conditions under which intermodal goods movement facilities may be feasible in small-to-medium cities and rural areas. Profiles are presented of sixteen TOFC/COFC facilities and seventeen bulk transfer facilities. Issues related to go...

E. S. Neuman C. L. Barry

1990-01-01

330

Causes, Effects and Management Mechanisms of Drought Crisis in Rural and Nomadic Communities in Southeastern Iran as Perceived by Agricultural\\/Rural Managers and Specialist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iranian rural and nomadic communities living in drought-prone marginal areas with subsistence economy, seem to be most vulnerable during the occurrence of drought crisis. Various communities have their own different approaches to manage risk and crisis, including drought and other natural disasters. In the past, however, traditional communities in dry lands typically managed and protected their resources communally using their

Seyed Mahmood Hosseini; Aboulqassem Sharifzadeh; Morteza Akbari

2009-01-01

331

Environmental pressures and rural-urban migration: The case of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh, like other least developed countries (LDC), has a large rural population and agricultural labor force. At the turn of the Millennium 75 percent of the LDCs’ population still lived in rural areas and 71 percent of the LDCs’ labor force was involved in agriculture. Yet, even the least developed countries are affected by rapidly accelerating rural-to-urban migration. This decade,

Michael Herrmann; David Svarin

2009-01-01

332

Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most states in the U.S. have adopted P Indexing to guide P-based management of agricultural fields by identifying the relative risk of P loss at farm and watershed scales. To a large extent, this risk is based on hydrologic principles whereby frequently occurring storms have a given potential to in...

333

A satellite telecommunication system for remote and rural areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of satellite telecommunication services for remote and rural areas in Africa is discussed in the framework of GLODOM, where a global satellite system is to provide domestic services for the rural areas of the developing world. Emphasis is placed on basic requirements, satellite system characteristics, services, and cost. It is noted that the special features of the rural environment necessitate a specially designed satellite system: i.e., a system with higher sensitivity and EIRP for the satellite transponders to allow small, fully transistorized, low-power-consumption earth stations to be employed. The use of the 4/6 GHz band is also a necessity.

Laufenberg, W.

334

Health promotion intervention for hygienic disposal of children's faeces in a rural area of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria.Setting The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria.Design The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.Method The intervention, which lasted for nine months, consisted of hygienic use

M. K. Jinadu; C. A. Adegbenro; A. O. Esmai; A. A. Ojo; B. A. Oyeleye

2007-01-01

335

Impacts of e-collaboration tools for development of rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a powerful driver for economy-wide productivity, growth and jobs - and are arguably Europe's best-bet investment for the future. The ICT in innovation processes and acts play more and more important role in rural areas. The regional innovation performance is different in regions and lower in rural areas.The regional innovation performance is different in

Miklós Herdon

336

Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention. PMID:23034263

Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

337

Migration, cash cropping and subsistence agriculture: relationships to household food expenditures in rural Mexico.  

PubMed

The relationship between income and food expenditure patterns is influenced by a number of factors, including personal tastes, source and frequency of income, male/female control over income, home food production, and other demographic factors. In this study, the relationship of household resource allocation to each of the following is examined: (1) source of income (i.e. wage labor, cash cropping, migrant remittances, and other private sources); (2) women's contribution to income; and (3) subsistence production level. The overall study design involved a cross-sectional survey of 178 households in three rural Mexican communities on two occasions spanning both agricultural seasons. On each occasion, data were collected on the following: (1) income by source and by earner; (2) migrant remittances; (3) gifts and loans; (4) subsistence and cash crop production, expenses, and earnings; (5) major nonfood purchases; (6) household composition; and (7) household food use (during the previous week). Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the factors associated with the percentage of income allocated to food (PFX) and the percentage of the food budget allocated to (1) maize, beans, and chile (TRAD); (2) meat, milk, and fruit (LUX); and (3) bread, pasta, and snack foods (PROC). All regressions were run controlling for income. The proportion of income from migrant remittances was negatively associated with PFX (winter). Subsistence score was positively related to PFX (summer). Migrant remittances (winter) and subsistence score (both seasons) were negatively associated with TRAD. Subsistence score was positively related to LUX (both seasons). Father's absence (both seasons), store ownership (winter), and private source of income (summer) were all positively linked to PROC. Mother's contribution to total income and cash cropping income were not significantly related to any of the dependent variables. The findings support the idea that resource allocation patterns are influenced not only by income level but also by the household economic strategies through which income is generated. PMID:1767281

Kaiser, L L; Dewey, K G

1991-01-01

338

Keokuk County rural health study: self-reported use of agricultural chemicals and protective equipment.  

PubMed

The Keokuk County Rural Health Study is a population-based study of an agricultural community in Iowa. The study includes in-depth evaluations of respiratory disease, injury, and other health outcomes in relation to environmental and occupational exposures. This article reports descriptive findings on pesticide use from among the 1191 participants completing occupational surveys. Fifty-one percent (612) of respondents (farmers and non-farmers) had applied insecticides including lawn and garden chemicals at home during the past year. Thirty-three percent (395) of respondents had personally mixed or applied farm chemicals during their life. One-hundred and four had a current pesticide applicator's license. Information on the specific types of pesticides and protective measures used was obtained for the 144 individuals who had mixed or applied pesticides on farms within the previous year. Of these individuals, 67% worked with fertilizers, 49% used herbicides, 48% used crop insecticides, 28% used crop storage insecticides, 45% applied livestock insecticides, and 9% worked with fungicides. The use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, aprons, and respirators varied depending on the chemical. A substantial proportion did not use gloves even for mixing. Thirty-five percent reported at least one suspected work-related symptom after working with pesticides during the previous year. The lack of differences in protective equipment use between applicators who have completed pesticide applicator training courses and those who have not suggests a need to develop more effective training methods. The increased use of protective equipment when applying odorous agrochemicals suggests that addition of an odorant to more toxic pesticides may be a successful intervention strategy. PMID:19042670

Reynolds, Stephen J; Tadevosyan, Artashes; Fuortes, Laurence; Merchant, James A; Stromquist, Ann M; Burmeister, Leon F; Taylor, Craig; Kelly, Kevin M

2007-01-01

339

The increasing supply of physicians in US urban and rural areas, 1975 to 1988.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Despite the rapid growth of the US physician supply since the mid-1970s, it remains unclear whether physicians have spread into the most rural areas of the country. This report examines the urban-rural distribution of physicians between 1975 and 1988. METHODS. A county-based typology of the urban-rural continuum was employed to examine trends in the supply of nonfederal primary care physicians, specialist physicians, and osteopaths. RESULTS. All urban and rural areas gained physicians during the late 1970s and 1980s. The supply of physicians increased most rapidly in metropolitan counties. Within nonmetropolitan areas, urbanized remote counties became more prominent centers of the physician supply. Osteopaths were more likely to locate in the most rural areas than allopaths. The physician supply in all areas also became more specialized over time. CONCLUSIONS. The rapid growth of the US physician supply was associated with the spread of more practitioners into all parts of the country. However, the supply of physicians increased most rapidly in urban areas, widening urban-rural differences in the availability of physicians.

Frenzen, P D

1991-01-01

340

Agriculture's 'multifunctionality' and the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the agricultural policy reforms embodied in the Uruguay Round consistent with meeting domestic policy objectives such as providing adequate food security, environmental protection and viability of rural areas? This article examines the claim that agriculture deserves more price support and import protection than other sectors because of the non?marketed externalities and public goods it produces jointly with marketable food

Kym Anderson

2000-01-01

341

Agricultural research and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of agricultural research has been to increase agricultural production, particularly in high-potential areas. This has contributed enormously to reducing the number of people living in poverty worldwide, as well as to reducing food prices for all. Despite these gains, about 1 billion rural people still live in poverty in the developing world. In an era in which

Peter B. R. Hazell; Lawrence James Haddad

2001-01-01

342

Regional cooperation for MSW management in rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic pressures are great for smaller communities and rural counties to look for regional solutions to the municipal solid waste (MSW) management challenges they face. While efforts to develop and sustain cooperative ventures often have been successful, there have been a number of notable exceptions, six examples of which are presented. These successful efforts in multi-county cooperation around the

1997-01-01

343

Mortality, morbidity and drug consumption in a rural area (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive study was made of the health indicators in 5 rural municipalities of the province of Castellón (Spain), with a total of 1428 inhabitants. This population is characterized by its aging, 36.9% of all individuals being older than 65 years. A retrospective evaluation was made of the annual mortality rates between 1940 and 1990, and of morbidity and medications

M. M. Morales Suárez-Varela; L. Segarra Castelló; A. Perez Benajas; A. Llopis González

1995-01-01

344

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

345

Age, Trust, and Perceived Safety from Crime in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship of age and trust to perceived safety from crime among 891 rural residents from a statewide victim study. Trust was found to be a more important predictor of perceived safety than age, isolation, and income. Age had a direct, independent effect on perceived safety. (Author/NRB)

Mullen, Robert E.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

1985-01-01

346

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities

Paul J. Ossenbruggen; Jyothi Pendharkar; John Ivan

2001-01-01

347

THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

WALLACE, HELEN M.

348

Ozone in rural areas of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present the results of an analysis of ozone data from rural locations in the United States. Ozone concentration above 80 ppb are common in the east in spring and summer, but they are unusual in the west, and ozone shows considerably more day-to-day variability in the east. Variations in the ozone levels are highly correlated over distances of several

Jennifer A. Logan

1989-01-01

349

Education's Role in Rural Areas of Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large rural surveys from Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay were used to examine education's role. Education has a consistently important effect that differs across countries. It is strongest in the modernizing environment context and consistently related to social differentiation, except in Guatemala. Productivity effects…

Jameson, Kenneth P.

1988-01-01

350

Census in a rural area of ethiopia: Methodology and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic serivices were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary

E. Materia; W. Mehari; A. Mele; F. Rosmini; M. A. Stazi; H. M. Damen; T. Kifle; G. Basile; G. Miuccio; L. Ferrigno; J. Osborn; A. Miozzo; P. Pasquini

1993-01-01

351

APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN RURAL AREAS OF CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese Government has made strong policy commitments to expand the use of renewable energy systems in rural electrification as a means of achieving sustainable development. International experience has shown that there are technical, social, cultural, institutional and economic barriers to the deployment of renewable energy systems and, thus, to their ability to contribute to the development goals of the

Long Seng To

352

Telecommunications satellites for developing countries - Extension of satellite use to rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of telecommunications satellites to improve communications in developing nations, particularly the rural areas, is considered. Requirements for improved telephone, television and radio service in developing nations are indicated, and it is argued that satellites would provide one of the most efficient means of developing networks for telephony, television and radio both for intercity trunk routes and for rural areas. The forms such satellite systems could take for rural telephony and direct, semidirect and redistributed television broadcasting are examined, and an approach to the integration of telephone and television services is proposed. Telephony and television capacity requirements for a typical sub-Saharan country are estimated, and the financial aspects of the systems are considered. It is concluded that satellites can considerably improve the general communications situation in many developing nations, giving vast rural areas access to telecommunications for the first time and with comparatively low funding requirements.

Pinglier, A.

1980-02-01

353

Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

2011-01-01

354

Major impacts of sea-level rise on agriculture in the Yangtze delta area around Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected rise in sea level for the next century will have profound impacts on peri-urban agricultural production in the Yangtze delta area. This paper assesses the major impacts of the rise in sea level on coastal processes, flood hazards and saline water incursion in relation to sustainable development of peri-urban agriculture in the deltaic plain around Shanghai, People's Republic

X Chen; Y Zong

1999-01-01

355

Protected areas, agricultural pests and economic damage: conflicts with elephants and pests in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas are often the source of agricultural pests and Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve in Yunnan is no exception. The main pest associated with the reserve is the Asian elephant Elephas maximus which causes damage outside the reserve to agriculture and also within the reserve. These elephants are an important attraction for tourists visiting Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna prefecture contains the only

Clem Tisdell; Xiang Zhu

1998-01-01

356

Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.  

PubMed

We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust. PMID:19943644

Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

2009-12-01

357

Scalable Models for Establishment of Sustainable Broadband Services in Rural Areas of developing regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss how demand and supply of broadband communication services can find each other in geographical areas where most telecommunication operators see too high risks and too slow return on investments. We focus on rural areas of developing regions where the general level of education is low and competence in the area of communication systems is a bottleneck. We argue

Victor Kyalo; Amos Nungu; Björn Pehrson; Marco Zennaro

2007-01-01

358

Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the distribution of light-curing units (LCU) used in an urban area (Riyadh) and a rural area (Kharj) of Saudi Arabia, and to compare their irradiance values. Methods The study involved three dental centers in urban areas and two in rural areas, all of which were parts of a single healthcare institution providing dental services. The light outputs (power mW) from 140 LCUs were measured by laboratory-grade spectrometry, and the irradiance (mW/cm2) was calculated from the tip area of each LCU. The minimum acceptable irradiance outputs for the quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units were set at 300 and 600 mW/cm2, respectively. The ages of these units and the protocol used to light-cure the resins were also determined. Results The total number of LCUs was 140, 112 (78%) in urban areas, and 28 (22%) in rural areas. In rural areas, only 7 of the 22 (32%) QTH units delivered irradiances greater than 300 mW/cm2 and were therefore considered clinically acceptable, whereas 4 of the 6 (66.7%) LED units delivered values greater than 600 mW/cm2. In urban centers, 43 of 61 (70.5%) LED units and 25 of 61 (49%) QTH units were considered clinically acceptable. Irradiance values for both QTH (P < 0.01) and LED (P < 0.05) units were significantly better in urban than in rural areas. Conclusions Urban areas had a greater distribution of LCUs than rural areas. Overall, irradiance values were significantly higher in urban areas.

AlShaafi, Maan M.

2012-01-01

359

RURAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SOCIOPOLITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

.. Abstract: ln this paper both the need for a sustainable agriculture and the present unsustainability of most agricultural systems in Europe are discussed. Then The route towards sustainability is explored. Locality is presented in a crucial concept.

JONATHAN MURDOCH

1993-01-01

360

Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

Perry, C. A.; Robbins, F. V.; Barnes, P. L.

1988-01-01

361

Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-03-01

362

Assessing the recreational demand for agricultural land in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that the scenic attractiveness and other public good aspects of agricultural land can be utilized as a source of livelihood in rural areas in the form of recreation and tourism. In this study we use two approaches to consider whether agricultural landscapes are preferred as a destination for recreation (day trips) and rural tourism (overnight trips).

Eija Pouta; Ville Ovaskainen

2006-01-01

363

Soil dioxins levels at agriculture sites and natural preserve areas of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, agriculture soil in Taiwan has been sampled and analyzed to determine the background level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/DF) in the agricultural and nature preserve areas. Another objective is to investigate relationship between soil characteristics and air deposition in Taiwan. The results indicate that in nature preserve areas the topsoil shows an extraordinary profile of PCDD\\/DF

Jin-juh Jou; Kae-Long Lin; Jen-Chir Chung; Shu-Liang Liaw

2007-01-01

364

Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China.  

PubMed

High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m(3)) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m(3)) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. PMID:22955250

Wang, Chen; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Wang, Hongqijie; Li, Tongchao; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Tang, Jianhui; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

2012-09-03

365

Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Women in Chinese Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China.Methods and ResultsThe Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007–2008 in Nantong, China. In

Hui Cai; Jianping Huang; Guangfei Xu; Zili Yang; Ming Liu; Yaoping Mi; Weisheng Liu; Hongjun Wang; Derong Qian

2012-01-01

366

Quality of life in urban-classified and rural-classified English local authority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Audit Commission’s local quality-of-life indicators dataset to compare reported outcomes amongst 208 urban-classified and 144 rural-classified English local authority areas. We contextualise the demarcation of the urban and rural by reference to the transformational politics of the previous Labour government and its establishment of the sustainable communities initiative, whose controversial

Josep M Campanera; Paul Higgins

2011-01-01

367

Evaluation of phosphorus removal from wastewater by soils in rural areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost, easy-maintenance and high-efficiency decentralized wastewater treatment technologies are urgently needed in rural areas of China. Processes with high potential for phosphorus removal are of great interest. However, commonly used treatment methods often do not meet the strict criteria for removing phosphorus from rural wastewater. In order to search an economic and simple technology for phosphorus removal from the common

Hanwen Liang; Junxin Liu; Yuansong Wei; Xuesong Guo

2010-01-01

368

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

369

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

370

Modeling emigration of wolves from a wilderness area into adjacent agricultural regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and applied a simple population model to examine the relation between abundance of wolves in a wilderness area and the numbers that emigrate into adjacent agricultural areas and that may need to be removed on an annual basis. The model was applied using Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) data. The gray wolf is emigrating from northern wilderness areas in

A. L Jensen; D. H Miller

2004-01-01

371

Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

372

Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of agricultural chemicals on groundwater quality depends on the interactions of biogeochemical and hydrologic factors. To identify key processes affecting distribution of agricultural nitrate in groundwater, a parsimonious transport model was applied at 14 sites across the U.S. Simulated vertical profiles of NO3-, N2 from denitrification, O2, Cl-, and environmental tracers of groundwater age were matched to observations by adjusting the parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, fractions of N and Cl- inputs leached to groundwater, O2 reduction rate, O2 threshold for denitrification, and denitrification rate. Model results revealed important interactions among biogeochemical and physical factors. Chloride fluxes decreased between the land surface and water table possibly because of Cl- exports in harvested crops (averaging 22% of land-surface Cl- inputs). Modeled zero-order rates of O2 reduction and denitrification were correlated. Denitrification rates at depth commonly exceeded overlying O2 reduction rates, likely because shallow geologic sources of reactive electron donors had been depleted. Projections indicated continued downward migration of NO3- fronts at sites with denitrification rates <0.25 mg-N L-1 yr-1. The steady state depth of NO3- depended to a similar degree on application rate, leaching fraction, recharge, and NO3- and O2 reaction rates. Steady state total mass in each aquifer depended primarily on the N application rate. In addition to managing application rates at land surface, efficient water use may reduce the depth and mass of N in groundwater because lower recharge was associated with lower N fraction leached. Management actions to reduce N leaching could be targeted over aquifers with high-recharge and low-denitrification rates.

Liao, Lixia; Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.; BöHlke, J. K.

2012-06-01

373

Tobacco use and exposure in rural areas: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that those residing in rural areas may be disproportionately affected by the health burden of tobacco use. The present study examined tobacco use, self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke, and policies regarding public smoking according to area of residence using data from the 2006 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results indicated that, relative to those from suburban and urban locations, adults residing in rural areas were significantly more likely to smoke cigarettes (22.2% versus 17.3% (suburban) and 18.1% (urban), p<.001) and to use smokeless tobacco (p<.001). Rural residents were also more likely than those living in suburban and urban areas to report that someone had smoked in their presence during the past seven days both at home (p<.001) and at work (p<.001). Finally, rural participants reported policies that afforded less protection from tobacco smoke both at home and in the workplace. These findings suggest that those living in rural areas are at increased risk for tobacco-related illness due to both their own tobacco use and exposure to others' cigarette smoke. PMID:21146318

Vander Weg, Mark W; Cunningham, Cassie L; Howren, M Bryant; Cai, Xueya

2010-11-10

374

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

375

Heart health promotion: a community development experiment in a rural area of Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY As part of the Quebec Heart Health Demonstration Project, a heart health promotion and prevention pro- gram, this experiment is being performed in a rural area of the province of Quebec (Canada). This program, promoted by the Public Health Department and sup- ported by local community service centers, is taking place in ten municipalities of the Riviere-du-Loup area. Our

JOCELYNE PELLETIER; JOCELYNE MOISAN; RENEE ROUSSEL; MARTINE GILBERT

1997-01-01

376

Women empowerment in rural areas through the usage of telecentres - a Sri Lankan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and Communication Technologies can have a strong impact on the development of a region: telecentre networks are in particular interesting model for e-learning dissemination to rural areas. The focus area of our investigation is Sri Lanka: the country has a long tradition in terms of gender equality - as it promotes an inclusive education system - and the use

Henrik Hansson; Peter Mozelius; Silvia Gaiani; Niranjan Meegammana

2010-01-01

377

Design and Implementation of a Centralized Electronic Medical Records Consortium in a Rural Area of Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Michigan is divided into two distinct areas, a lower peninsula and an upper peninsula. A five-mile bridge that stretches over the straits of Lake Michigan and Huron provides passageway between the two peninsulas. While Michigan's lower peninsula is heavily populated with access to advanced healthcare, the upper peninsula is a very rural area whose low population is

G. C. Hembroff; D. Wheeler; D. Boyle

2007-01-01

378

An investigation of driver attitudes and behaviour in rural and urban areas in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate differences in self-reported driver attitudes and behaviour in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Norway. Age, gender and education were controlled for. An additional aim was to investigate the relations between demographics, personality variables, driver attitudes and behaviour in the complete sample and across the different geographical areas. To obtain these aims, a questionnaire was

Trond Nordfjærn; Stig Halvard Jørgensen; Torbjørn Rundmo

2010-01-01

379

Retention of Primary Care Physicians in Rural Health Professional Shortage Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of tht? many public programs devel- oped to recruit aiid retain physicians in rural areas, physician scarcities continue to threaten healUi care delivery in many lTiral communities in the United States.' The fed- eml Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA)\\

I Donald; E. Pathman; Thomas R. Konrad; Gary Koch

380

A Radio over Fiber based Wireless Access Network Architecture for Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó Recently, ìwireless last mileî has received con- siderable attention since it requires much less infrastructure compared to wireline alternatives such as xDSL and cable modem networks, resulting in a cost-effective solution to the Internet access. However, to date most of the considerations has been focused on densely populated urban areas although broadband service demand in sparsely populated rural areas

Hong Bong Kim; Adam Wolisz

381

Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in…

Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

382

Nonfarm Employment and Poverty in Rural El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes two complementary data sets to study poverty and the nonfarm sector in rural El Salvador. We find that rural poverty in El Salvador remains acute and significantly higher than in urban areas. While the rural poor are mainly agricultural laborers and marginal farmers, some nonfarm activities are also of importance to the poor. In fact, nonfarm activities

Peter Lanjouw

2001-01-01

383

Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2 concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic variables are associated with mortality and morbidity in a variety of diseases at both the individual and neighborhood level. Investigating whether low socioeconomic status populations are exposed to higher air pollution has been an important objective for the scientific community during the last decade. The goal of this study was to analyze the associations between outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in an area of Asturias (Spain) and two socioeconomic indexes—one based on occupation and the other on educational level—at the census-tract level. Methods A map of NO2 concentration was obtained from a land-use regression model. To obtain a census-tract average value, NO2 was estimated at the centroids of all 50?×?50 m grids within a census tract. Standard socioeconomic variables were used from the Census of Population and Housing 2001. We analyzed the association between NO2 concentration and socioeconomic indicators for the entire area and stratified for more urban and more rural areas. Results A positive linear relationship was found between the levels of education and NO2 exposure in the urban area and the overall study area, but no association was found in the rural area. A positive association between socioeconomic index based upon occupation and NO2 concentration was found in urban areas; however, this association was reversed in the rural and overall study areas. Conclusions The strength and direction of the association between socioeconomic status and NO2 concentration depended on the socioeconomic indicator used and the characteristics of the study area (urban, rural). More research is needed with different scenarios to clarify the uncertain relationship among socioeconomic indexes, particularly in non-urban areas, where little has been documented on this topic.

2013-01-01

384

Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural bedouins in Lebanon.  

PubMed

In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity. PMID:23946340

Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

2013-08-14

385

Private and public health care in rural areas of Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In many low and middle income countries, the private sector is increasingly becoming an important source of health care, filling gaps where no or little public health care is available. However, knowledge on the private sector providers is limited The objective of this study was to determine the type and number of different types of health care providers, and the quality, cost and utilization of care delivered by those providers in rural Uganda. Methods The study was carried out in three rural districts. Methods included (1) mapping of health care providers; (2) a household survey to determine morbidity and health care utilization; (3) a health facility survey to assess quality of care; (4) focus group discussions to get qualitative information on providers and provider choice; and (5) key informant interviews to further explore service characteristics. Results 95.7% of all 445 facilities surveyed were private while 4.3% were public. Traditional practitioners and general merchandise shops that sold medicines comprised 77.1% of all providers. They had limited infrastructure and skills but were often located in the villages and therefore easily accessible. Among the formal providers there were 4 times as many private for profit providers than public, 76 versus 18. However, most of the private units were one-person drug shops. In the household survey, 2580 persons were interviewed. 1097 (42%) had experienced illness during the preceding month. Care was sought in 54.1% of the cases. 35.6% were given self-treatment and in 10.3% no action was taken. Of the episodes for which people sought care at a health care facility, 37.0% visited a public health care provider, 39.7% a for profit provider, 11.8% a private not for profit provider, and 10.6% a traditional practitioner. Private for profit facilities were the most popular for ambulatory health care, while public facilities were preferred for more serious conditions and for hospitalization. Traditional practitioners were many but saw relatively few patients. They were mostly used for social problems and limited medical specific conditions. Conclusions Private providers play a major role in health care delivery in rural Uganda; reaching a wide client base. Traditional practitioners are many but have as much a social as a medical function in the community. The significance of the private health care sector points to the need to establish a policy that addresses quality and affordability issues and creates a strong regulatory environment for private practice in sub-Saharan Africa.

2010-01-01

386

Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

Nlerum, F. E.

2012-12-01

387

Scenario analysis for reduction of effluent load from an agricultural area by recycling the run-off water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed rates of nitrogen (N) removal in paddy fields and wetlands. Then we developed a numerical model to simulate N flow in an agricultural paddy field area and analyzed scenarios for recycling the agricultural run-off, including field drainage, from an agricultural area with an irrigation\\/drainage system. In it, we considered N removal in paddy fields, a regulating reservoir, and

E. Shiratani; I. Yoshinaga; Y. Feng; H. Hasebe

388

Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

Liebenow, J. Gus

389

Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

390

The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

Menanteau-Horta, Dario

391

Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

2012-01-01

392

Impact of Agricultural Mechanization on Production and Employment in Rice Areas of West Java (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of farm mechanization on production and rural employment in the rice areas of West Java are analyzed, using a large data set and three different methods. First a t-test was conducted to compare input use, labor use, cropping intensity, farm si...

J. Lingard A. S. Bagyo

1983-01-01

393

Effect of irrigation water on agricultural soil in Jordan valley: An example from arid area conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Jordan, water rather than land is the determining factor for increasing the size and the productivity of the irrigated areas. Traditional surface irrigation is the general practice and the farmers themselves have been managing their water in terms of distribution and scheduling. The major developments in irrigation started in the 1950s, aiming at integrated rural development of the Jordan

Y. Al-Zu’bi

2007-01-01

394

Principal Areas of Applying Information and Communication Technologies in the Agricultural Extension System of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated areas for potential application of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural extension system of Iran. Two hundred forty-one extension staff (out of 1,145) in the Ministry of Agriculture were selected and studied as a sample through a stratified random sampling technique. The findings revealed that six factors\\/components containing 32 variables determined about 68.91% of the

H. Shabanali Fami; M. Falaki; H. Iravani; H. M. Mohammadi

2009-01-01

395

Traditional agricultural landscapes as protected areas in international law and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protected area approach to conservation of habitats and species emphasises a natural world shaped without human influence. Despite the debates relating to community conservation, stakeholder involvement in conservation and equitable benefit sharing, progressive approaches to community conservation tend to permit traditional agricultural practises, that support biodiversity preservation, to operate only in land outside core conservation areas. Nevertheless, there are

Stuart R. Harrop

2007-01-01

396

Quality of Water Wells in an Agricultural Area in the City of La Plata, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the water from 62 home wells in a section (with no sewerage system) of the agricultural-industrial area of La Plata, was analyzed. The measurement of the studied parameters concentrations were compared with those obtained in seventeen water wells located in another area of town, with commercial characteristics. The pH, total dissolved salts (TDS), nitrates, chlorides, total hardness

Silvia A. Marteau; Juan C. Alberino; Jorge L. Ripoli; Mario E. Rosato

1998-01-01

397

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

2002-01-01

398

The applications of mobile telecommunications in new rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the current popularity of information and telecommunication technologies, more and more farmers recognize the important role of information. The urgent need for Chinese farmers is how to make use of information to get rich. Contrast in the newspapers, television, radio and other traditional media, mobile information services have unmatched advantages, such as wide spread in very low cost, spread source of widely dispersed, and diverse forms of communication, simple and easy to operate, with strong participatory and interactive, and so on. The paper proposes that Mobile operators can supply different information in accordance with personalized demands of farmers with various agencies, such as government departments, supply and marketing cooperatives, hospitals, banks, veterinary clinics, agricultural stations. They can unite to supply a number of convenience people, rich people, and love for the people's business through the message, voice, WAP and other forms to meet the needs of farmers. Besides, the paper points out that those farmers can order information on personalized service.

Chen, Xia; Lu, Ting-Jie

2009-07-01

399

Mental Health and Family Life among Kindergarten Children in Rural Areas. Rural Early Childhood Brief, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents selected findings from a rural analysis of the Kindergarten Cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) by the National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives in collaboration with Child Trends. Comparisons of rural and non-rural young children in the baseline data of the Kindergarten Cohort of the…

National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives - Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute, 2005

2005-01-01

400

Rural Use of Biogas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual on the production and use of biogas in the rural areas of China is presented. The importance of biogas production for improving the agricultural level is stressed and its properties are explained. The basic principles in the construction and main...

1976-01-01

401

Rural Research in USDA. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Research and General Legislation of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, 95th Congress, 2nd Session (May 4 and 5, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In these hearings, discussion centered on the state of rural development research in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Testimony by 19 persons connected with various government and private agencies and groups and with land-grant universities are contained in the hearings, along with letters, articles, and other submitted materials and an…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

402

Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

Thomas, Della W.

2010-01-01

403

Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

2013-04-01

404

Audit of USAID/Afghanistan's Agriculture, Rural Investment and Enterprise Strengthening Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Access to rural financial services in Afghanistan is severely limited after decades of war and the ouster of the Taliban regime, both of which devastated the country's resources and infrastructure. In several parts of the country, a low-grade civil war is...

2008-01-01

405

Informal Health and Legal Rights Education in Rural, Agricultural Communities Using Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this work is on the design of a system for informal education in rural, farmworker populations using mobile devices. We have conducted needs assessment with farmworkers in the California Central Valley in conjunction with engineering and industrial design students as part of a service learning initiative. The community, working with the students, identified key needs related to

Jaspal S. Sandhu; Jonathan Hey; Catherine Newman; Alice M. Agogino

2005-01-01

406

Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

2006-01-01

407

Prospects for China's Rural Vocational Education and the Role of Higher Agricultural Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s saw significant development in China's rural vocational education and the continuation of some problems. Most Chinese secondary (92 percent) and postsecondary (82 percent) students are educated in the countryside. However, only 60 percent of vocational high school students are educated there. There is insufficient enrollment at many…

Ganzi, Peng; Xianguang, Liu

408

Bee Honey as an Environmental Bioindicator of Pesticides’ Occurrence in Six Agricultural Areas of Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution of six agricultural areas of Greece (north, central, south) by insecticides used in crop protection has been\\u000a investigated utilizing, as a bioindicator, bee honey produced in those areas. Honey samples collected randomly from apiaries\\u000a located in those areas were analyzed for pesticide residues with a multianalytical method, able to determine simultaneously\\u000a up to 10 organophosphorous insecticides from the

George Balayiannis; Panos Balayiannis

2008-01-01

409

Progress with implementing local air-quality management in rural areas of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in the UK, although vastly improved from the smogs of the 1950s, now faces a new set of challenges from a variety of sources and pollutants. Poor air quality has long been associated with urban areas, but it is becoming clear that many rural locations also have locations likely to exceed the UK Air Quality Strategy-objectives. This paper

C. Ing; C. Beattie; J. Longhurst

2001-01-01

410

Marital Disruption: Determinants and Consequences on the Lives of Women in a Rural Area of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case studies and quantitative surveys of a small number of maritally-disrupted women. Additional data were

Abbas Bhuiya; A. Mushtaque; R. Chowdhury; Mehnaaz Momen; Mohsina Khatun

411

Cost Per Job Associated with EDA Investments in Urban and Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brief report was prepared in response to a request from Arizona Senator John McCain to the secretary of commerce asking for a study of the differences in job-creation cost of federal projects in urban and rural areas. The study examines two data sets...

A. K. Glasmeier

2002-01-01

412

Rural Critical Care Nurse Training Project--Four Corners Area, November 14, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project objectives were to train 10 nurses from hospitals in the Four Corners Area in rural critical care nursing, to have a training director organize and coordinate the project, and to utilize the replacement nurse concept. The course curriculum was determined through a needs assessment survey conducted by a team of health professionals from…

New Mexico Regional Medical Program, Albuquerque.

413

Practicing Participatory Teaching Methodology in Western China's Rural Areas: Classroom Teaching Observations and Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We adopted the method of classroom observation and carried out research on five elementary school teachers in western China's rural areas who have shown enormous transformation after receiving training on participatory teaching to investigate the strengths and weaknesses in teachers' practice of participatory teaching. Results indicate that (a)…

Zhao, Decheng; Zhu, Fujian; Liu, Jun

2008-01-01

414

DETECTION OF HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN DOGS AND SOIL CONTAMINATION IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the helminthes in dog's feces and soil samples from urban and rural areas. Six species of nematodes (Toxocara sp, an undetermined nema- tode larvae, Strongyloides sp larvae, Ascaris sp ova, hookworm ova, Trichuris sp ova) and one species of Cestode (Taenia sp) were found in 175 stool samples. Seventy-eight point nine percent of stool

Noor Azian; L Sakhone; S Lokman Hakim; MY Yusri; Y Nurulsyamzawaty; AH Zuhaizam; I Mohd Rodi

415

E-health for rural areas of Uttarakhand under e-Governance service delivery model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This electronic document is a “live” template. The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document. (Abstract) There are many inequities for Indian citizen living in rural and remote areas. They generally have poorer health than their major city counterparts, reflected in higher

Mahesh Kumar Sharma; Kunwar Singh Vaisla

2012-01-01

416

Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression is defined as a major depressive episode that occurs within four weeks after delivery. However, investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorders after childbirth with the largest risk during 90 days after delivery. We aimed to study the risk factors of postpartum depression in women living in rural areas of Isfahan Province in

Gholam-Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad-Reza Maracy; Mehrdad Salehi; Gholam-Hossein Sadri; Pharm D; Mahnaz Kelishadi BS; Patricia Cassy

2009-01-01

417

Skills, transport and economic development: evidence from a rural area in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of low population density and transport constraints on skills development and the take up of learning and training opportunities in a rural area of eastern England. It draws on analyses of secondary data sources, qualitative interviews and a focus group discussion with employers, trainers and other actors in the labour market, and a survey of

David Owen; Terence Hogarth; Anne E. Green

2012-01-01

418

Frontier Justice: Adaptations of Nevada's IDEA Complaint Investigation Process for Rural/Remote Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the complaint investigation process for rural remote areas of Nevada as required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Complaints are first filed with the Nevada Department of Education superintendent of public instruction. Complaints can be initiated by anyone and must state what regulations the public…

Lakes, Marsha K.; And Others

419

The TELEPAC Project: A Service Delivery Model for the Severely Handicapped in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is Project TELEPAC, a telecommunications-based system which provides instructional packets to parents of severely handicapped children in rural areas of Utah. In addition to the parent involvement packets which outline teaching methods, correction procedures and behavior management practices for arithmetic, language arts, self help and…

Hofmeister, Alan M.; Atkinson, Charles M.

420

Deaf and Hearing Impaired Children in Regional and Rural Areas: Parent Views on Educational Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The general trend for the inclusion of deaf and hearing impaired students in Australia involves placing students in a mainstream classroom setting alongside their hearing peers with regular support from a Visiting Teacher of the Deaf. The provision of educational services to deaf and hearing impaired students in regional and rural areas, however,…

Checker, Lisa J.; Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret

2009-01-01

421

Social Change, Anomy and Alienation in Low-Income Areas of the Rural South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of social change suggest that both anomy and alienation should increase among low-income people experiencing rapid social change. To more sharply distinguish the causal relationship between social change and the state of peoples' minds in rural and semirural areas of the South, separate hypotheses were developed for anomy (Durkheim's…

Kim, Dong I.; And Others

422

Community Action in Appalachia. Unit 1. Introduction and Synthesis: Quality of Life in Rural Poverty Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interdisciplinary team from the University of Kentucky did a three-year study (1965-1968) of the OEO-sponsored community action programs in a rural Appalachian area of southeastern Kentucky, Knox County. They delimited the population of the study, samp...

P. Street

1968-01-01

423

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

424

Safety Evaluation of Transverse Rumble Strips on Approaches to Stop-Controlled Intersections in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse rumble strips (TRS) have been used by some agencies in rural areas to warn drivers that they are approaching a stop sign. There is some evidence in prior research that TRS are effective in reducing approach speeds. However, little is known about effects on crashes. Data from 20 intersections in Minnesota and 134 intersections in Iowa were used to

Raghavan Srinivasan; Jongdae Baek; Forrest Council

2010-01-01

425

Road Traffic Injuries among Middle School Students in a Rural Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a major and growing public health problem worldwide, disproportionately affecting vulnerable road users in developing countries. However, research on road traffic injuries in developing countries has been limited. We studied road traffic injuries among middle school students in a rural area of China.Methods: We surveyed 1551 students in Hunan province using a

Michael S. Jaung; Songlin Yu; Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

2009-01-01

426

Perceived Aspects of Home Environment and Home Modifications by Older People Living in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between the “perceived aspects” of current home environment of elderly people living in rural areas and their home modification behavior. To investigate this perception, home satisfaction, perception of home capability, and home safety were used as perceived aspects of the home. Data were collected by a questionnaire. The response rate was 43.1%, with 317 eligible

Mira Ahn; Asha L. Hegde

2011-01-01

427

Energy development in the western United States: impact on rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy development in rural areas of the West presents opportunities for economic development, but the associated problems need to be addressed in a rational way by comparing actual data rather than assuming certain impacts. Available materials on western energy development are presented in a descriptive form that focuses on socio-economic impacts. The book is organized to present the overall dimensions

S. H. Murdock; F. L. Leistritz

1979-01-01

428

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. METHODS: The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

Jean-Christophe Fotso

2006-01-01

429

Continuous Carbon Dioxide Measurements in a Rural Area in the Upper Spanish Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements over the period 2004-2005 for a rural area in the upper Spanish plateau were examined to characterize the influence of sources and sinks. The diurnal pattern and the annual cycle are presented. The baseline CO2 levels over the time frames researched are determined so as to achieve a more accurate verification of the ambient conditions

M. Ángeles García; M. Luisa Sánchez; Isidro A. Pérez; Beatriz de Torre

2008-01-01

430

Using Community Information Networks to Increase IT Capacity and Use in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing personal computer ownership and Internet access alone will not reduce the digital di- vide that threatens to further marginalize rural areas. Recognizing that a community's ability to benefit from IT is more than a technical or supply-side problem, the extension curriculum de- scribed here presents an incremental process for building community IT capacity from the ground up, involving four

William J. Grigsby; William C. Shuffstall; Stephan J. Goetz

431

Using Solar Cookers and Gardens to Improve Health in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although health benefits of vegetables have been scientifically documented and well publicized, food habits and cost frequently limit vegetable consumption. Our work in Latin America in varied climates, in urban and rural areas, with different populations--especialy those with limited resources--has global applications. In Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, and in Central America we found that often fresh vegetables are readily available but

R. M. Dow; C. R. Dow

1999-01-01

432

Nature and landscape sustainability in Portuguese rural areas: Which role for farming external benefits valorisation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional farming systems are declining rapidly in Portugal. These labour intensive and low productivity systems are incompatible with depopulation and ageing of rural areas. This lack of socio-economic sustainability endangers nature and landscape conservation. Agri-environmental measures, applied in European Union since 1994, can be seen as potential answer to that problem in the Portuguese case. But to be effective, these

Lívia Madureira

2004-01-01

433

Big Guys Eat Big Cakes: Firm Size and Contracting in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been devoted to the analysis of different levels of privatization in urban and rural areas. However, until now no empirical study has been conducted on what types of firms are present in different geographical environments. We find that large firms that operate on a national basis dominate the contracts in the most populated and

Germà Bel; Xavier Fageda

2011-01-01

434

Twinning and Its Correlates: Community-Based Study in a Rural Area of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the twinning rate and its correlates from January 1991 to December 2005 in 10 villages of the Rural Health Centre, Pohir, a field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. During this study period, 5,070 deliveries took place. A total of 5,017 singleton

Mahesh Satija; Sarit Sharma; R. K. Soni; R. K. Sachar; G. P. I. Singh

2008-01-01

435

Mass Communication Differences Between Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas: Cross-Cultural Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews various studies of media development patterns, all pointing to mass media growth's association with urbanization. The development and use of mass media differs greatly among urban, suburban, and rural areas. However, media development patterns are similar among countries, differing in the stage but not the pattern of media…

Bostian, Lloyd R.

436

Occupational Status Orientations and Perception of Opportunity: A Racial Comparison of Rural Youth From Depressed Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negro and white rural youth from economically depressed areas of East Central Texas were compared with regard to their job aspirations and expected job attainment. The results indicated that both Negro and white youth had generally high occupational goals and expectations. The Negro youth exhibited a greater variance in occupational choice,…

Ameen, Bilquis A.

437

Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours in different geographical areas, urban and rural.Methods: Patients aged 20–80 years, living in the middle part of Sweden, and diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000 were included. One control matched for sex and age in five year age

L Hardell; M Carlberg; K Hansson Mild

2005-01-01

438

Determinants of Poverty in Rural Areas: Case of Savejbolagh Farmers in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of poverty in rural areas in Iran, for which the Savejbolagh Township located in the north of Iran, was selected as a representative. The study utilizes farm and household cross-sectional data for 1998-99 that was collected through personal interviews with 350 farmers from the Savejbolagh Township, who were selected by

Javad M. Sadeghi; M. Toodehroosta; A. Amini

2001-01-01

439

How to Establish a Branch Literacy Council in a Rural Area. Special Experimental Demonstration Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This "how to" manual was developed as part of a York County (Pennsylvania) system for delivering the Laubach Literacy Program to a sparsely populated rural area. It provides aid to other basic skills programs in Pennsylvania to set up their own centers as literacy delivery systems. The guide first sets forth the project's aims and objectives,…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Dissemination Support Service.

440

Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

Andrews, Rhys

2011-01-01

441

Detection of helminth infections in dogs and soil contamination in rural and urban areas.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the helminthes in dog's feces and soil samples from urban and rural areas. Six species of nematodes (Toxocara sp, an undetermined nematode larvae, Strongyloides sp larvae, Ascaris sp ova, hookworm ova, Trichuris sp ova) and one species of Cestode (Taenia sp) were found in 175 stool samples. Seventy-eight point nine percent of stool samples were positive for helminthes. Mixed infection with at least one parasite was found in 32.6% of the samples. The prevalence of helminth infection ranged from 1.1% to 45.1%. The prevalence of hookworm sp was the highest with 45.1%. The highest prevalence in urban dogs was hookworm sp in 76.7% and in rural areas was Ascaris sp in 48.7%. Soil samples were also examined to determine contamination of the environment, especially due to Toxocara canis, as a potential source of infection. Urban soil samples showed a higher contamination rate with 26.7% compared to rural areas with 4.9%. Toxocara ova were the most prevalent helminthes contaminating the soil with 12.1%. This study showed that humans from both urban and rural areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil. PMID:18564703

Azian, M Y Noor; Sakhone, L; Hakim, S Lokman; Yusri, M Y; Nurulsyamzawaty, Y; Zuhaizam, A H; Rodi, I Mohd; Maslawaty, M N

2008-03-01

442

B VITAMINS AND PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the association between total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and folate, B12, and B6 status in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica. We determined plasma tHcy concentrations and assessed dietary folate, B12 and B6 intake by a food frequency questionnaire in 462 subjects sele...

443

Motivation and design of a content distribution architecture for rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing prices of digital cameras, phones and video cameras have made these devices accessible to low-income communities and to development organizations working in these communities. As a result, the social media revolution around user generated content on YouTube and Facebook has found equivalents in rural areas; here, community radio, community video, and interactive voice based systems are used for social

Arvind Mahla; Deepak Martin; Ishani Ahuja; Quamar Niyaz; Aaditeshwar Seth

2012-01-01

444

Energy-efficient communication in next generation rural-area wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

White space frequencies are highly attractive for long-distance communication due to greater signal propagation. The lack of standards and licensing issues with increased flexibility provided by the cognitive radio allow for sophisticated customized solutions for white spaces. Rural-area networks are seen as the main beneficiaries and white spaces communication is expected to outperform current wireless solutions in this domain. However,

Veljko Pejovic; Elizabeth M. Belding

2010-01-01

445

Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

446

Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

447

Evaluation of agricultural sustainability based on human carrying capacity in drylands – a case study in rural villages in Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, desertification, rapid economic growth, and enforcement of a policy of converting cultivated land back into forest and pasture (land conversion policy) have a great impact on rural life and threaten agricultural sustainability, which induces emigration to other places, over-exploitation of resources, or lower quality of life, resulting in the collapse of a village. Among many indicators that have

Y. Komatsu; A. Tsunekawa; H. Ju

2005-01-01

448

Seeing like an indigenous community: the World Bank's Agriculture for DevelopmentReport read from the perspective of postwar rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the case of a rural indigenous village in the war torn highlands of Guatemala to question the framework for using ‘agriculture for development’ put forth by the World Bank in its 2008 World Development Report. There is a significant gap between the Bank's sanguine vision of recent developments in Guatemala and the limited options available to indigenous

Carlota McAllister

2009-01-01

449

Rural population growth, agricultural change and natural resource management in developing countries: a review of hypotheses and some evidence from Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews hypotheses about the impacts of rural population growth on agriculture and natural resource management in developing countries and the implications for productivity, poverty, and natural resource conditions. Impacts on household and collective decisions are considered, and it is argued that population growth is more likely to have negative impacts when there is no collective responses than when

John L. Pender

1999-01-01

450

Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

Podgursky, Michael

451

Exploring the Relationship Between Leisure and Health of Senior Adults with Orthopedic Disabilities Living in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the association between leisure-related variables and the perceived physical and mental health of senior adults with orthopedic disabilities who lived in rural areas. Participants were 48 men and women with acquired disabilities who lived in rural areas of the Midwest. They averaged 61 years of age. All were interviewed using an instrument

Dean A. Zoerink

2001-01-01

452

Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

Scott, David M.

2010-01-01

453

A comparative study on the synthetic food colours usage in foods procured from urban and rural areas of Hyderabad  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to find the type and level of food colours added to various foods in the city of Hyderabad and rural areas around Hyderabad. The majority of foods from both urban and rural areas contained permitted colours while some foods sold at kiosks contained non-permitted colours. The majority of the foods were found to contain colours

Pratimo Rao; Ramesh V. Bhat

2003-01-01

454

The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas  

PubMed Central

Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI), implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in rural areas. Conclusion We concluded that women in rural areas were more likely to seek prenatal care in large hospitals, but were not more likely to perceive very convenient transportation to and from prenatal care facilities in the late 1990s than in the early 1990s. In contrast, women in non-rural areas did not have a stronger tendency to seek prenatal care in large hospitals in the late 1990s than in earlier periods. In addition, they did perceive an improvement in transportation for acquiring prenatal care in the late 1990s. More efforts should be made to reduce these disparities.

Chen, Likwang; Chen, Chi-Liang; Yang, Wei-Chih

2008-01-01

455

Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India

Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2002-01-01

456

Vaginal douching practice and related symptoms in a rural area of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate vaginal douching habits and associated factors among women living in rural Turkey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was performed in the gynecology department of a government hospital in a rural area of Turkey, from February to\\u000a March 2010. The study included 393 women admitted to the gynecology clinic. The age, marital status, education, socioeconomic\\u000a status, reason for vaginal douching, douching frequency,

Ali Irfan Güzel; Umur Kuyumcuo?lu; Yusuf Celik

457

Access to obstetric care in rural areas: effect on birth outcomes.  

PubMed Central

Hospital discharge data from 33 rural hospital service areas in Washington State were categorized by the extent to which patients left their local communities for obstetrical services. Women from communities with relatively few obstetrical providers in proportion to number of births were less likely to deliver in their local community hospital than women in rural communities with greater numbers of physicians practicing obstetrics in proportion to number of births. Women from these high-outflow communities had a greater proportion of complicated deliveries, higher rates of prematurity, and higher costs of neonatal care than women from communities where most patients delivered in the local hospital. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2

Nesbitt, T S; Connell, F A; Hart, L G; Rosenblatt, R A

1990-01-01

458

An epidemiological analysis of paediatric burns in urban and rural areas in south central China.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyse the epidemiology of paediatric burns in south central China, illustrate the differences between rural and urban areas, and discern prevention measures to reduce paediatric burns. METHODS: Data were obtained from all paediatric patients admitted to Department of Burns unit of Xiangya Hospital during 2009-2012. A retrospective review was performed, including cause of burn, pre-hospital treatment, place of burn occurrence, anatomical areas involved, extent of burn, date of injury, number of operations, complications, length of hospital stay, hospitalisation cost and cure rate. RESULTS: A total of 278 hospitalised paediatric patients were admitted in this study. The majority (56.47%) were 1-3 years old. Rural patients accounted for 67.99% in total; the ratio of boys to girls was 2.05. Scalding with hot fluids was the most common cause of burns in children (62.59%), followed by flame (17.63), fireworks (9.71%), electricity (5.76%) and other factors such as contact and chemical (4.32%). The living room was the location with the highest frequency of burns in children (53.24%). Burns were more likely to happen in winter and the upper extremities were the most involved anatomic site (53.24%). Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 9% accounted for 55.4% in total. Rural patients underwent more operations and had longer and costlier hospital stays than urban patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with treatment in urban areas, rural burn patients received less first-aid treatment, underwent more surgery, had more complications and longer and more costly hospital stays. This finding strongly suggests that it is necessary to make more efforts to prevent burns, especially in rural areas. PMID:23747041

Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ouyang, Li-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pi-Hong; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Ren, Li-Cheng; Liang, Peng-Fei

2013-06-01

459

Assessment of groundwater quality and its variations in the capture zone of a pumping well in an agricultural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural activities are frequently associated with water contamination. The spreading and storage of fertilizers, for instance, may result in groundwater contamination due to pollutants leaching into an aquifer. Nitrates and fecal bacteria are two important contaminants associated with agriculture. Thus, the development of efficient strategies for groundwater protection in agricultural areas requires an assessment of these two contaminants. Given this

Alexandre Bonton; Alain Rouleau; Christian Bouchard; Manuel J. Rodriguez

2010-01-01

460

The Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between urbanization and agriculture is examined. With heavy migrations from rural to urban areas in the United States, there have been significant changes in land utilization. Land converted to urban uses is increasing, though it has little effect on total crop production. The technological transformation of agriculture has had much larger effects and has operated as a push-pull

Gerald F. Winfield

1973-01-01

461

Rural diversity and heterogeneity in less-favoured areas: the quest for policy targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide diversity among farmers and fields is a prime characteristic of livelihoods and production systems in less-favoured areas. One-size-fits-all policies can therefore not provide adequate solutions to poverty and degradation problems. Sustainable rural development strategies in these areas need to focus on the potential for resource use intensification, based on a careful combination of local and regional measures. Various pathways

Ruerd Ruben; John Pender

2004-01-01

462

Distribution of injury death and outpatients in rural and urban areas of China in 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo know the distribution features of injury of Chinese population in rural and urban areas, and further to provide basic scientific data for injury prevention and control in different areas.MethodsFatal injury data were derived from official death certificates by the National Disease Surveillance Points System (DSP). Hospital injury visit data were from emergency and outpatient rooms of the 126 hospitals

L Duan; X Deng

2010-01-01

463

Nitrate removal with reverse osmosis in a rural area in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrate-nitrogen concentration (>6 mg\\/l) and the salinity (>1000 mg\\/l TDS) of many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are too high for human consumption. Therefore, an urgent need for water denitrification and water desalination exists in these areas. Reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), ion-exchange (IX) and certain biological technologies can be very effectively applied for water denitrification.

J. J. Schoeman; A. Steyn

2003-01-01

464

Review of China's agricultural and rural development: policy changes and current issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since the start of the twenty-first century China has stepped into a new stage of harmonious urban-rural development. Based on the brief review of policy changes since the new century, the purpose of this paper is to figure out the comprehensive policy framework, and analyze its background and reasons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, this paper offers a brief review

Xiwen Chen

2009-01-01

465

Douglas County Rural Water Project Appraisal Report. Rural Water Supply Program. Eastern Colorado Area Office, Great Plains Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Douglas County Water Resource Authoritys Appraisal Investigation entitled Rural Water Supply for Douglas and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado is proposed for consideration under Reclamations Rural Water Supply Act by the Douglas County Water Resource Autho...

D. Donaldson D. Larsen J. Baysinger J. Foreman P. Mangan

2010-01-01

466

An Agricultural Safety and Health Information Needs Assessment for Rural Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this survey was to identify the educational needs of service providers for information on the prevention and control of agricultural injury and illness. A random sample of 28% from each of the state provider groups was chosen. These groups included veterinarians, chiropractors, extension agents, farm implement dealers and physicians. An exception to this strategy was public health

Ian A. Greaves; Debra Kay Olson; John Shutske; Laura Kochevar

1994-01-01

467

The Outlook for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Americas 2011 -2012  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since late 2010 and continuing into 2011, price volatility, in relation to basic agricultural commodities, has occupied center stage on the agendas of decision makers. An additional concern has been uncertainty about a new global economic crisis in the wake of the macroeconomic difficulties experienced in the economies of several European countries and the United States. In recent months, this

2011-01-01

468

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

469

Agricultural impacts on ecosystem functioning in temperate areas of North and South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use has a large impact on ecosystem functioning, though evidences of these impacts at the regional scale are scarce. The objective of this paper was to analyze the impacts of agricultural land use on ecosystem functioning (radiation interception and carbon uptake) in temperate areas of North and South America. From land cover maps generated using high-resolution satellite images we

Juan Pablo Guerschman; José María Paruelo

2005-01-01

470

Hydrogeochemistry of alluvial groundwaters in an agricultural area: an implication for groundwater contamination susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics

Gi-Tak Chae; Kangjoo Kim; Seong-Taek Yun; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Soon-Oh Kim; Byoung-Young Choi; Hyoung-Soo Kim; Chul Woo Rhee

2004-01-01

471

AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS

POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

472

Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

473

Feasibility of developing low-cost measures of demand for public transportation in rural areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian region has many rural areas of limited accessibility. To improve the accessibility of the rural carless (poor, elderly, young, infirm) public transportation has often been suggested. The objective of the research is to develop a low-cost methodology for determining latent demand for public transportation in rural areas, i.e., to develop a data base of key socio-economic, highway network, and geographic variables which can be used to estimate latent demand along possible rural-transit routes. Data were collected on existing rural-transit operations in Planning Region VI of West Virginia (Monongalia, Taylor, Marion, Harrison, Doddridge, and Preston counties) by means of an on-off survey and an on-board questionnaire survey. Using these as indicators of demand, this information will be related to census data for the affected region to determine if a simplified modeling approach to estimate rural public transportation demand is feasible.

Byrne, B.F.; Neumann, E.S.

1976-12-01

474

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

475

Stated Preferences of Doctors for Choosing a Job in Rural Areas of Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors’ scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors’ stated preferences for rural jobs. Methods and Findings A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho’s capital) and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54). Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. Conclusions Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.

Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Lema, Claudia; Lescano, Andres G.; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Huicho, Luis

2012-01-01

476

Mental health service delivery in rural areas: organizational and clinical issues.  

PubMed

The mental health funding cuts and the block grant shift of the last decade have placed an increased emphasis on fee-generating services. In already underserved rural areas, this has generated immense challenges for mental health professionals on how to provide services to persons other than those with chronic mental illness. This chapter has discussed alternatives and innovations that have proven successful. Linkages with primary care physicians and indigenous residents who have been trained to provide basic mental health services under the supervision of mental health professionals are just two of the ways in which mental health professionals have risen to meet the challenges placed before them. A review of the literature produced few articles about rural programs addressing the issues of substance abuse, services to women, children, the elderly, those with severe mental illness or developmental disability, and the homeless, or crisis intervention programs. Much work needs to be done to provide adequate services to these special rural populations. It is hoped that the renewed interest in rural areas generated by the farm crisis will produce additional programs addressing the needs of these often underserved populations. PMID:9260175

Wagenfeld, M O; Murray, J D; Mohatt, D F; DeBruyn, J C

1997-01-01

477

Building institutional capacity in rural Northern Ireland: the role of partnership governance in the LEADER II programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1990s, Europe's rural areas increasingly embraced local action and local development solutions to face the challenge of the continued re-structuring of the agricultural industry. In parallel, in both the EU and the UK, a policy discourse has emerged which envisages a fundamental shift in support policies for rural areas from a sectoral approach (essentially agriculture) to one that

Mark Scott

2004-01-01

478

Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

2008-01-01

479

High-Value Agriculture in India: Past Trends and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the declining share of traditional agricultural commodities in production, consumption and trade, horticulture and other non-traditional high-value agriculture represent an important area of potential income growth in rural areas. The high-value agriculture-led-growth strategy also provides significant scope for achieving greater commercialization of smallholder agriculture. Despite the potential, the contribution of high-value agricultural exports is still small but increasing. This

Vijay Paul Sharma; Dinesh Jain

480

Negative mood and urban versus rural residence: using proximity to metropolitan statistical areas as an alternative measure of residence.  

PubMed

The purposes of this report is to describe the distribution of reported negative mood by place of residence focusing on proximity to metropolitan statistical areas (MSA's) as an alternative to the traditional urban versus rural residence variable using the 1991 National Health Interview Survey's Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (NHIS-HPDP) supplement. The self-report of negative mood comes from the negative affect items of the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale categorized as high and low presence. The proximity to MSA's is a county-based measure developed as a combination of the MSA/non-MSA residence variable from the NHIS-HPDP and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) adjacency code from the Area Resource File (ARF). The proximity to MSA's measure has four categories: 1. MSA central city 2. MSA not central city 3. non-MSA adjacent (contiguous) to MSA 4. non-MSA not adjacent to MSA The odds ratios for negative mood were 1.24 (95 percent confidence limits [CL] = 1.11,1.38) for MSA central city and 1.26 (95 percent CL = 1.05,1.52) for non-MSA not adjacent to MSA as compared with MSA not central city. The odds ratio for non-MSA adjacent to MSA was not significantly different from MSA not central city. Data are presented by age, sex, race, and education. Thus, the proximity measure demonstrated greater discrimination in rates of negative mood than did urban versus rural or other measures of place of residence. PMID:10166544

Jonas, B S; Wilson, R W

1997-03-01

481

Asthma and Atopy in Rural Children: Is Farming Protective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases has recently increased, especially in urban and modernized regions of the world. The majority of published prevalence surveys report that asthma and atopy are less common,among,children living in rural areas. While many exposures differ in rural and urban areas of the world, several recent studies have suggested that agricultural exposures in

Allison L. Naleway

2004-01-01

482

Small town development and rural urbanization in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new way of urbanization has emerged in China where farmers are urbanizing the rural areas instead of migrating to the large cities. This article addresses the question of why current urbanization takes this direction in which surplus labor has been transferred from agriculture into the industrial and service sectors without leaving the rural areas. The findings indicate that continual

Gabe T. Wang; Xiaobo Hu

1999-01-01

483

Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

2007-04-24

484

Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities.  

PubMed

This research aimed at assessing the properties of guinea pig manure digestate from low-cost tubular digesters for crops fertilization in rural Andean communities. To this end, field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of the digestate on two common Andean crops: potato (Solanum tuberosum) and forage (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium pratense L.). The potato yield (20-25 tha(-1)) increased by 27.5% with digestate, by 15.1% with pre-compost and by 10.3% with the mixture, compared to the control. The forage yield (20-21 tha(-1)) increased by 1.4% with digestate - 50% dose, and by 8.8% with digestate - 100% dose and digestate - 150% dose, compared to the control. The results suggest that the digestate is an appropriate substitute of manure pre-compost for potato fertilization. The results with forage indicate that it can be applied in a range of doses, according to the amount produced by the digester. Currently, manure is either used for cooking or as fertilizer. With low-cost tubular digesters implementation, it could be used to feed the digester, using the digestate for crops fertilization and biogas for cooking; improving household living conditions and protecting the environment. Since soil properties in rural Andean communities differ from experimental layouts, the effect of fertilizers should be re-evaluated in-situ in future research studies. PMID:21903373

Garfí, Marianna; Gelman, Pau; Comas, Jordi; Carrasco, William; Ferrer, Ivet

2011-09-07

485

Child mortality patterns in rural areas of Anhui and Henan provinces in China, 1990.  

PubMed

County-based IMR and U5MR in Anhui and Henan provinces in China were estimated and analyzed by using the 1990 Census Data. Census was conducted on July 1, 1990, the number of deaths only occurred in the first half year of 1990 was collected. In order to obtain the total population and total number of deaths in the same year, the total number of deaths in each age-sex group for the whole 1990 was then estimated by taking the death number in the first half of 1990 as the base and multiplying a coefficient, which varied in different age-sex-region groups. Two major adjustments for some possible under-reporting cases in female birth and infant death were made. If the sex ratio at age 0 in some counties was beyond 1.2, then it was taken as 1.15 for rural counties and 1.10 for urban cities, which were the estimates of sex ratios for the children at age 5 in the national 1% Population Sampling Survey in 1995. The adjustment for IMR were made by comparing the segment of the county lift table from age 15 through 59 with that from the same age groups in the international and Chinese Model Life Tables. The IMR in the county life table would be substituted by the one in the closest Model Life Talbe, if it was less than in the latter. The findings of the analysis may be summarized as follows: (i) Total county-based IMR and U5MR were 33.4 per 1,000 and 41.4 per 1,000 respectively, with great variations between urban cities (25.4 per 1,000 for IMR and 31.4 per 1,000 for U5MR) and rural counties (35.1 per 1,000 for IMR and 43.6 per 1,000 for U5MR). There were also significant differences in child mortality between nationally identified poor counties and other counties in rural areas. In the poor counties the total IMR was 40.7 per 1,000 living births in average while in non-poor counties it was only 33.2 per 1,000 in average (P < 0.05). The U5MR in poor counties was 25 percent higher than in non-poor counties (51.5 vs 40.9 per 1,000 living births). (ii) Statistically significant correlation between child mortality and socio-economic variables was revealed from the data set, among which gross social economic products per capita was found to have the strongest relationship with child mortality. The negative correlation was found between child mortality and a set of so-called 'rich' variables including the gross social products, gross agricultural products, gross industrial products and the proportions of high-educated population at county level, whereas the positive correlation was found between child mortality and a set of 'poor' variables, such as proportions of residents with lower level of education and illiteracy rate. (iii) Differences in child mortality between these two provinces were found, which were identical to the trends of differences in socio-economic indicators between them. Lower child mortality proved to be associated with better socio-economic conditions (higher per capita products, higher proportions of residents with higher level of education, lower proportion of less educated people and illiteracy) in province Henan. (iv) A simple linear regression model was developed separately for Henan and Anhui to predict the IMR and U5MRs in each stage of economic development, where the dependent variables were the logarithm of IMR and U5MR, and the independent variables were the quintiles of the output value of gross products (GOP). It was found that at the first quintile, which was equivalent to 800 yuan of GOP in average, the predicted IMR and U5MR would reach 40 per 1,000 and 51 per 1,000 respectively. It would decline to 38 per 1,000 for IMR and 47 per 1,000 for U5MR in the second lowest quintile. Dramatic drop of child mortality was found between the second quintile and the third quintile, where 6 per 1,000 decline would occur for both IMR and U5MR. The decline would continue subsequently, but slower. The prediction of child mortality in rural counties could be used as a reference to assess counties at different stages of socio- PMID:9861486

Jin, S G; Yang, G H; Bos, E; Wang, J; Luo, J H; Yang, J; Ma, E B; Tong, M X; Jamison, D

1998-09-01

486

GROWTH AND RURAL POVERTY IN SOUTH ASIA: LESSONS LEARNT AND ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection between agricultural growth and reduction in rural poverty in south Asia has been an interesting subject has been much debated and has profound implication for academic discourse as well as in the formulation of public policies. About three-quarters of the total population in the region live in the rural areas, depend to a large extent on agriculture, but

M. A. Sattar Mandal; R. W. Palmer-Jones

487

A study of inadequate consumer demand among Chinese residents —based on data for urban and rural areas in different provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

????1995-2005??????????30??????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????11?????? ?????????????????????????????1992-2004??? ??????????????????1997-1998?????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????: ???????????????????????Using panel data from both urban and rural areas in China's thirty provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (Tibet excluded) from 1995 to 2005 and applying the random effects model, we conducted a quantitative analysis of factors influencing urban and rural consumer demand. The findings show the per capita disposable income of Chinese residents

Fang Fuqian

2009-01-01

488

Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt…

Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

2007-01-01

489

Unravelling the extent of inequalities in health across urban and rural areas: Evidence from a national sample in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of inequalities in health between rural and urban settings have produced mixed and sometimes conflicting results, depending on the national setting of the study, the level of geographic detail used to define rural areas and the health indicators studied. By focusing on morbidity data from a national sample of individuals, this study aims to examine the extent of inequalities

Mylene Riva; Sarah Curtis; Lise Gauvin; James Fagg

2009-01-01

490

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

491

Differentiating countryside: Social representations and governance patterns in rural areas with high social density: The case of Chianti, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies.Through a ‘post-rural’ approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to reconfigure patterns of governance taking place in

Gianluca Brunori; Adanella Rossi

2007-01-01

492

Impact of telephone and satellite earth station installations on GDP : A model for rural areas of LDCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for estimating the impact on national development of installation of telecommunication facilities in rural areas of developing countries. A methodology developed by Hardy is applied to three groups of developing countries and a hypothetical rural region to estimate the impact on GDP per thin route satellite earth station installed over a ten year period. A logarithmic relationship

Heather E. Hudson; Andrew P. Hardy; Edwin B. Parker

1982-01-01

493

Leisure Life of Elderly Residents in China: A Case Study of Difference between Rural and Urban Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the current situation of leisure life of aging population in urban and rural area from an angle of history, policy, culture, and economy, revealing the differences in the leisure life between rural and urban elderly residents. While the Chinese government is proud of the achievement in making its people's life longer, it has to tackle the challenge

Baoren Su

494

Fluoride concentration in potable groundwater in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm-the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples. PMID:23022871

Amouei, A I; Mahvi, A H; Mohammadi, A A; Asgharnia, H A; Fallah, S H; Khafajeh, A A

2012-10-01

495

Muslim women's experiences with health care providers in a rural area of the United States.  

PubMed

This study used phenomenology to explore the experience of Muslim women through descriptions of their encounters with health care providers in a rural area. Participants (N = 7) were eligible for inclusion if the foreign-born woman had lived in the area for at least 2 years, had interaction with a health care provider within the last 6 months, and was able to articulate her experience either in English or through a interpreter. Data were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for the emergence of reoccurring themes, employing decision trails. Constant comparative analysis was used to promote the integrity of the data. Three themes were identified: (1) perceived power of the provider, (2) religiously defined gender relations, and (3) being a stranger in the U.S. healthcare system. Education of the Muslim patient and the provider is needed to increase health care satisfaction and use by rural Muslim women. PMID:18165422

Simpson, Jennifer L; Carter, Kimberly

2008-01-01

496

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005-2008)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and physical activity correlates of obesity across rural and urban residence are examined. Methods Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings The obesity prevalence was 39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults (P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio = 1.18, P = .03). Race/ethnicity and percent kcal from fat were significant correlates of obesity among both rural and urban adults. Being married was associated with obesity only among rural residents, whereas older age, less education, and being inactive was associated with obesity only among urban residents. Conclusions Obesity is markedly higher among adults from rural versus urban areas of the United States, with estimates that are much higher than the rates suggested by studies with self-reported data. Obesity deserves greater attention in rural America.

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

497

Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor-A Case Study of Zhangye city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources;

Yu Chen

2010-01-01

498

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

499

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

500

Determinants of airborne benzene concentrations in rural areas of western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the level and determinants of airborne benzene concentrations in rural western Canada. A multi-site, multi-month unbalanced two-factorial design was used to collect air samples at 1206 fixed sites across a geographic area associated with primary oil and gas industry in Canadian provinces of Alberta, north-eastern British Columbia, and central and southern Saskatchewan from April 2001 to December

Igor Burstyn; Nicola Cherry; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

2007-01-01