Science.gov

Sample records for rural biodigestors aimed

  1. Coast to Country: An Initiative Aimed at Changing Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching in Rural and Remote Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has become more of a challenge to both attract and retain quality pre-service teachers to both rural and remote locations within Australia. Many pre-service teachers are reluctant to leave a preferred metropolitan location to undertake a rural or remote professional experience and often have negative views concerning…

  2. Reconsidering the Evidence Base, Considering the Rural: Aiming for a Better Understanding of the Education and Training Needs of Sub-Saharan African teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Providing basic education for all children by 2015 is one of the world's major educational objectives and teachers are crucial to achieving this. This article argues that not enough attention has been paid to the specific training needs of teachers in rural areas. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa it argues (i) that large-scale statistical data…

  3. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  4. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  5. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  6. Precision disablement aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  7. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  8. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  9. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  10. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  11. The Rural School from Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Marion G.

    Written in 1917, this book relates the author's experience as a beginning teacher in rural Kansas. The purpose of the book was to provide preservice teachers an overview of educational practices in rural schools at that time. In addition, educational policies are proposed that specifically aim to improve rural schools. The author was barely 20…

  12. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  13. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  14. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  15. The Aims of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Kenneth E.

    The aims of college teaching are discussed, and a comparison of higher education in 1960 and two decades later is provided. After considering the development of a teaching style and the importance of the teacher's character, the joyful and spontaneous side of teaching are considered. The nature of teaching (i.e., art, science, or craft) is also…

  16. AIME Copyright Information Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Information Media and Equipment, Elkader, IA.

    Designed to assist educators in developing or revising school/library copyright policy, this packet provides the following materials: (1) a viewer's guide for the film "Copyright Law: What Every School, College, and Public Library Should Know"; (2) a statement of the primary missions of the Association for Information Media and Equipment (AIME);…

  17. Differentiation and Standardization of Aims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert

    For many people, school reform means taking the responsibility for goal setting away from teachers and assessing common student accomplishments, but the costs and benefits of this accountability strategy have not been determined. The difference between the aims of education represented by test scores, and those represented by the activities of the…

  18. Rural Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckley, Betty; Hitchings, Jim

    1971-01-01

    A course in rural studies, as part of the Home Economics curriculum at Worcester College of Education, provides students with the opportunity to grow their own vegetables and flowers, look after livestock, and experience a rural environment. (RY)

  19. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

  20. [Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on rural education focuses on the unique characteristics and problems of rural schools, and discusses how the "top down" and "one size fits all" nature of the last decade of reforms has not taken these into account. To better address the situation of rural and small schools, various strategies are offered that involve distance…

  1. Jiangsu aims at quality services.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This news brief discusses population growth and achievements in family planning in one of China's most economically developed provinces, Jiangsu. During the Five-Year Plan of 1991-95, population growth was controlled sufficiently to result in 300,000 births averted due to improvement in family planning. Provincial leaders and family planning workers agree that modernization may be achieved by the year 2000 by shifting the emphasis of family planning to economic development. The provincial government plans to offer a comprehensive package of contraceptive and reproductive health services to women of childbearing age. An information management system is planned for Taicang City. The aim is to show underdeveloped areas of the province the successful family planning experiences in Yancheng City. The Jiangsu government has a standardized management system that allows for the delivery of information and technical services and an improved supply of contraceptives. Over 95% of towns and service rooms had family planning service stations and population schools in 1995. Over 60% of villages had branch schools that provided family planning information and services. A public media campaign is planned that would spread information on childbirth, contraception, and reproductive health. This system would link IEC between the province, counties, and townships and facilitate delivery of services. Each county must establish an information management system for population and family planning. PMID:12347496

  2. Toward a Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, James G.

    The study examines programs aimed at encouraging the economic, social, and cultural development of rural areas; the nature of activities undertaken and results achieved; major provisions of the new Rural Development Act; and directions which future policies and programs should take. A statement by the National Planning Association (NPA)…

  3. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  4. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  5. School Closures in Rural Finnish Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autti, Outi; Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The network of small rural schools in Finland has been radically weakened since the global recession of the 1990s. This article focuses on the social role of rural schools and the phenomenon of school closures. Our aim is to look at rural schools from the viewpoint of local residents and examine how they experience school closures. We seek to hear…

  6. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... rural project examples in Rural Health Models and Innovations and proven strategies for strong rural programs with ...

  7. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  8. Rural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for rural adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to rural Americans. The following topics are addressed in the guide: key linkage strategies (community advisory councils,…

  9. Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Ullik, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme topic "Rural Education." The first article, "Science is Everywhere," by Chris Taylor, presents a project which uses local experts as an integral part of the school's science curriculum. "Better Teachers, Better Readers" by Scott Steen describes a system of strategic reading used in rural Wisconsin school…

  10. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  11. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  12. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

  13. School Community Renewal: A Cooperative Revitalization Strategy for Rural Schools, Students, and Communities. Full-Scale Version of Rural Renewal Strategies for Network Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Joyce

    The work of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in rural education focuses on the intersection between school renewal and rural community development. NWREL's Rural School-Community Renewal Research and Development project aims to develop the capacity of small rural schools enrolling many economically disadvantaged students to…

  14. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  15. Global rural electrification - A different race initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.

    1991-10-01

    The paper considers global rural electrification based on electric power from power stations, built in geosynchronous orbit out of lunar materials. These materials are distributed to individual villages and rural electric cooperatives via microwaves for a cost of about 6-45 cents per kilowatt-hour. Power would be available in modular increments of 25-100 kilowatts with an average capital cost as low as $5000 per kilowatt. The global rural electrification program is aimed at providing electric power from space at competitive costs, relative to current costs, to rural and agricultural areas and diverting resources from weapons development to infrastructure development.

  16. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  17. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  18. Leadership for Rural Schools: Lessons for All Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Donald M., Ed.

    Rural schools present unique challenges for school administrators, challenges that require knowledge of various skills in a range of disciplines. This book touches nearly every aspect of rural school leadership. It aims to help educational leaders in small or rural schools better understand their role, and to help all educators learn elements of…

  19. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as a center of attention, not as…

  20. Rural Sociology in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeski, Boguslaw, Ed.

    Included in this book on rural sociology in Poland are: (1) "Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article detailing the reflections and studies of rural life and agriculture before the discipline of rural sociology was acknowledged); (2) "Half A Century of Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article describing the "golden age" of Polish sociology in the…

  1. Cadres for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iagofarova, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Considers qualities required of rural teachers in the USSR and implications for teacher education. Reports survey results of 430 rural teachers in the Tatar region concerning what a rural teacher must know and problems specific to rural teaching. Concludes that rural teachers must coordinate teaching with social work and face housing and material…

  2. Othering the Rural: About the Construction of Rural Masculinities and the Unspoken Urban Hegemonic Ideal in Swedish Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenbacka, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Studies within the field of rural geography have lately to a noticeable extent enriched the theme of the creation of masculinities and femininities focussing on social constructions of the rural, as well as social constructions of gender. In this study I aim to discuss some expressed discourses of the rural in order to illuminate the power…

  3. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  4. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  5. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  6. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  7. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... in rural areas. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) – CMMI, also known as the CMS Innovation ...

  8. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  9. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  10. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  11. A Potpourri of Issues Relevant to Rural and Minority Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Focusing on issues and concerns pertaining to teaching and counseling rural women and minority women living in rural environments, the four papers aim to promote a better understanding and more realistic picture of conditions affecting rural/minority women. "Factors Influencing Educational and Occupational Choices of Rural/Minority Women" briefly…

  12. Personal and Professional Adjustment of Social Workers to Rural and Remote Practice: Implications for Improved Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonne, Bob; Cheers, Brian

    High turnover of rural practitioners is common among a range of human service professions in Australia. A longitudinal study surveyed 123 newly appointed rural social workers who had relocated to their new rural positions, using the same questionnaire every 3 months during an 18-month period. The study aimed to investigate rural recruitment and…

  13. Education for rural practice in rural practice.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger; Couper, Ian; Wynn-Jones, John; Rourke, James; Chater, A Bruce; Reid, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Despite the substantial differences between developing and developed countries, access is the major rural health issue. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (1) a rural upbringing; (2) positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; (3) targeted training for rural practice at the postgraduate level. This paper presents examples of successful rural primary care-based education in different parts of the world, then introduces the Wonca Rural Medical Education Guidebook which was launched at the 2014 Wonca Rural Health World Conference and concludes with a brief report of the 2015 conference held in Dubrovnik Croatia. PMID:26862793

  14. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  15. Deregulation and the Structure of Rural Financial Markets. Rural Development Research Report Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkove, Daniel L.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    Changes in rural financial markets as affected by bank deregulation have a potential impact on rural educational finance, specifically, financial aid programs for students and schools. Banking legislation and regulation changes have aimed to strengthen the industry and to provide consumers with more services and more choices among providers.…

  16. Rural Camp School Eco Learn--Outdoor Education in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa; Vieraankivi, Marja-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor education in rural and agricultural surroundings offers many possibilities for learning and studying different school subjects as well as teaching. This study aims to explore the development of an educational rural camp school, Eco Learn, and to investigate pupils' expectations and experiences and teachers' experiences of carrying out the…

  17. The Changing American Countryside: Rural People and Places. Series: Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Emery N., Ed.

    This interdisciplinary collection of 26 readings in rural studies aims to address the paucity of information and absence of informed people to advise public debate about rural issues. Sections of the book examine the pastoral tradition in literature; the changing nature of the countryside; money, jobs, and space; distress and poverty; regional and…

  18. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…

  19. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  20. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  1. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  2. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  3. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  5. Aiming Schedule For Orbiting Astrometric Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, Alfred C.; Sobeck, Charlie

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses schedule of observation times and aiming directions of proposed astrometric telescope facility mounted on Space Station in orbit around Earth. Primarily makes repeated observations of apparent positions of each of 127 selected stars with respect to distant reference stars in same field of view known to have unperturbed proper motions. Purpose of observations to detect motions of selected stars about centers of mass and to analyze harmonic content of motions to infer existence, number, masses, and orbital radii of planets.

  6. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  7. Aiming Instruments On The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Laskin, Robert; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses capabilities and requirements for aiming scientific instruments carried aboard proposed Space Station. Addresses two issues: whether system envisioned for pointing instruments at celestial targets offers sufficiently low jitter, high accuracy, and high stability to meet scientific requirements; whether it can do so even in presence of many vibrations and other disturbances on Space Station. Salient conclusion of study, recommendation to develop pointing-actuator system including mechanical/fluid base isolator underneath reactionaless gimbal subsystem. This kind of system offers greatest promise of high performance, cost-effectiveness, and modularity for job at hand.

  8. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  9. Preventing Aim At An Undesired Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system controls changes in orientation of optical instrument. Slew-control system includes avoidance-control logic, which overrides slew-control error generator when line of sight of instrument comes within cone of avoidance around line of sight to Sun. Normal slewing trajectory interrupted by avoidance-control logic, which computes actuator torques taking line of sight around cone of avoidance. Used to protect delicate photodetectors in servocontrolled infrared spectrometer or imaging instrument against damage occurring if instrument aimed at Sun or another excessively bright object.

  10. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  11. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  12. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  13. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  14. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  15. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  16. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized. PMID:19855156

  17. Demographics and the Rural Ethos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

  18. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  19. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... hospital closure really means for a community; teaching mental health crisis skills to rural law enforcement; physicians writing about why they choose rural practice ; and more. Share feedback on this magazine and ...

  20. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers in a remote rural…

  1. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  2. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  3. ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jeanne Marie

    Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

  4. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  5. Uninsured Rural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

  6. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  7. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  8. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  9. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  10. Rural Education and Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamblyn, Lewis R.

    Synthesizing previous research, statements, and special reports calling attention to the unique problems associated with rural education, this paper presents definitions, statistics, and recommendations applicable to rural education and to Montana. Among the topics presented are: a contemporary definition of rurality (nonmetropolitan is posited as…

  11. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

  12. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  13. New light on rural electrification: the evidence from Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, J.

    1980-09-01

    In 1973-74, A.I.D. financed a project to expand existing municipal electrical systems in Bolivia to seven outlying rural areas with the aim of servicing an additional 81,000 rural customers within 10 years. This report evaluates the project's impact on the rural poor in terms of three project objectives: improving the quality of life; stimulating economic production; and creating viable electric utilities.

  14. Rural energy - ODA`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Woolnough, D.

    1997-12-01

    The Overseas Development Administration has as a goal `to improve the quality of life of people in poorer countries by contributing to sustainable development and reducing poverty and suffering.` Rural energy fits into this goal as a means to an end. The emphasis is firmly on the service provided, with the aim being provision of basic needs as a part of rural development. ODA plays a role in this task on a number of fronts: research and development; support for NGO`s; aid in a bilateral or multilateral form. The view of ODA is that even rural energy projects must emphasize the service provided and must be economically sustainable. Within its sphere of influence, there is a clearly growing position for the employment of rural energy programs.

  15. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  16. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  17. Substance Use in Urban and Rural Texas School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Tackett-Gibson, Melissa; Dyer, James

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare substance use between urban and rural secondary school districts in Texas between 1998 and 2003. The differences were analyzed using chi-square and analysis of variance. The analysis found that rural schools had students who reported higher rates of use of tobacco, frequent binge drinking, and driving while…

  18. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  19. Education, Training and Rural Living: Young People in Ryedale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? To evaluate the impact of rural renaissance projects aimed at overcoming issues of accessibility and out-migration of the younger, more economically active population and to consider what young people feel about education, training and rural living in Ryedale, North Yorkshire. Design/methodology/approach ? Twenty Single Regeneration…

  20. The Social Construction of Rural Mathematics. Working Paper No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An announced aim of the research group for the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) is to gather landscape information related to mathematics teaching and learning in rural Appalachian high schools. Does context (i.e., rural and Appalachian) have meaningful impacts upon the math…

  1. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  2. Needs for Rural Research in the Northern Finland Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the needs and demands which rural research faces at the interface between research and development. The case study area is northern Finland, which constitutes the most remote and sparsely populated areas of the European Union. This paper is based on the tradition of rural research since the 1980s in connection…

  3. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  4. Regular and Random Components in Aiming-Point Trajectory During Rifle Aiming and Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfield, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber–Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6–0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting. PMID:19508963

  5. An Experimental Project on Energy Education for Rural Women, Primary School Children and Teachers Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Yogini; Mankodi, Hina

    One of the University of Baroda's (India) Rural/Tribal Block Placement Program's major aims during the year 1988-89 was to develop energy consciousness in women, primary school children and teachers. An experimental project was designed for a rural Indian village. The objectives were to obtain information on rural energy resources; assess the role…

  6. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  7. Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, William A.; Baehler, Karen J.

    This book synthesizes and analyzes much of the theoretical and practical literature on rural economic development and related issues from the past two decades with the aim of initiating construction of a new model for U.S. rural development policy. Part I emphasizes the national and global context within which U.S. rural development must take…

  8. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  9. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and Crops Research and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming ...

  10. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration: building collaborative population health research in rural and remote NSW.

    PubMed

    Perkins, David A; Barclay, Lesley; Browne, Kim M; Blunden, Lou-Anne; Fragar, Lyn J; Kelly, Brian J; Lower, Tony; Lyle, David M; Saberi, Vahid; Stain, Helen J; Sidford, Jan R

    2011-04-01

    The health problems faced by rural and remote communities are complex and not amenable to simple or short-term solutions. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration, which comprises rural research centres, area health services and policy makers in NSW, investigates these problems. Founded in 2002, it has grown to become the leading rural research collaboration in Australia. It aims to: conduct high quality research; build the capacity of researchers and clinicians; and encourage the translation of research evidence into practice for the benefit of rural and remote communities. The success of the Collaboration is illustrated by the increase in research outputs, funds generated, the strength of the relationships between partners and the ability to address complex research problems such as the mental health of rural and remote communities often deemed too difficult or expensive to include in metropolitan-based research. Keys to success have been the inclusive public health ethos, the participation of senior researchers and service managers, the critical mass of researchers achieved through collaboration and effective leadership and governance. This demonstrates the value of supporting cooperative research and capacity building in rural and remote areas where the size of research groups is small and where effective multi-disciplinary and co-operative research can pay dividends. PMID:21527077

  11. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  12. Autocheck: Addressing the Problem of Rural Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Guy A.

    This paper describes a project implemented by a social worker from the Glynn County School District in rural Georgia to address transportation problems experienced by students and their families. The project aims to assist families who are unable to keep appointments or attend other important events due to unreliable transportation. A county needs…

  13. Serving Inland Rural Communities through University Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julaine; Pope, Rod; O'Meara, Peter; Higgs, Joy; Kent, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To effectively provide clinical placements for students and increase healthcare options for rural communities, an investigation of university clinics was conducted. Method: This project adopted a consultative inquiry strategy and involved two processes: (1) a review of literature; and (2) interviews with existing health sciences clinic staff.…

  14. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  15. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  16. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  17. The Rural Teacher's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slacks, John R.

    This textbook was written in 1938 to acquaint beginning teachers with practices related to teaching in one-room schools and with the values and expectations of rural communities. The book points out the differences between the work of rural teachers and that of teachers in a town school. For example, teachers in one-room schools are required to…

  18. Funding Rural Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  19. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  20. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  1. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  2. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  3. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  4. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx “…assembles statistics on four broad categories of socioeconomic factors: People: Demographic data from the American Community Survey, ... gov/surveys/ruraled/Definitions.asp Define Rural for Health Programs 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  5. The Rural Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  6. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  7. Rural trauma management.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R

    1989-05-01

    Rural trauma is a major problem in the United States. Up to 70 percent of trauma fatalities occur in rural areas, even though 70 percent of the population live in urban areas. Over the past 3 decades, numerous studies have defined the concept of preventable trauma death in both rural and urban populations. With the development of a regional trauma care system in Oregon, preventable trauma mortality should decrease. An effort was made to improve the quality of trauma care in Clatsop County, Oregon, a community of 30,000 people with 2 small rural hospitals. To obtain this goal, four steps were taken: (1) physician and nurse education was improved, (2) trauma protocols promoting prompt resuscitation and stabilization of patients were established, (3) regular trauma case reviews were conducted, and (4) emergency medical technician and prehospital management were coordinated. This study reviews the trail from sporadic, uncoordinated rural trauma care to the designation process. PMID:2712202

  8. Profamilia pursues rural program.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, G

    1973-08-01

    Throughout Latin America, there is a need for family planning progra ms in rural areas. Profamilia organized a rural family planning program in the Colombian state of Risaralda with the support of the departmental Coffee Growers Committee. Results have been satisfying. From a low of 49 new acceptors in April 1971, there has been an expansion of the program to handle 341 new acceptors in March 1972. These results were a chieved with a cost lower than that of any urban family planning program . This rural program makes use of local personnel and existing infrastructures. House visits are made and nonclinical contraceptives are used. The follow-up system is simple and effective so that it can be administered by rural volunteers. There are plans to extend this program to the other rural coffee-growing departments. PMID:12258002

  9. Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

  10. THE EFFECT OF RURALITY ON THE EDUCATION OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARLES, EDGAR B.

    THE PHENONMENON OF RURALITY OCCURS ALONG A RURAL-URBAN CONTINUUM, WITH THE DEGREE OF RURALITY DEPENDING UPON ENVIRONMENTAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS. A HIGH DEGREE OF RURALITY IS LIKELY TO EXIST IN AREAS WHERE POPULATION CENTERS DO NOT EXCEED 2,500 PERSONS, OCCUPATIONS ARE PRIMARILY BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCE AND/OR LAND…

  11. Education in Rural America: Object or Instrumentality of Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl

    Rural schools have had a traditional role as major vehicles of rural economic development. During the rapid economic changes of the 20th century rural schools supplied the literate migrants who flocked to the cities to become the human capital for urban based expansion. Rural schools also provided the literate farmers who stayed at home and…

  12. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  13. Rural America at a Glance. Rural Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…

  14. Rural Development Research Under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Fred H.

    Evaluating current rural development research, the paper covers 6 major areas: (1) the nature and purpose of research; (2) circumstances related to rural development that require careful attention; (3) observations on rural development "disorganization" as an "outsider" might view the situation; (4) an opinion about the focus rural development…

  15. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Thomas K.

    Increased Department of Education (ED) interest in rural education has been part of the awakening of federal concern for rural American issues. In response to a 1979 Presidential mandate to define and address the needs of rural America, the ED has identified basic problems of rural education that lend themselves to solution by the federal…

  16. Rural Electric Youth Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials provides information about tours for rural secondary students in Washington, D.C., sponsored jointly by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), state rural electric cooperatives, and statewide associations of rural electric systems. Since 1958 this program has selected high school students to visit…

  17. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  18. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  19. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

  20. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  1. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  2. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  3. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  4. Nature of association between rural background and practice location: A comparison of general practitioners and specialists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural and remote areas are characterised by a shortage of medical practitioners. Rural background has been shown to be a significant factor associated with medical graduates' intentions and decisions to practise within a rural area, though most studies have only used simple definitions of rural background and not previously looked at specialists. This paper aims to investigate in detail the nature of the association between rural background and practice location of Australian general practitioners (GPs) and specialists Methods Data for 3156 GPs and 2425 specialists were obtained from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) study. Data on the number of childhood years resident in a rural location and population size of their rural childhood location were matched against current practice location. Logistic regression modelling was used to calculate adjusted associations between doctors in rural practice and rural background, sex and age. Results GPs with at least 6 years of their childhood spent in a rural area were significantly more likely than those with 0-5 years in a rural area to be practising in a rural location (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.69-3.08), whilst only specialists with at least 11 years rural background were significantly more likely to be practising in a rural location (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.77-2.91). However, for doctors with a rural background, the size of the community that they grew up in was not significantly associated with the size of the community in which they currently practise. Both female GPs and female specialists are similarly much less likely to be practising in a rural location compared with males (GPs: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.45-0.62). Conclusions This study elucidates the association between rural background and rural practice for both GPs and specialists. It follows that increased take-up of rural practice by new graduates requires an increased selection of students with strong rural backgrounds. However, given the

  5. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  6. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Disabilities in Rural Areas . What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for small ... U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for local ...

  8. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Science and Mathematics Initiatives in Education: A Model Distance Learning Program Building Telecommunications Bridges to Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatzman, Susan

    An 18-month model distance learning program for rural middle and secondary school math and science teachers was developed by University of California Berkeley Extension in partnership with California rural educators. The program aimed to provide access to professional development for relatively isolated rural teachers in Del Norte, Humboldt, and…

  10. Rural Education: Issues and Practice. Source Books on Education, Vol. 25. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 473.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J., Ed.

    This collection of essays on rural education in the United States aims to fill a gap in the educational literature by highlighting the available research on rural schools and their contexts. The three sections of the book focus on the historical, social, political, and economic contexts of rural education; topics of practical interest for rural…

  11. Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume III--The Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP Flex)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gayle S.; Amerikaner, Ary; Klasik, Daniel; Cohodes, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on flexibility provisions in the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) provision of NCLB. Specifically, it addresses REAP Flex, a program that allows rural districts additional control over how to spend portions of their federal funding. REAP Flex is part of a series of NCLB flexibility initiatives aimed at rural schools.…

  12. Characteristics of Rural Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) – A Survey of Medicare ACOs with Rural Presence.

    PubMed

    Salako, Abiodun; Zhu, Xi; MacKinney, A Clinton; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2015-05-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are groups of health care providers, principally physicians and hospitals, who develop a new entity that contracts to provide coordinated care to assigned patients with the goal of improving quality of care while controlling costs. Section 3022 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 created the Medicare Shared Savings Program (SSP). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implements this program and has approved SSP contracts in five cycles since 2011, including some that participated in a special demonstration project that provided advance payment (as a forgivable loan). A new ACO Investment Model (AIM) program starts in 2015 that provides initial investment capital and variable monthly payments to ACO participants in rural and underserved areas who may not have access to the capital needed for successful ACO formation and operation. CMS also contracted with 32 organizations under a special demonstration project, "Pioneer ACOs" (as of November 16, 2014, there were 19 remaining).8 At the time of the research reported in this brief, there were 455 Medicare ACOs (Pioneer and SSP). While there is growing literature about ACOs, much remains to be learned about ACO development in rural areas. A previous RUPRI Center policy brief 2 examined the formation of four rural ACOs. The authors found that prior experience with risk sharing and provider integration facilitated ACO formation. This brief expands on the earlier brief by describing the findings of a survey of 27 rural ACOs, focusing on characteristics important to their formation and operation. Prospective rural ACO participants can draw from the experiences of predecessors, and the survey findings can inform policy discussions about ACO formation and operation. Key Findings from 27 Respondents. (1) Sixteen rural ACOs were formed by pre-existing integrated delivery networks. (2) Physician groups played a more prominent role than other participant

  13. Characteristics of Queensland physicians and the influence of rural exposure on practice location.

    PubMed

    Runge, C E; MacKenzie, A; Loos, C; Waller, M; Gabbett, M; Mills, R; Eley, D

    2016-08-01

    The Queensland branch of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) commissioned this study to update their workforce profile and examine rural practice. The present investigation aimed to describe characteristics of Queensland physicians and determine the influence of childhood and training locations on current rural practice. A cross-sectional online survey, conducted 4 July-4 November 2013, was administered to Fellows of The RACP, Queensland. Descriptive statistics report characteristics and logistic regression analyses identify associations and interactions. The outcome measure was current practice location using the Australian Standard Geographic Classification - Remoteness Area. Data were obtained for 633 physicians. Their average age was 49.5 years, a third was female and a quarter was in rural practice. Rural practice was associated with a rural childhood (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.89 (1.10, 3.27) P = 0.02) and any time spent as an intern (OR 4.07 (2.12, 7.82) P < 0.001) or registrar (OR 4.00 (2.21, 7.26) P < 0.001) in a rural location. Physicians with a rural childhood and rural training were most likely to be in rural practice. However, those who had a metropolitan childhood and a rural internship were approximately five times more likely to be working in rural practice than physicians with no rural exposure (OR 5.33 (1.61, 17.60) P < 0.01). The findings demonstrate the positive effect of rural vocational training on rural practice. A prospective study would determine if recent changes to the Basic Physician Training Pathway and the Basic Paediatric Training Network (more rural training than previous pathways) increases the rate of rural practice. PMID:27554000

  14. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self

  15. Who steers the ship? Rural family physicians' views on collaborative care models for patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kosteniuk, Julie; Morgan, Debra; Innes, Anthea; Keady, John; Stewart, Norma; D'Arcy, Carl; Kirk, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the views of rural family physicians (FPs) regarding collaborative care models for patients with dementia. The study aims were to explore FPs' views regarding this issue, their role in providing dementia care, and the implications of providing dementia care in a rural setting. This study employed an exploratory qualitative design with a sample of 15 FPs. All rural FPs indicated acceptance of collaborative models. The main disadvantages of practicing rural were accessing urban-based health care and related services and a shortage of local health care resources. The primary benefit of practicing rural was FPs' social proximity to patients, families, and some health care workers. Rural FPs provided care for patients with dementia that took into account the emotional and practical needs of caregivers and families. FPs described positive and negative implications of rural dementia care, and all were receptive to models of care that included other health care professionals. PMID:23552172

  16. Rural power quality

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, D.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. ); Leonard, J. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

  17. Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

  18. Country Roads: Counseling Psychology's Rural Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes number of rural inhabitants to present microcosm of rural America. Describes rising rates of alcoholism, child and spouse abuse, and depression among rural residents. Examines poverty in rural American. Focuses on rural practice, discussing the setting, concerns and dilemmas, and training issues. Looks at the rural context of counseling…

  19. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  20. Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the 10 quarterly issues of "Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News," published from Fall 1997 to Winter 2000 (the final issue). This newsletter focused on projects funded by the Annenberg Rural Challenge, as well as research summaries and opinion pieces on the benefits of small schools, place-based education, and community…

  1. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  2. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  3. Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Sociological Society, Bozeman, MT.

    In this volume, the Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty analyzes the leading explanations of persistent rural poverty and points out new directions in theory that should provide a firmer foundation for antipoverty policies and programs. Written by over 50 leading social scientists, the Task Force report explains that…

  4. Switching Rural Primary Students on to Local Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reade, Jill; Ferguson, Peter; Colvill, Marj

    2009-01-01

    Switching rural primary students on to local science was a project centred on a cluster of seven Tasmanian primary schools over a full school year. The project had as its aims a mix of professional development outcomes for participant teachers and an enhancement of science experiences for their students. In order to achieve these aims programs…

  5. The Increasingly Long Road to School in Rural China: The Impacts of Education Network Consolidation on Broadly Defined Schooling Distance in Xinfeng County of Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dan; Barakat, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, China's Ministry of Education embarked on a program of school mapping restructure (SMR) that involved closing small rural schools and opening up larger centralized schools in towns and county seats.The stated aim of the policy was to improve educational resources and raise the human capital of rural students. Any progress that…

  6. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They seek to: (1)…

  7. Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.

  8. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  9. Rural Special Education: A Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Harold W.

    1975-01-01

    This article lists and discusses five problems in rural special education: a) low population density, b) financial constraints resulting from lower tax bases, c) rural flight, d) inability to recruit and retain quality personnel, and e) lack of future. (HMD)

  10. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  11. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  12. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  13. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  14. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  15. Gifted Voices from Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.

    This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

  16. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  17. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  18. FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPP, JAMES H.

    FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

  19. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  20. Rural Familism: An Interregional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Peter L.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    1977-01-01

    Testing the hypothesis that at least two types of rural familism exist within different geographic regions of the United States, this study indicates that extended kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Southeast and primary kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Far West. (JC)

  1. Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.

    This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

  2. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  3. Rural Libraries and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of rural public libraries in the information age. Characteristics of rural communities that library planners should consider are conservatism, the lack of professionally trained librarians, library trustee involvement, the need for marketing, and gender balance. Suggestions for recreating rural libraries and providing…

  4. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  5. Rural Schools for Tomorrow. Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Julian E., Ed.

    This 1945 National Education Association yearbook focuses attention on the post-World War II problems of rural schools and encourages national, state, and local leaders to lay plans for strengthening rural education programs. The articles examine social and economic problems faced by rural Americans, the implications of these problems for rural…

  6. OCLC and Rural Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Clarence R.

    This discussion of ways in which OCLC can be used by rural libraries to enhance the library services offered to rural Americans suggests that OCLC is a type of technology that can be used to overcome the insufficiency of funds to finance library services. OCLC products and services that are particularly relevant to small, rural public libraries…

  7. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  8. National Rural Education Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Stephens, E. Robert

    To develop a list of research priorities for rural education, members of the Rural Education Association's (REA) Research Committee and Executive Board were asked to rank order nine thematic research categories. The ranking process resulted in the following list (starting with the highest priority): (1) rural school effectiveness; (2) staff…

  9. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural…

  10. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  11. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels

    PubMed Central

    Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller de Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State), demographic (e.g., urban and rural), or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour). In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations. PMID:24073242

  12. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  13. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  14. Finding Your Bearings, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  15. Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The release of "The New Zealand Curriculum" causes us to rethink the aims of education. Dr Cavanagh offers an alternative set of aims to the vision outlined in the Ministry of Education document, which is based, at least in part, on socialisation into the corporate industrial world. Dr Cavanagh's position is focused on putting relationships at the…

  16. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  17. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  18. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  19. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  20. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  1. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  2. The outcomes of health care process in Iran's rural society

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Manije; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs and adequate attention has not been paid to this problem. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of health care process in rural society. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six participants including twenty-one rural health care providers and five clients were selected according to purposive sampling. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and a mini focus group. Data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis based on methods described by Granheme and Landman. Results: Data analysis eventually led to formation of one category of inefficiency in health care process in rural society including subcategories such as arbitrary self-therapy, slow care process, dissatisfaction with the care process, superficial caring, job stress and burn out of caregivers, and ineffective caring relationship. Conclusion: Outcomes in health care in rural society of Iran represents inefficiency of the current health care process. These outcomes are related to the cultural and social context of rural communities and the structure of the health system. These outcomes in health care in the rural society of Iran represent impairment of the current health care process. The necessity of modifying the existing care trend with new models designed to improve the health care process is felt. PMID:24403941

  3. A regional approach to the education of nurse practitioner candidates to meet the health needs of rural Australians.

    PubMed

    Francis, Karen; Boyd, Michal; Latham, Heather; Anderson, Judith; Bradley, Angela; Manners, Jan

    2014-11-28

    Abstract Background: Local health services expressed interest in supporting a nurse practitioner program specifically designed for rural practice environments. Aim: To develop and deliver a generalist nurse practitioner program that prepares candidates for practice in rural contexts. Methods: The Master of Clinical Nursing (Nurse Practitioner) program was designed with an understanding of the burden of disease impacting on rural Australians, application of the national health priorities, the Australian Government's refocus on preventative health care and rural health workforce shortages. Results: This program offers nurses who work in rural and remote settings an opportunity to advance their careers. Increasing the numbers of rural nurse practitioners will improve rural populations access to healthcare and potentially improve health outcomes. Conclusion: This program will equip those seeking endorsement as a nurse practitioner to effectively work in rural contexts. PMID:25429988

  4. Rurality and Capital: Educational Expectations and Attainments of Rural, Urban/Rural and Metropolitan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Looker, E. Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Used data from two longitudinal surveys of Canadian youth (in British Columbia and Nova Scotia) to examine the effects of rural versus urban/rural and metropolitan residence on young people's educational expectations and attainments. Findings showed that students in rural areas have lower expectations and attainments compared to other students,…

  5. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  6. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  7. Small Rural School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, James

    Low cost or no cost ideas for programs in smaller rural schools are listed. Areas covered include public relations, special programs and curriculum. Based on the experience of a small school district in Elizabeth, Illinois, these ideas include the school's relationship to students, faculty and the community; extracurricular activities relating to…

  8. Rural Development: Research Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Larry R., Ed.

    Directed at the problem of providing equitable long term rural development, this collection of papers deals with the criteria on which research and educational priorities should be based, given the vast problems and limited resources in the U.S. today. There are 11 papers in this collection: "National Outlook and Perspective" (a plea for…

  9. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  10. The Rural Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Science teachers in rural areas have the opportunity to present their students with concrete examples of science concepts they're studying simply by going outdoors. Examples presented focus on earth science, food webs, succession, and comparative ecology. Tips for developing topics using outdoor experiences are included. (JM)

  11. CAUSES OF RURAL POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOCKBURGER, CASSANDRA

    THERE IS ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IN MANY SECTIONS OF OUR COUNTRY, BUT RURAL ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS CONCENTRATED LARGELY IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST. THE SOUTH HAS REMAINED IN ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT SINCE THE CIVIL WAR, DUE TO THE SHARECROPPER SYSTEM OF FARMING. IN APPALACHIA, OPPORTUNISTIC MINING AND FORESTRY OPERATIONS, COUPLED WITH THE…

  12. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  13. Rural Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Public Telecomputing Network, Cleveland, OH.

    This report describes the National Public Telecomputing Network's (NPTN) development of free, public-access, community computer systems throughout the United States. It also provides information on how to initiate a "Free-Net" through the Rural Information Network. Free-Nets are multi-user systems with some of the power and sophistication of…

  14. Rural Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protective Orders Effective in Stopping or Reducing Partner Violence , they examine urban and rural differences in the community context of ... The impact of civil protective orders on reducing violence and abuse did not differ ... women. Community-level barriers to enforce civil protective ...

  15. Manifesto on Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Rural Life Conference, Des Moines, IA.

    Written in 1939, this book outlines fundamental Catholic principles and policies that address problems associated with the agricultural system and rural living during the early 20th century. The manifesto was derived from Catholic social philosophy and espouses the benefits of an occupation in agriculture, including the development of private…

  16. VET in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Mike

    Despite the enduring problems of equity and access in the delivery of education in rural Australian schools, vocational education and training (VET) programs appear to have had a significant impact on many such schools and their communities. Vocational educational programs in Australia are based on structured workplace learning. There are three…

  17. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  18. Teachers as Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  19. Whither Rural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Darrell S.

    1981-01-01

    Rural education may be entering a renaissance after 60 years of neglect. Improvements include: multidistrict shared services with special attention given to exceptional persons; new delivery systems; more relevant training for school personnel; and effective dissemination of successfully established school practices. (CJ)

  20. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  1. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view.

    PubMed

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention. PMID:25761748

  2. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  3. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  4. Movement strategies in vertical aiming of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Rodacki, Andre

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the movement kinematics of older adults when aiming to vertically oriented targets. Late middle-age and early old-age participants completed 20 trials to a small target located downward or upward by 0.16 m from a home position at shoulder height. Aiming direction had a significant effect, resulting in more submovements, which were mostly reflective of undershooting when aiming to the downward compared to upward target. In trials containing a submovement, both groups exhibited shorter total movement time, concomitant with a decrease in duration of the primary movement and an increase in submovement amplitude, when aiming to the downward target. Measures of dispersion also differed in accord with the amplitude of submovements, such that there was greater spatial and temporal variability in the primary movement when aiming in the downward direction. While there was limited evidence of a difference between the groups, there were significant correlations between age and several dependent measures when aiming to the downward target. Of note, in trials containing submovements, older participants exhibited larger amplitude and longer duration submovements, as well as shorter amplitude primary movement. Spatial variability at peak velocity also increased as a function of age when aiming downward, but not in trials without submovements. An explanation related to physical limits on movement production is discounted given the lack of consistent findings between trial types. Instead, we suggest older participants' exhibit strategic differences in movement kinematics when aiming to vertically located targets, and that these change progressively with age in order to maintain speed-accuracy relations. PMID:22116400

  5. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  6. Real-Time Estimation Of Aiming Error Of Spinning Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1992-01-01

    Spinning-spacecraft dynamics and amplitude variations in communications links studied from received-signal fluctuations. Mathematical model and associated analysis procedure provide real-time estimates of aiming error of remote rotating transmitting antenna radiating constant power in narrow, pencillike beam from spinning platform, and current amplitude of received signal. Estimates useful in analyzing and enhancing calibration of communication system, and in analyzing complicated dynamic effects in spinning platform and antenna-aiming mechanism.

  7. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O.; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaeste, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana’s medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. Aim This study explored the impact of rural training on students’ attitudes towards rural practice. Setting The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results The thirty-six participants’ age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirty-three desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. Conclusion The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas. PMID:27380783

  8. A Study of Rural Preschool Practitioners' Views on Young Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The project "Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice" aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian…

  9. Cyclone-Resistant Rural Primary School Construction - A Design Guide. Educational Building Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.; Loo, G. A. van't

    One of a series of documents on design of disaster-resistant buildings, this publication treats construction of rural primary schools to resist destruction by wind and water from cyclones. Also appropriate for other buildings, material is aimed at rural primary schools because they are less likely to be professionally designed or supervised; the…

  10. Partnership Working in Small Rural Primary Schools: The Best of Both Worlds. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the most effective ways for small rural primary schools to work together in order to improve provision and raise standards. The project sought to examine the circumstances and context of small rural schools in Lincolnshire and evaluate their different leadership models (such as collaborations,…

  11. Building Community Capacities in Evaluating Rural IT Projects: Success Strategies from the LEARNERS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennie, June; Hearn, Greg; Simpson, Lyn; Kimber, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on the benefits of communication and information technologies (C&IT) for sustainable rural community development, effective evaluations of C&IT initiatives are increasingly important. This paper presents outcomes of a project that aimed to build capacities of people in two Australian rural communities to evaluate…

  12. College Readiness for Rural Youth Initiative: Creating a Climate for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Jason; Light, Mark; Dick, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    College Readiness for Rural Youth is an innovative, postsecondary education bridge program that gives youth the opportunity to explore college attainability, admissions, financial aid, and application processes. The initiative aims to support academic success and transition to college for rural youth.

  13. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  14. Child Labour and Schooling in the Context of a Subsistence Rural Economy: Can They Be Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admassie, A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a household survey from rural Ethiopia indicate that rural children commonly participated in household and agricultural work from a very early age, and more than half of working children had never attended school. In the context of subsistence economies such as these, initial policy interventions should aim to make the combination of…

  15. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…

  16. Research on Migration in Africa: Past, Present, and Future, African Rural Employment Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerlee, Derek

    African nations have been experiencing rapid rates of urbanization accompanied by serious problems of urban unemployment due to the rate of rural-urban migration and the lack of an adequate understanding of the migration process for economic policy formulation. The aim of this paper was to review the present knowledge of African rural-urban…

  17. Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the National Science Foundation funded the Alaska Rural System Initiative (RSI), a joint effort of the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Among its goals, the RSI aims to increase the presence of Alaska Native knowledge and perspectives in all areas of science and education in rural Alaska, develop…

  18. Exploring the Temperament and Character Traits of Rural and Urban Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Przybeck, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Australia shares many dilemmas with North America regarding shortages of doctors in rural and remote locations. This preliminary study contributes to the establishment of a psychobiological profile for rural doctors by comparing temperament and character traits with an urban cohort. Purpose: The aim was to compare the individual levels…

  19. Computer Access and Use: Understanding the Expectations of Indian Rural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Basavaraja, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand the expectations of rural students with respect to their computer access and use. It also made an attempt to learn the expectations of rural students from their schools and local government in providing the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Design/methodology/approach: Interview…

  20. Education of Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural Areas: New Horizons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David P.

    Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…

  1. Partnership Working in Small Rural Primary Schools: The Best of Both Worlds. Supporting Report and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this report was to investigate the most effective ways for small rural primary schools to work together in order to improve provision and raise standards. The project sought to examine the circumstances and context of small rural schools in Lincolnshire and evaluate their different leadership models (such as…

  2. National Policy, Local Interpretation: The American Rural Curriculum, 1897-1921.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Doug

    1999-01-01

    The factory model of organization that resulted from the ascension of industry and economic expansion between 1897 and 1921 was applied to education as well as business. National recommendations aimed to standardize rural education, but local application of these unilateral templates reflected local rural cultures. Examples discussed are…

  3. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  4. Rural training and the state of rural health services: effect of rural background on the perception and attitude of first-year medical students at the university of melbourne.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Simmons, D; Elliott, S L

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the relationship between medical students' background and their perception of the state of rural health services; willingness to undertake internship training or work as a doctor in a rural hospital; expected benefits and disadvantages of training or working as a doctor in a rural hospital; and factors interfering with acceptance of a job as a doctor in rural areas. A questionnaire-based survey was distributed to 100 first-year medical students attending the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne at the end of semester 1. The response rate was 97%, including 44 males and 53 females. A strong relationship was found between rural background and an intention to undertake internship training in a rural hospital (86% of students from a rural background expressed this desire vs 30% of students from an urban background). Furthermore, all students from a rural background expressed a desire to work as a doctor in a rural hospital after completing postgraduate training. Compared to urban students, students from a rural background showed a more positive attitude towards health services in rural areas including public hospitals ( P = 0.02), private general practice ( P = 0.004), ambulance service ( P = 0.0002) and baby health centres ( P = 0.005). Citizenship or gender was not significantly related to the perception of any of these services. The ranking of factors interfering with acceptance of a job as a doctor in rural areas were different for rural and urban students. Students from rural backgrounds reported spouse/partner needs (76% vs 49%, P = 0.038) and school availability for children (59% vs 30%, P = 0.023) as barriers more frequently than urban students, respectively). On the other hand, urban students rated the following factors higher: personal factors (76% vs 53%, respectively), education opportunities (56% vs 24%), social/cultural facilities (50% vs 41%) and the need for frequent

  5. [Environment and rural development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  6. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  7. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  8. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  9. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    PubMed

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  10. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  11. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  12. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION... demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949 as... the Rural Development Voucher Program and also sets forth the general policies and procedures for...

  13. Recognizing the Variety of Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenough, Richard; Nelson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help education practitioners and researchers understand that research about rural education is complicated not only by issues of defining "rural," but also by the often dramatic ways that rural schools differ from each other. We briefly address issues in defining rural and describe rural classification…

  14. Poverty in the Rural United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudenhefer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The 1990 Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty describes rural poverty, comparing it to urban poverty; rejects human-capital, economic-organization, and culture-of-poverty theories of rural poverty and proposes research on 10 other theories; and discusses rural policy and its inequitable emphasis on farmers. (KS)

  15. CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

  16. College Bound American Indian Math and Science Enrichment Program (AIMS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), was founded in 1971 and is located on 164 acres in northwest Albuquerque, New Mexico in the center of New Mexico`s agricultural and high-tech corridors. SIPI became accredited as a community college in 1993, serves Native Americans nationwide, and is governed by a nationally-tribally appointed Board of Regents (Jicarilla Apache, Joint Oklahoma Tribes, Mescalero Apache, Navajo Nation-Arizona, Navajo Nation-New Mexico, Ten Southern Pueblos, and Eight Northern Pueblos, Southern Ute, Inter-tribal Council of Arizona, and Oglala Sioux). In 1993, The US Department of Education, TRIO Programs no longer funded the Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) Summer Math and Science Enrichment Program. However, with US Department of Energy funding SIPI was able to continue service to the Native American community under the new title of College Bound American Indian Math and Science (AIMS) Enrichment Program. This new program continued the goals and objectives of the TRIO program with an expanded focus that included students from more Native American communities nationwide. The program also interfaced with a teacher enrichment program (Rural American Indian Science Education-RAISE) sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Sandia National Labs (SNL). SIPI in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) Laboratory established a mathematics and science enrichment program at SIPI for students attending rural high schools serving predominantly Native American populations. The primary goal of the program was to provide 9th--12th grade students, mostly Native American, the skills and knowledge, interest and motivation, and strategies to remain in high school and pursue a college education in a math, science, or technology based field. Each year, the program included a six-week intensive residential summer program located at SIPI as well as academic year support activities at the

  17. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture's rural-urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS-S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas. PMID:26270742

  18. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  19. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  2. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  4. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  5. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  6. An "Aims of Discourse" Program for Freshman English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, William J.

    Genesee Community College in Batavia, New York, adopted James Kinneavy's aims of discourse theory as the basis of its composition program. The program is a two-semester course for students who intend to transfer to four-year colleges. In a comparable nontransfer sequence, the first semester doubles as a remedial course for ill-prepared transfer…

  7. Initiative Aims to Refashion Training Path for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    A new nationwide leadership initiative launched last week is aimed at changing the way America's principals are recruited and prepared--and how they run schools. The Alliance to Reform Education Leadership, or AREL, marks the first major effort of the nonpartisan George W. Bush Institute, located at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. It will…

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  9. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  10. Aims College Operation Bridge Project. Phase 1, Preliminary Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Spanish Speaking Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing the adverse effects of poverty on Mexican Americans, and determined to help narrow the barriers caused by a low socioeconomic status, Aims college, a locally funded institution in Weld County, Colorado, conceptualized and implemented a special needs program designed to provide vocational and occupational training for disadvantaged…

  11. Comment on "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This commentary presents the author's response to an article published in the last version of "Kairaranga" entitled "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the aims of education," written by Dr. Tom Cavanagh. He found it refreshing to read Cavanagh's article that focuses educators' energies onto re-visiting the wider socio-cultural goals of…

  12. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  13. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his…

  14. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  15. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  16. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  17. Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

  18. Managing rural emergency department overcrowding.

    PubMed

    Van Vonderen, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    Emergency department visits reached more than 115 million in 2005, a 30% increase over the past decade. Although much has been written regarding these numbers, little attention has been focused on the impact of overcrowding and volume increases on rural emergency departments. Rural emergency departments face challenges unlike their urban counterparts that make implementation of current overcrowding strategies difficult or impossible. This article addresses these challenges and suggests strategies specific to the needs of rural emergency departments. PMID:18820558

  19. School Reform for Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Overall, one in four rural children live in poverty, and of the 50 U.S. counties with the highest child-poverty rates, 48 are rural. Drug usage abounds. In the mid-2000s, rural 8th graders were 59 percent more likely than peers in large cities to use methamphetamines and 104 percent more likely to use any amphetamine, according to the National…

  20. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  1. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  2. Rural patients’ experiences accessing surgery in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Humber, Nancy; Dickinson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 33% of Canadians live in rural areas. The vulnerability of rural surgical patients makes them particularly sensitive to barriers to accessing health care. This study aims to describe rural patients’ experiences accessing local non-specialist, family physician–surgeon care and regional specialist surgical care when no local surgical care was available. Methods We conducted a qualitative pilot study of self-selected patients. Interviews were analyzed using a modified Delphi technique and NVivo qualitative software. Results The needs of rural surgical patients were reflective of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: physiologic, safety and security, community belonging and self-esteem/self-actualization. Rural patients expressed a strong desire for individualized care in a familiar environment. When such care was not available, patients found it difficult to meet even basic physiologic needs. Maternity patients and marginalized populations were particularly vulnerable. Conclusion Rural patients seem to prefer individualized care in a familiar environment to address more of their qualitative emotional, psychological and cultural needs rather than only the physiologic needs of surgery. Larger studies are needed to delineate more clearly the qualitative aspects of surgical care. PMID:21092429

  3. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs for the promotion of health care delivery, education, and health information services through telehealth technologies.   Rural Health Research Programs Learn more about FORHP research ...

  4. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  5. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events. PMID:22254534

  6. Rural Development: What's Coming--What's Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Henry

    1978-01-01

    The speech, delivered 1 June 1978 at the Western Roundup Regional Conference on Rural Home Services (University of Montana, Missoula), indicates that rural America has suffered from neglect, disorganization, and the lack of a federal rural development policy. (B R)

  7. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  8. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  9. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  10. Explanation in Biology: Reduction, Pluralism, and Explanatory Aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This essay analyzes and develops recent views about explanation in biology. Philosophers of biology have parted with the received deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation primarily by attempting to capture actual biological theorizing and practice. This includes an endorsement of different kinds of explanation (e.g., mathematical and causal-mechanistic), a joint study of discovery and explanation, and an abandonment of models of theory reduction in favor of accounts of explanatory reduction. Of particular current interest are philosophical accounts of complex explanations that appeal to different levels of organismal organization and use contributions from different biological disciplines. The essay lays out one model that views explanatory integration across different disciplines as being structured by scientific problems. I emphasize the philosophical need to take the explanatory aims pursued by different groups of scientists into account, as explanatory aims determine whether different explanations are competing or complementary and govern the dynamics of scientific practice, including interdisciplinary research. I distinguish different kinds of pluralism that philosophers have endorsed in the context of explanation in biology, and draw several implications for science education, especially the need to teach science as an interdisciplinary and dynamic practice guided by scientific problems and explanatory aims.

  11. An aiming device for an extraoral radiographic technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Lin, Shui-Hui; Chiu, Hui-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2007-06-01

    To assist certain patient populations who are unable to tolerate intraoral films and/or sensors during endodontic therapy, an alternative technique (extraoral film placement) has been innovated by Newman and Friedman (2003). In this study, we devise and test a film/sensor-beam alignment aiming device for taking a periapical radiograph using this extraoral radiographic technique. An instrument is assembled from the following components: (1) two locator rings for bite-wing radiography, (2) two metal supporting indicator rods for bite-wing radiography, (3) a bite block for horizontal bite-wing radiography, and (4) a rubber tube of about 2 cm in length. Using our newly-devised aiming device to take periapical radiographs using the extraoral technique, appropriate images of the left upper and right lower molar areas for a series of 12 adult volunteers were successfully obtained. Angulation of the x-ray cone, with reference to the horizontal plane, was -20 degrees to -30 degrees and -10 degrees to -15 degrees for the upper and lower teeth, respectively. This study therefore shows that appropriate images can be easily obtained using this aiming device. PMID:17509422

  12. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  13. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers. Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations. PMID:18267035

  14. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In: Critical Theory and Rural Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    In recent years, rural sociology has been the subject of sociological inquiries. Many of these have been highly critical, raising questions about the ontological nature of the discipline. This paper extends the tradition, providing a brief historical analysis of rural sociology's roots as both theoretical and applied and critiquing current rural…

  15. The Changing Rural Economy: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harl, Neil E.

    Although rural education is entering an era of opportunity in terms of both youth and adult needs, the capacity of rural areas to provide needed educational services may be diminished due to rapid economic and social change, particularly in agriculture. Three federal policies operating over the past two decades have created an unfavorable…

  16. Revitalizing Rural Communities: Lessons from the Rural Community College Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    MDC, Inc. is a private nonprofit whose mission is to expand opportunities, reduce poverty, and build inclusive communities in the South. The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) is a national project that supports community colleges in distressed rural areas in moving their people and communities toward prosperity. MDC and the Ford Foundation…

  17. Living with breast cancer: the influence of rurality on women's suffering and resilience. a postmodern feminist inquiry.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Clark, Cath

    This paper focuses on rural living as a dimension of women's experiences of living through breast cancer. The findings presented emanate from a feminist narrative research project that examined the experiences of rural women from south-west Queensland who were long-term survivors of breast cancer. This project aimed to listen, report and interpret rural women's stories of resilience in surviving breast cancer and moving on with their lives. The participants reported that there were both positive and negative aspects of living in a rural setting, especially when ill. Eight of the nine participants, however, felt strongly that the positive aspects of rural living outweighed the difficulties. This suggests that rurality in the context of health and illness must be considered as a multifaceted dimension, with resources to support cancer survivors building on the existing strengths in rural communities. PMID:12537151

  18. Mentoring and Professional Development in Rural Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Carter McLean, Marsha; Waajid, Badiyyah; Pittman, Evelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and pilot a small-scale professional development program that incorporated substantial group and one-on-one mentoring aimed at preparing rurally based preschool teacher assistants to earn the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. Using a framework that emphasized the relational, developmental,…

  19. The Four Corners Rural Systemic Initiative: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Vincente

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve and integrate science, mathematics, and technology education for the primarily Native American and Hispanic students of the Four Corners region. Discusses UCAN RSI's focus on community engagement, cultural sensitivity and relevance, and…

  20. Teaching in Rural Turkey: Pre-Service Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilaslan, Irem

    2012-01-01

    Despite preliminary findings that preparing teachers for rural positions is of great importance in Turkey's conditions, little has been reported regarding the measures that need to be addressed in order to effectively prepare teachers for remote areas. In response to this gap, the present study aimed to provide some preliminary views about the…

  1. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  2. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  3. School Mapping Restructure in Rural China: Achievements, Problems and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dan; Parolin, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the experience of school mapping restructure (SMR) in areas of rural China. It aims to understand what happened after SMR implementation. Through a combination of instruments such as questionnaires, interviews and document analysis, the study finds that SMR has impacted positively on the development of education in terms of…

  4. Professional Learning in Rural Practice: A Sociomaterial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the professional learning of rural police officers. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative case study involved interviews and focus groups with 34 police officers in Northern Scotland. The interviews and focus groups were transcribed and analysed, drawing on practice-based and sociomaterial learning…

  5. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in a Rural High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J.; Riker, Carol A.; Hoehne, Amber; White, Ashleigh; Greenwell, Devin; Thompson, Dyshel

    2007-01-01

    Although federal law requires all public schools to be smoke free, lack of compliance with the smoke-free policy is commonly reported. The aims of this study were to describe the indoor fine-particle (PM[subscript 2.5]) air pollution in a rural high school and surrounding public venues. This cross-sectional, nonexperimental study was conducted in…

  6. Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khau, Mathabo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…

  7. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  8. Collaboration in International Rural Development: A Practitioner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axinn, George H.; Axinn, Nancy W.

    This book aims to provide practical information and insights to practitioners involved in collaborative international development programs. It draws on literature and the authors' many years of field experience to combine theory and practical tools as a guide to action in the field. The introduction defines concepts in rural development, outlines…

  9. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  10. Use of the argon aiming beam in visual function testing.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J S

    1978-12-01

    The aiming beam of the argon laser photocoagulator can be a useful tool in visual function testing. Applied with the slit lamp delivery system and fundus contact lens, it clearly documents the size of the blind spot surrounding the optic nerve head and the normal area of nonfunctional retina in the periphery. The size of pathologic field defects can be recorded on fundus photographs or retinal drawings by an observer. Safety precautions must be taken to protect all patients from excessive laser energy. PMID:736394

  11. Nutrition education aimed at toddlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Weight problems in children are increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low-income populations. This concern requires effective strategies to promote healthy eating. A quasi-experiment was used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent-toddler feeding practices. The NEAT intervention comprises four nutrition lessons and structured reinforcements over 6 months. A convenience sample of 135 low-income families participated in the study up to the first data collection wave. Complete data were available for 43 parent-toddler dyads in the intervention and 53 dyads in the control group. The results show that, compared to the controls, caregivers exposed to the intervention had significantly higher knowledge scores concerning toddler feedings. No statistically significant differences were found for measures of child and parent mealtime behaviors. Because it is generally easier to change knowledge than actual behaviors, our study results demonstrate the need to focus on other avenues to enhance parents' ability to feed toddlers appropriately. PMID:16295151

  12. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  13. Benchmark integration test for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, H.; Labuda, L.

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) studies and solves systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This systems integration approach to addressing human capability barriers will yield validation of advanced concepts and technologies, establish baselines for further development, and help identify opportunities for system-level breakthroughs. Early ground-based testing of mission capability will identify successful system implementations and operations, hidden risks and hazards, unexpected system and operations interactions, mission mass and operational savings, and can evaluate solutions to requirements-driving questions; all of which will enable NASA to develop more effective, lower risk systems and more reliable cost estimates for future missions. This paper describes the first in the series of integration tests proposed for AIM (the Benchmark Test) which will bring in partners and technology, evaluate the study processes of the project, and develop metrics for success.

  14. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved. PMID:26275785

  15. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull. PMID:10843511

  16. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  17. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, XianPing; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the head is scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, non-linear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70°×48° field was only 0.86°, with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  18. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  19. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  20. Implications of Rural Environmental Variables Associated with the Participation of Children in Farming Activities: A Lesson from Rural Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, A. O.; Jibowo, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the participation of rural children in farming activities and selected social, school, and physical environment related variables. Data were collected from four hundred and fifty eight children selected through stage-wise random sampling procedure from the four agricultural zones in Oyo…

  1. Educational Planning in Rural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig; Larson, William

    Principals' support for various approaches to educational planning were examined in rural and suburban schools in Ohio and West Virginia. It was expected that rational approaches to planning would be more prevalent in suburban than rural schools and in a state with more tightly coupled bureaucratic control (West Virginia) than a less tightly…

  2. Going Digital in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and others with…

  3. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

    Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

  4. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  5. Rural health care: redefining access.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The population and demographics of rural America are shifting once again. As our nation's unprecedented health care reform unfolds, it is becoming clear that rural communities have unique strengths, and capitalizing on these strengths can position them well for this health care transformation. Equally important are the distinct challenges that--with careful planning, attention, and resources--can be transformed into opportunities to thrive in the new health care environment. The North Carolina Institute of Medicine's Task Force on Rural Health recently published a report that highlights the strengths and challenges of rural communities [1]. In order to fully leverage these opportunities, we must continue to acknowledge the fundamental importance of access to basic health care, while also broadening our discussion to collectively tackle the additional components necessary to create healthy, thriving rural communities. As we reexamine the needs of rural communities, we should broaden our discussions to include an expansion of the types of access that are necessary for strengthening rural health. Collaboration, successful recruitment and retention, availability of specialty services, quality care, and cost effectiveness are some of the issues that must come into discussions about access to services. With this in mind, this issue of the NCMJ explores opportunities to strengthen the health of North Carolina's rural communities. PMID:25621473

  6. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  7. Persuading Teachers to Go Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    With a national teacher shortage projected to start peaking this year as baby boomers retire and budget shortfalls restrict state and local funding for teachers, rural school districts are working to keep the teachers they have while seeking new ones at little if any additional cost. The retirements alone will compound problems rural districts…

  8. Rural Sociology at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krannich, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    A complex array of socio-historical, demographic, and organizational factors have combined in recent years to threaten both the current status of and future prospects for the discipline of rural sociology, and for the Rural Sociological Society (RSS). This paper examines the somewhat problematic recent trajectories of the RSS as a professional…

  9. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  10. THE STATUS OF RURAL AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BREATHITT, EDWARD T.

    THE YOUTH OF RURAL AMERICA ARE NOT AFFORDED EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES, ARE ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED, EXPERIENCE INADEQUATE MEDICAL SERVICES, AND FAIL IN GENERAL TO REALIZE THE ADVANTAGES OF THEIR CITY COUNTERPARTS. THESE CONDITIONS FACING RURAL YOUTH ARE NOT CONFINED TO ANY SINGLE AREA OF THE COUNTRY, BUT ARE WIDESPREAD ENOUGH THAT THEY…

  11. THE DILEMMA OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UDALL, MORRIS K.

    WITHIN THE LAST 30 YEARS WE HAVE CHANGED FROM AN AMERICA WHICH WAS TWO-THIRDS RURAL AND ONE-THIRD URBAN TO JUST THE REVERSE. RURAL YOUNG PEOPLE CONSTITUTE A LARGE PORTION OF THIS MIGRATION PATTERN WHICH HAS ADDED TO THE INCREASED CONGESTION OF OUR LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS. ANOTHER RELATED PROBLEM IS THAT SUDDENLY DURING THE 1960'S WE HAVE AWAKENED…

  12. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  13. Computer Use by Rural Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, D. W.; And Others

    Very little research is available nationwide that measures the administrative use of computers in rural schools. A state survey of 154 rural Kentucky secondary school principals (representing a 51% response rate) focused on their knowledge about computers and use of computers for school administrative purposes. Only 14% of respondents had a…

  14. High Achievement in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Carleen; Hagans, Rex

    Although much that is written about rural schools focuses on economic scarcities, pressures on teachers, and limited materials, there are also distinct advantages offered to those attending school in rural areas. Small schools provide all children--including the gifted--with unique opportunities to develop intellectual, social, and creative…

  15. The Church and Rural Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles L.

    Involvement of the church in rural community life was investigated by examining the "Fifty-Year Index to Rural Sociology." Findings revealed that 43 separate articles were published from 1944 to 1977 under categories of community life (7 articles); ministers: elite control (4); attitudes (5); beliefs, practices (6); churches (6); church…

  16. Home Schooling in Rural Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Cruzeiro, Patricia; Holz, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A 1996-97 survey of 40 home schooling families in rural Nebraska examined family characteristics, parents' social and political attitudes, the rationale for home schooling, curriculum and supplementary materials, children's opportunities for social experiences, rural characteristics, parents' educational attitudes, and support from extended…

  17. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  18. Rural Transition Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Phebe

    Successful rural transition strategies which assist disabled rural secondary students in the transition from school to employment and community integration are described. Effective programs and specific strategies touch on such topic areas as job/career exploration, on-site job exploration, career planning, prevocational training, transition…

  19. A Rural-Urban Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, F. Maurice; Mookherjee, Harsha

    Much research and many publications have dealt with the concepts of rural-urban differences, but the controversy regarding the conceptual clarity of the variables remains. Assuming that these variables need clarification, this paper: (1) examines some of the conceptual and methodological problems involved in rural-urban differentiation, (2)…

  20. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Creber, Ruth M. Masterson; Smeeth, Liam; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Methods The PERU MIGRANT (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. Conclusions People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban areas. PMID:20857014

  1. Physician assistants in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cawley, James F; Lane, Steven; Smith, Noel; Bush, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    About 12% of all PAs work in rural settings, according to the 2013 Annual Survey of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. PAs in rural areas are more likely to practice in primary care specialties, have a wider scope of practice, and see patients who are uninsured or covered by Medicaid or Medicare. The positive effect of PAs on rural health has been demonstrated in extensive studies. PAs in rural areas are often the usual care providers for patients with chronic conditions, provide care that is cost effective and safe, and in certain cases increase access to care. Hiring a PA in a rural medical practice can have a salutary economic effect on the practice as well as the community. PMID:26704653

  2. Technology and rural mental health.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; McKinnon, Caroline R

    2003-02-01

    In addition to the specific and pervasive rural issues of isolation and suitability of services, the rural mental health system faces many of the same problems as the health system in general: access and increasing costs. The introduction of technology adds the unknown dimensions of acceptability and feasibility. Technology has the potential to decrease the gap in services and improve education, support, and connectedness between the client and the provider. As an alternative to traditional face-to-face contact for those in rural and geographically dispersed areas, the Internet potentially can bridge the disparities in health care access for rural mental health services. With an improved understanding based on research, demonstration studies of model applications, and evidence of outcomes, the emerging technologies can serve as tools to achieve the major goals of preventing, assessment, and treating serious mental illnesses in the rural communities with less barriers and stigma. PMID:12642884

  3. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  4. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. PMID:25578380

  5. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, W.

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  6. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation. PMID:1445164

  7. The Florida State Twin Registry: research aims and design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeanette E; James, Lisa M; Reeves, Mark D; Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2006-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationship of most personality disorders to executive cognitive functioning despite their associations with frontal cortex activity. Research on genetic influence is lacking for most personality disorders, and research on genetic influences associated with executive cognitive functioning is sparse and mixed. The Florida State Twin Registry was created to conduct a pilot twin study aimed at examining genetic influence on personality disorders and executive cognitive functioning. Measures included structured clinical interviews for symptoms and diagnoses of personality disorders (borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, and dependent), depression, substance abuse/dependence, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to assess executive cognitive functioning. Self-report questionnaires were included to assess maladaptive personality traits. Data sharing and future directions for growing the Florida State Twin Registry are discussed. PMID:17254436

  8. Research aims at development of laser-guided electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicharow, E.

    1985-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense is conducting a technology development program that may result in the stationing of a laser-guided electron beam weapon, at ionospheric altitudes of 80-600 km, for the interception and destruction of Soviet ICBMs at ranges of more than 1000 miles. This research program is pursuing the principle of ion-focused propagation, which resolves the problem of atmospheric beam scattering by ionizing a channel in the atmospheric medium with a laser. Also discussed is the development status of space-based particle beams and lasers, ground-based laser systems employing orbiting mirror platforms for beam aiming, and nuclear device-powered directed energy weapons.

  9. Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) could predict those individuals who would experience attentional disruptions and performance decrements under pressure. Two WMC groups performed a Stroop handgun task under counterbalanced conditions of threat whilst wearing eye-tracking equipment that measured visual search activity and quiet eye (QE) aiming duration. Performance was measured in terms of shooting accuracy. Low-WMC individuals experienced impaired visual search time to locate the target and reduced QE durations when shooting at incongruent target words. Furthermore, the low-WMC group experienced significant reductions in shooting accuracy when anxious. Conversely, high-WMC individuals experienced no significant differences in attentional control or performance across congruency or threat conditions. Results support the suggestion that WMC is not only a good predictor of an individual's ability to control their attention but can also predict those likely to fail under pressure. PMID:26021749

  10. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  11. Natural Resource Dependence, Rural Development, and Rural Poverty. Rural Development Research Report Number 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Rural areas' population growth, location, level of economic activity and social well-being depend less on natural resource endowments than on such factors as transportation, communication, labor force characteristics, and urbanization. General causes of the 1970's urban-to-rural migration included fewer changes in the structure of agriculture,…

  12. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  13. INTERMAP: background, aims, design, methods, and descriptive statistics (nondietary).

    PubMed

    Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Kesteloot, H; Liu, K; Ueshima, H; Zhou, B F

    2003-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) above optimal (< or =120/< or =80 mmHg) is established as a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Prevalence of adverse BP is high in most adult populations; until recently research has been sparse on reasons for this. Since the 1980s, epidemiologic studies confirmed that salt, alcohol intake, and body mass relate directly to BP; dietary potassium, inversely. Several other nutrients also probably influence BP. The DASH feeding trials demonstrated that with the multiple modifications in the DASH combination diet, SBP/DBP (SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure) was sizably reduced, independent of calorie balance, alcohol intake, and BP reduction with decreased dietary salt. A key challenge for research is to elucidate specific nutrients accounting for this effect. The general aim of the study was to clarify influences of multiple nutrients on SBP/DBP of individuals over and above effects of Na, K, alcohol, and body mass. Specific aims were, in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years from 17 diverse population samples in China, Japan, UK, and USA, test 10 prior hypotheses on relations of macronutrients to SBP/DBP and on role of dietary factors in inverse associations of education with BP; test four related subgroup hypotheses; explore associations with SBP/DBP of multiple other nutrients, urinary metabolites, and foods. For these purposes, for all 4680 participants, with standardized high-quality methods, assess individual intake of 76 nutrients from four 24-h dietary recalls/person; measure in two timed 24-h urine collections/person 24-h excretion of Na, K, Ca, Mg, creatinine, amino acids; microalbuminuria; multiple nutrients and metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Based on eight SBP/DBP measurements/person, and data on multiple possible confounders, utilize mainly multiple linear regression and quantile analyses to test prior

  14. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  15. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  16. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  17. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  18. First results from AIMS beta tool for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Higashikawa, Iwao; Urbach, Jan-Peter; Schilz, Christof M.; Koehle, Roderick; Zibold, Axel M.

    2004-05-01

    In modern mask manufacturing, a successful defect mitigation strategy has been become crucial to achieve defect free masks for high-end lithography. The basic steps of such a strategy include inspection, repair, and subsequent post-repair qualification of repair sites. For the latter task, actinic aerial image measurements have been proven to be the technique of choice to assess the printability of a repaired site. In the last three years, International SEMATECH in cooperation with Infineon/AMTC-Dresden and SELETE, funded a joint development project at Carl Zeiss to develop an AIMS tool operating at the 157nm wavelength. The three beta tools were shipped in 2003 to the three beta customer sites. In this paper are presented the first results obtained with these beta tools, including measurements on binary as well as alternating phase shift masks. The technical properties of the tool were discussed with regards to the capability of the tool for defect qualification on photomasks. Additionally, preliminary results of the evaluation of alternating phase shift masks will be discussed, including measurements performed on dense lines-and-spaces structures with various pitch sizes.

  19. Concurrent visual feedback and spatial accuracy in continuous aiming movements.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, David E; Rothman, Kelly K

    2011-12-01

    The effect of concurrent visual feedback (CVF) on continuous aiming movements was investigated in the preferred hand of participants of college age (ns = 12 men, 8 women). Participants made continuous rapid reversal movements with a lightweight lever in the sagittal plane. Participants attempted to reach a short target (20 degrees) and a long target (60 degrees) in separate constant practice conditions, but alternated between the two targets in a variable practice condition. Four blocks of practice trials were provided in each condition, with 40 movements made in each. CVF of the position-time trace was provided for the first 20 movements of each block, but was removed for the remaining 20 movements in each block. Movements were more accurate and consistent during constant practice compared to variable practice where the short target was overshot and the long target was undershot. CVF reduced errors in all conditions, compared to movements without CVF, particularly for the short target during variable practice. The results suggest that the interference generated by alternating targets can be modulated by providing visual feedback, but once the visual feedback was removed, errors increased markedly. PMID:22403928

  20. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  1. The EvA study: aims and strategy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Frankenberger, Marion; Heimbeck, Irene; Burggraf, Dorothe; Wjst, Matthias; Häussinger, Karl; Brightling, Chris; Gupta, Sumit; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Boschetto, Piera; Potena, Alfredo; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Barta, Imre; Döme, Balazs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Welte, Tobias; Venge, Per; Gut, Ivo; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Hager, Jörg; Hiemstra, Pieter; Rabe, Klaus F; Unmüssig, Martina; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje

    2012-10-01

    The EvA study is a European Union-funded project under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which aims at defining new markers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its subtypes. The acronym is derived from emphysema versus airway disease, indicating that the project targets these two main phenotypes of the disease. The EvA study is based on the concept that emphysema and airway disease are governed by different pathophysiological processes, are driven by different genes and have differential gene expression in the lung. To define these genes, patients and non-COPD controls are recruited for clinical examination, lung function analysis and computed tomography (CT) of the lung. CT scans are used to define the phenotypes based on lung density and airway wall thickness. This is followed by bronchoscopy in order to obtain samples from the airways and the alveoli. These tissue samples, along with blood samples, are then subjected to genome-wide expression and association analysis and markers linked to the phenotypes are identified. The population of the EvA study is different from other COPD study populations, since patients with current oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics and exacerbations or current smokers are excluded, such that the signals detected in the molecular analysis are due to the distinct inflammatory process of emphysema and airway disease in COPD. PMID:22441733

  2. Learning To Find the "Niches"; Rural Education and Vitalizing Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl

    During the past two decades, rural America has undergone substantial restructuring that affects both rural education and prospects for rural economic development. Rural restructuring has made rural America more economically dependent and more economically and socially diverse, has replaced relatively autonomous communities with regional units of…

  3. Rural Knowledge and Information Systems for Non-Agricultural Rural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2006-01-01

    As developing countries gradually rely less upon agriculture for rural income, rural economies require new solutions to access knowledge and information systems for rural development. Non-agricultural rural knowledge and information systems can play a significant role in developing and disseminating successful strategies to escape rural poverty.…

  4. Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaunches, Alison, Ed.; Loveland, Elaina, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the six issues of "Rural Roots" published bimonthly in 2002. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and communities across the country. Feature…

  5. Rural Roots: News, Information, and Commentary from the Rural School and Community Trust, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westra, Kathryn E., Ed.; Yaunches, H. Alison, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the first eight issues of "Rural Roots"--two published in 2000 and six published bimonthly in 2001. A newsletter of the Rural School and Community Trust, "Rural Roots" provides news, information, and commentary from the Rural Trust and highlights the wide variety of place-based education work happening in rural schools and…

  6. The Impact of Agribusiness on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    The dramatic growth of multinational agribusiness corporations has led to all types of rural decline--social, demographic, institutional, and environmental. Historically, rural inhabitants and rural land have been abused and neglected in the name of progress. Rural development efforts often attract small assembly or light manufacturing plants that…

  7. Outcomes of Rural Training Tracks: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Rural training tracks (RTT) encourage family medicine residents to enter into rural practice. Studies reveal that 76 percent of RTT graduates are practicing in rural America and that graduates feel prepared for rural practice. However, RTTs produced only 107 graduates during 1989-99. Without significant investment, this model can not supply enough…

  8. Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    Although the problem varies across the United States, overall there is a shortage of rural teachers, especially in the subject areas of math, science, and special education. Recruiting teachers for rural settings requires targeting persons with rural backgrounds, attacking the negative stereotypes surrounding rural schools, and stressing the…

  9. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  10. A Typology of Rural School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjelten, Tom

    There are five basic types of rural communities as far as school issues are concerned; rural schools vary not only to the extent that they are small, but also according to the type of community in which they are located. "Stable rural" communities are our classic rural community--prosperous, peaceful, traditional, and mostly white. In "depressed…

  11. Remote Possibilities: Rural Children's Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin W.

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the influence of rural context on youth's life chances, this study takes up the question of rural children's educational aspirations. The experience of rural life may, as some claim, limit students' educational aspirations. Yet there are indications that rural communities simultaneously generate important social benefits that…

  12. Elements of a Sustainable Rural Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    If a new and effective rural policy is to be crafted, policymakers must realize that rural America has changed a great deal in recent years. To be sustainable, rural policy must be flexible enough to accommodate continuing changes in global structure; be sufficiently targeted to address the unique concerns found in diverse rural situations;…

  13. Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James

    2003-01-01

    The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

  14. Health Careers Education for Rural Primary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    International and national studies have reported that health professionals who grew up in a rural area are more likely to return to work in a rural area than their urban raised counterparts. The chronic severe shortage of health professionals in rural and remote Australia has meant inequitable health care for rural and remote communities and a…

  15. Rural Values and Concensus(sic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Lynn; And Others

    Sample populations from 15 Intermountain West communities (representative of population, ethnic, and employment variety) were surveyed to test the following hypotheses: (1) there is a greater degree of consensus in rural than in non-rural communities; (2) there are differences between values in rural and non-rural communities; (3) a model…

  16. Rural Gifted Education: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    2009-01-01

    This review of literature about gifted rural education reveals not only important information but the need for further work. The concepts presented have applicability that is not exclusively rural, but they derive from studies done with rural students and take rural culture, history, and circumstances into account. Understanding the context of…

  17. Reading, Writing, and the Rural. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Reviews "Writing the Rural," five "cultural geographies" by Paul Cloke, Marcus Doel, David Matless, Martin Phillips, and Nigel Thrift that focus on proliferating meanings of "rural" and on understanding the "rural" as something fashioned by both rural residents and various outside actors. Highlights the authors' varying but complementary…

  18. Rural Areas Weaning Themselves from Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)

  19. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  20. A Charter for Improved Rural Youth Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    The Charter is intended to help shed light on rural youths' transition from education to work, and results from the 1977-78 activities of eight rural councils of the Work-Education Consortium. Recognizing the wide diversity of definitions for rural and nonmetropolitan, and understanding that rural youth are faced with economic and educational…

  1. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  2. Rural Governments in the Municipal Bond Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, George; Sacks, Seymour

    The differential interest costs to rural governments associated with borrowing in the tax-exempt bond market is a function of the advantageous position of several large partially rural counties and the dominance of school district borrowing in rural communities, rather than a disadvantage of predominantly rural governments. This conclusion is the…

  3. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC96 Rural Development Voucher... agency within the Rural Development mission area, is adding new regulations to implement its Rural Development Voucher Program (RDVP). Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended, authorizes RDVP....

  4. What does quality care mean to nurses in rural hospitals?

    PubMed Central

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Merwin, Elizabeth; Thornlow, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a study conducted to answer the question: ‘How do rural nurses and their chief nursing officers define quality care?’ Background Established indicators of quality care were developed primarily in urban hospitals. Rural hospitals and their environments differ from urban settings, suggesting that there might be differences in how quality care is defined. This has measurement implications. Methods Focus groups with staff nurses and interviews with chief nursing officers were conducted in 2006 at four rural hospitals in the South-Eastern United States of America. Data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Findings The staff nurse and chief nursing officer data were analysed separately and then compared, exposing two major themes: ‘Patients are what matter most’ and ‘Community connectedness is both a help and a hindrance’. Along with conveying that patients were the utmost priority and all care was patient-focused, the first theme included established indicators of quality such as falls, pressure ulcers, infection rates, readmission rates, and lengths of stay. A new discovery in this theme was a need for an indicator relevant for rural settings: transfer time to larger hospitals. The second theme, Community Connectedness, is unique to rural settings, exemplifying the rural culture. The community and hospital converge into a family of sorts, creating expectations for quality care by both patients and staff that are not typically found in urban settings and larger hospitals. Conclusion Established quality indicators are appropriate for rural hospitals, but additional indicators need to be developed. These must include transfer times to larger facilities and the culture of the community. PMID:20546364

  5. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for research, policy and practice

  6. AIM thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2006-05-01

    AIM has developed a thermal weapon sight HuntIR based on a cooled MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module combining long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement purposes. Since December 2004 the device is in service for the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system. To satisfy the demands of the follow-up program German Future Infantryman extended system (IdZ ES) additional components like a laser range finder, digital magnetic compass and a wireless data link will be included to provide e.g. an improved hit rate by accurate range data. To reduce power consumption and increase operation time of the actual device on the one hand and give the possibility to include new components and functions a new optimized command and control electronics and image processing unit was designed using latest digital signal processors resulting in lower power consumption and higher computing power. This allows also an implementation of additional image enhancement functions. The design concept of the upgraded HuntIR is introduced together which the features of the new electronics. Additionally some new implementations will be presented concerning the existing HuntIR device like fire control for the 40mm Grenade Machine Gun made by Heckler&Koch which where possible due to the reprogrammable architecture of the design. Also an uncooled IR Imaging Module designed for use in small UAVs and short range thermal weapon sights was successfully tested in the German Army small UAV ALADIN made by EMT. After the first flight trials the design was revised to incorporate lessons learned including e.g. an athermal lens design to avoid any need of focussing. The features of the revised design will be presented.

  7. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  8. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  9. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  10. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  11. Student perspectives on the value of rural electives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg have the opportunity to do electives at the end of the first and third years of a four-year graduate-entry medical programme. Upon their return they are required to write a short portfolio report. Over the period 2005 to 2011, 402 students chose to do rural electives. Aim and setting To understand the value of rural electives from the perspective of medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Wits, as derived from their assessment reports. Methods A review was conducted of 402 elective reports. Common themes were identified through repeated reading of the reports, and then content analysis was undertaken using these themes. Results Major themes identified were the reasons for choosing a rural facility for the elective, including going to a home community; benefits of the elective, especially in terms of clinical skills and personal growth; relationship issues; the multiple roles of the rural doctor, who is often a role model working in difficult conditions; and the challenges of rural electives. Conclusion The electives were overwhelmingly positive and affirming experiences for students, who developed clinical skills and also learnt about both themselves and their chosen career. PMID:26245614

  12. [INDICATORS OF PUBERTY IN RURAL SCHOOLCHILDREN OF NIZHNIY NOVGOROD REGION].

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, S V

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of developing standards and conducting comparative analysis of the level of puberty in rural schoolchildren of Nizhniy Novgorod region, with regard to the temporal and territorial factors, 2411 individuals of both sexes aged 11-17 years were examined. During medical examinations, that were conducted in 2011-2013, the development of secondary sexual characteristics was characterized. The results obtained were compared with those received in 1967-1968 surveys and in the studied of modern children and teenagers living in the city of Nizhniy Novgorod. It was found that the level of puberty in rural schoolchildren has grown statistically significantly over the past 45 years. The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in boys was accelerated by 2-3 years. In girls, the shift of 1-2 years was observed, while the sequence of their development remained unchanged, and in boys it was accompanied by the delayed growth of the thyroid cartilage. Among rural and urban boys, the differences in the level of puberty was less pronounced than among the girls. By the rate of passage of puberty transformations, rural girls lag behind their urban peers for 1 year. Modern rural students of Nizhny Novgorod region are characterized by higher variability of the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics and their expression than in other regions of the country, especially among boys. PMID:26601470

  13. Characteristics of young rural Chinese suicides: a psychological autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Wieczorek, W.; Conwell, Y.; Tu, X.-M.; Wu, B. Y.-W.; Xiao, S.; Jia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of suicide rates in China differ in many ways from those in the West. This study aimed to identify the risk factors characteristic for young rural Chinese suicides. Method This was a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study. The samples were suicides and living controls (both aged 15–34 years) from 16 rural counties of China. We interviewed two informants for each suicide and each control with pretested and validated instruments to estimate psychosocial, psychiatric and other risk factors for suicides. Results The prevalence of mental disorders was higher among the young Chinese who died by suicide than among the living controls, but was lower than among suicides in the West. Marriage was not a protecting factor for suicide among young rural Chinese women, and never-married women who were involved in relationships were about three times more likely to commit suicide than single women who were unattached. Religion/religiosity was not a protecting factor in Chinese suicide, as it tended to be stronger for suicides than for controls. Impulsivity was significantly higher for suicides than for controls. Psychological strain, resulting from conflicting social values between communist gender equalitarianism and Confucian gender discrimination, was associated significantly with suicide in young rural Chinese women, even after accounting for the role of psychiatric illness. Conclusions Risk factors for suicide in rural China are different from those in the West. Psychological strain plays a role in suicide. Suicide prevention programs in China should incorporate culture-specific considerations. PMID:19656428

  14. A Market, Operation, and Mission Assessment of Large Rural For-Profit Hospitals with Positive Cash Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: National benchmark data for 2002 indicate that large rural for-profit hospitals have a median cash flow margin of 19.5% compared to 9.2% for their nonprofit counterparts. Purpose: This study aims to gain insight regarding the driving factors behind the high cash flow performance of large rural for-profit hospitals. Methods: Using 3 annual…

  15. The Role of Community Colleges in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Urban and Rural Differences in Workforce Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrevey, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the question of whether or not the gap between rural and urban workforce outcomes is reduced with investment in human capital and training conducted by community colleges. In this study, rural and urban differences in employment rate, employment retention, and wage gain after receiving training were…

  16. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

  17. An Early History of the Rural Community College Initiative: Reflections on the Past and Implications for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Mike; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The $17.2 million Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) demonstration grant program funded by the Ford Foundation which ran from 1994 to 2001 represents the largest philanthropic project specifically aimed at rural community colleges in United States history. While a good deal of literature has been published about this initiative, much was…

  18. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  19. The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, S M

    1989-01-01

    Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

  20. A Model for Rural Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Laurence J.; Christensen, Scott D.; deVere-White, Ralph W.; Meyers, Fredrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Small rural hospitals in the United States have had challenging issues developing sustainable oncology programs. This is a report on the development of a successful rural oncology program. In 2006, the Tahoe Forest Health System in Truckee, CA, a remote mountain resort town, started a cancer program that was focused on addressing patient and family fears that are common to all cancer patients but more frightening in the rural setting. Four years later, it is a thriving program with significant community support, a creative academic affiliation, and a central focus of the future of the hospital. The Tahoe Forest Cancer Center developed a sustainable model for high quality cancer care that overcomes geographic, cultural and financial barriers. This structure may serve as a model for national rural health care. PMID:21886498

  1. Agricultural Colleges in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Tung

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the educational program developed by one agricultural college in a rural area of China to carry out the revolution in education. Educational theory and practice are linked by involving students in the running of three forms.

  2. Educational Media for Rural Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jock

    1973-01-01

    The primitive conditions existing in rural Ecuador created unique problems for the University of Massachusetts project attempting to develop educational tools for the area. Author describes the approach taken and the learning devices which were produced. (Author)

  3. Walking Safely in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide uneven footing. Often the vehicles on rural roads travel at much higher speeds than walkers are ... walking on or near the side of the road. Go4Life has the following safety tips for those ...

  4. The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries.

    PubMed

    Carson, Dean B; Schoo, Adrian; Berggren, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline. PMID:26321193

  5. Perception Towards Serving Rural Population Amongst Interns from Dental Colleges of Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Rao, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The problem of reluctance of dentists to work in rural areas is an international phenomenon. With an increase in number of dental colleges in India, there also has been an improvement in the dentist to population ratio. But still there exists a wide disparity in dentist to population ratio in rural and urban areas. The aim of this study was to find the perception of dental interns towards serving rural population and the reasons associated with their choices. Materials and Methods: To know the willingness of dental interns to serve rural population and factors associated with their decision, 504 participants from six dental colleges of Haryana were interviewed. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p < 0.05. Results: Out of total participants, 55.95% were willing to serve in rural area. Less competition in settling (46.45 %) was the prime factor for willingness, priority for postgraduation (45.01%) was main factor for reluctance. No significant difference (p=0.365) was seen in the perception of young dentists towards serving rural or urban population. Conclusion: Even though the current statistics don’t reflect a satisfactory dentist to population ratio in rural areas, the attitudes of the dental students towards practicing in rural areas were found to be good. PMID:25386517

  6. The rural - urban divide in ambulatory care of gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The utilization of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases increased over the past decade worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between rural and urban patients in seeking medical service for gastrointestinal diseases at ambulatory sector in Taiwan. Methods From the one-million-people cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, the utilization of ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009 was analyzed. Rural patients were compared with urban and suburban patients as to diagnosis, locality of visits and choice of specialists. Results Among 295,056 patients who had ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009, rural patients sought medical care for gastrointestinal diseases more frequently than urban and suburban patients (1.60 ± 3.90 vs. 1.17 ± 3.02 and 1.39 ± 3.47). 83.4% of rural patients with gastrointestinal diseases were treated by non-gastroenterologists in rural areas. Rural people had lower accessibility of specialist care, especially for hepatitis, esophageal disorders and gastroduodenal ulcer. Conclusion The rural–urban disparity of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan highlighted the importance of the well communication between rural physicians and gastroenterologists. Besides the establishment of the referral system, the medical teleconsultation system and the arrangement of specialist outreach clinics in rural areas might be helpful. PMID:23497027

  7. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women. PMID:23659220

  8. Intimate partner violence in rural environments.

    PubMed

    Annan, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747

  9. 78 FR 30848 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants...: USDA announces the availability of grants through the Rural Cooperative Development Grant (RCDG... eligible for FY 2013 grant funding. ADDRESSES: You should contact a USDA Rural Development State...

  10. Leadership development for rural health.

    PubMed

    Size, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started. PMID:16550995

  11. Achieving regionalization through rural interhospital transfer.

    PubMed

    Feazel, Leah; Schlichting, Adam B; Bell, Gregory R; Shane, Dan M; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Faine, Brett; Nugent, Andrew; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-09-01

    Regionalization of emergency medical care aims to provide consistent and efficient high-quality care leading to optimal clinical outcomes by matching patient needs with appropriate resources at a network of hospitals. Regionalized care has been shown to improve outcomes in trauma, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In rural areas, effective regionalization often requires interhospital transfer. The decision to transfer is complex and includes such factors as capabilities of the presenting hospital; capacity at the receiving hospital; and financial, geographic, and patient-preference considerations. Although transfer to a comprehensive center has proven benefits for some conditions, the transfer process is not without risk. These risks include clinical deterioration, limited resource availability during transport, vehicular crashes, time delays for time-sensitive care, poor communication between providers, and neglect of patient preferences. This article reviews the transfer decision, financial implications, risks, and considerations for patients undergoing rural interhospital transfer. We identify several strategies that should be considered for development of the regionalized emergency health care system of the future and identify areas where further research is necessary. PMID:26087707

  12. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  13. Rural family medicine training site

    PubMed Central

    Liskowich, Sarah; Walker, Kathryn; Beatty, Nicolas; Kapusta, Peter; McKay, Shari; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a framework for a successful rural family medicine training program and to assess the potential for a rural family medicine residency training program using the Weyburn and Estevan areas of Saskatchewan as test sites. Design A mixed-method design was used; however, the focus of this article was on the qualitative data collected. Questions formulated for the semistructured interviews evolved from the literature. Setting Rural Saskatchewan. Participants Community physicians and representatives from the Sun Country Regional Health Authority, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health, and the University of Saskatchewan. Methods The data were documented during the interviews using a laptop computer, and the responses were reviewed with participants at the end of their interviews to ensure accuracy. The qualitative data collected were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Main findings Through the analysis of the data several themes emerged related to implementing a rural family medicine residency training program. Key predictors of success were physical resources, physician champions, physician teachers, educational support, administrative support, and other specialist support. Barriers to the development of a rural family medicine training site were differing priorities, lack of human resources, and lack of physical resources. Conclusion A project of this magnitude requires many people at different levels collaborating to be successful. PMID:26380856

  14. Characterising Rural Businesses--Tales from the Paperman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A case study of a self-termed "rural business" is used to deconstruct the concept of a rural business and shed light on specific features of "operating in a rural area" and "serving a rural population". Alongside "selling a rural product", the paper claims that these make up three parameters for categorising rural businesses. Highlighting these…

  15. The Diverse Educational Needs and Challenges of Information Technology Teachers in Two Black Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentz, Elsa; Bailey, Roxanne; Havenga, Marietjie; Breed, Betty; Govender, Desmond; Govender, Irene; Dignum, Frank; Dignum, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative research methodology was used…

  16. Recruitment and retention of occupational therapists and physiotherapists in rural regions: a meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant efforts have been made to address the shortage of health professionals in rural communities. In the face of increasing demand for rehabilitation services, strategies for recruiting and retaining occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) have yielded limited success. This study aims to broaden the understanding of factors associated with recruitment and retention of OTs and PTs in rural regions, through a synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies found in the literature. Methods A systematic search of three databases was conducted for studies published between 1980 - 2009 specific to the recruitment and retention of OTs and PTs to rural areas. Studies deemed eligible were appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Employing an iterative process, we conducted a thematic analysis of studies and developed second order interpretations to gain new insight into factors that influence rural recruitment and retention. Results Of the 615 articles retrieved, 12 qualitative studies met the eligibility criteria. Our synthesis revealed that therapists’ decision to locate, stay or leave rural communities was influenced to a greater degree by the availability of and access to practice supports, opportunities for professional growth and understanding the context of rural practice, than by location. The second-order analysis revealed the benefits of a strength-based inquiry in determining recruitment and retention factors. The themes that emerged were 1) support from the organization influences retention, 2) with support, challenges can become rewards and assets, and 3) an understanding of the challenges associated with rural practice prior to arrival influences retention. Conclusions This meta-synthesis illustrates how universally important practice supports are in the recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals in rural practice. While not unique to rural practice, the findings of this synthesis provide employers

  17. Growing Up in Rural Illinois. Illinois Rural Youth Survey Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Nancy

    Most Americans view small towns and rural areas as ideal places to grow up and raise a family, yet 1990 census data reveal that most rural areas are losing population, particularly the young. Teenagers who live in rural communities are likely to have important insights into this contradiction. Approximately 5,600 students attending 114 rural high…

  18. Recruitment and Retention of Rural Physicians: Outcomes from the Rural Physician Associate Program of Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Zink, Therese; Finstad, Deborah; Bolin, Keli; Center, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Context: Founded in 1971 with state funding to increase the number of primary care physicians in rural Minnesota, the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) has graduated 1,175 students. Third-year medical students are assigned to primary care physicians in rural communities for 9 months where they experience the realities of rural practice with…

  19. Rural Libraries: A Forum for Rural Library Service. Volume X, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheller, Rebekah, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    The two issues of the journal "Rural Libraries" for 1990 contain a total of seven articles. "Cooperation and Rural Libraries," by Jackie Schmitt, reports on a nationwide survey of 119 rural libraries' participation in intrastate library cooperatives. "Rural Public Library Service to Native Americans," by Susan Hollaran, outlines strategies for the…

  20. Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staihr, Brian

    This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

  1. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  2. Predicting Rural Practice Using Different Definitions to Classify Medical School Applicants as Having a Rural Upbringing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John A.; Conaway, Mark R.; Bailey, Beth A.; Hayden, Gregory F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study determines the relationship between a medical school applicant's rural background and the likelihood of rural practice using different definitions of rural background. Methods: Cohort study of 599 physicians who entered the University of Virginia School of Medicine in 1990-1995 and graduated in 1994-1999. The "rurality" of the…

  3. Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan

    2010-01-01

    This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

  4. How Rural America Sees Its Future. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkema, Alan D.; Drabenstott, Mark

    To gain a perspective on rural America's future, seven roundtables consisting of seven rural stakeholder groups were convened. Four groups of challenges facing rural areas emerged. The rural business environment was considered the source of greatest challenge. Agriculture concerns included low profits and access to world markets. The effects of…

  5. "How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses of rural…

  6. Rural Education and Training in the New Economy: The Myth of the Rural Skills Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert M., Ed.; Swaim, Paul L., Ed.; Teixeira, Ruy, Ed.

    This book examines the education, training, and skill supply of the rural workforce; the role of rural workforce quality in rural development; and the barriers that prevent many rural people from obtaining the skills needed for good jobs. Data are drawn from large national surveys of schools, students, and households. The first three chapters…

  7. The End of Rural Society and the Future of Rural Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    Rural sociology confronts a continuing crisis of identity because of its failure to develop a sociology of agriculture. Historically, despite an initial focus on agriculture, rural sociology became deflected to the analysis of rurality. Recent emphasis of rural sociologists on the turnaround phenomenon is symptomatic, but fails to deal with the…

  8. Keeping School in Rural America: A New Paradigm for Rural Education and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Toni

    This paper differentiates between the "old story" of rural education and the emerging "new story." It describes the tradition (old story) in which rural education is related to the local and national economies and lays out fragments of the new story, a paradigm that combines rural education and the rural economy in a way that strengthens them…

  9. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  10. Regenerating Rural Social Space? Teacher Education for Rural-Regional Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jo-Anne; Green, Bill; Cooper, Maxine; Hastings, Wendy; Lock, Graeme; White, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The complex interconnection among issues affecting rural-regional sustainability requires an equally complex program of research to ensure the attraction and retention of high-quality teachers for rural children. The educational effects of the construction of the rural within a deficit discourse are highlighted. A concept of rural social space is…

  11. Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1) "Human…

  12. College Talk and the Rural Economy: Shaping the Educational Aspirations of Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey

    2016-01-01

    The college-going rates of rural students lag behind those of more urban students, a gap likely due, in part, to rural students' lower educational aspirations. These lower aspirations appear to be tied to the dilemma that higher education presents for many rural students: whether to remain in their rural home, working in traditional trades and…

  13. Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

  14. Education for Rural Development: Embedding Rural Dimensions in Initial Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masinire, Alfred; Maringe, Felix; Nkambule, Thabisile

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, rural education and development are issues of social justice, especially in places that were previously established as homelands. This article presents some of the tensions that are inherent in the conceptions of rurality, rural education and the possibility of sustainable rural education and development. We propose the notion of…

  15. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of place and…

  16. An Analysis of North Carolina's Rural Health Problems as Perceived by County Rural Development Panels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Vance E., Comp.

    A State Task Force on Rural Health was formed (January 1973) by the State Rural Development Committee to identify and analyze major rural health problems in North Carolina and to recommend alleviation strategies. The Task Force submitted open-ended questionnaires to members of the County Rural Development Panels to secure their perceptions of…

  17. Arguing for Rural Health in Medicare: A Progressive Rhetoric for Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Rural health policy is the laws, regulations, rules, and interpretations that benefit or affect health and health care for rural populations. This paper examines how rural health policy is viewed in the broader field of public policy, discusses the role of advocacy in developing rural health policy, and suggests ways to make that advocacy more…

  18. Rural Cultural Houses (A New Approach to Rural Youth Work in Iran).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmanzadeh, Cyrus

    Based on field work in rural areas of Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1973-74, an examination of the nature of rural cultural houses in Iran was undertaken. Set up by royal decree in 1968, the rural cultural houses have had as their objective to assist peasantry in general and rural youth in particular to achieve a socially enriched…

  19. THE NATIONAL RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rural Clean Water Program (RCWP) was initiated as an experimental effort to address agricultural nonpoint source pollution problems in rural watersheds across the country. his document contains the technical papers presented at the National RCWP Symposium. hese papers documen...

  20. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  1. Poverty in Rural America: A National Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathryn H.

    Popular notions of poverty in America overlook the rural poor or assume that their problems are the same as those of the inner-city poor. This report, the first in a series on rural poverty, describes the characteristics of the rural poor and examines rural-urban differences in poverty. In 1987, the poverty rate was 16.9% in nonmetropolitan areas,…

  2. NATURAL AND MAN-MADE HEALTH HAZARDS IN RURAL SLOVAKIA

    PubMed Central

    Gulis, Gabriel; Kollarová, Jana; Dietzová, Zuzana; Labancová, Jana; Behanová, Martina; Ondrušová, Martina

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Context There is little information on health situation of the people of rural Slovak Republic. The rural environment is often a mixture of natural and man-made hazards, which under some conditions, might turn to be a health risk to humans. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare two regions of the Slovak Republic, two different hazards (natural and man-made), two different methods of health outcome measurement (routine statistics and individual diary based data). Methods Ecological study design with focus on cancer incidence analysis was employed in case of natural hazard analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated and are presented in paper. Observational study design was employed to study rural gardening practices and their impact on health. Findings Statistically significant differences in SIR were found in rural areas of Spis-Gemer Region (SGR) among males for lip, oral cavity and larynx (1.60, CI 95% 1.12–2.34), respiratory (1.25, CI 95% 1.01–1.55) and digestive organ cancers (1.22, CI 95% 1.01–1.47); hematopoetic cancers are significantly elevated among males in rural areas as well (1.58, CI 95% 1.05–2.39). Pesticide use (83.1% of gardeners use pesticides) without any protective equipment is still widespread among gardeners in rural Slovak Republic (16.9%). The produced fruits and vegetables are substantial part of total fruit and vegetable consumption (51% in summer and 42.7% in winter season) increasing the risk of exposure to pesticides. Conclusion Our study shows that on ecological level, mortality and morbidity statistics could be used to assess human health status in linkage to broad exposure measures (urban- rural); on dose response level (arsenic in soil) this method lacks sensitivity. Health survey and diary method on the other hand are useful tools in analysis of rural health especially with respect to man-made hazards. PMID:20377050

  3. "Place" Value: The Rural Perspective. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Vena; Bush, William S.; Theobald, Paul

    Place-based, or "contextualized," mathematics instruction gives learners the opportunity to see how mathematics is relevant to their lives. Such opportunities are crucial to the success of students in rural settings and may be crucial to the survival of rural communities. For the last half century, schools have educated rural children to believe…

  4. Shortchanging Rural Teachers. Teaching Quality: RESEARCH MATTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Center for Teaching Quality, Chapel Hill, NC.

    This brief examines problems staffing rural schools and discusses the importance of teacher education in producing effective reading teachers. Over 31 percent of public schools are in rural areas, comprising over 49 percent of public school systems. Rural districts have difficulty recruiting teachers because they generally have lower salaries,…

  5. New Rural Society Concept and Program Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield Univ., CT.

    To help achieve a more dispersed population distribution, it is the strategy of the New Rural Society (NRS) project to address the interdependent rural, urban, and energy problems by solving the rural development problem issue first. People live in large urban areas chiefly because the jobs and essential services are there. Advances in…

  6. School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

  7. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  8. The Lessons of a Rural Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, George

    2010-01-01

    Rural schools do not usually make people think of innovation or experimentation. In fact, many people view rural areas as being too traditional or complacent to blaze educational trails. But this author is fortunate to be principal of one rural school, Federal Hocking Middle and High School, that is not afraid to innovate. Federal Hocking is also…

  9. Telecommunications Access for Rural Americans with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seekins, Tom; Enders, Alexandra

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons why community action is needed to assure both physical and economic access to telecommunications for rural people with disabilities. Discusses the rural-urban geography of disability in America, rural problems in rehabilitation service delivery, recent federal legislation on telecommunications and disabilities, and key…

  10. Approaches to Rural Development: The Guelph Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon

    Selected concepts and theoretical orientations were identified and applied to the Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project, formed in 1976 to give leadership in the evolvement of a more comprehensive and integrated approach to rural development in Ontario. Huron County (a traditional rural agricultural area), Halton Region (an area characterized…

  11. 75 FR 33573 - Rural Housing Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Acceptance of Proposals for the Section 538 Multi...; Correction AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS) published a document in the Federal Register of May 10, 2010, announcing the...

  12. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  13. Rural Science Education: Valuing Local Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether playing outdoors or working on the farm, rural children acquire science and engineering skills throughout their daily lives. Although 11.4 million children in the United States grow up in rural areas, compared to 14.6 million in urban areas, relatively little attention is given to rural science education. This article demonstrates that…

  14. Education: Designed for the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, John; Moore, David

    1980-01-01

    This is a discussion of the educational opportunities for the economically disadvantaged rural populations of Third World Nations. Emphasized is the need for broadening the educational base for the small farm in order to involve members of rural communities in rural progress. (Author/SA)

  15. An Agenda for Studying Rural School Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Smith, Charles R.

    Researchers and other persons interested in promoting research about rural school busing met in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1998. Drawing on that meeting and the rural school literature, this report describes why school transportation is an important issue nationwide, explains the lack of research on rural school busing, proposes a research…

  16. Creating Vibrant Communities & Economies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.

    Although the economic expansion of the 1990s was felt even in small towns and rural areas, events in recent months point out that the economic health of rural America remains fragile. Rural manufacturing has suffered sizable employment declines in recent months and only modest expansion has occurred in the service sector--the lifeblood of rural…

  17. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  18. Addressing the Neglected Needs of Rural Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodsworth, Gaston; Fitzgerald, Doris

    This paper examines the educational needs of rural students and suggests ways that college programs can be adapted to the learning characteristics of rural students. Rural students are likely to be global learners, have a strong preference for cooperation, view learning as a social experience, have an aversion to individual recognition, experience…

  19. The Changing Nature of Rural Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Photiadis, John; Simoni, Joseph J.

    The contributions to societal integration of the flexible and diversified religious institution of rural Appalachia in the United States were compared and contrasted with the contributions of the more or less monolithic and state-controlled rural church in Greece. It was found that the process of integration of rural society into the larger social…

  20. Violent Behaviors in Rural and Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Joy; Huebner, Ruth; Callahan, Connie; Ritchey, Becky

    2003-01-01

    Despite the fact that many incidents of extreme violence have taken place in rural areas there is still some resistance on the part of rural school administrators to admit that violence is a problem in their schools. This article provides a comparison of rural and urban student and staff self-report of school violence (perpetration, victimization…

  1. RATIONALIZATION OF THE RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MIRENGOFF, WILLIAM

    ALTHOUGH THE PATTERN OF RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION IS BEGINNING TO SUBSIDE, THE PROBLEMS OF EMPLOYMENT FACED BY THESE RURAL MIGRANTS ARE CONTINUING. PROGRAMS TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH THEIR RELOCATION AND EMPLOYMENT HAVE NOT BEEN DEVISED, AND EFFORTS TO DATE HAVE BEEN CURATIVE RATHER THAN PREVENTIVE. A PRACTICAL WAY TO RATIONALIZE THE RURAL-URBAN…

  2. Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowden, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

  3. Exploring Rural Contexts with Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Donna G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes rural middle school students' exploration of their identity and their rural contexts through the vehicle of digital storytelling. Participants included 40 7th and 40 9th grade students at two rural schools in the Southeast United States. Students worked in shared writing groups to create digital stories expressing their…

  4. The Teacher's Influence on Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Dalva E.; Hine, Lynn Drumheller

    Sixteen graduates of rural high schools were interviewed and asked to describe specific interactions with adults during their high school days that had significantly affected their thoughts about themselves or their future. Brief discussions examine the reasons that teachers have an impact on rural adolescents, what constitutes a "rural" teacher…

  5. Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

  6. Inside Rural Pennsylvania: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Graphs, data tables, maps, and written descriptions give a statistical overview of rural Pennsylvania. A section on rural demographics covers population changes, racial and ethnic makeup, age cohorts, and families and income. Pennsylvania's rural population, the nation's largest, has increased more than its urban population since 1950, with the…

  7. ECONOMIC BASES AND POTENTIALS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BACHMURA, F.T.; SOUTHERN, J.H.

    AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO RURALITY IS PRESENTED. THERE HAS BEEN A STEADY REDUCTION IN THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT. MANY RURAL AREAS ARE DISADVANTAGED. ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES CONTRIBUTE TO OUTMIGRATION AND POPULATION LOSSES IN RURAL AREAS AND ARE REFLECTED IN HIGHER PERCAPITA COSTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE. OUTMIGRATION HAS…

  8. Rural Math Talent, Now and Then

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Showalter, Daniel; Klein, Robert; Sturgill, Derek J.; Smith, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This article interprets inequality evident at the intersection of three realms: (a) mathematical talent (as a cultural phenomenon); (b) rural place and rural life; and (c) future economic, political, and ecological developments. The discussion explains this outlook on inequality, contextualizes interest in rural mathematics education, presents the…

  9. Toward a Transdisciplinary Rural Education Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapel, Christopher J.; DeYoung, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of rural education research orientations--defined in terms of methodological approach, academic focus and place-consciousness--within the literature and across academic disciplines. A content analysis of 155 abstracts from articles published in the Journal of Research in Rural Education and Rural Sociology…

  10. When Communities Collapse: Implications for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1987-01-01

    The decline of agriculture in the 1920s and 1930s was compounded by the subsequent collapse of the rural social community, leaving the rural poor without a community and thus exacerbating and prolonging their poverty. Present restructuring of agriculture in the United States may have a similar impact on rural communities. (JHZ)

  11. The Other Poor: Rural Poverty and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that rural poverty remains relatively invisible because, although shameful, it is profitable, and the rural poor pose little threat to their suburban neighbors. This is illustrated via interrogation concerning a rural poultry plant fire. The paper examines implications of this case for foundations scholars and educational…

  12. Rural Folklife Days: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jon, Ed.; Beasley, Holly, Ed.; Hollingsworth, Teresa, Ed.; Smith, KC, Ed.

    Rural Folklife Days is an annual celebration of customs and crafts that have been practiced every fall by generations of people in rural areas of north Florida. This packet is designed to help teachers prepare elementary students for Rural Folklife Days and to introduce them to traditional crafts and arts that are still practiced in parts of north…

  13. Prairie Town: Rural Life and Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Twenty interviews with school personnel, parents, business owners, and town officials in a rural western Minnesota town revealed an emerging new "rural literacy." This new way of "reading the world" reflected a belief that neoliberal school policies did not serve all residents well, and that rural values and traditions should not be compromised by…

  14. The Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Siddall, Sandra; And Others

    The Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Center (RCNP) was begun in Chico, California, in 1975 to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate a model of a rural internship program in an effort to attract nurses to rural communities. Run by a director, clinical coordinator, full-time secretary, and half-time typist, the program places BS/RN degree…

  15. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  16. Private Outdoor Recreation Enterprises in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine to what extent recreation enterprises in rural Appalachia can help meet the growing urban demands for outdoor recreation and provide profitable use of rural resources and employment for rural people. The analysis, drawn from a 1966 nationwide survey, included 35 campgrounds, 18 fishing areas, 14 vacation farms,…

  17. [Qualities and Strengths of Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deRosa, Richard J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles pertaining to English instruction in rural schools: (1) "Different, To Be Sure" (Nathan James Weate) compares rural and urban students and finds rural students to have strong family cohesiveness, strong moral values, and diversified interests; (2) "An Elevating Experience" (Dorothy Trusock) describes a…

  18. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  19. Inequality: A Portrait of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamblyn, Lewis R.

    Documentary evidence that Federal spending on human resources development disproportionately favors metropolitan counties over non-metropolitan areas is presented. The first chapter, "What Is Rural America?" focuses on 3 aspects of the rural problem: (1) the problem of definition, (2) the rural population distribution, and (3) the extreme poverty…

  20. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  1. Serving Rural Youth: A Regional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    The regional approach as an alternative for meeting the needs of rural youth is discussed in comparison to the small school district which cannot possibly serve the broad spectrum of student needs in rural areas. The rural educational setting and its shortcomings are described as the lack of facilities, a lack of an obvious connection between…

  2. Rural County Report. County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Dennis

    This report represents a county-level Pennsylvania data base focused on variables of significance to rural communities. The data includes computations of per capita rates for counties in rural, urban influence, and urban clusters. This report is intended for comparing rural counties to other areas of the state. Three categories are used to present…

  3. The Comprehensive Mission of Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavan, John

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the comprehensive mission of rural community colleges, arguing that they are major elements in the life of their service areas and must meet community needs. Describes the role of rural college presidents and the importance of environmental scanning. Reviews challenges facing rural institutions in the future. (MAB)

  4. Collaboration and Integration in Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassey, William R.; Hagood, Richard A.

    Reporting on a rural planning and development program that proposes to develop, install, and evaluate alternative models for more effective collaboration and integration of the complex bureaucracies with responsibility for rural regions, this paper describes "Partnership for Rural Improvement" (PRI). Focusing on 11 counties in northcentral and…

  5. Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    The Government Accounting Agency estimates that one third of the nation's schools are in need of extensive repairs or replacement of one or more buildings. The condition of America's rural schools are at a crisis stage and need to be improved to continue to educate rural youth. This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural…

  6. Rural Professionals: A Tertiary Preparation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie

    An outline is proposed for a tertiary course in rural studies for professionals such as teachers, nurses, and social workers that would better prepare them for rural service. The course could be an elective in general studies or give credit toward professional certification. Key components for effective rural preparation of professionals should be…

  7. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  8. Computer Interpretations of ECGs in Rural Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-assisted interpretation of electrocardiograms offers theoretical benefits to rural physicians. This study compared computer-assisted interpretations by a rural physician certified to read ECGs with interpretations by the computer alone. The computer interpretation alone could have led to major errors in patient management, but was correct sufficiently often to warrant purchase by small rural hospitals. PMID:21221365

  9. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  10. Rural surgery: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Martin H; Maddern, Guy J

    2009-12-01

    A significant proportion of the Australian population resides nonmetropolitan regions. For the majority of these smaller regional centers, the surgical service delivery has been traditionally provided by either solo or two-person surgical practices. As medical students' interest in rural practice declined, new models were created to ensure medical care in these areas. This article outlines the past and current state of medical care in rural areas, highlighting models used in Port Augusta, Mount Gambier, and Port Lincoln. It concludes that these models are successful and should be further developed. PMID:19944815

  11. School efficiency in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Kathleen S.; Pollitt, Ernesto

    1992-09-01

    This paper addresses the issues concerning the ability of the educational sector in Guatemala to meet its basic objective of providing primary education to children in rural areas. We report on data collected in seven villages in rural Guatemala on over 2000 children. Measures of school efficiency in these villages indicate that although increasingly large numbers of children are enrolling in school, promotion, repetition, and drop-out rates continue to be high and that girls are at a greater disadvantage than boys in this population. Complex interrelationships among the schooling variables point to the need for policy decisions to incorporate family, community and school level inputs.

  12. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-07-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. PMID:25795175

  13. Drinking Among Rural Youth with Implications for Rural Institutional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassey, Marie; And Others

    During a 3-month period ending in January 1977, questionnaires were given to 889 eighth and twelfth grade students to determine the extent of drinking among rural teenagers in Idaho, and the sociological and psychological factors affecting their drinking habits. At least 16% of 8th graders and 34% of 12th graders drink frequently. A much higher…

  14. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  15. Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Rural America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.

    This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…

  16. Social capital, rural nursing and rural nursing theory.

    PubMed

    Lauder, William; Reel, Sally; Farmer, Jane; Griggs, Harvey

    2006-03-01

    The notion of social capital focuses attention on social connectedness within communities and the ways that this connectedness may affect health and well-being. There are many competing definitions of social capital but most suggest that it involves trust, social networks and reciprocity within communities, not necessarily geographically defined. The usefulness of social capital and related theories that help in understanding the function of nurses in rural communities are explored in this paper. Nurses and health service planners are becoming increasingly aware of the potential contribution of community nurses in rural and/or remote areas, as evidenced in the development of nurse practitioners. Through their interrelational role and status in rural communities, nurses are often 'immersed' or 'embedded' in the social networks that make up the fabric of rural life and may therefore be important contributors to social capital. For a concept such as social capital to be useful in nursing research, it must have distinct attributes, delineated boundaries, and well-described preconditions and outcomes in multiple contexts. PMID:16494669

  17. Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin

    This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

  18. Rural High School Principals: Leadership in Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Aaron L.

    2010-01-01

    Educational leadership has been the focus of many studies; however, leadership does not occur in a vacuum. Understanding the context in which it occurs will in turn help to explain the phenomenon itself. Rural communities in the United States have many differences when compared to urban and suburban areas. Twenty-eight percent of schools in the…

  19. The Changing Nature of Rurality and Rural Studies in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline different strands of the reconfiguration of the social and spatial perspectives on the countryside in Russia in the last 20 years. The country's transition implied changes in the production of knowledge, including the re-examination of research topics and bringing new theories into rural studies. The article strives to…

  20. Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, M. J.

    Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…