Science.gov

Sample records for rural chiapas mexico

  1. Risk factors and the prevalence of leptospirosis infection in a rural community of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leal-Castellanos, C B; García-Suárez, R; González-Figueroa, E; Fuentes-Allen, J L; Escobedo-de la Peñal, J

    2003-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mapastepec, a rural community of the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico. The overall prevalence of leptospirosis infection in 1169 subjects was 37.7% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 34.9-40.5]. The main risk factors related to leptospirosis infection were flooding, mainly if subjects had a skin cut or abrasion [odds ratio (OR) 4.2; 95% CI 3.1-5.7], having domestic animals, either dogs and/or cats (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.96-1.8) or cattle and/or pigs (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7), contact with animal excreta with no protection and with a skin cut or abrasion (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.6). Those subjects with a dengue infection in the previous year had also an excess risk (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Mapastepec is a previously unknown area with high endemicity. Specific preventive measures should be adopted to prevent any contact with infected animals, and animal immunization should also be implemented. There is need of an epidemiological surveillance system to allow proper diagnosis. PMID:14959783

  2. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  3. American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  4. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  5. The Mayans in Chiapas, Mexico: Past and Present. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jari Taylor

    This unit is designed for a second-year Spanish language class. The focus is on the Mayans and the 1994 Zapatista uprising in Chiapas (Mexico). The topics addressed include: (1) the Mayans' historical problems; (2) the 1994 rebellion in Chiapas; and (3) the reactions of the world and of the Mexican federal government to the rebellion. Suggestions…

  6. Democratization "from Below" and Popular Culture: Teachers from Chiapas, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Susan

    1996-01-01

    In the early 1980s, public school teachers in Chiapas, Mexico, organized themselves in a dissident mass movement aimed at democratizing their participation in union affairs and restructuring the relations of domination and subordination affecting their work lives. Macro-level analysis focuses on union corruption situated within an authoritarian…

  7. Miocene mollusks from the Simojovel area in Chiapas, southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen Perrilliat, María; Vega, Francisco J.; Coutiño, Marco A.

    2010-11-01

    The fauna of gastropods and bivalves from the amber-bearing lithostratigraphic units of the Simojovel area, Chiapas is reported, including the description of two new species and one subspecies: Turbinella maya new species, Melongena corona tzeltal new subspecies and Agladrillia ( Eumetadrillia) vermeiji new species. Stratigraphic affinities of the previously described species suggest an Early Miocene age for the Mazantic Shale, and a Middle Miocene age for the overlying Balumtum Sandstone. One specimen of gastropod, with a relatively large piece of amber attached to the adapertural part of the shell is representative for an Early Miocene age and estuarine paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Mazantic Shale. Mollusca, Miocene, Chiapas, Amber, Mexico.

  8. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Tilling, R.I.; Canul, R.

    1984-01-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho??n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chicho??n is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chicho??n is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chicho??n consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chicho??n in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent

  9. Thermochronology applied to the Chiapas mountains, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brichau, S.; Witt, C.; Carter, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas area is located at a triple junction between the Caribbean, North American and Cocos plates. It is an ideal area to investigate how tectonics influence landscape development and surface processes in the context of erosion, sediment routing and sedimentary basin evolution. At present the long-term evolution of the Chiapas Mountain is not well understood especially regarding the timing and magnitude of tectonic phases that led to formation of the Chiapas Mountains and its present-day topography. This area is mainly formed by the Permian Chiapas batholith (~250 Ma) and the Chiapas sierra. Important stratigraphic changes in nature and thickness lead authors to consider that up to six tectonic 'phases' participated in mountain formation and evolution. In this way, each major change in sediment nature, from marine to continental, has been related to uplift of the batholith and increase of sediment input. The onset of deformation along the region results from the northward migration of the left-lateral strike slip systems which is connected, further south, to the Polochic-Motagua fault system (i.e. limit between the North America and Caribbean plates). In this tectonic setting deformation along the Chiapas area results from the transpressive component of deformation related to the relative motion of the North American and Caribbean plates. A regional thermochronological study has been initiated to constrain the location, timing and magnitude of rock uplift associated with this transpressive regime. Thermochronometry will also help to constrain links to sedimentary basin development by identifying possible source areas (based on the assumption that exhumation of uplifted blocks is accompanied by erosion) and constrain sediment routing. U-Pb results obtained on the Palaeocene-Miocene series of the Sierra shows an important component from Greenvillian- type basement rocks (i.e. 0.8-1Ga) that have not been identified along the Chiapas region. The most likely

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of the Chiapas State (SE Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lomelí, Anabel Georgina; García-Mayordomo, Julián

    2015-04-01

    The Chiapas State, in southeastern Mexico, is a very active seismic region due to the interaction of three tectonic plates: Northamerica, Cocos and Caribe. We present a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) specifically performed to evaluate seismic hazard in the Chiapas state. The PSHA was based on a composited seismic catalogue homogenized to Mw and was used a logic tree procedure for the consideration of different seismogenic source models and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The results were obtained in terms of peak ground acceleration as well as spectral accelerations. The earthquake catalogue was compiled from the International Seismological Center and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de México sources. Two different seismogenic source zones (SSZ) models were devised based on a revision of the tectonics of the region and the available geomorphological and geological maps. The SSZ were finally defined by the analysis of geophysical data, resulting two main different SSZ models. The Gutenberg-Richter parameters for each SSZ were calculated from the declustered and homogenized catalogue, while the maximum expected earthquake was assessed from both the catalogue and geological criteria. Several worldwide and regional GMPEs for subduction and crustal zones were revised. For each SSZ model we considered four possible combinations of GMPEs. Finally, hazard was calculated in terms of PGA and SA for 500-, 1000-, and 2500-years return periods for each branch of the logic tree using the CRISIS2007 software. The final hazard maps represent the mean values obtained from the two seismogenic and four attenuation models considered in the logic tree. For the three return periods analyzed, the maps locate the most hazardous areas in the Chiapas Central Pacific Zone, the Pacific Coastal Plain and in the Motagua and Polochic Fault Zone; intermediate hazard values in the Chiapas Batholith Zone and in the Strike-Slip Faults Province. The hazard decreases

  11. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene

    1984-03-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic

  12. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  13. Survey for hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae was conducted to determine their occurrence and parasitism rates in Western Chiapas, Mexico. FAW larvae were collected from whorl-stage cornfields in Chiapas in the region called ...

  14. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  15. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  16. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley, P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented regarding separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos. ...

  17. A role for community health promoters in tuberculosis control in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herce, Michael E; Chapman, Jacob A; Castro, Arachu; García-Salyano, Gabriel; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a qualitative study employing structured interviews with 38 community health workers, known as health promoters, from twelve rural municipalities of Chiapas, Mexico in order to characterize their work and identify aspects of their services that would be applicable to community-based tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Health promoters self-identify as being of Mayan Indian ethnicity. Most are bilingual, speaking Spanish and one of four indigenous Mayan languages native to Chiapas. They volunteer 11 h each week to conduct clinical and public health work in their communities. Over half (53%) work with a botiquín, a medicine cabinet stocked with essential medicines. Fifty-three percent identify TB as a major problem affecting the health of their communities, with one-fifth (21%) of promoters reporting experience caring for patients with known or suspected TB and 29% having attended to patients with hemoptysis. One-third of health promoters have access to antibiotics (32%) and one-half have experience with their administration; 55% complement their biomedical treatments with traditional Mayan medicinal plant therapies in caring for their patients. We describe how health promoters employ both traditional and allopathic medicine to treat the symptoms and diseases they encounter most frequently which include fever, diarrhea, and parasitic infections. We contend that given the complex sociopolitical climate in Chiapas and the state's unwavering TB epidemic and paucity of health care infrastructure in rural areas, efforts to implement comprehensive, community-based TB control would benefit from employing the services of health promoters. PMID:20033836

  18. Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perales, Hugo R; Benz, Bruce F; Brush, Stephen B

    2005-01-18

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether ethnolinguistic diversity influences crop diversity. Factors suggest a correlation between biological diversity of crops and cultural diversity. Although this correlation has been noted, little systematic research has focused on the role of culture in shaping crop diversity. This paper reports on research in the Maya highlands (altitude >1,800 m) of central Chiapas in southern Mexico that examined the distribution of maize (Zea mays) types among communities of two groups, the Tzeltal and Tzotzil. The findings suggest that maize populations are distinct according to ethnolinguistic group. However, a study of isozymes indicates no clear separation of the region's maize into two distinct populations based on ethnolinguistic origin. A reciprocal garden experiment shows that there is adaptation of maize to its environment but that Tzeltal maize sometimes out-yields Tzotzil maize in Tzotzil environments. Because of the proximity of the two groups and selection for yield, we would expect that the superior maize would dominate both groups' maize populations, but we find that such domination is not the case. The role of ethnolinguistic identity in shaping social networks and information exchange is discussed in relation to landrace differentiation. PMID:15640353

  19. Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Perales, Hugo R.; Benz, Bruce F.; Brush, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether ethnolinguistic diversity influences crop diversity. Factors suggest a correlation between biological diversity of crops and cultural diversity. Although this correlation has been noted, little systematic research has focused on the role of culture in shaping crop diversity. This paper reports on research in the Maya highlands (altitude > 1,800 m) of central Chiapas in southern Mexico that examined the distribution of maize (Zea mays) types among communities of two groups, the Tzeltal and Tzotzil. The findings suggest that maize populations are distinct according to ethnolinguistic group. However, a study of isozymes indicates no clear separation of the region's maize into two distinct populations based on ethnolin-guistic origin. A reciprocal garden experiment shows that there is adaptation of maize to its environment but that Tzeltal maize sometimes out-yields Tzotzil maize in Tzotzil environments. Because of the proximity of the two groups and selection for yield, we would expect that the superior maize would dominate both groups' maize populations, but we find that such domination is not the case. The role of ethnolinguistic identity in shaping social networks and information exchange is discussed in relation to landrace differentiation. PMID:15640353

  20. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. Methods In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Results Most households had 2–5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1–3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Conclusion Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to

  1. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  2. Integrated Risk Research. Case of Study: Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Jaimes, M.

    2015-12-01

    This integrated risk research include the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such hazard identification, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. We determined risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37ºN, 92.25ºW. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed mainly to earthquakes, landslides and floods. We developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic zonation, landslides and flood susceptibility using standard methodologies. Vulnerability was quantified from data collected from local families interviews considering five social variables: characteristics of housing construction, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing community plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception. Local families surveyed were randomly selected considering a sample statistically significant. Our results were spatially represented using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Structural vulnerability curves were generated for typical housing constructions. Our integrated risk analysis demonstrates that the community of Motozintla has a high level of structural and socio-economical risk to floods and earthquakes. More than half of the population does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan and perceive that they are in high risk to landslides and floods. Although the community is located in a high seismic risk zone, most of the local people believe that cannot be impacted by a large earthquake. These natural and social conditions indicate that the community of Motozintla has a very high level of risk to natural hazards. This research will support local decision makers in developing an integrated comprehensive natural hazards mitigation and prevention program.

  3. Technology-Based Participatory Learning for Indigenous Children in Chiapas Schools, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Yolanda; Icaza, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    This research created a technology-based learning environment at two schools belonging to the National Council of Educational Development (CONAFE) for indigenous children in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. The purpose of the study was to describe the educational impact of using the Classmate PC netbooks and the Sugar Educational Platform in the…

  4. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates. PMID:24128686

  5. Poverty, production, and health: inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase via occupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, R; Halperin, D C

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides and its effects on the concentration of erythrocyte cholinesterase in the rural population of Chiapas, Mexico, are described. The authors surveyed agricultural production and pesticide use was surveyed among 199 campesinos (peasants) in three communities that used various agricultural production systems. The authors measured the concentration of the cholinesterase enzyme in blood samples obtained from 65 campesinos before and after exposure to the insecticide. The authors established a comparison value for the population that was not exposed occupationally. The exposure values of the enzyme concentration were significantly lower than preexposure values (p = .00001) and reference group values (p = .0008). Individuals in the community characterized by subsistence production had significantly lower levels of the enzyme than individuals in the other two communities (p = .01). This result suggested that a greater risk of adverse health effects existed among the poorest communities. PMID:9570306

  6. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  7. [Parasites of the Central American tapir Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cruz Aldán, Epigmenio; Lira Torres, Iván; Güiris Andrade, Dario Marcelino; Osorio Sarabia, David; Quintero M, Ma Teresa

    2006-06-01

    We analyzed 19 samples of Baird's tapir feces from La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, collected between March and July 1999. We also took samples directly from a male tapir captured at the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. Both reserves are in Chiapas, Mexico. We used five techniques: flotation, MacMaster, micrometric, Ritchie's sedimentation and Ferreira's quantitative. In addition, we collected ectoparasites from animals captured in both reserves and from a captive couple from Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. These nematodes and protozoans were found: Agriostomun sp., Lacandoria sp., Neomurshidia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Strongylus sp., Brachylumus sp, and an unidentified species of ancilostomaide. We also found Eimeria sp. and Balantidium coli, as well as the mites Dermacentor halli, Dermacentor latus, Amblyomma cajannense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma ovale, Anocentor nitens and Ixodes bicornis. PMID:18494314

  8. Apatite Fission-Track Analysis of the Middle Jurassic Todos Santos Formation from Chiapas, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, Fanis; Solé, Jesús; Shchepetilnikova, Valentina; Solari, Luigi; Ortega-Obregón, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The Sierra de Chiapas (SCH), located in the south of Mexico, is a complex geological province that can be divided on four different lithological or tectonic areas: (1) the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC); (2) the Central Depression; (3) the Strike-slip Fault Province, and (4) the Chiapas Fold-and-thrust Belt. The CMC mostly consists of Permian granitoids and meta-granitoids, and represents the basement of the SCH. During the Jurassic period red beds and salt were deposited on this territory, related to the main pulse of rifting and opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the Cretaceous stratigraphy contains limestones and dolomites deposited on a marine platform setting during the postrift stage of the Gulf of Mexico rift. During the Cenozoic Era took place the major clastic sedimentation along the SCH. According the published low-temperature geochronology data (Witt et al., 2012), SCH has three main phases of thermo-tectonic history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma, that affected mainly the basement (CMC) and is probably related to the migration of the Chortís block; (2) fast exhumation during the Middle-Late Miocene caused by strike-slip deformation that affects almost all Chiapas territory; (3) period of rapid cooling from 6 to 5 Ma, that affects the Chiapas Fold-and-thrust Belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. The two last events were the most significant on the formation of the present-day topography of the SCH. However, the stratigraphy of the SCH shows traces of the existence of earlier tectonic events. This study presents preliminary results of apatite fission-track (AFT) dating of sandstones from the Todos Santos Formation (Middle Jurassic). The analyses are performed with in situ uranium determination using LA-ICP-MS (e.g., Hasebe et al., 2004). The AFT data indicate that this Formation has suffered high-grade diagenesis (probably over 150 ºC) and the obtained cooling ages, about 70-60 Ma

  9. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  10. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite rates from Anopheles albimanus in southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J M; Salinas, E; Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H

    1994-06-01

    Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes were collected from August 1984 to November 1987 on intra- and peridomicile human bait in Rancheria El Gancho, Chiapas, Mexico. The mosquitoes were desiccated and stored in silicon chambers from 3 mo to 3 yr post-collection prior to being assayed using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Plasmodium vivax predominant-type sporozoite protein. Peridomicile-collected mosquitoes had a 10-fold higher sporozoite rate than those collected indoors, but only the latter correlate significantly with the seasonal human parasite index. Mosquito sporozoite burden was also significantly higher in the peridomicile-collected population. PMID:8195955

  11. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  12. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  13. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  14. [Coffee tree cultivation and the social history of onchocerciasis in Soconusco, Chiapas state, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    Due to the social and ecological changes that have taken place in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, the coffee tree growth economy (established in the latter part of the last century) has been an important factor in the transmission of onchocerciasis. The optimum ecological conditions for the growth of the coffee tree coincide with those of the disease's growth rate vector; the mobilization of migrant workers for the cultivation and gathering of coffee beans, plus changes in the natural environment, are elements which explain the disease's distribution in the different regions. The origin of the disease in Chiapas may be due to the migration of coffee plantation workers from Guatemala in search of land in which to settle. Social changes occurring after the Agrarian Distribution (land distributions that occurred in 1918 and 1940) caused an intensification and modernization in the areas of cultivation which in turn caused a decline in the disease's growth rate vector. This, together with standard of living improvements and control measures against the disease, explain why the problem in these regions has decreased considerably. The use of ivermectin as a new therapy paves the way for better disease control in the future. Nevertheless, in the smaller locations occupied by middle and poor class farmers, where coffee bean cultivation is just commencing and still in a rudimentary form, onchocerciasis and other diseases continue to present serious health problems. PMID:2053017

  15. The acceptability and feasibility of an intercultural birth center in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An intercultural birthing house was established in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, as an intervention to reduce maternal mortality among indigenous women. This birth center, known locally as the Casa Materna, is a place where women can come to give birth with their traditional birth attendant. However, three months after opening, no woman had used the birthing house. Methods This study reports on the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbirth and use of the Casa Materna from the perspective of the health workers, traditional birth attendants and the program’s target population. Structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with participants from each of these groups. Data was searched for emerging themes and coded. Results and conclusions Findings show that the potential success of this program is jeopardized by lack of transport and a strong cultural preference for home births. The paper highlights the importance of community participation in planning and implementing such an intervention and of establishing trust and mutual respect among key actors. Recommendations are provided for moving forward the maternal health agenda of indigenous women in Chiapas. PMID:23587122

  16. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  17. Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation. PMID:22218460

  18. New constraints on the origin of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) from sediment provenance and apatite thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, C.; Brichau, S.; Carter, A.

    2012-12-01

    The timing and source of deformation responsible for formation of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) are unclear. To address this, apatite fission track and U-Th-He thermochronometry, combined with zircon U-Pb dating, were performed on bedrock and sedimentary samples of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to discern timing of exhumation and identify sediment source areas. The U-Pb results show that Paleocene-Eocene terrigenous units outcropping at the northern section of the Sierra were mostly derived from Grenville (˜1 Ga) basement whereas the internal sections of the chain yield mainly Permian to Triassic ages (circa 270-230 Ma) typical of the Chiapas massif complex. Grenville-sourced sediments are most probably sourced by the Oaxacan block or the Guichicovi complex and were deposited to the north of the Sierra in a foreland setting related to a Laramide deformation front. Other possibly source areas may be related to metasedimentary units widely documented at the south Maya block such as the Baldi unit. The apatite fission track and U-Th-He data combined with previously published results record three main stages in exhumation history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma affecting mainly the Chiapas massif complex; (2) fast exhumation between 16 and 9 Ma related to the onset of major strike-slip deformation affecting both the Chiapas massif complex and Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt; and (3) a 6 to 5 Ma period of rapid cooling that affected the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. These data suggest that most of the topographic growth of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas took place in the middle to late Miocene. The new thermochronological evidence combined with stratigraphic and kinematic information suggests that the left-lateral strike-slip faults bounding the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt to the west may have accommodated most of the displacement between the North American and

  19. Some aspects of the seismicity associated with the 1982 eruption of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Jiménez, Z.

    2006-10-01

    We review the different phases of the seismicity related to the 1982 eruption of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. The pre-eruption seismicity was already anomalous by late 1980, became significant by late 1981 and increased towards 28 March, 1982, when the first eruptive event occurred. A noticeable feature within the 7-day period of unrest is the occurrence of three earthquake swarms before the devastating explosions of 3 and 4 April 1982 (local time). The periodicity and appearance of the swarms, close to the time of maximum tidal strain, suggests a large overpressure in the magmatic system, and the triggering of the events by the earth tides. The post-eruption seismicity occurred mostly in a radius 5 km from the crater and a depth range 11 to 15 km suggesting that this region was a deeper reservoir of the erupted magma.

  20. Paleomagnetism of the Todos Santos Formation in the Maya Block, Chiapas, Mexico: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Urban, A.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Iriondo, A.; Geissman, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary results of a paleomagnetic study on jurassic volcanic rocks (U-Pb 188.8 +/- 3.2Ma) locally interbedded with red beds assigned to the Todos Santos Formation, sampled in the Homoclinal Tectonic Province of the Neogene Fold Belt, Chiapas-Mexico, reveal multi component magnetizations acquired during pre- and post- folding of these rocks. The samples responded well to thermal demagnetization, but not so to AF demagnetization, suggesting that a high coercivity mineral phase like hematite is the main remanence carrier. The post-folding B-component direction of Dec=174.3 Inc=-30.6 (k=46; alpha95=13.6; N=4) represents a recent Tertiary? overprint; while the pre-folding C-component direction of Dec=329.9 Inc=7.8 (k=12.5; alpha95=16.3; N=8) is in agreement with a previously reported small data set for the Todos Santos Formation. When compared to the North American reference direction (Jurassic Kayenta Formation) the observed direction indicates a counterclockwise rotation of 35.9 +/- 16.6 degrees, and moderate north to south latitudinal displacement. If a reference pole from NE North America is used, the amount of counterclockwise rotation and latitudinal displacement are both slightly reduced. If the assumption that Jurassic strata in Chiapas reflect displacement of the Maya Block, then these data are consistent with reconstructions of the Maya Block in the Gulf of Mexico region. Other sites sampled in Jurassic strata suggest that in addition to the interpreted regional rotation, local (vertical-axis) rotations may have affected the region in more recent times.

  1. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Tylodinus Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae: Tylodina) of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luna-Cozar, Jesús; Anderson, Robert S; Jones, Robert W; León-Corté, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    The species of the genus Tylodinus from the Mexican state of Chiapas are revised. We examined 989 specimens representing 36 species; 23 species are grouped into eight species groups with 13 species considered as Incertae sedis. A total of 32 species are described as new and one species is a new record for México. Species groups  (numbers of species in parentheses) and species are: Tylodinus buchanani species group (6) T. buchanani new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. exiguus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza), T. ixchel new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juarez, Volcán Tacan), T. jonesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Angel Albino Corzo, Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, Campamento el Quetzal), T. variabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. wibmeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, 7 km SSW Motozintla de Mendoza); Tylodinus canaliculatus species group (3) T. canaliculatus Champion (Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan, new record for  México), T. sepulturaensis new species (Type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. triumforium new species (Type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus cavicrus species group (3) T. cavicrus Champion, T. pseudocavicrus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), T. rugosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Sierra Morena); Tylodinus coapillensis species group (2) T. coapillensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. leoncortesi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena); Tylodinus mutabilis species group (2) Tylodinus mutabilis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. parvus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Trinitaria, Lagunas de Montebello); Tylodinus

  2. The aquatic and semiaquatic biota in Miocene amber from the Campo LA Granja mine (Chiapas, Mexico): Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Hegna, Thomas A.; Schaaf, Peter; Pérez, Liseth; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2015-10-01

    Amber from the Campo La Granja mine in Chiapas, Mexico, is distinct from other sources of amber in Chiapas. Campo La Granja amber has distinct layers created by successive flows of resin with thin layers of sand on most surfaces. Aquatic and semi-aquatic arthropods are commonly found. Together these pieces of evidence suggest an estuarine environment similar to modern mangrove communities. The aquatic crustaceans are the most intriguing aspect of the biota. A large number of ostracods have been found in the amber-many with their carapaces open, suggesting that they were alive and submerged in water at the time of entombment. The only known examples of brachyuran crabs preserved in amber are found in the Campo La Granja amber. Amphipods, copepods, isopods, and tanaids are also members of the crustacean fauna preserved in amber.

  3. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  4. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  5. Energy partition in the 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, I.; de la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1992-06-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico has been extensively investigated from various standpoints, including seismicity, tephra geology, atmospheric effects and tectonic structure. In this paper, the six largest of a series of explosions are isolated, considering various sources of information. Then, the seismic energy released by volcanic earthquakes and tremor is estimated using seismograms of low magnification in order to avoid saturation of seismic wave amplitudes. The explosion kinetic energy is evaluated by two methods: one by the initial velocity of the ejecta and the other by the air wave data recorded at a distance. Both the results are roughly coincident. The thermal energy is classified into two components: that transferred by volcanic ejecta and that consumed by convective clouds. The thermal energy released by the explosions is very large compared with that of mechanical energy, such as the seismic energy and explosion kinetic energy. After the last major explosion of April 4, A-type volcanic earthquakes swarmed till the end of April. Their occurrence rate decreased with time in an aftershock-like sequence. These earthquake swarms may have been due to post-eruptive readjustment of the stress field within and near the volcano. Such seismic activity contrasts with other examples of similar major eruptions, which were followed by growth of lava domes in the new craters after the paroxysmal eruptions. The 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano has not been followed by the growth of a lava dome within the newly formed crater.

  6. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides. PMID:27377751

  7. Tropical Secondary Forest Management Influences Frugivorous Bat Composition, Abundance and Fruit Consumption in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H’) was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests’ structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  8. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Sabin, Miriam; Berlin, Elois Ann; Nackerud, Larry

    2009-09-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of ethnomedical syndromes and examined treatments and treatment-seeking in Mayan Guatemalans living in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) camps in Chiapas, Mexico. Methods included a rapid ethnographic assessment to refine survey methods and inform the cross-sectional survey, which also examined mental health outcomes; 183 households were approached for interview, representing an estimated 1,546 residents in five refugee camps and 93% of all households. One adult per household (N = 170) was interviewed regarding his or her health; an additional 9 adults in three surveyed households participated and were included in this analysis; of the 179 participants, 95 primary child-care providers also answered a children's health questionnaire for their children. Results indicated that ethnomedical syndromes were common in this sample, with 59% of adults and 48.4% of children having experienced susto (fright condition) and 34.1% of adults reporting ataques de nervios (nervous attacks); both conditions were significantly associated with symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression and are mental health conditions recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Combining healthcare provider and indigenous treatments such as physician prescribed medication (65%), medicinal plants (65.7%), and limpias (spiritual cleansings) (40.6%) was reported. Most participants (86%) sought routine medical treatment from UNHCR trained health promoters in their camp. Assessing ethnomedical health is important for informing mental health programs among this population. PMID:19526330

  9. Evaluation of the degree of mycophilia-mycophobia among highland and lowland inhabitants from Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms generate strong and contrasting feelings ranging from extreme aversion to intense liking. To categorize these attitudes, Wasson and Wasson coined the dichotomic terms “mycophilia” and “mycophobia” in 1957. In Mesoamerica these categories have been associated to ecological regions. Highland peoples are viewed as mycophiles, whereas lowland inhabitants are considered mycophobes. However, this division is based on little empirical evidence and few indicators. This study questioned whether mycophilia and mycophobia are indeed related to ecological regions through the evaluation of 19 indicators tested in the highlands and lowlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Methods The heterogeneity of attitudes toward mushrooms was explored in terms of ecological region and sociocultural variables. Information was obtained through structured interviews in 10 communities in Los Altos de Chiapas (highlands) and the Selva Lacandona (lowlands). We analyzed indicators separately through χ2 tests and multivariate techniques. The Mycophilia-Mycophobia Index was also used in the analysis. To assess which factors better explain the distribution of attitudes, we built 11 models using the Beta probability-density function and compared them with the Akaike Information Criterion. Results Most people had positive attitudes in both ecological regions. The classification and ordination analyses found two large groups comprising both highland and lowland towns. Contrary to expectation if mycophilia and mycophobia were mutually exclusive, all the fitted probability distributions were bell-shaped; indicating these attitudes behave as a continuous variable. The model best supported by data included occupation and ethnicity. Indigenous peasants had the highest degree of mycophilia. Discussion Results suggest the studied populations tend to be mycophilic and that their attitudes are not dichotomic, but rather a gradient. Most people occupied intermediate degrees of mycophilia

  10. Land-use change and carbon flux between 1970s and 1990s in central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, B.H.J. de; Ramirez-Marcial, N.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Mendoza-Vega, J.; Gonzalez-Espinosa, M.; March-Mifsut, I.; Cairns, M.A.; Haggerty, P.K.

    1999-04-01

    The authors present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which they apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s and 1990s. Carbon densities were assigned to common LU/LC classes on vegetation maps produced by Mexican governmental organizations and, by differencing areas and C pools, net C flux was calculated from the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, during a 16-year period. The total area of closed forests was reduced by half while degraded and fragmented forests expanded 56% and cultivated land and pasture areas increased by 8% and 30%, respectively. Total mean C densities ranged from a high of 504 tons C/ha in the oak and evergreen cloud forests class to a low of 147 tons C/ha in the pasture class. The differences in total C densities among the various LU/LC classes were due to changes in biomass while soil organic matter C remained similar. The authors estimate that a total of 19.99 {times} 10{sup 6} tons C were released to the atmosphere during the period of time covered by the study, equal to approximately 34% of the 1975 vegetation C pool. The Chiapas highlands, while comprising just 0.3% of Mexico`s surface area, contributed 3% of the net national C emissions.

  11. Two Flat-Backed Polydesmidan Millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-Amber Lagerstätte, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Hernández-Patricio, Miguel; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Montejo-Cruz, Maira; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José L.; Zúñiga-Mijangos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture. PMID:25162220

  12. Traditional land-use systems and patterns of forest fragmentation in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gaona, S

    2001-04-01

    The influence of slash-and-burn agriculture and tree extraction on the spatial and temporal pattern of forest fragmentation in two municipalities in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico was analyzed. The data series were derived from two subsets of satellite images taken in 1974 and 1996. The analysis was based on area, edge, shape, core area, and neighbor indices. During the 22 years, the dense forest decreased by 8.9%/yr in Huistan and by 8.6%/yr in Chanal, while open/disturbed forest, secondary vegetation, and developed area increased in both municipalities. The total number of fragments increased by 1.4%/yr and 2.3%/yr in Huistan and Chanal, respectively. Dense forest showed the highest increase in the number of fragments (6%/yr in Huistan and 12%/yr in Chanal), while edge length, core area, and number of dense forest core areas decreased. The larger fragments of dense forest present in 1974 were divided into smaller fragments in 1996; at the same time, they experienced a process of degradation toward open/disturbed forest and secondary vegetation. Two different fragmentation patterns could be distinguished based on agricultural or forestry activities. Forest fragmentation did not occur as a continuous process; the pattern and degree of fragmentation were functions of land tenure, environmental conditions, and productive activities. The prevalence of rather poor soil conditions, small-holdings, growing human population densities, increasing poverty, and the absence of alternative economic options will maintain a high rate of deforestation and forest fragmentation in the studied region. PMID:11289455

  13. Heavy metals in wet method coffee processing wastewater in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002). PMID:17579799

  14. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  15. Environmental Degradation as a Risk Factor for Landslides in the Motozintla Basin, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Motozintla Basin is located southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. Most communities in this region are continously affected by landslides even some locations have disappeared because of this natural phenomenon. This study is focused on the communities that are located along the Xelajú river on this basin. The Motozintla basin has a triangular shape with an area of about 98.6 km2. The slopes in the basin are abrupt ranging from 18° to 45° in about 72.11% of its area. The local altitudes range from 1,024 meters at the lowest point to 2,611 meters at the highest sites. These geomorphological features create unstable slopes which favors slow mass movements processes with different concentrations of sediment that can be transformed in sudden landslides. Many of these processes are accelerated by environmental degradation generated by human activities such as road constructions, land use changes from forest to agriculture or urban development. In this work we focus our research on determining how these human degrading actions increase the susceptibility of mass removal processes, mainly landslides. With this purpose, we generated a landslide inventory of our region of study for the period 1985-2014. We classified the landslides according to their origin (natural or man-made). Based on its location and the local characteristics, we could determine if the identified landslide was caused by natural or human actions. In addition, as environmental factors, we considered the land use characteristics and slope changes to determine the impact of the environmental degradation in the landslide susceptibility.

  16. Devonian-Ordovician Magmatism in Chiapas Massif, Southern Maya Block, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa-Mera, V.; Schaaf, P.; Weber, B.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif (CM) is located in SE Mexico and extends over an area of more than 20,000 Km2 parallel to the Pacific coast between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Guatemalan border. It constitutes the largest batholitic complex in Mexico and belongs to the Maya Block. The CM is predominantly formed by igneous, metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks. In the central CM several magmatic and metamorphic events have been identified in igneous rocks between Late Permian and Triassic times (220-240 Ma), together with a Jurassic tectonothermal event. Recent geochronological studies have been focused on granitic rocks from the central-southeastern CM and from this area, single grain zircon ages were also obtained from metasedimentary rocks. The results suggest that the basement rocks of the eastern CM and the Maya Block underwent several tectonothermal events since Ordovician and Devonian times. In this work, we present new data of magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the easternmost part of CM which confirms this hypothesis. Additionally, we present a semi-detailed geological map of this area showing some field relationship between the different units. We identified a new basal sequence significantly older than the Santa Rosa Formation, which has been considered up to now as forming the major underlying sequence of the CM, as well as the occurrence of several magmatic events in the Maya Block and in rocks from surrounding areas. The petrological, geochemical and geochronological features of these rocks show continuous crust recycling, the occurrence of within-plate magmatism in some parts with inherited Greenvillian and Archaean zircon grains as well as the occurrence of arc magmatism previous to accretion, deformation and terrane separation of the crustal blocks. Our new geochronological results obtained from the south easternmost part of the CM include a Rb-Sr biotite-muscovite age of 392+/-9 Ma and an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 406+/- 4 Ma from a tectonized granitic

  17. The New Emerging Adult in Chiapas, Mexico: Perceptions of Traditional Values and Value Change among First-Generation Maya University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    Social changes in indigenous Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico toward increasing levels of formal education, commercialization, and urbanization are transforming traditional Maya developmental pathways toward adulthood. This mixed-methods study is based on interviews with a sample of 14 first-generation Maya university students who have also…

  18. Epidemiological modeling and risk analysis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in the human population of Coastal Chiapas, Mexico in 2007-2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of 101 febrile illness patients sero positive for Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) was carried out in a retrospective study along 18 municipalities and endemic VEEV pacific coastal regions of the State of Chiapas in southern Mexico. Geographic information systems (GIS), satellite imag...

  19. Geomorphology, internal structure and evolution of alluvial fans at Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Núñez, J. M.; Macías, J. L.; Saucedo, Ricardo; Zamorano, J. J.; Novelo, David; Mendoza, M. E.; Torres-Hernández, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Alluvial fans and terraces develop in diverse regions responding to different tectonic and climatic conditions. The Motozintla basin is located in the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico and has an E-W orientation following the trace of the left-lateral Polochic Fault. The evolution of the Motozintla basin and the alluvial plain is related to several factors, such as fault movement, intense erosion by hydrometeorological events, and anthropogenic activity. This study presents the geomorphology of the alluvial plain that between the villages of Motozintla and Mazapa de Juárez exposes 31 alluvial fans, 5 hanging terraces and 13 ramps. Fourteen of these alluvial fans have been truncated by the Polochic fault, exposing maximum uplifts of ~ 12 m. The internal structure of truncated fans consists of single massive beds (monolithologic fans) or stacked beds (polygenetic fans). The fans' stratigraphy is made of debris flow deposits separated by paleosols and minor hyperconcentrated flows, fluviatile beds, and pyroclastic fall deposits. The reconstruction of the stratigraphy assisted by radiocarbon geochronology suggests that these fans have been active since late Pleistocene (25 ka) to the present. This record suggests that at least 10 events have been recorded at the fan interior during the past ~ 1840 years. One of these events at 355 ± 65 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1438 to 1652) can be correlated across the fans and is likely associated with an extreme hydrometeorologic event. The presence of a 165 ± 60 14C yrs. BP (cal yrs. AD 1652-1949) debris flow deposit within the fans suggests that movement along the Polochic fault formed the fans' scarp afterwards. In fact, a historic earthquake along the fault occurred east of Motozintla on July 22, 1816 with a Mw of 7.5-7.75. Recent catastrophic floods have affected Motozintla in 1998 and 2005 induced by extreme hydrometeorological events and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, scenarios for Motozintla involved several types of

  20. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  1. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion in Tapachula, Chiapas (mexico) from Empirical and Theorical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, F.; Alguacil, G.; Rodríguez, L.; Navarro, M.; Ruiz, A.; Aguirre, J.; Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Mora, J.; Reyes, M.

    2013-05-01

    The high seismic hazard level of Tapachula city (Chiapas, Mexico) requires a better understanding of the characteristics of earthquake ground motion to implement risk reduction policies in this urban area. A map of ground predominant period estimated with Nakamura technique already shows four different zones: the largest one in the downtown with 0.2-0.4s, two small zones (concentric to the previous one) of 0.4-0.7s and 0.7-0.9 s, respectively, and the smallest zone (on the edge of the city) with the higher values 0.9-1.1s. During 44 days more than 220 events were recorded by a temporal seismic network installed by the UNAM at 6 sites distributed in Tapachula. The magnitude Mw and hypocentral distance of the events were reassessed and range from 3.3 to 4.5 and 60 to 190 km, respectively. After selecting the accelerograms with the best signal/noise ratio, a set of key engineering ground-motion parameters such as peak values of strong motion, acceleration and velocity response spectra, Arias intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, relative significant duration, the Housner spectrum-intensity, the energy input spectrum and H/V spectral ratio were calculated for the selected events. The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) of each parameter as function of magnitude and distance were also estimated. On the other hand, synthetic seismic traces were obtained at each station site after modeling a seismic source of magnitude 7.2 by using the empirical Green's function method. Thus, a shake-map scenario was generated for an earthquake similar to that of the September 10, 1993. The parameters here obtained show different shake levels and frequency content at each site. All sites present amplification for 0.25 and 0.5 s. TACA, TAPP y TATC stations, located near the two rivers bordering Tapachula, are those with the largest ground amplification. The characteristics of strong ground motion obtained from synthetic accelerograms are in agreement with those from the empirical

  2. Assessment of a remote sensing-based model for predicting malaria transmission risk in villages of Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, L. R.; Rodriguez, M. H.; Dister, S. W.; Rodriguez, A. D.; Washino, R. K.; Roberts, D. R.; Spanner, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    A blind test of two remote sensing-based models for predicting adult populations of Anopheles albimanus in villages, an indicator of malaria transmission risk, was conducted in southern Chiapas, Mexico. One model was developed using a discriminant analysis approach, while the other was based on regression analysis. The models were developed in 1992 for an area around Tapachula, Chiapas, using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and geographic information system functions. Using two remotely sensed landscape elements, the discriminant model was able to successfully distinguish between villages with high and low An. albimanus abundance with an overall accuracy of 90%. To test the predictive capability of the models, multitemporal TM data were used to generate a landscape map of the Huixtla area, northwest of Tapachula, where the models were used to predict risk for 40 villages. The resulting predictions were not disclosed until the end of the test. Independently, An. albimanus abundance data were collected in the 40 randomly selected villages for which the predictions had been made. These data were subsequently used to assess the models' accuracies. The discriminant model accurately predicted 79% of the high-abundance villages and 50% of the low-abundance villages, for an overall accuracy of 70%. The regression model correctly identified seven of the 10 villages with the highest mosquito abundance. This test demonstrated that remote sensing-based models generated for one area can be used successfully in another, comparable area.

  3. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection. PMID:25742275

  4. Ammonite age-calibration of the EL Chango Fossil-Lagerstätte, Chiapas state (SE Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Latil, J.-L.; Villanueva-Amadoz, U.; Calvillo-Canadell, L.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S. R. S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper dates the El Chango Lagerstätte (Chiapas, SE Mexico), known for its exceptionally well-preserved marine fishes, plant remains, crustaceans, insects and mollusks, based on ammonite biostratigraphy. The age of the El Chango fauna is imprecisely assigned to either the late Albian or Cenomanian. We document here an ammonite assemblage comprising Graysonites and ?Metengonoceras. Graysonites, which gives a lowermost early Cenomanian age, Cintalapa Formation pro parte. We noticed that the terminology of lithostratigraphic units in the studied area is confusing and varies considerably depending on the author, therefore proposing the use of Cintalapa Formation for the El Chango section and the Sierra Madre as a group that includes it.

  5. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loyola, E G; González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Bennett, S; Bown, D N

    1993-05-01

    The host-feeding patterns of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann were described and the effect of host availability on these patterns was assessed in three different ecological areas of coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Resting mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors during rainy seasons. A 20% sample of blood-fed mosquitoes was tested to determine the source of the blood meal using an ELISA. The unweighted human blood index (HBI) of An. albimanus in the three areas ranged from 0.11 to 0.21. This mosquito species fed more frequently on bovines than on any other host, but the forage ratio indicated that there was also a high preference for equines. Some females tended to rest or complete their gonotrophic cycle indoors after feeding on animals, but females also fed on man and rested outdoors. Host availability and ecological conditions appeared to be responsible for differences observed in the HBI among areas. PMID:8510111

  6. Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandón Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Armando; Langevin, Stanley A; Mendez-Sanchez, J D; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I; Raetz, Janae L; Powers, Ann M; Villarreal-Treviño, C; Gubler, Duane J; Komar, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    A serologic survey in domestic animals (birds and mammals) was conducted in four communities located in the Lacandón Forest region of northeastern Chiapas, Mexico, during June 29 to July 1, 2001, with the objective to identify zoonotic arboviruses circulating in this area. We collected 202 serum samples from healthy domestic chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys, horses and cattle. The samples were tested by plaque-reduction neutralization test for antibodies to selected mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae), including St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Rocio (ROC), Ilheus (ILH), Bussuquara (BSQ), and West Nile (WN) viruses, and selected alphaviruses (family Togaviridae), including Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses. Neutralizing antibodies to SLE virus were detected in two (8%) of 26 turkeys, 15 (23%) of 66 cattle, and three (60%) of five horses. Antibodies to VEE virus were detected in 29 (45%) of 65 cattle. Because some of these animals were as young as 2 months old, we demonstrated recent activity of these two viruses. Sub-typing of the VEE antibody responses indicated that the etiologic agents of these infections belonged to the IE variety of VEE, which has been reported from other regions of Chiapas. WN virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in a single cattle specimen (PRNT(90) = 1:80) that also circulated SLE virus-neutralizing antibodies (PRNT(90) = 1:20), suggesting that WN virus may have been introduced into the region. We also detected weak neutralizing activity to BSQ virus in four cattle and a chicken specimen, suggesting the presence of this or a closely related virus in Mexico. There was no evidence for transmission of the other viruses (ROC, ILH, EEE, WEE) in the study area. PMID:12804375

  7. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  8. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  9. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Chiapas collected near the Guatemala border, with additions to the fauna of Mexico and a new subgenus name.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Muñoz, José; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Pech-May, Agelica; Marina, Carlos F

    2015-01-01

    Collections from four localities, two of the High Plateau and two of the Eastern Mountains Municipality of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, included 26 species with four new species records for Mexico: Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (Fairchild & Hertig, 1957), Dampfomyia (Coromyia) disneyi (Williams, 1987), Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951), and Psychodopygus corossoniensis (LePont & Pajot, 1978). These records represent an updated total of 50 species in Mexico, 48 of which are extant species and the remaining two fossils. The name Xiphopsathyromyia n. n. is proposed in substitution of Xiphomyia Artemiev, 1991, a homonym of Xiphomyia Townsend, 1917, a genus of Tachinidae (Diptera). PMID:26250267

  10. Vital warmth and well-being: steambathing as household therapy among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Groark, Kevin P

    2005-08-01

    Among the Maya, the cultural history of steambathing spans more than two millennia. Although it has largely disappeared from the lowlands, household-level steambathing persists in several highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. In this article, I present an overview of therapeutic steambathing among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya. Through an extended discussion of the beliefs and practices surrounding steambathing, I develop several features of highland Maya thinking about physical health and "well-being". In particular, I examine a set of ethnophysiological representations relating to the "thermal" nature of functional bodies, and the relationship of these models to the maintenance and restoration of health. The highland Maya have articulated an elaborate understanding of physical health and well-being coded in an idiom of "vital warmth", and directed toward the preservation and augmentation of the endogenous heat necessary for vitality and vigor. These models simultaneously reflect empirical understandings of bodily states in health and illness, as well as metaphorical assumptions about the thermal nature of functional psychosocial identities. Steambathing draws on and reinforces these models, constituting a core cultural technology for radically altering the thermal state of the patient, an experience which the highland Maya regard as deeply beneficial. The paper closes with a discussion of recent biomedical research into the physiological effects of hyperthermal therapies. PMID:15950091

  11. Petrological and Geochemical Evolution, during the last 40,000 years of the Tacana Volcano Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J.; Macias, J.; Garcia-palomo, A.; Espindola, J.; Manetti, P.; Vaselli, O.

    2001-12-01

    The Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC) is located in SW Chiapas, Mexico. Its highest peak constitutes a marker of the international border with Guatemala. Fieldwork aided by photo interpretation has allowed us to recognize three different volcanic centers at the TVC: Chichuj (EVCh; 3,800 masl.), Tacaná, which gives name to the complex (EVT; 4,060 masl), and San Antonio (EVSA; 3,700 masl). The volcanic deposits from these three centers consist mainly of block-and-ash flows, lavas, and summit domes. In this work were analyzed selected samples of lava flows, lava domes, and juvenile clasts from the most recent pyroclastic flows. The lava flows and the domes have andesitic-dacitic composition, and the juvenile clasts are andesitic. Basaltic andesite enclaves found in the 2000 yr BP Mixcun pyroclastic flow are the most basic of all analyzed products in the CVT (andesitic basalt). All the products are porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, and amphibole. Using two pyroxenes and ilmenite-titanomagnetite geothermometers, we estimated the temperature of crystallization, which varies between 910o and 950oC. The geochemical data (majors elements, trace elements and isotopes) shows that crystal fractionation was the principal process of evolution, with a small assimilation of granitic crustal rocks.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the genus Mayazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae), with description of five new species from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monjaraz-Ruedas, Rodrigo; Francke, Oscar F

    2015-01-01

    The genus Mayazomus currently contains two species from southeastern Mexico. It was originally characterized by a strongly elongated pedipalp trochanter, united in its entire width to the femur; the patella strongly curved; the tibia with a large mesal apophysis opposable to tarsus; the spermathecae with two pairs of thin lobes subequal in length; and the presence of four or more setae on tergite II. In the present contribution, the species of the genus Mayazomus are revised and new diagnostic characters for the genus are proposed, including the correction that the female flagellum bears three rather than two annuli. The two known species are redescribed based on examination of the holotypes, plus newly acquired material representing both sexes (female previously unknown for one). Five new species from the Mexican state of Chiapas are described, based on adult males and females: Mayazomus tzotzil new species, Mayazomus aluxe new species, Mayazomus kaamuul new species, Mayazomus yaax new species, and Mayazomus loobil new species. Dimorphism in male pedipalps is reported for the first time for the genus. A dichotomous key is provided for identification of the seven species in the genus; and a distribution map is included.  PMID:25662138

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a coastal lagoon of the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; Vega-Cendejas, M Eugenia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Composition and abundance of the ichthyofauna in estuarine and coastal lagoon systems of the South Pacific in Mexico have been scarcely studied. In particular, there is a lack of information on how environmental variables determine the spatio-temporal structure of fish assemblages in those habitats. In this study, fishes were sampled by drop net during twelve months (May 2004 - April 2005) in 22 sites distributed along the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon, located in the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 11,797 individuals (40 species, in 30 genera and 21 families). Dormitator latifrons was the most dominant species in terms of the Importance Value index, IV (23.05%), followed by Lile gracilis (10.31%), Poecilia sphenops (8.60%) and Poecilia butleri (7.30%). D. latifrons also accounted for more than one half of the total biomass (50.14%). Species richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes showed similar temporal fluctuations, reaching their highest values during the dry season. The system evidenced temporal variations in salinity, having observed four different regimes: freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline. Mean richness and diversity indexes achieved their highest values during the mesohaline period. On the other hand, mean abundances (CPUE) were highest during the freshwater period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and temperature were the most important environmental parameters affecting associations of fishes in terms of their abundances. Correlation analyses revealed that among the environmental variables measured in this study, transparency showed the most significant negative correlation with fish richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. At a local scale, results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages are determined by differences in the regimes of salinity and transparency, primarily driven by freshwater input from rivers. PMID:19256428

  14. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. PMID:26850034

  15. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  16. The epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in a rural and an urban area of Mexico. A pilot survey II.

    PubMed

    Sargeaunt, P G; Williams, J E; Bhojnani, R; Campos, J E; Gomez, A

    1982-01-01

    Stocks of intestinal amoebae grown in monoxenic culture, were compared against each other and against those previously reported from Mexico City. These were isolated from subjects in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas (rural area) and hospital patients in Merida, Yucatan (urban area). Electrophoretic patterns of the four enzymes: glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), L-malate: NADP+ oxido-reductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) (ME) and hexokinase (HK) demonstrated the presence of five groups (zymodemes) of Entamoeba histolytica already described from Mexico City, together with two new zymodemes, one of which gave a recognizable pathogenic pattern, whilst the other gave a contradictory pattern. Zymodemes of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba buetschlii and Dientamoeba fragilis, previously described were also isolated. One new zymodeme of D. fragilis was demonstrated. PMID:6285556

  17. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A.; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E.; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K.; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl) and mid-altitude (520 masl) locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years) had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product. PMID:25310541

  18. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Tiffany F; Díaz-González, Esteban E; Erasmus, Jesse H; Malo-García, Iliana R; Langsjoen, Rose M; Patterson, Edward I; Auguste, Dawn I; Forrester, Naomi L; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-11-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  19. Chikungunya Virus as Cause of Febrile Illness Outbreak, Chiapas, Mexico, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Tiffany F.; Díaz-González, Esteban E.; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Malo-García, Iliana R.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Patterson, Edward I.; Auguste, Dawn I.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312

  20. The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: Mineralogy and petrology of the anhydritebearing pumices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, James F.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.; Varekamp, Johan C.

    1984-12-01

    The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano produced three major pumice- and ash-fall layers. Fresh pumices from the three layers are indistinguishable porphyritic trachyandesites with 55.9 wt. % SiO 2, 2.2% MgO, 2.8% K 2O, 0.4% P 2O 5, and over 1.2% SO 3. The pumices contain 58 wt. % crystals dominated by plagioclase (mode An 43) and hornblende, with lesser amounts of augite, titanomagnetite, anhydrite, apatite, sphene, pyrrhotite, and biotite enclosed in a vesiculated matrix glass with 68 wt. % SiO 2. Anhydrite forms subhedral to euhedral microphenocrysts without reaction coronas, as well as inclusions within the outer zones of major phenocrystic minerals. Inclusions of apatite and glass occur within anhydrite microphenocrysts. Anhydrite was crystallizing from the melt prior to eruption. Pumices resampled some ten months after the eruptions contain only 0.2 wt. % SO 3, and have only scattered remnants of anhydrite and traces of gypsum lining vesicles. A single rainy season in Chiapas (>4 m yr -1 rainfall) was sufficient to remove most primary anhydrite, which may be a relatively common igneous mineral, although rarely preserved in the geologic record. El Chichón trachyandesites are relatively enriched in K 2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and light rare elements compared to other andesites from Mexico and Central America. These enrichments may be related to the large distance from El Chichón to the Middle America Trench, or to subduction beneath Chiapas of the Tehuantepec Ridge, a major fracture zone of the Cocos Plate. Major- and trace-element analyses obtained by microprobe and instrumental neutron activation are given for all major minerals and glass, allowing trace-element partition coefficients to be calculated. Sphene and apatite contain high concentrations of rare earth elements, W, Th, and U. Sphene is also highly enriched in Hf and Ta. Prior to eruption, the El Chichón trachyandesite was at a relatively low temperature in the range 750° to 850°C, with fO 2

  1. Migration, development and remittances in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, H

    1992-06-01

    The argument is that remittances to Mexico from migrants in the US contribute to household prosperity and lessen the balance of payments problem. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the incentives and constraints to development and individual economic well-being in rural Mexico. Examination is made of the financial amount of remittances, the use of remittances, the impact on development of remittances, models of migration, and migration historically. The viewpoint is that migration satisfies labor needs in developed countries to the detriment of underdeveloped countries. $2 billion a year are sent by illegal migrants from the US to Mexico. This sum is 4 times the net earning of Mexico's tourist trade. 21.1% of the Mexican population depend in part on money sent from the US. 79% of illegal migrants remitted money to relatives in Jalisco state. 70% of migrant families receive $170/month. In Guadalupe, 73% of families depended on migrant income. In Villa Guerrero, 50% of households depended on migrant income. Migrant income supported 1 out of 5 households in Mexico. Money is usually spent of household subsistence items. Sometimes money is also spent on community religious festivals, marriage ceremonies, and education of children or improved living conditions. Examples are given of money being used for investment in land and livestock. Migration affects community solidarity, and comparative ethic, and the influence on others to migrate. Employment opportunities are not expanded and cottage and community industries are threatened. Land purchases did not result in land improvements. Migration models are deficient. There is a macro/micro dichotomy. The push-and-pull system is not controllable by individual migrants. The migration remittance model is a product of unequal development and a mechanism feeding migration. Mexican migration has occurred since the 1880's; seasonal migration was encouraged. There was coercion to return to Mexico after the

  2. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  3. Landscape surrounding human settlements and Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance in Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, A D; Rodriguez, M H; Hernandez, J E; Dister, S W; Beck, L R; Rejmankova, E; Roberts, D R

    1996-01-01

    Landscape characteristics that may influence important components of the Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann life cycle, including potential breeding sites, suitable diurnal resting sites, and possible sources of blood meals, were analyzed at 14 villages in a malarious area of southern Mexico. An. albimanus adults were collected weekly in each village using UV-light traps between July 1991 and August 1992. Based on rainfall, the study was divided into 6 seasonal periods. Villages were considered to have high mosquito abundance when >5 mosquitoes per trap per night were collected during any 1 of the 6 seasonal periods. The extension and frequency of 11 land cover types surrounding villages were determined using aerial photographs and subsequently verified through field surveys. Elevation was the main landscape feature that separated villages with low and high mosquito abundance. All villages with high mosquito abundance were below 25 m. Transitional and mangrove land cover types were found only in the high mosquito abundance group. Flooded areas as potential breeding sites and potential adult resting sites in unmanaged pastures were significantly more frequent in areas surrounding villages with high mosquito abundance. No significant differences in density of cattle and horses were found among village groups. Overall, surrounding breeding sites located at low elevations in flooded unmanaged pastures seemed to be the most important determinants of An. albimanus adult abundance in the villages. PMID:8906903

  4. Hydrogeochemical surveillance at El Chichón volcano crater lake, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienta, María Aurora; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ramos, Silvia; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor

    2014-09-01

    El Chichón volcano has an eruptive record of at least 12 major eruptions in the Holocene, the latest one in March-April 1982 causing the worst volcanic disaster in the history of Mexico. After about 6 centuries of quiescence, this eruption destroyed a large dome and opened a 1 km wide crater. A lake, formed within the crater shortly after the eruption, has been an important source of information about the evolution of the post-eruptive processes. The fluctuations of the crater lake water physicochemical parameters, observed since 1983, have allowed in identifying hydrothermal waters and H2S-rich gases, influenced by tectonic and meteorological effects, as the main contributors to its composition. Here we propose some methods to help in assessing the state of the volcano derived from the relative contribution of these factors as an easy to implement volcanic surveillance method in potentially active volcanoes with crater lakes, or other volcano-influenced water sources.

  5. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-01-01

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P < 0.0001). Sampled demes sites (1- 7) in the Soconusco region did not show any evidence of clustering by geographic location, and this was supported by the Mantel test (Rxy = 0.54, P = 0.120). Individuals with high Criollo lineage planted in Soconusco farms could be an important reservoir of genes for future breeding programs searching for fine, taste, flavor, and aroma cocoa. PMID:25511024

  6. Zircon xenocryst resorption and magmatic regrowth at El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Brenda; Schmitt, Axel K.; Roberge, Julie; Tenorio, Felipe Garcia; Damiata, Brian N.

    2016-02-01

    El Chichón volcano is the only active volcano located within the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc in southern Mexico, which lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central American Volcanic Arc. Previous studies have shown that ~ 12 eruptions have occurred at El Chichón within the last 8000 years, forming a complex of lava domes with a central crater and surrounding pyroclastic deposits. Here, we report the discovery of zircon in Holocene El Chichón rocks, which were analyzed by high spatial resolution imaging (color cathodoluminescence CCL) and isotopic (secondary ionization mass spectrometry SIMS) methods to resolve core and rim crystallization ages. Pumice samples from five proximal pyroclastic flow and fall-out deposits were collected based on published stratigraphy. Two of the samples were further (re-)classified by new 14C dates. In addition, we sampled two lavas from the 1982 eruption and from remnants of the older Somma lava complex. Zircon crystals were dated using 230Th/238U disequilibrium (U-Th) and U-Pb geochronology. U-Th zircon ages fall between near eruption ages and ca. 84 ka, with overlapping ages in all samples. By contrast, zircon core U-Pb ages range between ca. 290 Ma and 1.9 Ga. These ages are consistent with xenocrystic origins and their heterogeneity indicates derivation from clastic country rocks. Strong age contrasts between inherited xenocrystic and young magmatic domains in individual zircon crystals are evidence for arrested assimilation of crustal rocks where initially zircon-undersaturated magmas cooled rapidly to form a crystal mush or subsolidus amalgamate as a crustally contaminated boundary layer. This layer contributed zircon crystals to eruptible magma during episodic recharge events followed by partial melt extraction, mixing and homogenization. Zircon overgrowths are significantly older than major minerals whose U-series ages and sharp zonation boundaries suggest crystallization only within a few ka before eruption

  7. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (<5 mm) as discrete grains, whereas magnetite and srilankite only appear as small grains along ilmenite boundaries. Zircon is present as discontinuously aligned small grains (10-40 μm) forming rims around many rutile and ilmenite grains. Attempts to date zircon rims by U-Pb using LA

  8. Volcanic Risk Perception in Five Communities Located near the Chichón Volcano, Northern Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Chichón volcano (17° 19’ N and 93° 15’ W) is located in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. This volcano is classified by UNESCO as one of the ten most dangerous volcanos in the world. The eruptions of March and April in 1982 affected at least 51 communities located in the surroundings of the volcano and caused the death of about 2000 people. In this work we evaluate the risk perception in five communities highly populated: Juárez, Ostuacán, Pichucalco, Reforma and Sunuapa. We selected these communities because they have a high possibility to be affected by a volcanic eruption in the future. Our survey was carried out during February and March 2006. A total of 222 families were interviewed using a questionnaire to measure risk perception. These questionnaires retrieved general information as how long people had been living there and their reasons to do so; their experiences during the 1982 events, their opinion about the authorities participation and their perception of volcanic risk; the plans of the community for disaster prevention and mitigation. Some of the most important results are: (1). People perceive a very low volcanic risk and the 70% of interviewees believe that a new eruption in the future is almost improbable because it happened in 1982. This result is particularly interesting because, according to the state government, more than 100,000 inhabitants will be directly affected in case of a new similar eruption; (2). About 95% of the population do not know the current activity of the volcano and consider that the authorities do not inform properly to their communities; (3). The response of the authorities during the events of 1982 was ranked as deficient mainly because they were unable provide shelters, storage facilities, food as well as medicine and health care access; (4). Approximately 60% of the community will accept to be re-located again in case of a new eruption; (5). About 70% of the population will not accept to be re-located because

  9. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.

    2003-12-01

    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  10. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  11. Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most catastrophic events, with economical losses and deaths, in Mexico and Latin America, is the landslide event. The Juan de Grijalva landslide, which blocked one of the largest rivers in the Chiapas state of Mexico, on November 4, 2007, is considered one of the greatest that have occurred in the world in the last 100 years (Dominguez, 2008) and it could be the one with the largest economic impact in the history of Mexico. This landslide occurred four days after a period of very heavy rains that caused, in the peak of the emergency, flooding in almost 62% of the area of the state of Tabasco (CENAPRED, 2009) and is also one of the most serious disasters that were faced by the Mexican government in the past 10 years. The Juan de Grijalva landslide mobilized the entire government apparatus and required an investment of just over 0.1 billions of US Dollars (CENAPRED, 2009) for the rehabilitation of the river runway and additional works in order to prevent further damages if another landslide occurs in the vicinity. A similar case of interest for Mexican researchers and specialists in earth sciences is the big landslide occurred in the communities of Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipality of Magdalena Jaltepec, and Santiago Mitlatongo, municipality of Nochixtlan, both in the state of Oaxaca (Dominguez, 2011). This landslide has dimensions of just over 2,500 m long and 900 m wide, and it remains active from September 2011. Since then, the landslide has moved just over 230 m in length and has destroyed about 850 houses. Given the geological and geotechnical characteristics of these landslides and the economic and social impact caused, the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has initiated a research project in order to learn the main factors (constraints and triggers) that influenced both landslides. In relation with the National Hazard Landslide Map, developed by CENAPRED, these events are an important task of the National Inventory of Landslides

  12. The Yellow Pages for Rural Development in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Ricardo, Comp.

    Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…

  13. Rural People and Their Resources: North-Central New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marlowe M.

    The general objective of a study conducted in the 1950's was to describe the physical and human resources of the rural areas in north-central New Mexico. The specific objectives were (1) to inventory and classify the land, labor, and capital resources, (2) to determine levels and sources of incomes of these households, and (3) to appraise some of…

  14. Assessing morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of rivers flowing from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to the Pacific Coast (Southern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC) is a steep mountain range located in the south-western part of Mexico with elevations higher than 2000 m. The SMC is ~30 km off the Pacific Coast and it is oriented parallel to the coast. The annual rainfall exceeds 6 m and most of this takes place during summer season when low-pressure systems and cyclones are frequent. The rivers in SMC incise into the granite and transport large volumes of sediment. Even though rivers can be regarded as bedrock bedrock channels these suddenly change to alluvial-type rivers when these flow in the coastal plain which is ~10 km from the headwater of rivers. There are not data available of the sediment yield of rivers, however, the well-broad coastal plain and the wide continental shelf suggest that the sediment transport from the mountain area to the lowlands is significantly high. Here we assess the main morphological, climatic and structural factors controlling water discharge and sediment load of the rivers flowing from the SMC to the Pacific Coast by means of (1) topographical analysis on a high-resolution DEM, (2) grain-size and OSL analysis on sediment extracted from the riverbed of the main rivers and (3) time-series analysis from the available data of sediment discharge and sediment load. Our results indicate that the river incision and sediment transport is particularly high at the southern sector of the SMC where the topographic and climatic factors promote higher erosion rates.

  15. Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

    2014-09-01

    Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

  16. Inter-laboratory comparison of X-ray fluorescence analyses of eruptive products of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.; Bornhorst, Theodore J.; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.; Rose, William I., Jr.; McGee, James J.

    1987-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison has been made of X-ray fluorescence analyses of 10 samples of lava and pumices from El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Some determinations of major-element constituents agree within analytical uncertainty, whereas others exchibit significant bias. Analyses carried out at the Michigan Technological University (MTU) laboratory are systematically lower in MgO (26–48%), Fetotal(5–18%), CaO (4–15%) and higher in K2O (0–15%) than analyses made at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Denver laboratory. These differences are ascribed in part to a complex combination of calibration assumptionsand mineralogical and particle-size effects inherent in the use of pressed rock-powder pellets in the analytical procedure of the MTU laboratory. Other, but as yet unknown, differences in sample preparation and/or analytical technique may also be important; effects related to natural sample inhomogeneityare believed to be insignificant. The inter-laboratory differences in the analytical data complicated accurate assessment of whether El Chichón magmas have changed composition during the past 300 000 a. Knowledge of such change is needed for understanding petrogenetic history and for such related studies as evaluation of volcanic hazards.

  17. Numerical inversion and reconstruction of the medial and distal tephra deposit of the 1982 El Chichon eruption (Chiapas, Mexico). Implications for hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasia, R.; Costa, Dr; Folch, Dr; Macedonio, Dr; Capra, Dr

    2012-04-01

    In March 1982 the volcano El Chichon, Chiapas, southern Mexico, reawakened after a maximum dormant period of 500 to 600 years. Between March 29th and April 4th a series of ten explosive eruptions occurred, generating ash-fall, pyroclastic flows, surges and debris flows which destroyed, either totally or partially, nine villages within a devastated wide area surrounding the volcano. After the occurrence of the eruption, great deal of information has been gathered regarding the Holocene eruptive records of the El Chichon volcano, and the recent activity. Despite this, more quantitative ash fallout hazard assessments for potential Plinian activity at El Chichon volcano are still lacking. Here we use analytical (HAZMAP) and numerical (FALL3D) tephra transport models to reconstruct the deposits and the atmospheric plume dispersal associated with the three main ash fallout units of the 1982 eruption. On the basis of such a reconstruction, we produce hazard maps of tephra fallout associated to a Plinian eruption and discuss the implications of such a severe eruption scenario.

  18. A Social Anthropology of Education: The Case of Chiapas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, John C.

    1977-01-01

    Social anthropological theory is used to analyze the relationship of education to sociocultural change resulting from the interaction of the local ecological system and national influences in two rural regions of the Chiapas. (Author/AM)

  19. Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, imparting to…

  20. Rapid Rural Appraisal: A Case Study in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, David M.; Jarrett, Charles W.

    The North American Free Trade Agreement has generated serious debate regarding the stimulating effects of foreign investment on Mexico's economy. Saltillo, a metropolitan center in the mountains of Coahuila, has been positively affected by recent economic trends. But the village of General Cepeda, located just 50 miles from Saltillo, is relatively…

  1. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  2. Responses to prospective payment by rural New Mexico hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Piland, N F; Phillipp, A M

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study is used to determine how rural New Mexico hospitals altered service diversification, inpatient service emphasis, and service promotion during Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) transition and posttransition phases. Results suggest that the hospitals implemented distinct strategies in response to PPS. The posttransition strategies were examined for their association with improved revenue and utilization indicators. Few of the service diversification and promotional strategies were consistent predictors of performance. Emphasis on fine-tuning inpatient services was the most promising predictor of higher utilization and revenue measures. The implications for other rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:1743969

  3. Detection of Temporal Changes Using Remote Sensing Data in the Lacustrine Area of Montebello, Chiapas, Southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Santillan-Espinoza, L. E.; Lopez-Caloca, A.

    2013-05-01

    A satellite images study was carried out in the lagoon system of Montebello National Park in order to detect temporal changes in water bodies. The area located in the "rio Grande Comitan "basin, presents a geologically complex environment. The study area covers over 6,000 hectares in the extreme southeast region called of the Central Plateau in Chiapas. Its topography is mountainous where there are many karstic valleys. The main attractions of the park are the set of about 50 -60 lakes of different sizes and colors. Part of the lagoon system is fed directly by water from the "Grande de Comitan" river. The Tepancoapan and San Lorenzo lagoons are outstanding because of their size. The other set of lagoons receives only inputs from groundwater flows. Although precipitation is abundant, the surface runoff is not significant, given the high permeability characteristics of the subsoil. The area has been affected mainly by activities of the city of Comitan de Dominguez and surrounding villages, outside the Park. The discharge of wastewater from these towns to the river enters the lagoon system in the region known as "desfiladero" .In the lagoons area exists also settlements and other human activities. We used satellite images (SPOT-5) and algorithms to enhance the spatial resolution. In order to highlight the bodies of water and identify qualitative changes of the water we used Normalized Difference Water Indices (NDWIs) and then compared them. The application of these methodologies has allowed identification of patterns of temporal variation in water bodies in Montebello Park lagoons. The study will be implemented later using other change detection methods.

  4. Culture of a Contemporary Rural Community: El Cerrito, New Mexico. Rural Life Studies: 1, November 1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P.

    Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence…

  5. CO2 and He degassing at El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: gas flux, origin and relationship with local and regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazot, Agnes; Rouwet, Dmitri; Taran, Yuri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Varley, Nick

    2011-05-01

    During 2007-2008, three CO2 flux surveys were performed on El Chichón volcanic lake, Chiapas, Mexico, with an additional survey in April 2008 covering the entire crater floor (including the lake). The mean CO2 flux calculated by sequential Gaussian simulation from the lake was 1,190 (March 2007), 730 (December 2007) and 1,134 g m-2 day-1 (April 2008) with total emission rates of 164 ± 9.5 (March 2007), 59 ± 2.5 (December 2007) and 109 ± 6.6 t day-1 (April 2008). The mean CO2 flux estimated from the entire crater floor area was 1,102 g m-2 day-1 for April 2008 with a total emission rate of 144 ± 5.9 t day-1. Significant change in CO2 flux was not detected during the period of survey, and the mapping of the CO2 flux highlighted lineaments reflecting the main local and regional tectonic patterns. The 3He/4He ratio (as high as 8.1 R A) for gases in the El Chichón crater is generally higher than those observed at the neighbouring Transmexican Volcanic Belt and the Central American Volcanic Arc. The CO2/3He ratios for the high 3He/4He gases tend to have the MORB-like values (1.41 × 109), and the CO2/3He ratios for the lower 3He/4He gases fall within the range for the arc-type gases. The high 3He/4He ratios, the MORB-like CO2/3He ratios for the high 3He/4He gases and high proportion of MORB-CO2 ( M = 25 ±15%) at El Chichón indicate a greater depth for the generation of magma when compared to typical arc volcanoes.

  6. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Semiochemical Lures in Chiapas, Mexico: Possible Roles of Pheromones During Joint Host Attacks.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, a recently described sibling species. We hypothesized that cross-species pheromone responses by host-seeking beetles might mediate joint mass attack, bole partitioning, and reproductive isolation between the species. Previous studies had indicated that D. frontalis females produce frontalin and that female D. mesoamericanus produce frontalin, endo-brevicomin, and ipsdienol (males of both species produce endo-brevicomin and possibly ipsdienol). In field trapping trials in the Mexican state of Chiapas, D. frontalis was attracted to the lure combination of turpentine and racemic frontalin; racemic endo-brevicomin enhanced this response. In a single test, D. mesoamericanus was attracted in low numbers to the combination of turpentine, racemic frontalin, and racemic endo-brevicomin after the addition of racemic ipsdienol; in contrast, racemic ipsdienol reduced responses of D. frontalis. Inhibition of D. frontalis was generated in both sexes by (+)- and racemic ipsdienol, but by (−)-ipsdienol only in females. Logs infested with D. mesoamericanus females (the pioneer sex in Dendroctonus) attracted both species in greater numbers than either D. frontalis female-infested or uninfested logs. Our data imply that D. frontalis may be more attracted to pioneer attacks of D. mesoamericanus females, and that this could be owing to the presence of endo-brevicomin in the latter. Possible intra- and inter-specific functions of semiochemicals investigated in our experiments are discussed. PMID:26803816

  7. Hydrochemical dynamics of the “lake spring” system in the crater of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Taran, Y.; Inguaggiato, S.; Varley, N.; Santiago Santiago, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) erupted violently in March-April 1982, breaching through the former volcano-hydrothermal system. Since then, the 1982 crater has hosted a shallow (1-3.3 m, acidic (pH ˜ 2.2) and warm (˜ 30 °C) crater lake with a strongly varying chemistry (Cl/SO 4 = 0-79 molar ratio). The changes in crater lake chemistry and volume are not systematically related to the seasonal variation of rainfall, but rather to the activity of near-neutral geyser-like springs in the crater (Soap Pool). These Soap Pool springs are the only sources of Cl for the lake. Their geyser-like behaviour with a long-term (months to years) periodicity is due to a specific geometry of the shallow boiling aquifer beneath the lake, which is the remnant of the 1983 Cl-rich (24,000 mg/l) crater lake water. The Soap Pool springs decreased in Cl content over time. The zero-time extrapolation (1982, year of the eruption) approaches the Cl content in the initial crater lake, meanwhile the extrapolation towards the future indicates a zero-Cl content by 2009 ± 1. This particular situation offers the opportunity to calculate mass balance and Cl budget to quantify the lake-spring system in the El Chichón crater. These calculations show that the water balance without the input of SP springs is negative, implying that the lake should disappear during the dry season. The isotopic composition of lake waters (δD and δ 18O) coincide with this crater lake-SP dynamics, reflecting evaporation processes and mixing with SP geyser and meteoric water. Future dome growth, not observed yet in the post-1982 El Chichón crater, may be anticipated by changes in lake chemistry and dynamics.

  8. An integrated magnetic and geological study of cataclasite- dominated pseudotachylytes in the Chiapas Massif, Mexico: a snapshot of stress orientation following slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Roberto S. Molina; Geissman, John; Wawrzyniec, Tim; Weber, Bodo; Martínez, Margarita López; Aranda-Gómez, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    The Permian age Chiapas Massif in southeast Mexico is locally host to well-exposed pseudotachylyte vein networks. The veins are black to dark grey and aphanitic in appearance, and consist mostly of microbreccia of angular fragments of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite and quartz, in a cryptocrystalline (microscopically irresolvable) matrix. Evidence of melting is present in the form of glass seams, dikelets, glass clasts included in cataclasite and a distinct chemistry in the pseudotachylite veins; pristine glass represents a relatively small volume of the pseudotachylite veins. At an exposure along the Tablón River valley, where the host rock is a medium to coarse-grained equigranular quartz diorite, individual veins are consistently oriented about 280°, are up to 16 mm wide, tens of cm apart, display a consistent left-lateral offset and can be traced for several metres. Individual pseudotachylyte veins rarely cross each other, and they cannot be directly linked to a regional-scale fault. Pseudotachylytes are apparently formed by a combination of crushing, comminution and frictional melting, but they are cataclasite dominated. Textures indicate that cataclasis continued after frictional melting had ceased. A 40Ar/39Ar age determination from whole rock chips of one vein shows a climbing Ar release spectrum with a date of ~114 Ma as the most reliable age estimate for Ar retention. This result is interpreted in the context of pseudotachylyte formation, recrystallization and resetting of K-bearing minerals for the K-Ar system in the late Early Cretaceous. Ten veins were sampled for palaeomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies, with samples collected from both the veins and their host rock. Remanence data give moderate natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities for both the veins (e.g. NRM mean 6.6 × 10-3 A m-1 σ = 5.5) and host rock (mean 7.7 × 10-3 A m-1 σ = 10.8). Many samples of host rock yield an ill-defined east-west directed and shallow magnetization

  9. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  10. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, S; Stephenson, P A; Koepsell, T D; Gloyd, S S; Lopez, J L; Bain, C E

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the breastfeeding and weaning practices of rural women in two Mexican towns and the cultural beliefs upon which these practices are based. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect information. Women thought breastfeeding preferable to bottle-feeding. Eighty percent initiated breastfeeding and 69% gave colostrum. Breastfeeding was discontinued early (mean age 4 months). The mean age at which children were introduced to other liquids was 2 months (range 0-5 months) and to solids, 4 months (range 1-8 months). Women's decisions regarding infant feeding were influenced most by custom and advice from doctors and family members. In some instances medical advice conflicted with traditional practices. These findings suggest important avenues for intervention in hospital practices, education for health care workers, and in the development of health promotion services. PMID:8065664

  11. Insufficient Language Education Policy: Intercultural Bilingual Education in Chiapas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ofelia; Velasco, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork research of the authors in schools in Chiapas, Mexico, the article provides an overview of efforts being made to address the unique educational needs of Mexico's Indigenous populations through intercultural bilingual education programs. The article examines the Indigenous teachers' commitment to intercultural…

  12. Gender Issues in Workforce Participation and Self-Employment in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Jose A.; Sanchez, Susana M.

    The study presented in Chapter 6 of "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," examined male-female differences in employment and the incidence of self-employment in rural Mexico. Data were gathered from a survey of 5,189 working-age individuals in rural areas of Guanajuato, Puebla, and Veracruz. Findings indicate that education, age, and household…

  13. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in human adults. From three rural communities in Derango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is scarce information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people of rural Mexico. Anti-T. Gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 462 adult inhabitants from 3 rural communities of Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 110 (23.8% of ...

  14. Source Of Hydrogen Sulfide To Sulfidic Spring And Watershed Ecosystems In Northern Sierra De Chiapas, Mexico Based On Sulfur And Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Lagarde, L.; Boston, P. J.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    At least four watersheds in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico are fed by conspicuous karst sulfide-rich springs. The toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in these springs nurtures rich ecosystems including especially adapted microorganisms, invertebrates and fish. Sulfur and carbon isotopic analysis of various chemical species in the spring water are integrated within their hydrogeologic context to evaluate the hydrogen sulfide source. Constraining the H2S origin can also increase the understanding of this compound effect in the quality of the nearby hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the extent to which its oxidation to sulfuric acid increases carbonate dissolution and steel corrosion in surface structures. The SO42-/H2S ratio in the spring water varies from 70,000 to 2 meq/L thus sulfate is the dominant species in the groundwater system. This sulfate is mainly produced from anhydrite dissolution based on its isotopic signature. The Δ SO42--H2S range of 16 spring water samples (30-50 ‰) is similar to the values determined by Goldhaber & Kaplan (1975) and Canfield (2001) for low rates of bacterial sulfate reduction suggesting that this is the most important mechanism producing H2S. Although the carbon isotopes do not constrain the nature of the organic matter participating in this reaction, this material likely comes from depth, perhaps as hydrocarbons, due to the apparent stability of the system. The organic matter availability and reactivity probably control the progress of sulfate reduction. The subsurface environments identified in the area also have different sulfur isotopic values. The heavier residual sulfate isotopic value in the Northern brackish springs (δ34S SO42- ≥ 18 ‰) compared to the Southern springs (δ34S SO42- ~18 ‰) suggests sulfate reduction is particularly enhanced in the former, probably by contribution of organic matter associated with oil produced water. In comparison, the composition of the Southern aquifer is mainly influenced by halite

  15. Dynamics of population densities and vegetation associations of Anopheles albimanus larvae in a coastal area of southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Rodríguez, M H; Meza, R A; Hernández, J E; Rejmankova, E; Savage, H M; Roberts, D R; Pope, K O; Legters, L

    1993-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations on Anopheles albimanus larval densities and their plant associations were investigated in larval habitats in southern Mexico between April 1989 and May 1990. Thirty-four plant groups were dominant in larval habitats. Dense larval populations were associated with 3 genera of plants, Cynodon, Echinocloa and Fimbristylis and no larvae were found in habitats with Salvinia and Rhizophora. Low significant positive or negative associations were documented with the other 12 plant genera. Larval habitats were classified according to the morphology of their dominant plants. Higher larval densities were observed in the groups characterized by relatively short emergent vegetation. The distribution of habitat-types within 5 identified vegetation units showed a significantly dependent relationship. For the entire study period, highest larval densities were detected in flooded pasture/grassland vegetation units. For all vegetation units, higher larval densities were found when the dominant plant type covered between 25-50% of the breeding site. The integration of data from habitat-types into vegetation units did not result in loss of information. PMID:8468574

  16. Entrapment Bias of Arthropods in Miocene Amber Revealed by Trapping Experiments in a Tropical Forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J.; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measurements of the trapped arthropods, and guild distribution, that the amber trap is a complex entomological trap not comparable with a single artificial trap. At the order level, the most similar trap to amber is the sticky trap. However, in the case of Diptera, at the family level, the Malaise trap is also very similar to amber. Amber captured a higher diversity of arthropods than each of the artificial traps, based on our study of Mexican amber from the Middle Miocene, a time of climate optimum, where temperature and humidity were probably higher than in modern Central America. We conclude that the size bias is qualitatively independent of the kind of trap for non–extreme values. We suggest that frequent specimens in amber were not necessarily the most frequent arthropods in the former amber forest. Selected taxa with higher numbers of specimens appear in amber because of their ecology and behavior, usually closely related with a tree–inhabiting life. Finally, changes of diversity from the Middle Miocene to Recent time in Central and South America can be analyzed by comparing the rich amber faunas from Mexico and the Dominican Republic with the fauna trapped using sticky and Malaise traps in Central America. PMID:25785584

  17. Volcanic history of El Chichón Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Macías, J. L.; Tilling, R. I.; Sheridan, M. F.

    Before its devastating eruption in 1982, El Chichón Volcano was little known and did not appear on any listings of hazardous volcanoes. Subsequent geologic studies, based on stratigraphic and radiocarbon investigations, showed that at least three explosive eruptions had occurred previously at this volcano. In this paper, we present the result of recent studies on the stratigraphy of the volcano and new radiocarbon ages which show that at least 11 eruptions have taken place at El Chichón in the past 8000years. Explosive events, most of them producing block-and-ash flow and surge deposits, occurred around 550, 900, 1250, 1500, 1600, 1900, 2000, 2500, 3100, 3700 and 7700years BP. The juvenile products of these eruptions have a trachyandesitic composition with similar degree of evolution, as evidenced from their SiO2 abundance and depletion in MgO, CaO, TiO2, as well as trace and rare earth elements. This suggests segregation of olivine and orthopyroxene from the melt. Since human settlements in southeast Mexico and Central America can be traced as far back as approximately 2500years BP, most of these events probably affected human activity. In fact, there are reports of pottery shards and other artifacts in deposits from the eruption of 1250 BP. Pottery fragments in deposits of an eruption that took place 2500 BP are also reported in this paper. Thus, the impact of the volcano on human activities has been frequent, with most of the repose intervals lasting between 100 to 600years. The impact of the eruptions was probably of greater than local extent, because airfall tephra could reach distant sites and possibly even affect weather. The eruptive history of El Chichón also offers clues in the investigation of the Maya civilization. Several researchers have considered the volcano as an important factor in the answer to some intriguing questions such as the extensive use of volcanic ash in Late Classic Maya ceramics or, of greater importance, the causes of the collapse

  18. Volcanic history of El Chichon Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espindola, J.M.; Macias, J.L.; Tilling, R.I.; Sheridan, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Before its devastating eruption in 1982, El Chichon Volcano was little known and did not appear on any listings of hazardous volcanoes. Subsequent geologic studies, based on stratigraphic and radiocarbon investigations, showed that at least three explosive eruptions had occurred previously at this volcano. In this paper, we present the result of recent studies on the stratigraphy of the volcano and new radiocarbon ages which show that at least 11 eruptions have taken place at El Chichon in the past 8000 years. Explosive events, most of them producing block-and-ash flow and surge deposits, occurred around 550, 900, 1250, 1500, 1600, 1900, 2000, 2500, 3100, 3700 and 7700 years BP. The juvenile products of these eruptions have a trachyandesitic composition with similar degree of evolution, as evidenced from their SiO2 abundance and depletion in MgO, CaO, TiO2, as well as trace and rare earth elements. This suggests segregation of olivine and orthopyroxene from the melt. Since human settlements in southeast Mexico and Central America can be traced as far back as approximately 2500 years BP, most of these events probably affected human activity. In fact, there are reports of pottery shards and other artifacts in deposits from the eruption of 1250 BP. Pottery fragments in deposits of an eruption that took place 2500 BP are also reported in this paper. Thus, the impact of the volcano on human activities has been frequent, with most of the repose intervals lasting between 100 to 600 years. The impact of the eruptions was probably of greater than local extent, because airfall tephra could reach distant sites and possibly even affect weather. The eruptive history of El Chichon also offers clues in the investigation of the Maya civilization. Several researchers have considered the volcano as an important factor in the answer to some intriguing questions such as the extensive use of volcanic ash in Late Classic Maya ceramics or, of greater importance, the causes of the

  19. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. PMID:26767637

  20. The study of the chatchment area and hydrodinamics of Árbol de Navidad (Chiapas, Mexico) to solve the problem of its feeding during the dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matteo, Ada; Bernabei, Tullio; Davila Garcia, Luis I.; Del Vecchio, Umberto; Forti, Paolo; Zarate Galvez, Kaleb

    2016-04-01

    The Sumidero Canyon, and its surrounding National Park is one of the most remarkable natural sites in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Its principal attraction is the 200 m waterfall called "Árbol de Navidad" (Christmas tree), situated about 175 m above the river, close to the Chicoasén dam. The Árbol de Navidad is characterized by its own particular ecosystem and by the presence of a travertine formation flowing out from a little cave, with a characteristic form from which derives its name. The cave from which the Árbol de Navidad takes origin is a karst spring fed by water infiltration from somewhere in the highland behind. In the last years the flow rate decreased drastically and disappeared completely during few months every years. Since the importance of this natural marvel, with high naturalistic, cultural, and touristic interests, local authorities asked La Venta Exploring Team and its Mexican branch CEKLAV (Centro de Estudios Kársticos La Venta) to lead a research aimed to understand the causes of this decreasing and to formulate suggestions to rescue and maintain the waterfall. The project, called "Guardianes del Árbol" (Tree Guardian) consists of several steps: 1- inspection of the spring cave to verify the presence of possible obstructions; 2- search for the principal karst sinkholes located on highland behind; geological and hydrogeological study of the highland; 3- hydrological tracing, to understand the hydrogeological system which fed the waterfall; 4- potential solutions for rescue and maintenance. At the moment the first step has been concluded and the second and third steps are on the way. The first results were the complete cleaning of the underground river which was rather completely filled by sand, mud and roots thus avoiding the water circulation during the dry season. During the beginning of the second and third steps a detailed structural analysis has been carried out in order to detect the possible recharge areas for the Árbol. Then two

  1. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p < .05) for the urban (112.7 systolic: 73.6 diastolic mmHg) than for the rural group (108.4 systolic: 70.8 diastolic mmHg). They were also higher for men (111.8 systolic: 74.3 diastolic mmHg) than for women (109.6 systolic: 70.2 diastolic mmHg), the diastolic BP difference being significant (p < 0.05). The average daily Na excretion was also higher in the urban (122.2 mmol/day) than in the rural community (98.0 mmol/day) (p < 0.01). Potassium excretion rates showed similar differences. The differences in sodium excretion and blood pressure among communities were particularly marked in those over 30 years of age. The means for the four community-sex groups had the same rank order for both BP and Na. However, although some large surveys have suggested that half the observed differences in BP might be explained by different Na intakes, in this study the relationship between Na excretion and BP did not achieve statistical significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP. PMID:8987195

  2. The Rural-Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Mexico. Purpose: Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods: The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen's "model of health…

  3. Principals in Two High Achieving Elementary Schools in Rural New Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written regarding the dire educational state of most schools in rural America. This case study profiles two elementary school principals (preK-6) in rural New Mexico whose schools achieved adequate yearly progress (AYP) for the 2009-10 school year. The focus of this study centered on specific characteristics of the school cultures…

  4. Becoming a Migrant: Aspirations of Youths during Their Transition to Adulthood in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores young people's transitions to adulthood in a rural community in Mexico. The focus is on participants' migration experiences and the premise is that migration can be understood as an alternative way of inclusion found by the rural youth which is strongly determined by individuals' agency. The article explores the role played…

  5. A Case Study of Two Rural Secondary Schools in New Mexico: Perspectives on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iron Moccasin, Shawl D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine factors that led to the academic success of two rural secondary schools in New Mexico. The primary focus was on the characteristics and behaviors of leaders in two high-achieving rural schools and how these factors might have contributed to achievement of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in school year…

  6. Sustainable fuelwood use in rural Mexico. Volume 1: Current patterns of resource use

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.

    1993-04-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the first phase of a project of cooperation between the Mexican National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) on sustainable biofuel use in rural Mexico. This first phase has been devoted to (i) conducting an in-depth review of the status of fuelwood use in rural and peri-urban areas of Mexico, (ii) providing improved estimates of biomass energy use, (iii) assessing the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of fuelwood use, and (iv) identifying preliminary potential lines of action to improve the patterns of biomass energy use in Mexico; in particular, identifying those interventions that, by improving living conditions for rural inhabitants, can result in global benefits (such as the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions). A comprehensive review of the existing documentation of biofuel use in rural and peri-urban Mexico was conducted. Reports from official, academic, and non-governmental organizations were gathered and analyzed. A computerized rural energy database was created by re-processing a national rural energy survey. Because of the paucity of information about biofuel use in small rural industries, most of the analysis is devoted to the household sector.

  7. Meeting the Needs of Rural Minorities: The New Mexico State University and University of Arizona FIPSE Project 1982-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; Kelly, Sandra D.

    A three-year collaborative, inservice teacher-training program--being implemented by New Mexico State University, the University of Arizona, and rural school districts in New Mexico and Arizona--is designed to improve educational and occupational opportunities of rural girls and young women in the region. The program emphasizes new and less…

  8. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05-4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51-5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26240822

  9. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05–4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51–5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26240822

  10. Agricultural Policy and Child Health in Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Antoinette B.; Partridge, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the impact on malnutrition of Mexico's Sistema de Alementacion Mexicana (SAM) program, which tried to make the country self-sufficient in basic foods. Concludes that the food problem in Mexico is not so much one of production as it is a problem of distribution and consumption. (PS)

  11. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  12. Hitting the Wall: Youth Perspectives on Boredom, Trouble, and Drug Use Dynamics in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert A.; Lilliott, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe "what" they think about drug use and "how" they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within…

  13. Sociocultural Influences: Evaluations of Indigenous Children for Special Needs in Rural Central Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jacqueline Zaleski

    2010-01-01

    This study examined indigenous infants, children, and youth in rural central Mexico for developmental delays by using a mixed methods approach. A two-person team consisting of a researcher and a translator completed this study. They conducted observations of 665 minors and interviews with their caregivers. A self-designed rubric was the guide to…

  14. They Didn't Tell Me Anything": Women's Literacies and Resistance in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Susan V.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic case studies, this article considers issues of women's access to education by exploring the literacy experiences of four women in rural Mexico. Ironically, as physical access to education in this area has increased, women's literacy experiences have become more complex, rather than more libratory. Formal literacy, as it…

  15. Ritual Literacy: The Simulation of Reading in Rural Indian Mexico, 1870-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo-Rodrigo, Ariadna

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on reading methods and practices in rural Indian Mexico at the turn of the twentieth century, this article explains why schooling had little impact in terms of literacy in Spanish yet played a successful political and ceremonial role resulting in what I call a ritual literacy. At the time, the emerging educational system did not consider…

  16. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of Miocene plutons of the Tonalá shearz zone, Chiapas, Mexico: evidence of rotation of the remanence vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Geissman, John W.

    2016-04-01

    The Late Miocene plutons of coastal Chiapas are elongated parallel to the Tonalá mylonite belt, and some plutons show asymmetric outcrop patterns with sheared tails that trail behind the intrusions. Plutons were emplaced within a transpressional sinistral shear zone. Magnetic fabrics in the plutons are well-developed, and are subparallel to the structural trend of the Tonalá mylonitic belt, but locally magmatic fabrics are preserved. Magnetic fabrics in undeformed granites with igneous textures are also subparallel to the shear zone axis. Strongly deformed plutons have Ṕvalues as high as 1.7. Fabric ellipsoids are predominantly oblate, but they are triaxial in sites with igneous textures. Characteristic magnetizations reside in a cubic phase, such as low-Ti magnetite, but abundant particles in the MD range prevent isolating a stable magnetization in many of the sites. Site means are NW to NE directed, and of moderate positive inclination (or its antipodal), but locally they are very discordant in declination. The overall mean, discarding highly discordant sites is of D= 359.5 and I=41.9 (k=14.2, alpha95=8.1), which is nearly concordant with the NA reference direction indicating gentle northward tilt of less than about 10°. We explain the highly discordant directions as caused by continuing, progressive, deformation in the transpressive shear zone of a thermochemical remanence acquired during deformation. Deformation resulted in rotations, both in a clockwise and an anticlockwise sense. These results are interpreted as paleomagnetic vectors affected by distortional strain, which based on AMS exceed 40% shortening and accommodate shape and volume change in the rock.

  17. The Rural – Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization Among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Mexico Purpose Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen’s “model of health services” of predisposing (ie, age, sex, etc.), enabling (education, insurance coverage, etc.) and need factors (diabetes, hypertension, etc.) to predict ever being in the hospital and physician visits in the past year by place of residence (urban, rural, semi-rural). Findings Results showed that older Mexicans living in the most rural areas (populations of 2500 or fewer) were significantly less likely to have been hospitalized in the previous year and visited the physician less often (P < .0001) than their urban counterparts. The significant difference in hospitalization between rural and urban residing older Mexicans was largely accounted for by having health care coverage. Certain need factors such as diabetes, previous heart attack, hypertension, depression, and functional limitations predicted frequency of physician visits and hospitalization, but they did not explain variations between rural and urban older Mexicans. Conclusions Not having insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of spending an overnight visit in the hospital and visiting a physician for older Mexicans. This lower utilization may be due to barriers to access rather than better health. PMID:21029168

  18. Rainfall Patterns and U.S. Migration from Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Murray, Sheena; Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In many rural regions of developing countries, natural resource dependency means changes in climate patterns hold tremendous potential to impact livelihoods. When environmentally-based livelihood options are constrained, migration can become an important adaptive strategy. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we model U.S. emigration from rural communities as related to community, household and climate factors. The results suggest that households subjected to recent drought conditions are far more likely to send a U.S. migrant, but only in communities with strong migration histories. In regions lacking such social networks, rainfall deficits actually reduce migration propensities, perhaps reflecting constraints in the ability to engage in migration as a coping strategy. Policy implications emphasize diversification of rural Mexican livelihoods in the face of contemporary climate change. PMID:25473143

  19. Climate change as a migration driver from rural and urban Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on US-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986-1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture.

  20. Cultural Identity and Schooling in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Arlie

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing the findings of his study in southwestern Nova Scotia coastal fishing villages, Mike Corbett (2009), in his article "Rural Schooling in Mobile Modernity: Returning to the Places I've Been" lays out several arguments, including the following: First, that formal education "has been and continues to be...a key institution of…

  1. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  2. Tackling Poverty in Rural Mexico: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to teach secondary school social studies students about an integrated rural development project in Mexico, and how it is helping to raise the standard of living for six million Mexicans in 131 microregions throughout Mexico. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip,…

  3. Desire Across Borders: markets, migration, and marital HIV risk in rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents five concepts that articulate specific processes through which political and economic factors shape sexuality, drawing on ethnographic research on changing notions of marriage, love, and sexuality conducted in migrant-exporting rural Mexico and with Mexican migrants in Atlanta and New York. The first section describes how changing beliefs about love, marriage, sexual intimacy and fidelity constitute a cultural terrain which facilitates ‘vaginal marital bare backing’ in rural Mexico. The paper details sexual opportunity structures; sexual geographies; the multi-sectoral production of risk (including the ways in which housing, transportation, and other policy sectors together create the ‘recreation-deserts’ in which many migrants live); sexual projects, and externalities as conceptual tools that articulate how political and economic factors from the meso- to the macro-level shape sexuality. PMID:25343642

  4. Desire across borders: markets, migration, and marital HIV risk in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents five concepts that articulate specific processes through which political and economic factors shape sexuality, drawing on ethnographic research on changing notions of marriage, love, and sexuality conducted in migrant-exporting rural Mexico and with Mexican migrants in Atlanta and New York. The first section describes how changing beliefs about love, marriage, sexual intimacy and fidelity constitute a cultural terrain which facilitates 'vaginal marital barebacking' in rural Mexico. The paper details sexual opportunity structures; sexual geographies; the multi-sectoral production of risk (including the ways in which housing, transportation, and other policy sectors together create the 'recreation-deserts' in which many migrants live); sexual projects, and externalities as conceptual tools that articulate how political and economic factors from the meso- to the macro-level shape sexuality. PMID:25343642

  5. Reaching the Remote: Astronomy Outreach in Rural Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A.; Ortega-Minakata, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports on a visit to Victoria, a small village in central Mexico, and the star party conducted there. We wanted to share our experience of the outreach programme because this was one of the most remote places we have ever visited. We emphasise in particular the importance of respecting local culture and traditions, a respect highlighted by making a visit to a ritual centre in the region.

  6. Telesecundaria: Using TV To Bring Education to Rural Mexico. Education & Technology Technical Notes Series, Vol. 3, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderoni, Jose

    Mexico's television-based rural education program, Telesecundaria, has been in operation for over 30 years, and now serves almost 800,000 students in grades 7-9 in 12,700 rural communities. Communities can initiate a Telesecundaria program by providing at least 15 primary school completers with a place to study. The national and state education…

  7. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico has been scantily studied. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in adults in rural areas in Durango, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, E. histolytica IgG antibodies were determined in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics of the subjects studied was investigated. Results One hundred and eighteen (41.8%) of the 282 rural subjects had anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with source of drinking water (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.58; P = 0.005), and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.27; P = 0.03). In contrast, E. histolytica exposure was negatively associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 - 0.96; P = 0.03), and crowding at home (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.64; P = 0.0009). Conclusions The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection found in adults in rural Durango is high compared with those reported in other Mexican populations. The correlates of E. histolytica seropositivity found in the present study may be useful for the planning of optimal preventive measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:25883706

  8. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  9. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  10. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in apple in rural terrains from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; González, Gilberto Díaz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Vega Y León, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes PAH concentrations in apple crops that are growing in rural terrains in Mexico City. The concentrations of individual PAHs showed great variability, there being low and high molecular weight compounds in dry (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 7.06 microg/g and Milpa Alta 3.96 microg/g) and wet months (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 11.25 microg/g and Milpa Alta 12.05 microg/g). Some PAHs indicators and cross plot ratios Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) define fossil fuels and vegetation combustion as the source of contamination over the cuticle of the apples. It is likely that deposition (dry and wet) is the principal source o f contamination over the apple surface. This study reveals the presence of PAHs in apples due to the high air contamination of Mexico City. PMID:20602085

  11. Parental Empowerment in Mexico: Randomized Experiment of the "Apoyos a La Gestion Escolar (Age)" Program in Rural Primary Schools in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Previous evaluations from Mexico are limited. The urban school-based management program, Programa Escuelas de Calidad (PEC), was analyzed using panel data regression analysis and propensity score matching. Participation in PEC is found to lead to decreases in dropout, failure and repetition rates. An evaluation of the rural parental empowerment…

  12. Hitting the Wall: Youth Perspectives on Boredom, Trouble, and Drug Use Dynamics in Rural New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert A.; Lilliott, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the experience of boredom and its relationship to troublemaking and drug use among rural youth in southwestern New Mexico. We draw on qualitative research with area youth to describe what they think about drug use and how they situate it within their social circumstances. We then locate youth drug use within globalized processes affecting this setting, including a local economic environment with limited educational and employment opportunities for youth. Drug use emerges as a common social practice that enables youth to ameliorate boredom, yet only some youth become known as troublemakers. Study findings offer insight into how dominant social institutions—schools and juvenile justice authorities—shape the construction of trouble from the perspectives of youth. We contend that boredom and troublemaking among rural youth are not simply age-appropriate forms of self-expression but instead represent manifestations of social position, political economic realities, and assessments of possible futures. PMID:24532859

  13. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  14. Optical characterization of amber from Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Morales, Guadalupe; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An optical characterization of amber samples from México, the Baltic Sea and fake samples is presented, with the aim of discriminate between genuine and fake samples. We sought to identify the physical variables that could serve as the basis for the development of a device whose operation was able to discriminate between samples of genuine and fake amber. The optical refractive index was determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Abbe refractometry, and by the Brewster angle. The Raman spectra and the fluorescence optical responses were also determined. The results obtained indicate that the refractive index is not a robust variable that can differentiate between genuine amber and a fake sample. On the other hand, the Raman spectra and the fluorescence responses provide information that allows discriminating between both types of samples. For this reason, we used the results obtained by fluorescence as a basis for the design and construction of a prototype simple, reliable, portable, and affordable for authentication of the Mexican amber.

  15. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  16. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths. PMID:24000977

  17. MASE: a Great Opportunity for Outreach to the Rural Communities in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Campos, X.; Rodríguez, L. E.; Espejo, L.; Greene, F.; Reyes, T. A.; Solano, E. A.; Iglesias, A.; Clayton, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    The MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE) deployed 100 seismic stations across Mexico between Acapulco and Tampico, passing through Mexico City at the midpoint. Deploying the instruments at a secure site was an important issue, schools are nearly ideal in this respect. Consequently, 54 MASE stations are situated in schools that range from the K-12 through the University level. This presented a golden opportunity to outreach to rural communities, since the students come from small towns around the school and can spread the word to their home towns. Given the constant earthquake activity in Mexico and its history of destruction, the societal responsibility of UNAM, it is crucial to educate people in understanding a phenomenon that affects their daily lives and to prepare them to deal with it. One challenge in achieving this commitment is the diversity of level of knowledge of earthquakes. We address this by giving out different examples and utilizing didactic material adequate to the level, together with a series of talks, posters, handouts, etc., that cover topics from the Earth structure through the purpose of MASE. The program is being carried out by undergraduate students from the School of Engineering at UNAM, the program also provides an invaluable outreach experience to them. From this experience, we conclude that large-scale experiments like this should be accompanied by a committed outreach program given the large number of people that would be touched by it.

  18. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  19. The Impact of the Chile Intervention on the Food Served in Head Start Centers in Rural New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Keane, Patricia C.; Myers, Orrin B.; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise is a multicomponent obesity-prevention intervention, which was evaluated among Head Start (HS) centers in American Indian and predominantly Hispanic communities in rural New Mexico. This study examines the intervention's foodservice outcomes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains,…

  20. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  1. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors. PMID:25116348

  2. Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  3. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  4. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in a rural Tepehuanos population from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C

    2014-06-01

    The epidemiology of toxocariasis in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about toxocariasis in Tepehuanos, an indigenous ethnic group in Durango State in northern Mexico. Therefore, the presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies was determined in 126 rural Tepehuanos using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural data of the participants were also obtained. Of the 126 Tepehuanos assessed (mean age 32.46 ± 17.36 years), 33 (26.2%) had anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara seropositivity was associated with unemployment (students and housewives) (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.47). Other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, including age, educational level, contact with animals or soil, consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables or untreated water, were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Clinical data were similar in seropositive and seronegative Tepehuanos. These results indicate that Toxocara exposure is common among Tepehuanos but Toxocara does not appear to impact on the health of the population. This is the first report of toxocaral infection in Tepehuanos, and of an association of toxocariasis in adults with unemployment. Further research is needed to elucidate the routes of transmission of Toxocara in Tepehuanos, including the role of hygiene practices, canine and feline contacts, paratenic hosts and soil contamination with infective Toxocara eggs. PMID:23286217

  5. The Inevitability of Infidelity: Sexual Reputation, Social Geographies, and Marital HIV Risk in Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Meneses, Sergio; Thompson, Brenda; Negroni, Mirka; Pelcastre, Blanca; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Marriage presents the single greatest risk for HIV infection among women in rural Mexico. We drew on 6 months of participant observation, 20 marital case studies, 37 key informant interviews, and archival research to explore the factors that shape HIV risk among married women in one of the country’s rural communities. We found that culturally constructed notions of reputation in this community lead to sexual behavior designed to minimize men’s social risk (threats to one’s social status or relationships), rather than viral risk and that men’s desire for companionate intimacy may actually increase women’s risk for HIV infection. We also describe the intertwining of reputation-based sexual identities with structurally patterned sexual geographies (i.e. the social spaces that shape sexual behavior). We propose that, because of the structural nature of men’s extramarital sexual behavior, intervention development should concentrate on sexual geographies and risky spaces rather than risky behaviors or identities. PMID:17463368

  6. Understanding and Working with Parents and Children from Rural Mexico: What Professionals Need To Know about Child-Rearing Practices, the School Experience, and Health Care Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, B. Annye; And Others

    Mexicans are the largest group of immigrants to the United States, and approximately 60-70 percent of this group comes from rural areas. This book challenges Anglo professionals in health care, education, and child care to learn more about families from rural Mexico and to incorporate this knowledge into their work. The book's content is based…

  7. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. PMID:24582304

  8. Do Rainfall Deficits Predict U.S.-bound Migration from Rural Mexico? Evidence from the Mexican Census.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M

    2013-02-01

    Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico's dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well-established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory provides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops. PMID:23913999

  9. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F J; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures. PMID:26770216

  10. Pulque, an alcoholic drink from rural Mexico, contains phytase. Its in vitro effects on corn tortilla.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Luis Raul; Olivos, Manuel; Gutierrez, Ma Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    Pulque is made by fermenting the agave sap or aguamiel of Agave atrovirens with a whole array of microorganisms present in the environment including several lactic acid bacteria and yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ascorbic acid was determined in pulque and aguamiel, respectively. Phytase activity in lees, liquid and freeze-dried pulque was assayed by measuring the appearance of phosphate from phytate by a colorimetric method likewise phosphate from phytate present in fresh corn tortilla was measured after in vitro incubation with pulque. Iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and selenium contents were measured in pulque and corn tortilla as well as in nixtamalized corn flour (NCF), the latter is used to make instant tortilla, since corn provides most of the energy as well as most of the phytate in the Mexican rural diet. Pulque showed phytase activity but much less ascorbic acid and iron than previously reported; additionally, phytase in pulque hydrolyzed most of phytate's corn tortilla. Lees, which is mostly made of pulque's microbiota, significantly accumulated iron and zinc but no selenium. NCF was fortified with iron by the manufacturers but poorly blended. There were significant differences on selenium content between tortillas samples, apparently some soils in central Mexico are selenium deficient. Moderate pulque intake appears to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc bound by phytate in corn. PMID:18758961

  11. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F. J.; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E.; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures. PMID:26770216

  12. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods. PMID:22413172

  13. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  14. Modeling and estimating manganese concentrations in rural households in the mining district of Molango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Rosas-Pérez, Irma; Alamo-Hernández, Urinda; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Airborne manganese (Mn) is considered the most hazardous route of exposure since Mn particles can enter into the body through the lung and may access the brain directly through olfactory uptake, thereby bypassing homeostatic excretory mechanisms. Environmental indoor and outdoor manganese concentrations in PM2.5 were monitored in ten rural households from two communities of Hidalgo, Mexico, from 2006 to 2007. Indoor and outdoor air samples of PM2.5 were collected using MiniVol samplers, and Mn concentrations in the filters were measured using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). An adjusted generalized linear mixed model was applied and then used for estimating indoor concentrations in non-monitored households. Our monitoring results showed a higher daily average concentration of indoor PM2.5 vs. outdoor PM2.5 (46.4 vs. 36.2 μg/m(3), respectively); however, manganese concentration in PM2.5 indoor and outdoor was 0.09 μg/m(3) in both sceneries. Predictor variables of indoor Mn concentration were outdoor Mn concentration (64.5% increase per 0.1 μg/m(3) change in Mn) and keeping the windows open (4.2% increase). Using these predictors, the average estimated indoor Mn concentration in PM2.5 was 0.07 μg/m(3) (SD = 0.05). Our results confirm the direct effect of outdoor Mn levels, opening house windows, and the distance to the mining chimney in indoor Mn levels in houses. PMID:26573689

  15. The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

  16. Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV. Results The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA. Conclusions In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men. PMID:20667085

  17. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women. PMID:24216027

  18. Do Rainfall Deficits Predict U.S.-bound Migration from Rural Mexico? Evidence from the Mexican Census

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico’s dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well-established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory provides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops. PMID:23913999

  19. Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  20. Mexico: The Crisis of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Alexander

    1994-01-01

    Examines the place of Indian people in Mexican society and politics, from the conquest to the 1994 Zapatista uprising in Chiapas (fueled by the threat to rural indigenous communal lands posed by economic reforms). Although Indianness is celebrated as contributing to the idealized mestizo "race," self-identification as Indian threatens both this…

  1. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  2. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  3. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  4. Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Diaz Camacho, S P; Candil Ruiz, A; Suate Peraza, V; Zazueta Ramos, M L; Felix Medina, M; Lozano, R; Willms, K

    1991-10-01

    This study reports the results of an epidemiologic survey for the detection of Taenia solium in a rural village of 559 inhabitants in Sinaloa, Mexico, as well as a large scale treatment of the population with praziquantel. The study was carried out in two stages. In stage 1, serial stool analysis of 392 persons detected a cluster of three T. solium tapeworms. A fourth T. solium tapeworm was detected through a household census, giving a 1.32% prevalence rate for this helminth. Over 70% of the population over five years of age was treated with a 10 mg/kg dose of praziquantel, and no additional tapeworms were found. Environmental studies for the detection of Taenia sp. eggs in soil, water, and and objects from the houses of tapeworm-infected individuals showed only one soil sample containing eggs compatible with Taenia sp. A total of 72 domestic pigs were examined for the presence of cysticerci under the tongue. One animal had cysts, and belonged to a household that had two T. solium tapeworm infections. Stage 2 of the study was carried out one year after large scale antihelminthic treatment (LSAT), and no infections with Taenia sp. eggs were found. No cysticercus-infected pigs were detected. Intestinal parasitosis decreased from 69.2% to 37.5%. It is concluded that LSAT with praziquantel is efficient in decreasing endemic foci of T. solium. Seropositivity to T. solium bladder fluid antigens was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found to be 11% before LSAT and 7% one year later. In family members living with T. solium tapeworm carriers, the number of seropositive individuals was 28%. The relative risk ratio of seropositivity for persons living in the same household with a T. solium tapeworm carrier was 2.95. Positive response was significantly higher in the 30-39-year-old age group, in which 30% were seropositive in stage 1, compared with 7% one year after LSAT. High seropositivity rates were significantly associated with tapeworm clusters as well as

  5. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RURAL SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    THIS SPEECH WAS DELIVERED TO THE NEW MEXICO CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WAS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS FACING SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. IT WAS STATED THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN FARM VILLAGE INVOLVE THE PROCESS OF ACCULTURATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT IN A…

  6. Land-Use Symposium Proceedings: Privately Owned Rural Lands and Land-Use Planning (7th, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 15-16, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Keith, Comp.; And Others

    This report includes 14 speeches by State and Local representatives relative to the control of land use and land use planning. The speeches are: (1) "The Status of Privately Owned Rural Land in New Mexico" (a statement regarding the confusing status of current statistics); (2) "Keynote Address" (emphasis on local control); (3) "What Are the Pros…

  7. National Rural Studies Committee: A Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (5th, Las Vegas, New Mexico, May 14-16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Emery, Ed.; Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 11 papers that focus on issues and problems of rural communities in the Southwest. Papers include: (1) "Dilemmas of a New Age: A Half-Millennium of Landscape Change in New Mexico and the Southwest," by Paul F. Starrs; (2) "American Indians Today," by C. Matthew Snipp; (3) "The Southwest: Global Issues in a Regional…

  8. Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico. Impact Evaluation Series Number 4. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as Apoyo a la Gestion Escolar, (AGEs). The impact of the AGEs is assessed on…

  9. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  10. Influence of Ethnicity on English Vocabulary Measurement: Using the Montgomery Assessment of Vocabulary Acquisition in One Rural Southeastern New Mexico School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatliffe, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary acquisition of elementary students in grades kindergarten through fifth in one rural New Mexico school. The school had 277 students. Hispanic students comprised nearly 80% of the student body. All students received free lunch and breakfast. The 65 students who participated in the study were assessed using the…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Life Situations of Rural Youth from Two Different Cultural Settings: Northern Taos County, New Mexico, and Eastern Holmes County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A comparative, interpretive analysis of the social organization of contrasting groups of rural youth from New Mexico ad Ohio was approached from an ethnomethodological perspective, relying on direct observation, intensive personal interviews, and key informants to produce a broader understanding of particular youth coping with their social…

  12. Teaching and Learning in Rural Mexico: A Portrait of Student Responsibility in Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, L.A.; McLaughlin, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined on the sociocultural environment and personal experiences of children from a rural Mexican escuela unitaria (one-room, one-teacher school), because many of our immigrant children come to the US from rural Mexican communities. We present a portrait of everyday school life in which students assume responsibility: (a) for…

  13. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  14. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  15. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  16. Managing the double burden: Effects of pregnancy on labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women in rural areas of developing countries. However, physical exertion may result in poor health outcomes for mother and infant if continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the last week on: 1) housework, 2) care giving, 3) agricultural work, and 4) self-employed or non-agricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed effects approach is adopted to overcome potential time invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With a few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time use patterns between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting, and may have implications for both women’s livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. PMID:24323660

  17. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p < 0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p = 0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p < 0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation. PMID:26253842

  18. Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Hanna, Zachary R; Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Cayetano-Rosas, Héctor; Bowie, Rauri C K; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii) to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities. PMID:26855860

  19. Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Marco F.; Ríos-Muñoz, César A.; Cayetano-Rosas, Héctor; Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii) to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities. PMID:26855860

  20. Decreased Anemia Prevalence Among Women and Children in Rural Baja California, Mexico: A 6-Year Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Moor, Molly A; Fraga, Miguel A; Garfein, Richard S; Harbertson, Judith; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Rashidi, Hooman H; Elder, John P; Brodine, Stephanie K

    2016-08-01

    Anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia among women and children residing in a rural farming region of Baja California, Mexico. An existing partnership between universities, non-governmental organizations, and an underserved Mexican community was utilized to perform cross-sectional data collection in 2004-2005 (Wave 1) and in 2011-2012 (Wave 2) among women (15-49 years) and their children (6-59 months). All participants completed a survey and underwent anemia testing. Blood smears were obtained to identify etiology. Nutrition education interventions and clinical health evaluations were offered between waves. Participants included 201 women and 99 children in Wave 1, and 146 women and 77 children in Wave 2. Prevalence of anemia significantly decreased from 42.3 to 23.3 % between Waves 1 and 2 in women (p < 0.001), from 46.5 to 30.2 % in children 24-59 months (p = 0.066), and from 71.4 to 45.8 % in children 6-23 months (p = 0.061). Among women in Wave 1, consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods (green vegetables and fruits high in vitamin C) was protective against anemia (p = 0.043). Women in Wave 2 who ate ≥4 servings of green, leafy vegetables per week were less likely to be anemic (p = 0.034). Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells in 90 % of anemic children and 68.8 % of anemic women, consistent with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:26856732

  1. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F.; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as ‘Tityus clathratus’ and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber. PMID:26244974

  2. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-05-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  3. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  4. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maupome, Gerardo; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Holt, Alanna; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Mantilla-Rodríguez, Andrés; Carlton, Brittany

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score) among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years) was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76). The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting. PMID:23843007

  5. Brucellosis outbreak in a rural endemic region of Mexico - a comprehensive investigation.

    PubMed

    Morales-Garcia, Maria Rosario Morales-Garcia; Lopez-Mendez, Jaime; Pless, Reynaldo; Garcia-Morales, Emilio; Kosanke, Hannah; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Bedi, Jasbir; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Velazquez-Guadarram, Norma; Jimenez-Rojas, Leticia; Rontreras-Rodriguez, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Generally, humans can be infected by either the consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from unpasteurised milk or by contact with infected animals, mainly in endemic regions. In this study, we investigated a brucellosis outbreak in State of Guanajuato, an endemic region of Mexico. Microbiological culture of human blood, raw milk from cows and goats, and fresh cheeses was performed to isolate Brucella. Identification of the bacteria was done by bacteriological procedures and by multiplex Bruce-ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella melitensis was isolated from patients, infected goats, and fresh goat cheeses; while Brucella abortus was isolated from cows. All patients had eaten fresh cheese, but no occupational exposure to animals was reported. The results of molecular typing did not show any Brucella vaccine strains. The isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Brucella spp. in both human brucellosis cases and infected animals are very important to identify the source of infection and to take control measures in endemic regions. PMID:26455370

  6. Rural Youth: The Neglected Minority. A Presentation in the College of Education Dialogue Series, New Mexico State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    Rural youth are a diverse group not only geographically, but socioeconomically, ethnically, and culturally as well. Historically, the rural student has not achieved as well as his urban counterpart in high school or in post secondary education. There is evidence that this is beginning to change and that rural students are doing as well or better…

  7. Indigenous Rights and Schooling in Highland Chiapas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Margaret Freedson; Perez, Elias Perez

    1998-01-01

    Educational reforms in Mexico to preserve indigenous linguistic and cultural rights often originate in Mexico City and lack grassroots support. Although native language instruction improves literacy development and preserves culture, Native parents may reject it because Spanish is the language of status. However, some indigenous communities in…

  8. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P < 0.01) in the consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P < 0.05). The consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P < 0.05). Cash and in-kind transfers in populations that are not energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption. PMID:20089777

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Norms for Rural and Urban Adolescent Males and Females in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Methods A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males) aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054); measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80) and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56), and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. Conclusions This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico. PMID:24367587

  10. Flood Risk in Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas: An Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The town of Motozintla de Mendoza (15o 22' N and 92o 15' W) is located southern Chiapas, Mexico, and it is highly exposed to flood hazards. This community has suffered the impact of two disaster events due to this natural hazard in less than ten years, the first one in 1998 and the second one in 2005. The objective of this research is to assess the level of flood risk in the community of Motozintla. The methodology consisted of four steps: (1) Identification of the level of flood hazard; (2) Vulnerability assessment considering weighted variables according to their level of incidence on the local risk conditions; (3) Preparation of risk matrices for each area exposed to floods; and 4) Cartographic representation and spatial analysis of the results. We obtained a Geographical Information System (GIS) map for each group of analyzed vulnerabilities (structural, public services, socio-economic, existing plans in case of contingencies, and risk perception) and one map associated to global vulnerability (overposing of all estimated vulnerabilities). These maps demonstrates that the local conditions of structural vulnerability have a high incidence in the generation of risk, differing from the lack of public basic services, which although unfavorable for the population, it is not a deciding factor for preserving life or housing. Another interesting result is that the lack of preparation of the community to face a disaster generates a higher risk level than the other analyzed socioeconomic conditions. The global vulnerability allowed us to determine with greater detail the flood risk levels in the community. Our results indicate that the area in Motozintla with the highest level of flood risk is located in the margins of the Xelajú river, particularly the region that was flooded in 2005, which is precisely the area where the rivers Xelajú, Allende and La Mina meet and the river flow increases. Unfortunately, the northeasters part of this zone had been populated by people

  11. Impact of Mining Development on an Isolated Rural Community: The Case of Cuba, New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Berry; Eastman, Clyde

    When it commenced operation in 1971, the Nacimiento Copper Mine provided 135 new jobs. This was about half of the 278 new permanent jobs created in Cuba, New Mexico, from 1970 to 1974. Concurrent and independent development of the Checkerboard Health Clinic and expansion of the school system accounted for most of the remaining new employment.…

  12. How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled. PMID:25807118

  13. How Effective Are Biodiversity Conservation Payments in Mexico?

    PubMed Central

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled. PMID:25807118

  14. Cash and in-kind transfers lead to excess weight gain in a population of women with a high prevalence of overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; González de Cossío, Teresa; Gertler, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing concern that food or cash transfer programs may contribute to overweight and obesity in adults. We studied the impact of Mexico's Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which provided very poor rural households with cash or in-kind transfers, on women's body weight. A random sample of 208 rural communities in southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: food basket with or without health and nutrition education, cash with education, or control. The impact on women's weight was estimated in a cohort of 3010 women using a difference-in-difference model. We compared the impact between the food basket and cash groups and evaluated whether the impact was modified by women's BMI status at baseline. With respect to the control group, the program increased women's weight in the food basket (550 ± 210 g; P = 0.004) and the cash group (420 ± 230 g; P = 0.032); this was equivalent to 70 and 53% increases in weight gain, respectively, over that observed in the control group in a 23-mo time period. The greatest impact was found in already obese women: 980 ± 290 g in the food basket group (P = 0.001) and 670 ± 320 g in the cash group (P = 0.019). Impact was marginally significant in women with a preprogram BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2: 490 ± 310 g (P = 0.055) and 540 ± 360 g (P = 0.067), respectively. No program impact was found in women with a BMI <25 kg/m2. Providing households with a considerable amount of unrestricted resources led to excess weight gain in an already overweight population. Research is needed to develop cost-effective behavior change communication strategies to complement cash and in-kind transfer programs such as PAL and to help beneficiaries choose healthy diets that improve the nutritional status of all family members. PMID:23343672

  15. "Landslide at sunuapa 401 (hydrocarbon exploration well). Risk reduction by mitigation measures: drainage, piles barrier and anchorages system, shotcrete and reforestation, Chiapas, México".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuanalo, Oscar; Polanco, Gabriel; Rivera, Julio

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a landslide of hydrocarbon exploration well "Sunuapa 401" located in Chiapas, Mexico. First were identified the determinants and triggers factors (morphology, geology, rain, seismic and volcanic activity, human activity, etc); second we assessed the threat, vulnerability and risk from geotechnical stability analysis (safety factor and critical failure surface); third, by using the methodology of valuation factors, stabilization processes were selected and designed, and finally they were built by Petróleos Mexicanos, in order to avoid a disaster (environmental, ecological and social). These construction processes included drainage elements, flattening and benching of slopes, piles barrier and anchors, shotcrete and reforestation.

  16. [Social conditions in which medical students from the faculty of medicine of the National University of Mexico (UNAM) perform their Social Service in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the conditions in which medical students perform their Social Service, highlighting their experiences in areas such as: information before they move and the motivation to leave home; the perception of personal and environmental lack of safety; the institutional support that they receive during their work in the community and the financial support provided. The methodological design of the study included an exploratory phase, in which collective interviews were performed, using the focal group technique, with students who had been in rural areas. Three hundred sixty cases were considered, 72.8% corresponded to rural areas, and 27.7% to Mexico City. According to the findings, the following actions are proposed: give better information and improve the process of vacancy selection; increase the scholarship received by students in Social Service; establish legal, police, and community support mechanisms to guarantee the student's personal safety; pay attention to aspects such as the student's emotional and social situation, and design programs with gender perspective to enhance certainty and safety. PMID:22820362

  17. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  18. Cultural Capital and Innovative Pedagogy: A Case Study among Indigenous Communities in Mexico and Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorcic, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas (Mexico) and Lencan communities in Intibuca (Honduras). Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential…

  19. Implementing a Statewide Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Service in Rural Health Settings: New Mexico SBIRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Arturo; Westerberg, Verner S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Moseley, Ana; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Buff, Gary; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on the New Mexico Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) project conducted over 5 years as part of a national initiative launched by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration with the aim of increasing integration of substance use services and medical care. Throughout the state, 53,238…

  20. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P < 0.01). In mothers who had completed primary school, the reverse was found: a doubling in wealth score was associated with improved child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P < 0.01) but not with mother's weight. As a result, a 100% increase in wealth among households with less schooled mothers was associated with a 4.5 percentage point increase (P < 0.05) in double-burden pairs; in households with mothers with primary schooling or more, it was not associated with the occurrence of double-burden pairs. Maternal schooling effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low

  1. Healthy Vinton: A Health Impact Assessment Focused on Water and Sanitation in a Small Rural Town on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, William L.; Juárez-Carillo, Patricia M.; Korc, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) focused on water and sanitation in Vinton, TX, a small rural town on the U.S./Mexico Border. We present the Vinton HIA as a case study to inform the practice of HIA in rural limited resource communities with higher than average levels of unemployment and poverty, and limited infrastructure. Household surveys, focus groups, and interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data on water sources and quality, sanitation practices, and community health. We found that some of the current water sources in Vinton did not meet drinking water standards for total dissolved solids and arsenic; the majority of septic tanks were not managed properly; and there was a short-term risk of water scarcity due to prolonged drought in the region. Prevalent ailments reported by participants included stomach problems, diarrhea, and skin problems. These ailments can be related to arsenic and/or biological organisms in water. The positive direct and indirect health impacts of improved water and sanitation in Vinton included: reduced gastrointestinal illnesses and skin disorders; improved water quality, quantity, and pressure; reduced risks from failing septic systems; increased property value; potential economic growth; and enhanced quality of life. The negative direct and indirect impacts included: residents’ initial and monthly costs; increased property taxes; increased debt by local government; and the need for ongoing support from changing elected decision makers. The unique challenges in completing this HIA included: (a) limited available data; (b) a culture of fear and distrust among residents; (c) residents’ lack of education, awareness, and civic discourse regarding water and sanitation issues and their impact on public health; and (d) lack of civic discourse and participation in the democratic process. An important outcome of the HIA was the characterization of local water supplies, which motivated and empowered the community

  2. Healthy vinton: a health impact assessment focused on water and sanitation in a small rural town on the US-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, William L; Juárez-Carillo, Patricia M; Korc, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) focused on water and sanitation in Vinton, TX, a small rural town on the U.S./Mexico Border. We present the Vinton HIA as a case study to inform the practice of HIA in rural limited resource communities with higher than average levels of unemployment and poverty, and limited infrastructure. Household surveys, focus groups, and interviews provided quantitative and qualitative data on water sources and quality, sanitation practices, and community health. We found that some of the current water sources in Vinton did not meet drinking water standards for total dissolved solids and arsenic; the majority of septic tanks were not managed properly; and there was a short-term risk of water scarcity due to prolonged drought in the region. Prevalent ailments reported by participants included stomach problems, diarrhea, and skin problems. These ailments can be related to arsenic and/or biological organisms in water. The positive direct and indirect health impacts of improved water and sanitation in Vinton included: reduced gastrointestinal illnesses and skin disorders; improved water quality, quantity, and pressure; reduced risks from failing septic systems; increased property value; potential economic growth; and enhanced quality of life. The negative direct and indirect impacts included: residents' initial and monthly costs; increased property taxes; increased debt by local government; and the need for ongoing support from changing elected decision makers. The unique challenges in completing this HIA included: (a) limited available data; (b) a culture of fear and distrust among residents; (c) residents' lack of education, awareness, and civic discourse regarding water and sanitation issues and their impact on public health; and (d) lack of civic discourse and participation in the democratic process. An important outcome of the HIA was the characterization of local water supplies, which motivated and empowered the community

  3. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and “indeterminate” stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests. PMID:25411004

  4. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem. PMID:27006867

  5. Determination of inorganic ions and trace elements in total suspended particles at three urban zones in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and one rural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R.; Belmont, R.; Padilla, H.; Torres, Ma. del C.; Baez, A. P.

    2009-10-01

    Inorganic ions and trace metals in total suspended particles were measured during the period 2006-2007 at four sites; three urban sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and one nearby rural site in the state of Morelos. SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and NH 4+ ions were analyzed by ion chromatography; Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and V by an atomic absorption spectrometer with a graphite furnace attachment. The results indicated that SO 42- was the most abundant ion. All trace elements except Mn and V showed statistically significant differences between sampling sites. Pearson's correlation applied to all data showed a high correlation among SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+, indicating a common anthropogenic origin. In addition, the correlation observed between Ca 2+ and Al indicated a crustal origin, as supported by the enrichment factors. Over the total sampling period, significant differences in particles and trace metals were found between sites and meteorological seasons. To gain a better insight into the origin of trace metals and major inorganic ions, a Principal Component Analysis was applied to the results for six trace metal and eight inorganic ions.

  6. A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): −19% [95% CI: −27%, −14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: −0.1% [95% CI: −1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

  7. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight. PMID:26987151

  8. CHICKEN COOPS, Triatoma dimidiata INFESTATION AND ITS INFECTION WITH Trypanosoma cruzi IN A RURAL VILLAGE OF YUCATAN, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    KOYOC-CARDEÑA, Edgar; MEDINA-BARREIRO, Anuar; ESCOBEDO-ORTEGÓN, Francisco Javier; RODRÍGUEZ-BUENFIL, Jorge Carlos; BARRERA-PÉREZ, Mario; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; CHABLÉ-SANTOS, Juan; SELEM-SALAS, Celia; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, Gonzalo; MANRIQUE-SAIDE, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study longitudinally investigated the association between Triatoma dimidiata infestation, triatomine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and household/backyard environmental characteristics in 101 homesteads in Molas and Yucatan, Mexico, between November 2009 (rainy season) and May 2010 (dry season). Logistic regression models tested the associations between insect infestation/infection and potential household-level risk factors. A total of 200 T. dimidiata were collected from 35.6% of the homesteads, mostly (73%) from the peridomicile. Of all the insects collected, 48% were infected with T. cruzi. Infected insects were collected in 31.6% of the homesteads (54.1% and 45.9% intra- and peridomiciliary, respectively). Approximately 30% of all triatomines collected were found in chicken coops. The presence of a chicken coop in the backyard of a homestead was significantly associated with both the odds of finding T. dimidiata (OR = 4.10, CI 95% = 1.61-10.43, p = 0.003) and the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi (OR = 3.37, CI 95% = 1.36-8.33, p = 0.006). The results of this study emphasize the relevance of chicken coops as a putative source of T. dimidiata populations and a potential risk for T. cruzi transmission. PMID:26200970

  9. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  10. Genotypic analyses of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 recovered from feces of domestic animals on rural farms in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Cooley, Michael B; León-Félix, Josefina; Castro-del Campo, Nohelia; Mandrell, Robert E; Jiménez, Maribel; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic enteric pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. Cattle and small ruminants are important animal reservoirs of STEC. The present study investigated animal reservoirs for STEC in small rural farms in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region located in Northwest Mexico. A total of 240 fecal samples from domestic animals were collected from five sampling sites in the Culiacan Valley and were subjected to an enrichment protocol followed by either direct plating or immunomagnetic separation before plating on selective media. Serotype O157:H7 isolates with the virulence genes stx2, eae, and ehxA were identified in 40% (26/65) of the recovered isolates from cattle, sheep and chicken feces. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped most O157:H7 isolates into two clusters with 98.6% homology. The use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) differentiated isolates that were indistinguishable by PFGE. Analysis of the allelic diversity of MLVA loci suggested that the O157:H7 isolates from this region were highly related. In contrast to O157:H7 isolates, a greater genotypic diversity was observed in the non-O157 isolates, resulting in 23 PFGE types and 14 MLVA types. The relevant non-O157 serotypes O8:H19, O75:H8, O111:H8 and O146:H21 represented 35.4% (23/65) of the recovered isolates. In particular, 18.5% (12/65) of all the isolates were serotype O75:H8, which was the most variable serotype by both PFGE and MLVA. The non-O157 isolates were predominantly recovered from sheep and were identified to harbor either one or two stx genes. Most non-O157 isolates were ehxA-positive (86.5%, 32/37) but only 10.8% (4/37) harbored eae. These findings indicate that zoonotic STEC with genotypes associated with human illness are present in animals on small farms within rural communities in the Culiacan Valley and emphasize the need for the development of control

  11. Fluoride, nitrate and water hardness in groundwater supplied to the rural communities of Ensenada County, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daesslé, L. W.; Ruiz-Montoya, L.; Tobschall, H. J.; Chandrajith, R.; Camacho-Ibar, V. F.; Mendoza-Espinosa, L. G.; Quintanilla-Montoya, A. L.; Lugo-Ibarra, K. C.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrogeochemistry of 26 wells belonging to ten different aquifers in the county of Ensenada, Baja California, is studied. These wells are all used to supply the rural communities in the region, which comprise ~37,000 inhabitants, excluding the city of Ensenada. High total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (maximum 7.35 g l-1) indicate that salt is a ubiquitous contaminant in the aquifers due to seawater intrusion. The aquifers that support extensive agriculture activities (Maneadero, San Quintín, San Simón and El Rosario) are characterized by higher N-NO3 concentrations (maximum 20 mg l-1) derived from fertilizers. Fluoride concentrations exceed the 1.5 mg l-1 Mexican official limit in only four wells. The enrichments of F- in the southern aquifers are thought to be associated to water-rock interactions controlled mainly by Na-Ca equilibrium reactions with fluorite, as suggested from high dissolved Na concentrations in these waters. In the northern aquifer of Maneadero, no enrichment of Na is found and a geothermal source for F- is likely. Water is hard to moderately hard, with Ca/Mg ratios >1. Although drinking water directly from the tap is not a common practice in these localities, most sources have concentrations of major ions and TDS that exceed the Mexican official limits.

  12. Bilingual Education: Research in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    This report concerns public bilingual elementary schools for rural Indian (non-Spanish-speaking) children in Mexico. Materials production efforts as well as completed and projected research projects are described. (SJL)

  13. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  14. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  15. The first troglomorphic species of the genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Ali Abadallan; Joya, Daniel Chirivi; Francke, Oscar F

    2015-01-01

    A new troglomorphic species, Phrynus perrii sp. nov., is described from two adult females from Cueva del Naranjo, Municipio Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. This is the first continental record of a troglomorphic Phrynus species, and the second troglomorphic species of the genus. With the description of this species, in Mexico there are ten extant species, plus one fossil of the genus Phrynus, and it is the seventh species of troglobitic whip spiders from Mexico, making it the country with the highest richness of amblypygids species worldwide. PMID:25781262

  16. Levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and deltamethrin in humans and environmental samples in malarious areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Leticia; Ortiz-Pérez, Deogracias; Batres, Lilia E; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2002-03-01

    Mexico used dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control malaria until 1999, when it was replaced with deltamethrin for mosquito control. Thus, we performed environmental and exposure assessments to DDT and deltamethrin in the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. In Chiapas, samples were obtained at the time when DDT was being used in the malaria control program, while in Oaxaca, samples were collected 2 years after the final spraying of DDT and 2 days after deltamethrin application. Mean concentrations of DDT and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), as measured in whole blood, were 67.8 and 86.7 microg/L for children living in Chiapas and 27.1 and 60.8 microg/L for adults, respectively. As expected, DDT levels were lower 2 years after the final application in Oaxaca (20.4 and 13.2 microg/L for children and adults, respectively). Sprayers in Chiapas had the highest levels of exposure, with 165.5 and 188.4 microg/L of DDT and DDE, respectively. Women living in Chiapas and Oaxaca also had significantly higher blood levels of DDT and DDE than those women living in areas where less DDT had been used. Deltamethrin exposure was assessed only in children living in Oaxaca; 50% of the exposed group had urinary levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid above the limit of detection (LOD) and 6% had levels above 25 microg/L (five times the LOD), with a negative trend with age (r=-0.33). In Chiapas we found higher DDT and DDE levels in soil than in Oaxaca. In the latter location, large amounts of DDT and DDE were found in sediment samples and deltamethrin was detected in indoor soil samples. Considering the environmental data, the blood level results can be explained by soil/dust ingestion, human milk ingestion, and consumption of fish and other contaminated foods. PMID:12051795

  17. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  18. Time Series Analysis of Onchocerciasis Data from Mexico: A Trend towards Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Arrendondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-01-01

    Background In Latin America, there are 13 geographically isolated endemic foci distributed among Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. The communities of the three endemic foci found within Mexico have been receiving ivermectin treatment since 1989. In this study, we predicted the trend of occurrence of cases in Mexico by applying time series analysis to monthly onchocerciasis data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health between 1988 and 2011 using the software R. Results A total of 15,584 cases were reported in Mexico from 1988 to 2011. The data of onchocerciasis cases are mainly from the main endemic foci of Chiapas and Oaxaca. The last case in Oaxaca was reported in 1998, but new cases were reported in the Chiapas foci up to 2011. Time series analysis performed for the foci in Mexico showed a decreasing trend of the disease over time. The best-fitted models with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, which were used to predict the tendency of onchocerciasis cases for two years ahead. According to the ARIMA models predictions, the cases in very low number (below 1) are expected for the disease between 2012 and 2013 in Chiapas, the last endemic region in Mexico. Conclusion The endemic regions of Mexico evolved from high onchocerciasis-endemic states to the interruption of transmission due to the strategies followed by the MSH, based on treatment with ivermectin. The extremely low level of expected cases as predicted by ARIMA models for the next two years suggest that the onchocerciasis is being eliminated in Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first study utilizing time series for predicting case dynamics of onchocerciasis, which could be used as a benchmark during monitoring and post-treatment surveillance. PMID:23459370

  19. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  20. Hazard estimates for El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, México: a statistical approach for complex eruptive histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; de La Cruz-Reyna, S.

    2010-06-01

    The El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, México) most recent eruption occurred in 1982 causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico. Prior to the eruption, El Chichón volcano was not considered a very hazardous volcano, a perception mostly caused by the low eruption rate of the past eruptions. The correct assessment of volcanic hazard is the first step to prevent a disaster. In this paper, we analyze two periods of the reported eruptive history of El Chichón volcano during the Holocene, searching for the eruption rates of different VEI magnitude categories and testing their time dependence. One period accounting the eruptions of the last 3707 years before the last eruption (BLE) is assumed to be complete, with no missing relevant events. More scarce information of a period extending to 7772 years BLE is then added. We then apply the Non-Homogeneous Generalized Pareto-Poisson Process (NHGPPP), and the Mixture of Exponentials Distribution (MOED) methods to estimate the volcanic hazard of El Chichón considering both periods. The results are compared with the probabilities obtained from the homogeneous Poisson and Weibull distributions. In this case the MOED and the Weibull distribution are rather insensitive to the inclusion of the extended period. In contrast, the NHGPPP is strongly influenced by the extended period.

  1. [Mexico. Federal agreement for voluntary motherhood].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    In June 1991, the National Forum for Voluntary Motherhood and the Decriminalization of Abortion was convened in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico. The forum culminated in the signing of a pact in which participants pledged to support the women of Chiapas in their efforts to win approval of legislation assuring the right to legal abortion. The action in Chiapas was viewed as the beginning of a national legislative process aimed at achieving juridical recognition of the sexual freedom of women. The participants planned to promote discussion in each community and state of existing abortion legislation and the proposed reforms to assure women the right to abortion. Space will be demanded in the mass media in order to inform the population. The movement will seek to develop a widespread local and national consensus on the right to voluntary maternity. Voluntary maternity implies recognition of the rights to women to make decisions regarding their own sexuality and fertility. It implies availability of sex education and contraception, as well as access to safe and legal abortions. Voluntary maternity implies elimination by society of morbidity and mortality due to causes associated with reproduction, and it implies generalized use of contraception and elimination of involuntary sterilization. Voluntary maternity requires that the state develop an ethic of protection of mothers and children, and that authoritarian demographic programs that do not recognize the humanity and autonomy of women be abandoned. Voluntary maternity requires protection by public institutions, and it requires that women and children have access to a decent standard of living. It requires as well that the daily care of children cease to be the exclusive responsibility of women and that it be shared by men. Women cannot be free as long as maternity is compulsory. It is proposed that the discussions and proposals made to local legislatures will eventually be brought before the national Congress in

  2. Carbon emissions from spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Hao, W.M.; Alvarado, E.; Haggerty, P.K.

    1999-04-01

    The authors used NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery, biomass density maps, fuel consumption estimates, and a carbon emission factor to estimate the total carbon (C) emissions from the Spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico. All eight states in southeast Mexico were affected by the wildfires, although the activity was concentrated near the common border of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Veracruz. The fires burned approximately 482,000 ha and the land use/land cover classes most extensively impacted were the tall/medium selvas (tropical evergreen forests), open/fragmented forests, and perturbed areas. The total prompt emissions were 4.6 TgC during the two-month period of the authors` study, contributing an additional 24% to the region`s average annual net C emissions from forestry and land-use change. Mexico in 1998 experienced its driest Spring since 1941, setting the stage for the widespread burning.

  3. Provenance Ages of Protoliths From the Chiapas Massif Complex and Adjacent Strata of the Southern Maya Block - Implications on the Paleozoic Reconstruction of Middle America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, B.; Schaaf, P.; Valencia, V. A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2007-05-01

    The basement of the Maya block is exposed in the Maya Mountains of Belize, the Chuacús Complex of Guatemala, and in the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC) of SE Mexico. In the CMC medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks occur as isolated domains in mostly metaigneous crystalline rocks. The most important tectonothermal event in the entire CMC is of late Permian age, culminating in partial anatexis and the intrusion of the Chiapas batholith. In this work we present U-Pb data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS from detrital zircon cores of metasediments from the CMC and from detrital zircons of Paleozoic strata exposed in SE Chiapas. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa Formation (SRF) contains mostly Pan-African (500-650 Ma) zircons, minor populations of Silurian-Early Devonian (400-420 Ma) and Grenville (1.0-1.25 Ga) zircons, and few Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains. The maximum sedimentation age is documented by ~320 Ma old zircons. Metagreywacke and metasandstones of the central CMC have inherited detrital zircon cores with age distributions indistinguishable from those of the SRF. High-grade metapelites and para-amphibolites from the CMC, instead, have inherited zircon cores with one single population of 1.0 Ga or with populations at 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 Ga. In the southern part of the CMC leucocratic granites intrude sedimentary rocks whose detrital zircons yielded mostly 1.53 Ga ages with some grains in the range of 1.6-1.7 Ga, but no younger zircons. White mica grown in contact with the leucogranite has a 40Ar- 39Ar age of 406 ± 4 Ma, defining a minimum age for both deposition of the sediments and intrusion of the leucogranite. Our data indicate that the CMC has a composite pre-metamorphic basement, containing sedimentary protoliths from the Pennsylvanian-Permian SRF and from early Paleozoic strata intruded by Silurian-Early Devonian granites. This favors a similar pre-Permian geologic history for the CMC as for the Maya Mountains of Belize. The early Paleozoic

  4. Susceptibility of three laboratory strains of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chan, A S; Rodríguez, M H; Torres, J A; Rodríguez, M del C; Villarreal, C

    1994-05-01

    Three morphologically different pupal phenotypes (green, striped, brown) were selected from a parent strain of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann collected from the Suchiate region in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Significant differences in susceptibility to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti were observed when striped was compared with the parent colony as well as with brown and with green phenotypes. Differences in susceptibility were not significant between the other phenotypes and the parent colony. PMID:8057314

  5. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  6. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  7. Gregory Daniel Webster: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Gregory Daniel Webster, who received the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award "for an outstanding research paper whose findings report that APA journal articles became shorter in length after the year 2000." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115835

  8. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  9. Payments for Environmental Services in a Policymix: Spatial and Temporal Articulation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Dutilly, Céline; Lara-Pulido, José-Alberto; Le Velly, Gwenolé; Guevara-Sanginés, Alejando

    2016-01-01

    Government based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) have been criticized for not maximizing environmental effectiveness through appropriate targeting, while instead prioritizing social side-objectives. In Mexico, existing literature on how the Payments for Ecosystem Services-Hydrological program (PSA-H) has targeted deforestation and forest degradation shows that both the process of identifying the eligible areas and the choice of the selection criteria for enrolling forest parcels have been under the influence of competing agendas. In the present paper we study the influence of the PSA-H multi-level governance on the environmental effectiveness of the program-the degree to which forest at high risk of deforestation is enrolled- building from a "policyscape" framework. In particular, we combine governance analysis with two distinct applications of the policyscape framework: First, at national level we assess the functional overlap between the PSA-H and other environmental and rural programs with regard to the risk of deforestation. Second, at regional level in the states of Chiapas and Yucatan, we describe the changing policy agenda and the role of technical intermediaries in defining the temporal spatialization of the PSA-H eligible and enrolled areas with regard to key socio-economic criteria. We find that, although at national level the PSA-H program has been described as coping with both social and environmental indicators thanks to successful adaptive management, our analysis show that PSA-H is mainly found in communities where deforestation risk is low and in combination with other environmental programs (protected areas and forest management programs). Such inertia is reinforced at regional level as a result of the eligible areas' characteristics and the behaviour of technical intermediaries, which seek to minimise transaction costs and sources of uncertainty. Our project-specific analysis shows the importance of integrating the governance of a program in

  10. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.