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Sample records for rural chinese children

  1. Measuring the Gap: A Health Assessment of Rural Chinese Children Compared to Urban Children.

    PubMed

    She, Xinshu; Zhao, Deqing; Scholnick, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P < .01) and after using the toilet (OR = 5.41, P < .01). They are more likely to feel sick or to get into trouble after drinking (OR = 7.28, P < .01). They are more likely to have used drugs (OR = 8.54, P < .01) and to have no close friends (OR = 8.23, P < .01). An alarming percentage of rural (8.22%) and urban (14.22%) children have had suicidal ideation in the past year (OR = 0.68, P > .05). Rural parents are more likely to not know their children's whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05). Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01) and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01). In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration. PMID:27335999

  2. Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PMID:23244457

  3. Educational Equity and Institutional Safeguards: An Analysis of Compulsory Education for Chinese Rural Migrant Workers' Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xianzuo; Peng, Pai

    2008-01-01

    The educational inequity of rural workers' children is a unique social problem in the transition stage of China. Based on the specific survey in such provinces as Hubei, Henan, Anhui, and other provinces, a conclusion can be drawn that the reasons for the educational inequity of rural worker's children are very complicated, among which the system…

  4. Left behind or moving forward? Effects of possible selves and strategies to attain them among rural Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chongzeng; Oyserman, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Are possible selves and strategies to attain them universally helpful even among children with few resources? We test this question in rural China. Rural Chinese children are commonly "left behind" (LB) by parents seizing economic opportunities by migrating, hoping the family will "move forward" and their children will attain their predestined better future. Media, teachers, and peers negatively represent LB children as unruly and undisciplined, with negative fates, making LB a negative stereotype that includes the idea of destiny or fate. Indeed, making the idea of LB salient increases children's fatalism (Study 1 n = 144, Study 2 n = 124). However, having strategies to attain possible future selves predicts better in-class behavior, fewer depressive symptoms, and better exam performance even a year later and controlling for prior performance (Study 3 n = 176, Study 4 n = 145). Possible selves have mixed effects, not always predicting better grades and undermining LB children's self-control. PMID:26318062

  5. Occurrence, speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in Chinese rural household dust and the associated health risk to children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Yang, Wenlin; Wang, Lixing; Yang, Huan; Li, Fanglin; Ma, Zhendong

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration, speciation and bioaccessibility were measured in 122 household dust samples collected in rural areas of eight provinces of China. The mean Pb concentration in the household dust was 208 mg kg -1, of which samples from sites in Hunan (538 mg kg -1) and Yunnan (280 mg kg -1) provinces exhibited the highest Pb concentrations while those from Shaanxi (96 mg kg -1) and Fujian (80 mg kg -1) provinces had a relatively low Pb content. The major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling orders as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide, and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ), the ingestion of dust particles pose the highest risk to children in Chinese rural areas, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard Index (HI) values for most samples were lower than 1, indicating that the domestic Pb exposure in rural areas of China were relatively safe for children when they exposure to the household dust. However, dust Pb in 4.1% of the studied families having HI values higher than 1 may pose adverse health effect to the children.

  6. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  7. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  8. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  9. The Self-Esteem of Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…

  10. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  11. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y.; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings. PMID:27199866

  12. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings. PMID:27199866

  13. Remote Possibilities: Rural Children's Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin W.

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the influence of rural context on youth's life chances, this study takes up the question of rural children's educational aspirations. The experience of rural life may, as some claim, limit students' educational aspirations. Yet there are indications that rural communities simultaneously generate important social benefits that…

  14. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  15. Development of Class Awareness Among Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    Class awareness among rural children was investigated in three dimensions: cognitive, behavioral, and evaluative. Data were obtained from 378 white students in grades K-8 in 9 rural elementary schools in the Upper Cumberland region of middle Tennessee. Children's social class background (SES) was determined by their father's occupational strata…

  16. Characteristics of young rural Chinese suicides: a psychological autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Wieczorek, W.; Conwell, Y.; Tu, X.-M.; Wu, B. Y.-W.; Xiao, S.; Jia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of suicide rates in China differ in many ways from those in the West. This study aimed to identify the risk factors characteristic for young rural Chinese suicides. Method This was a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study. The samples were suicides and living controls (both aged 15–34 years) from 16 rural counties of China. We interviewed two informants for each suicide and each control with pretested and validated instruments to estimate psychosocial, psychiatric and other risk factors for suicides. Results The prevalence of mental disorders was higher among the young Chinese who died by suicide than among the living controls, but was lower than among suicides in the West. Marriage was not a protecting factor for suicide among young rural Chinese women, and never-married women who were involved in relationships were about three times more likely to commit suicide than single women who were unattached. Religion/religiosity was not a protecting factor in Chinese suicide, as it tended to be stronger for suicides than for controls. Impulsivity was significantly higher for suicides than for controls. Psychological strain, resulting from conflicting social values between communist gender equalitarianism and Confucian gender discrimination, was associated significantly with suicide in young rural Chinese women, even after accounting for the role of psychiatric illness. Conclusions Risk factors for suicide in rural China are different from those in the West. Psychological strain plays a role in suicide. Suicide prevention programs in China should incorporate culture-specific considerations. PMID:19656428

  17. Shyness-Sensitivity and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment in Rural Migrant and Urban Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhengyan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations between shyness-sensitivity and social competence, school performance, and psychological well-being in Chinese children with rural and urban backgrounds. Participants were students in rural migrant children schools and city schools in China (Ns = 411 and 518, respectively; M age = 10 years). Data…

  18. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  19. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Tian-Jiao; Bai, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001). Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05). Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students. PMID:27608038

  20. Teaching Chinese Children. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

    A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…

  1. Word Learning Deficit among Chinese Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined word learning difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children, readers of a nonalphabetic script. A total of 105 Hong Kong Chinese children were recruited and divided into three groups: Dyslexic (mean age 8;8), CA control (mean age 8;9), and RL control (mean age 6;11). They were given a word learning task and a familiar word…

  2. Rural School Children Picturing Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

  3. Health Care Needed for Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Mary C.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes the effects of poverty, lack of education, and scarce medical resources (all prevalent in rural areas) which contribute to poor health conditions and practices for rural children. Available from: U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Rm. 456 GHI Bldg., Washington, D.C. 20250. (JD)

  4. Loneliness in Chinese Children across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban…

  5. Family financial and household support exchange between generations: a survey of Chinese rural elderly.

    PubMed

    Shi, L

    1993-08-01

    This study examines the pattern of social support exchange between Chinese elderly and their adult children, based on a 1989 rural Chinese household survey. Following social exchange theory, we found reciprocity in household support but not in financial support. Elderly with greater resource capacities (i.e., health, income, education, and social network) were more likely to provide than receive assistance, whereas those with fewer resources had the opposite patterns. The exchange of support was more likely to be related to affective and nonfinancial instrumental support than financial instrumental support. Because only 42% of elderly with one or two children were living with their children, a formal pension and elderly care system is needed to complement the informal support system. PMID:8375675

  6. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  7. Helping Chinese Children Become More Creative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pingting; Szente, Judit

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information about children's creativity in the People's Republic of China. More specifically, it introduces the Chinese cultural and social background along with the school and family environments as they relate to young children's creativity. The article also provides some suggestions for schools and families…

  8. Cognitive Development of Rural Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    A 3-year longitudinal study assessed cognitive changes among rural children 3 to 5 years old and validated the construct validity of the Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB). Multistage area sampling techniques were used with a repeated measures, control group design. Participants in the sample were 40 3-year-olds, 57…

  9. Poor Rural Children Attract Close Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Growing up poor in isolated rural areas and small towns is qualitatively different from growing up poor in the city. Yet most of what experts know about the effects of poverty on children's development comes from studies conducted in big cities. Now, an ambitious project run by universities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina is putting what some…

  10. An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

  11. Sociodemographic Correlates of Behavioral Problems Among Rural Chinese Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Liu, Jianghong; Wang, Ying; He, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the problem behaviors of children from grades 4–6 and associated factors in the rural Hunan province of China. Design and Sample Randomized cluster sampling in 3 rural areas of the Hunan province was used. 435 subjects were randomly selected from grades 4–6. Measures A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to find influential demographic, parental, and socioeconomic factors. The prediction test of problem children (PPCT) was used to assess problem behaviors. Results The prevalence of the early child problem behaviors in our sample was 17.44%. Associated factors include gender, willingness to attend school, parents’ expectations of the children’s educational degree, parents working outside the home (left-behind children), and children’s feeling of their parents’ understanding of them. Conclusions The prevalence of children with problem behaviors was higher in rural areas in Hunan than in China as a whole. This may be partly explained by the fact that parents must often work in the cities and leave their children behind at home, increasing the chances that those children develop behavioral problems. This phenomenon also applies in other developing countries, making it a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need to prevent problem behaviors through collaboration among families, schools, and society. PMID:21736608

  12. Urban Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Migrant Children in the Chinese Educational Institution: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Holmes, Kathryn; Albright, James

    2015-01-01

    Recently China has been undergoing an unprecedented urbanisation process which has resulted in millions of rural families living in urban areas. As part of a study of Chinese migrant children's educational experiences, surveys and interviews were conducted with primary school teachers in a metropolitan city in East China. The objectives of this…

  13. Phonological awareness in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was at better than chance levels from second year kindergarten (age 4), but increased strongly and significantly in first grade to 74% accuracy. In contrast, syllable and rime awareness increased gradually and steadily across ages 3-6 years. Patterns suggest different influences of age and literacy instruction for different PA levels. In Study 2, involving 202 preschoolers, variance in Chinese character recognition was best explained by tasks of syllable awareness, tone awareness, and speeded naming. Findings underscore the unique importance of both tone and syllable for early character acquisition in Chinese children. PMID:18171377

  14. Distribution and determinants of plasma homocysteine levels in rural Chinese twins across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuelong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Xu, Xiping; Tang, Genfu; Hou, Fanfan; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan

    2014-12-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10-66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25529062

  15. America's Forgotten Children: Child Poverty in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Wendy; Sagawa, Shirley

    This report draws on research, statistics, and the voices of rural young people to document the extent and causes of rural child poverty, and related problems and reasons for hope in specific focus areas. About 2.5 million rural children are chronically poor. Rural poverty is concentrated in central Appalachia, the deep South, the U.S.-Mexican…

  16. Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng

    2014-10-01

    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context. PMID:25181650

  17. Why do Chinese women practice contraception? The case of rural Jilin Province.

    PubMed

    Choe, M K; Tsuya, N O

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between contraceptive behavior, family size preferences, and perceptions of the one-child policy among young Chinese women in rural areas of Jilin Province. In 1985, about 85 percent of rural married women with one surviving child were practicing contraception, although most of them reported two as their ideal number of children. Most women with one surviving child, including those with one-child certificates, were practicing contraception in response to the government campaign, while more than half of women with two or more children were doing so voluntarily. Most of the women with one child were using the IUD, whereas more than half of women with two or more children were sterilized. Through multivariate analysis of contraceptive behavior and method choice, additional factors were found to be associated with the contraceptive behavior of rural Jilin women; achievement of their ideal family size was a significant factor in the voluntary practice of contraception as well as in contraceptive method choice. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:2038757

  18. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China. PMID:23552234

  19. Chinese Children's Constructive Activity and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how constructive activities are involved when Chinese students are performing reading tasks that require deeper levels of understanding. Forty students from Grade 5 (19 boys and 21 girls), and 42 students from Grade 6 (20 boys and 22 girls) participated in this study. To reveal the children's constructive processes in…

  20. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  1. Nutritional status of rural Bolivian children.

    PubMed

    Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L

    1993-06-01

    While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590

  2. Understanding Informal and Formal Mathematical Abilities in Mainland Chinese and Chinese-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Cheng, Christine; Mottram, Lisa; Rosenblum, Stacey

    Informal and formal mathematical abilities were studied in the preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children in Beijing, China and Chinese-American children in New York City. Test of Early Mathematical Abilities-2nd Edition (TEMA-2) was administered to the three groups of children (children from Beijing, Chinese-American from lower-class, and…

  3. Chinese-American Identity and Children's Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jean H.

    A survey was made of all children's books about Chinese, Chinese Americans, or China for pre-kindergarten through third-grade reading level to determine how the books represent the Chinese or Chinese American to the young child. Books included in the study were identified by one or more of the following factors: (1) book title and bibliographic…

  4. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  5. Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

  6. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

  7. Education of Children Left behind in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Despite China's substantial internal migration, long-standing rural-urban bifurcation has prompted many migrants to leave their children behind in rural areas. This study examined the consequences of out-migration for children's education using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 885). This study took into account the…

  8. The ABC's of Chinese: Maternal Mediation of Pinyin for Chinese Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan; Liu, Phil D.; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, maternal Pinyin mediation and its relations with young Chinese children's word reading and word writing development were explored. At time 1, 43 Mainland Chinese children and their mothers were videotaped on a task in which children were asked to write 12 words in Pinyin (a phonological coding system used in Mainland China as…

  9. Sources of Older Parents’ Ambivalent Feelings Toward Their Adult Children: The Case of Rural China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Relying on the concept of sociological ambivalence, this study investigated the sources of intergenerational ambivalence in rural China, a traditional society that undergoes dramatic demographic, economic, and social changes. Methods. Data were derived from a survey of 1,162 older adults and their 4,396 children in rural Anhui province. Two-level mixed-effects model was carried out to predict ambivalent feelings reported by the older parents toward their adult children. Results. The findings yielded both similar and distinctive predictors of intergenerational ambivalence among the Chinese elderly population compared with their Western counterparts. The Chinese elderly population reported greater ambivalence toward sons than toward daughters. Adult children’s higher socioeconomic status, represented by a more prestigious job and an urban household registry status (hukou), was associated with reduced ambivalence among parents. Parents’ monetary support to children and assistance with childcare, which is common in rural China due to the massive out-migration, were also associated with higher levels of ambivalent feelings. Discussion. We interpreted the findings in the larger social context of strong son preference, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and rigid rural–urban division in China due to the household registration system. Our findings demonstrate that individual feelings of ambivalence are culturally structured and are determined within complex social environment. PMID:23591570

  10. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring. PMID:16981611

  11. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  12. Chinese Handwriting Performance of Primary School Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sutie S. T.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Leung, Howard W. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Chinese handwriting performance of typical children and children with dyslexia, and to examine whether speed and accuracy of handwriting could reliably discriminate these two groups of children. One hundred and thirty-seven children with dyslexia and 756 typical children were recruited from main stream…

  13. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  14. Chinese Children's Conceptions of Shyness: A Prototype Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Yang, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to explore Chinese children's understanding of shyness. In Study 1 (N = 174, M age = 10.18) interviews with Chinese children revealed a group of diverse attributes that characterized their conceptions of shyness. In Study 2 (N = 273, M age = 10.19) a rating procedure was used to identify attributes that were…

  15. Reaching Rural Handicapped Children: The Transportation Situation in Rural Service Delivery. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jamie; And Others

    Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…

  16. Moving Away or Fitting in?: Understanding Shyness in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Chang, Lei; Zhang, Zengxiu; Yu, Lidong

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on three studies of shy behavior in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 107, M age = 10.05), a Chinese Shyness Scale (CSS) was developed based on Chinese teachers' open-ended descriptions of children's shy behavior. In Study 2 (N = 388, M age = 10.80) and Study 3 (N = 198, M age = 10.20), the construct validity of the two…

  17. THE HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLACE, HELEN M.

    THE HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH NEEDS OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND OF RURAL MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN PARTICULAR ARE SUMMARIZED. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR IMPROVING HEALTH SERVICES. ILLUSTRATIVE DATA RATHER THAN A COMPLETE REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. MORTALITY RATES AMONG CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND PREGNANT WOMEN IN…

  18. Children's Economic Activities and Primary School Attendance in Rural Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carol A. M.

    To investigate whether low school attendance rates in Guatemala (about 35% of primary school aged children do not attend) are due primarily to the need for children in low income families to contribute to family income or child care and other housekeeping tasks, time use data were collected in 4 rural villages from mothers of 369 children, aged…

  19. Tips for Teachers to Help Bilingual Chinese Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of young children in Chinese immigrant families need to help children become proficient in English (ESL) while affirming the children's bilingual abilities. Pictures, gestures, pantomimes, and props as well as specific input of school-related words help bilingual young children learn English. Teachers read storybooks in English while…

  20. Patterns of Life Events Preceding the Suicide in Rural Young Chinese: A Case Control Study1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. Aim We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Methods Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. Results We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Conclusions Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22595373

  1. Predicting Children's Asthma Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is the number one chronic health condition facing children today; however, little is known about rural-urban inequalities in asthma. This "area effects on health" study examines rural-urban differences in childhood asthma hospitalizations within the state of Texas using negative binomial regression models. Effects associated with residence…

  2. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  3. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  4. Education of Young Chinese Migrant Children: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by the national residency registration system in China, migrant children have always faced obstacles in accessing public education. Recent policy changes, however, have brought hope for these children. This article introduces some international concerns regarding migrant children and provides a close view of Chinese perspectives. Issues…

  5. Rurality and African American Perspectives on Children's Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of race and place of residence on caregivers' perceptions of children's mental health services is underresearched. Differences in caregiver strain, barriers-to-care endorsement, and provider satisfaction are examined among 175 rural and urban African American caregivers from one Southern state whose children received Medicaid…

  6. Psychometric Intelligence and Adaptive Competence in Rural Phillippine Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Psychometric intelligence and adaptive competence constructs were compared in five- to seven-year-old children in a rural Phillippine barrio. Individualized psychometric subtests of intelligence, indigenous with respect to content, and a form for obtaining adults' ratings of children's adaptive competencies, were developed. (Author/LMO)

  7. Children as Catalysts of Change: Children's Participation in Rural Development in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Caroline

    1995-01-01

    Presents information on the participation of children in effecting change in their lives and their communities in The Concerned for Working Children rural project in Karnataka, India. Discusses the concept of a children's trade union and the nature of community participation in empowering children to lead self-reliant lives. (AIM)

  8. Health Shocks and Children's School Attainments in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ang; Yao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Using a long panel dataset of Chinese farm households covering the period of 1987-2002, this paper studies how major health shocks happening to household adults affect children's school attainments. We find that primary school-age children are the most vulnerable to health shocks, with their chances to enter middle school dropping by 9.9…

  9. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  10. Chinese Children's Reading Acquisition: Theoretical and Pedagogical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wenling, Ed.; Gaffney, Janet S., Ed.; Packard, Jerome L., Ed.

    This book provides comprehensive resources for the critical discussion of major issues in learning to read Chinese from a child acquisition perspective. It is divided into 4 parts and 11 chapters. Part 1, "Theoretical Perspectives on Learning to Read" includes "Current Issues in Learning To Read Chinese" (Ovid J.L. Tzeng), "Children's Early…

  11. Chinese Preschool Children's Literacy Development: From Emergent to Conventional Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lily; Zi Juan, Cheng; Lai Foon, Chan

    2008-01-01

    A Chinese script is represented by Chinese characters and each character is a square-shaped configuration with condensed strokes. Children in Hong Kong are explicitly taught to write at a very young age. They are guided to draw vertical and horizontal lines at age three, and are required to write simple characters with few strokes at age four.…

  12. Expenditures on Children by Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lino, Mark

    2002-01-01

    From 1960 to 2000, total expenses to rear a rural child to age 18 increased in real terms. Food expenses decreased, but child care and educational expenses increased more. Details are presented on child-rearing expenditures by low-, middle-, and higher-income rural and urban families on housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, child…

  13. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  14. Prevalence of neurological soft signs and their neuropsychological correlates in typically developing Chinese children and Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M; Yang, Binrang; Lin, Li; Shum, David; Manschreck, Theo C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of soft signs in 214 typically developing Chinese children and investigated whether soft signs are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this population. Chinese children with ADHD (N = 54) scored significantly higher than age-matched controls on all three soft signs subscales and motor coordination correlated significantly with Stroop interference. Logistic regression supported the utility of the soft sign scales in discriminating children with ADHD and controls. Children with ADHD had a significant excess of soft signs, which may be a useful marker of developmental disruption in this clinical condition. PMID:21038161

  15. Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Yu, Xin; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese. Methods We recruited 1,646 rural subjects aged 16–34 years, of whom 756 were migrant workers and 890 non-migrants, from ten representative villages in rural Sichuan Province, the southwestern part of China. To assess subject's depressive symptoms and general psychological quality of life (psycho-QOL), the study protocol included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and psycho-QOL subscale of the World Health Organization's QOL Questionnaire-Brief Version, in addition to structured questions regarding one-year suicidal thoughts and behaviors (serious ideation, plan, and attempt), socio-demographic, social support, and physical health information. Results After adjustment for confounders, migrant workers had relative to non-migrant rural residents a decreased risk for depression (OR = 0.69, P = 0.026), but comparable risk for poor psycho-QOL (OR = 0.91, P = 0.557) and one-year suicidal behaviors (OR = 0.59–1.10, P = 0.19–0.90). Migrant status only accounted for 0.5, 2.8, 4.7, 9.8, and 12.6 % of the total explainable variance for suicide attempt, poor psycho-QOL, suicide plan, depression and serious suicide ideation, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggested that among young rural Chinese there were no significant associations involving migrant status and poor psycho-QOL or one-year suicidal behaviors, while migrant status significantly correlated with a decreased risk of depression. The unique contribution of migrant status to mental health among young rural Chinese participants in this study was very small. PMID:25403568

  16. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  17. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  18. PARENTAL AND SIBLING MIGRATION AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG RURAL CHILDREN IN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Li, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental and sibling rural-to-urban migration and blood pressure (BP) of rural left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Analysis was based on the 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 waves of longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is an ongoing prospective survey covering nine provinces with an individual-level response rate of 88%. Blood pressure levels were measured by trained examiners at three consecutive times on the same visit and the means of three measurements were used as the final BP values. An ordinal BP measure was then created using a recently validated age-sex-specified distribution for Chinese children and adolescents, distinguishing normal BP, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Random effect modelling was performed. Different migration circumstances play different roles in LBC's BP with mother-only and both-parent migration being particularly detrimental and father-only and sibling-only migration either having no association or a negative association with LBC's BP levels or odds of high BP. In conclusion, the link between family migration and left-behind children's blood pressure is complex, and depends on who is the person out-migrating. PMID:25850441

  19. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  1. Rural Students' Experiences in a Chinese Elite University: Capital, Habitus and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, He

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative case study and deploying Bourdieu's thinking tools, this article attempts to understand rural students' subjectivities and practices in a Chinese elite university, relating the types and volumes of capital they possessed to the process of position-takings. It contextualises their experiences against the backdrop…

  2. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  3. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation among Chinese Adults in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tingzhong; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Mustafa, Jabed; Chen, Bin; Feng, Xiangxian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the factors associated with smoking cessation among adult Chinese males in rural China. Methods: The data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the respondents' household using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: The factors associated with quitting were being residents of Guiyang, having received junior…

  4. Children's Understandings of Rurality: Exploring the Interrelationship between Experience and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jaleh

    2002-01-01

    Explores children's material and discursive experiences of rurality in New Zealand and how they contribute to children's understandings of rurality. Highlights common constructions of reality based on experiences of agriculture, nature, and recreation, as well as children's understandings of rurality from discourse with peers and adults. (Contains…

  5. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  6. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  7. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Liu, Tie-Bang; Huang, Jian-Xing; Fung, Helene H.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Conwell, Yeates; Chiu, Helen F. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China. Results The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities. Conclusion Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers. PMID:27300005

  8. Bean Sprouts: A Television Series about Chinese-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese for Affirmative Action, San Francisco, CA. Chinese Media Committee.

    This teaching guide accompanies a series of five half-hour television programs for children 7 through 12 years of age that depict Chinese American children in a variety of situations that foster a sense of group and individual identity. The emphasis of the series is on affective learning. The following issues are dealt with: (1) the ramifications…

  9. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  10. Chinese and American Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…

  11. Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

  12. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  13. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  14. The Cognitive Profile of Chinese Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Becky Mee-yin; Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age…

  15. Understanding Cultural Contexts Fosters Sensitive Caregiving of Chinese American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Ching, Wei-Di; Lee, Choi-Bo

    2000-01-01

    Provides information for teachers and caregivers of young children regarding the family contexts of Chinese American children of immigrant parents. Includes information on cultural beliefs, languages, child rearing, and beliefs and practices regarding education. Discusses implications for teachers and child caregivers. (KB)

  16. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani

    2016-01-01

    Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition—coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys’ higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children’s nutritional status in China

  17. Education of Children Left Behind in Rural China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Despite China’s substantial internal migration, longstanding rural-urban bifurcation has prompted many migrants to leave their children behind in rural areas. This study examines the consequences of out-migration for children’s education using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 885). This study takes into account the complex family migration strategies and distinguishes various types of migration in China, including different forms of parental migration as well as sibling migration. Results show that migration of siblings generates benefits for children’s education, which is particularly pronounced for girls and children at middle-school levels. But parental migration has not given children left behind a significant advantage in educational prospects as their parents had hoped. Younger children seem to be especially susceptible to the disruptive effect of parental out-migration. PMID:24163479

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*. * The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA,RTP, NC ?Current: Colorado...

  19. "Phronesis": Children's Local Rural Knowledge of Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Leanne M.; Kassam, Karim-Aly

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes videotaped interviews and 407 photographs taken by 20 grade 5 and 6 students in rural New York State to document their science and engineering learning. Aristotle's concept of phronesis or practical wisdom frames the findings and their implications. Key findings indicate that: (1) All 20 children found examples of science and…

  20. Health Behaviors of Elementary School Children in Rural Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; Monge, Eduardo A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of patterns of health behavior among rural and small-town children surveyed 1,950 K-6 students from seven southern Illinois elementary schools. Findings indicate that less than half of the students ate the recommended amounts of fruits, vegetables, and grain each day. Males and females smoked at about the same rates, but sixth-grade boys…

  1. Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon

    2003-01-01

    Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

  2. Rural Cherokee Children with Disabilities: Parental Stories of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jandura, Collette

    2013-01-01

    Parents of Cherokee children with disabilities encounter educational agencies from their child's birth to adulthood. Living rurally within the Cherokee Nation's jurisdictional boundaries, these indigenous families engage with a myriad of special education agencies and subsequent policies. This qualitative study explores parental…

  3. Multidisciplinary Training for Rural Outreach to Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schery, Teris K.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    The number of deaf children with surgically implanted cochlear devices has been increasing since the device was approved in 1989. In rural communities, there may be no one who is knowledgeable about the care of cochlear implants, what to expect of the child's communication abilities, and how to maximize the child's progress. A federally funded…

  4. Comic books carry health messages to rural children in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Vigano, O

    1983-12-01

    This article reports on the use of children as message carriers in a rural water and sanitation project in western Honduras. The Honduran Water and Sanitation Project represents the 1st such effort to have a specific health education component. It was decided to direct the education component toward children because of their important role in providing and handling drinking water and caring for younger members of the family. Rural primary schools surfaced as a potential channel of communication. The comic book format was selected because it is simple enough to be used in the schools without much training, economical to produce (US$0.30/copy), effective and attractive to children, and consistent with the Project's philosophy that dialogue and participation are essential components of health education. Each comic book contains a single-concept message, e.g., 1 cause of water contamination or a method of water purification. The 1st module was pretested in 3 rural schools. Following classroom study of the comic book, correct answers on 5 questions related to the comic book story increased from 59% to 80%. 95% of the children indicated that they liked the characters, and teachers expressed satisfaction with the materials. 1200 copies of the 1st module have been distributed to 30 rural schools, and production plans include 11 additional modules on topics such as prevention of water-related sickness and personal hygiene. PMID:12265931

  5. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  6. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  7. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  8. Early Differentiation between Drawing and Writing in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Yin, Li

    2011-01-01

    Children under 3 1/2 years of age or so are often thought to produce the same types of scribbles for writing and drawing. We tested this idea by asking Chinese 2- to 6-year-olds to write and draw four targets. In Study 1, Chinese adults judged the status of the productions as writings or drawings. The adults performed significantly above the level…

  9. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  10. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  11. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S.; Asgari, M.; Gent, J.

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  12. Psychosocial Effects of Fractured Anterior Teeth among Rural Children

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Mohan; Teja, Ravi; Paulindraraj, Shankar; Vallabhaneni, Sai K; Arumugam, Selva B

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study is to determine how rural children view children with visible incisor fracture. Materials and methods: Class 7 (aged 11-12 years) and class 10 (aged 14-15 years) schoolchildren (the participants) were invited to make a social judgment about the color photograph of two children (the subjects). Participants were randomly allocated either (i) pictures of children without incisor fracture or (ii) pictures of the same children whose photographs had been digitally modified to visible incisor fracture. Using a child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor fracture or not, using multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Results: Both class 7 and 10 children rated subjects with visible incisor fracture more negatively than the subjects without incisor fracture. Female participants of class 10 have rated the male subject with incisor fracture significantly negatively (p < 0.01) than male subject without incisor fracture. How to cite this article: Venkatesan R, Naveen M, Teja R, Paulindraraj S, Vallabhaneni SK, Arumugam SB. Psychosocial Effects of Fractured Anterior Teeth among Rural Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):128-130. PMID:27365933

  13. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  14. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69) compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  15. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  16. Ecological Risk Model of Childhood Obesity in Chinese Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 years old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  17. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  18. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  19. Social Networks and Aggressive Behaviour in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific…

  20. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  1. Learning and Behavioral Difficulties among Chinese American Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, I-Hwey; Chen, Kaili

    2005-01-01

    The authors review 11 studies published from 1971 through the 1990s on learning and behavioral difficulties among Chinese American children. The focus of the review is on (a) quantity and quality of the studies, (b) topics examined, and (c) research findings. Results showed that limited English proficiency, delinquency and gangs, and emotional and…

  2. Involvement of Immigrant Chinese Canadian Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuan; Ishiyama, F. Ishu

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated immigrant Chinese Canadian mothers' involvement in the education of their children with disabilities. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 recent immigrants. Thirteen categories emerged, which were subsumed under 4 thematic areas: (a) challenges in adapting to a new environments, (b) limited English proficiency,…

  3. Writing Quality in Chinese Children: Speed and Fluency Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Cathy Ming Wai; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Zhang, Juan; Wong, Anita M. Y.; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children's writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6-9. Age 9 writing compositions were…

  4. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  5. Characteristics of Chinese Rural Young Suicides Who Did Not Have a Strong Intention to Die1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background In exploration of the risk factors of the Chinese rural young suicide, previous researchers found low prevalence of mental problems, high degree of impulsivity, and great proportion of lethal pesticide consumption. It noticed that some of the young suicides in rural China did not intend to die from the suicidal behavior which was only instrumentally used for certain gains. Aims This study aims to look into the characteristics of those young suicides who did not really intend to die and compare them with those young suicides who had a strong intent to die. Methods Subjects were 386 suicides aged 15-34 years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. The data were obtained by psychological autopsy method. The degree of suicidal intent of the subjects was evaluated by the first 8 items of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). Results It was found that those suicides who had a strong intent of death were more likely to have higher age, more years of education, live alone, and suffer mental disease. On the other hand, the low intent suicides were more likely to have pesticides at home and to be impulsive. In other words, pesticides and impulsivity killed some Chinese rural young men and women who did not really want to die by suicide. Conclusion Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. PMID:25497170

  6. The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depression Symptoms in a Rural Chinese Sample Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinghu; Bi, Bo; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Song, Hongjie; Sun, Yingxian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. Objective To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. Methods This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1%) was higher compared with men (3.5%) and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population. PMID:24919087

  7. Reliability and Validity Evidence of the Chinese Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale Scores among Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Second Edition (Piers-Harris 2) was designed to measure self-concept among children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Piers-Harris 2 (Chinese Piers-Harris). The Chinese Piers-Harris 2 was administered to 243 Taiwanese…

  8. Intelligence and Lead Toxins in Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, R. W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Hair lead content, intelligence tests, school achievement, and motor impairment assessments were obtained from 149 children aged 5 to 16. Hair lead concentration significantly discriminated between groups and significantly predicted IQ scores, independent of group classifications. Regression analyses showed a significant negative correlation…

  9. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  10. Do Mothers in Rural China Practice Gender Equality in Educational Aspirations for Their Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…

  11. Effects of value strains on psychopathology of Chinese rural youths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-12-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual's psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts are likely to experience psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  12. Effects of Value Strains on Psychopathology of Chinese Rural Youths

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-01-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual’s psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2,031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts is likely to lead to psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  13. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  14. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K; Tang, Joey

    2013-05-01

    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy - two kinds of mathematical difficulties - may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and linguistic factors supporting their mathematical learning, also showed such mathematical difficulties and whether such difficulties have measurable impact on children's early school mathematical performance. First-graders, classified as dyscalculia, low numeracy, or normal achievement, were compared for their performance in various school mathematical tasks requiring a grasp of non-symbolic numerosities (i.e., non-symbolic tasks) or an understanding of symbolic numerals (i.e., symbolic tasks). Children with dyscalculia showed poorer performance than their peers in non-symbolic tasks but not symbolic ones, whereas those with low numeracy showed poorer performance in symbolic tasks but not non-symbolic ones. As hypothesized, these findings suggested that dyscalculia and low numeracy were distinct deficits and caused by deficits in non-symbolic and symbolic processing, respectively. These findings went beyond prior research that only documented generally low mathematical achievements for these two groups of children. Moreover, these deficits appeared to be persistent and could not be remedied simply through day-to-day school mathematical learning. The present findings highlighted the importance of tailoring early learning support for children with these distinct deficits, and pointed to future directions for the screening of such mathematical difficulties among Chinese children. PMID:23475011

  15. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  16. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Reading Development and Impairment from Ages 3 to 8 Years in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Lin; Pan, Jinger; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Lang; Tardif, Twila; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early prediction of reading disabilities in Chinese is important for early remediation efforts. In this 6-year longitudinal study, we investigated the early cognitive predictors of reading skill in a statistically representative sample of Chinese children from Beijing. Method: Two hundred sixty-one (261) native Chinese children were…

  18. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  19. Four Children and One Toy: Chinese and Canadian Children Faced with Potential Conflict over a Limited Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; Chen, Xinyin; Chung, Janet; Li, Miao; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Quartets of Chinese (n = 125) and Canadian (n = 133) 7-year-old children were observed as they played with a single attractive toy. Chinese children exhibited more assertive and general rule bids, engaged in more spontaneous giving, and reacted more positively to assertions of others whereas Canadian children more frequently referred to norms of…

  20. Theory of mind and executive function in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H; Miller, Patricia H; Gluck, Stephanie C; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor

    2016-04-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 52(4) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2016-13852-001). In the article, there were two errors in Table 6. The coefficient between WM and Age was incorrectly set as .46; it should have been .46. Further, the coefficient between WM and Gender should be .00 instead of .00. The correct version is provided.] Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural-and subcultural-differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845504

  1. Saccade-target selection of dyslexic children when reading Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the eye movements of dyslexic children and their age-matched controls when reading Chinese. Dyslexic children exhibited more and longer fixations than age-matched control children, and an increase of word length resulted in a greater increase in the number of fixations and gaze durations for the dyslexic than for the control readers. The report focuses on the finding that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the fixation landing position as a function of word length in single-fixation cases, while there was no such difference in the initial fixation of multi-fixation cases. We also found that both groups had longer incoming saccade amplitudes while the launch sites were closer to the word in single fixation cases than in multi-fixation cases. Our results suggest that dyslexic children's inefficient lexical processing, in combination with the absence of orthographic word boundaries in Chinese, leads them to select saccade targets at the beginning of words conservatively. These findings provide further evidence for parafoveal word segmentation during reading of Chinese sentences. PMID:24508073

  2. Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer) are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469), 2000 (n = 1,838), 2004 (n = 1,382) and 2006 (n = 1,128). Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986) were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p < 0.0001). Daily time in both homework and extracurricular cultural activity increased significantly from 2000 to 2004 but was stable from 2004 to 2006. Boys (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.09 -1.82), having a TV in the bedroom (OR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.15 - 3.01), having access to internet at home (OR: 1.93, 95%CI: 1.12 - 3.31) or at internet cafés (OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.21 - 3.34), or often watching TV with parents (OR: 2.27, 95%CI: 1.37 - 3.74) were all associated with being more likely to be high screen users (≥ 2 hours/day). While children aged 13-18 years (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.46-0.97) were less likely to be high screen users. Children whose parents often have rules on their TV viewing (OR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.37 - 1.10) were slightly but not significantly less likely to be high screen users. Conclusion This study confirms

  3. Working Memory Differences Between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and high-income urban developmental contexts. Both low-income rural and low-income urban children showed working memory deficits compared with their high-income counterparts, but their deficits were distinct. Low-income urban children exhibited symmetrical verbal and visuospatial working memory deficits compared with their high-income urban counterparts. Meanwhile, low-income rural children exhibited asymmetrical deficits when compared with their high-income rural counterparts, with more extreme visuospatial working memory deficits than verbal working memory deficits. These results suggest that different types of poverty are associated with different working memory abilities. PMID:25554726

  4. Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions and Preferences of Rural Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P.; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate mental health help-seeking intentions and preferences of rural Chinese adults and determine predictors of the intentions. Methods A total of 2052 representative rural residents aged 18–60 completed a cross-sectional survey by face-to-face interviews. The survey included seven questions asking about respondents’ help-seeking intentions and preferences, and a series of internationally validated instruments to assess self-perceived health status, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, mental health literacy, and attitudes towards mental illness. Results Nearly 80% of respondents were willing to seek psychological help if needed, and 72.4% preferred to get help from medical organizations, yet only 12% knew of any hospitals or clinics providing such help. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intention revealed that being female, having lower education, higher social health, higher mental health knowledge, and physical causal attribution for depression were positive predictors of help-seeking intention. Conclusion A huge gap exists between the relatively higher intention for help-seeking and significantly lower knowledge of helpful resources. Predictors of help-seeking intention for mental problems in the current study are consistent with previous studies. Interventions to increase help-seeking for mental problems by Chinese rural adults may be best served by focusing on increasing public awareness of help sources, as well as improving residents’ mental health literacy and social health, with special focus on males and those more educated. PMID:26545095

  5. Children--The Effect of Rural Residence on Dental Unmet Need for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Mayer, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unmet need for dental care is the most prevalent unmet health care need among children with special health care needs (CSHCN), even though these children are at a greater risk for dental problems. The combination of rural residence and special health care needs may leave rural CSHCN particularly vulnerable to high levels of unmet…

  6. Child Development in Rural China: Children Left behind by Their Migrant Parents and Children of Nonmigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Danhua

    2012-01-01

    Using recent cross-sectional data of rural children aged from 8 to 18 in Hunan Province of China, this article examines psychological, behavioral, and educational outcomes and the psychosocial contexts of these outcomes among children left behind by one or both of their rural-to-urban migrant parents compared to those living in nonmigrant…

  7. An Experimental Project on Energy Education for Rural Women, Primary School Children and Teachers Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Yogini; Mankodi, Hina

    One of the University of Baroda's (India) Rural/Tribal Block Placement Program's major aims during the year 1988-89 was to develop energy consciousness in women, primary school children and teachers. An experimental project was designed for a rural Indian village. The objectives were to obtain information on rural energy resources; assess the role…

  8. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  9. Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills—visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination—in the 1st and 2nd languages have distinct or overlapping genetic and environmental origins. A sample of 279 Chinese twin pairs with a mean age of 6 years was tested. Univariate twin analyses were used to identify sources of individual variations in reading abilities and related cognitive–linguistic skills in Chinese and English, respectively. They were used to show both similar and distinctive patterns in these skills across Chinese and English. Bivariate Cholesky decomposition analyses indicated genetic overlaps between all parallel Chinese and English variables, as well as shared environmental overlaps in receptive vocabulary and phonological awareness. The phenotypic correlations between 1st and 2nd language skills previously observed in cross-linguistic studies could be explained by the shared genetic and environmental influences found in this twin study. PMID:25221842

  10. Genetic and environmental overlap between Chinese and English reading-related skills in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simpson W L; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M Y; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-11-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have distinct or overlapping genetic and environmental origins. A sample of 279 Chinese twin pairs with a mean age of 6 years was tested. Univariate twin analyses were used to identify sources of individual variations in reading abilities and related cognitive-linguistic skills in Chinese and English, respectively. They were used to show both similar and distinctive patterns in these skills across Chinese and English. Bivariate Cholesky decomposition analyses indicated genetic overlaps between all parallel Chinese and English variables, as well as shared environmental overlaps in receptive vocabulary and phonological awareness. The phenotypic correlations between 1st and 2nd language skills previously observed in cross-linguistic studies could be explained by the shared genetic and environmental influences found in this twin study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25221842

  11. Children's knowledge of ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier, this adverbial modifier must be recovered at the elided site in the second clause. However, if the antecedent clause of a null object construction contains an adverbial modifier, the reconstruction of this adverbial modifier at the elided site is not necessary. Two experiments were conducted to examine whether young Mandarin-speaking children are sensitive to this structural difference between the two ellipsis constructions. The results show that children exhibited adult-like performance in both experiments. This is evidence that young Mandarin-speaking children have knowledge of the structural difference between VP-ellipsis and null object constructions with regard to adverbial recovery. We interpreted the findings in conjunction with previous research as evidence that children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions is innately specified. PMID:23975258

  12. Primary health care for Indo-Chinese children in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chak, S; Nixon, J; Dugdale, A

    1984-03-01

    This study reports the detailed analysis of 61 consecutive presentations by recent immigrants from Indo-China to the Casualty Department of a modern Australian Children's Hospital. The parents/guardians were interviewed either in the Casualty Department or in their homes. Indo-Chinese children coming to a Casualty Department manifested the same age distribution and spectrum of illnesses that is seen in the general Australian paediatric population. However, significantly fewer presentations to hospital occurred due to accidents/trauma when the group was compared with the general population attending the Casualty Department. Only 21% of the Vietnamese and Cambodian families can communicate satisfactorily with hospital staff without interpreter help. Fifty-one per cent of parents reported that they did not have enough English for a medical interview without an interpreter. Twenty-eight per cent did not have enough English to communicate at all. Parents of Vietnamese children reported that on occasions they had not sought medical care for their children because of language difficulties. Many families do not know that an Interpreter Service is available, and many believe that access to such a service is available only through a doctor. Many of these children also use traditional Chinese remedies in the context of their contemporary Australian lives. We have found no evidence that this practice causes late presentation with deleterious effects, or any evidence that it compromises modern 'Western' treatment. PMID:6466216

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  14. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  15. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  16. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  17. Implications of Rural Environmental Variables Associated with the Participation of Children in Farming Activities: A Lesson from Rural Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, A. O.; Jibowo, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the participation of rural children in farming activities and selected social, school, and physical environment related variables. Data were collected from four hundred and fifty eight children selected through stage-wise random sampling procedure from the four agricultural zones in Oyo…

  18. Growing up with Distant Parents: Socialization and Alienation of "Left-Behind" Children in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of left-behind children has emerged in rural China as a result of the large-scale migration of rural farmers to urban cities since the 1990s. With the absence of parent(s) from the family, the left-behind children face crises in socialization and their relationships with their parents are threatened by physical distance. This…

  19. Early Education for American Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, R. Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Young American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children are four times as likely to live in rural communities as in nonrural communities. The challenge of providing developmentally and culturally appropriate early childhood education to Native children living in rural areas is exacerbated by poverty. The author reviews the historic evolution of…

  20. A Study of Rural Preschool Practitioners' Views on Young Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The project "Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice" aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian…

  1. The Journey to School: Space, Geography and Experiences of Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morojele, Pholoho; Muthukrishna, Nithi

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural children's accounts of their journey to school. Twelve children (male = 6; female = 6) from three different rural villages in Lesotho participated in the study. Individual and focus group interviews were used to generate data, and these were preceded by three participatory research techniques: family drawings,…

  2. Diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malaysia: risk factors in young children.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S

    1984-04-01

    A survey was conducted in six selected rural villages to obtain baseline data on socioeconomic status, nutrition, environmental sanitation and behavioural aspects in relation to diarrhoeal diseases, using a standard questionnaire. Subsequent to this, children 0-4 years of age were followed weekly for six months for diarrhoeal disease. Eleven variables representing socioeconomic status, nutritional status, housing condition, environmental sanitation, mother's knowledge and beliefs were investigated using stepwise logistic regression to determine significant predictors of diarrhoeal disease. Children who were below two years of age, living in conditions of poor sanitation and poor quality water supply, whose houses were prone to flooding and who had mothers whose sanitary habits were not influenced by their religious beliefs, were at significantly greater risk of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:6497315

  3. Psychological Development and Educational Problems of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yongxin; Xie, Xiaochun; Heath, Melissa A.; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-01-01

    With China's rapidly developing economy and increasing urbanization, many adults from rural areas migrate to urban areas for better paid jobs. A side effect of this migration is that parents frequently leave their children behind (left-behind children). This research investigated left-behind children's and non-left-behind children's psychological,…

  4. Insomnia Symptom, Mental Disorder and Suicide: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Rural Youths 1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xianchen

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia has been reported as a risk factor of suicidal behaviors, but few studies have examined the association among insomnia, mental disorder and suicide, especially among Chinese populations. In this study, we examined the effect of insomnia symptoms on completed suicide in a large sample of suicides and their controls in Chinese rural youths. Subjects were 388 consecutively recruited suicides and 416 community living controls aged 15–34 years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. Established psychological autopsy method was used for the data collection. Insomnia symptoms were assessed with sleep questions in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) about insomnia, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) and early morning awakening (EMA). The results showed that DIS (OR=12.01, p<0.001), DMS (OR=12.82, p<0.001) or EMA (OR=12.08, p<0.001) was significantly associated with increased risk of suicide even after mental disorder was controlled for. Our study showed that insomnia can be an independent risk factor for suicide. Mental disorders mediated the association between insomnia and suicide. Insomnia should be assessed and treated for individuals at risk of suicide. PMID:25914606

  5. A model of expanding HIV/AIDS education in Chinese rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Liu, G-T; Wang, L-R; Wu, Y-F; Wang, X-L

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore an effective model of HIV/AIDS health education for a rural Chinese population. Students in two middle schools were given HIV/AIDS health education. The education in Tiechang town was carried out in the form of delivering multimedia lectures, video tapes and brochures, while in Daping town brochures were distributed to students. After receiving health education, each student extended the health education to three peasants who were their relatives or neighbours. After the education was provided, the test scores of AIDS knowledge increased significantly in the students of Tiechang town (0.50 baseline, 0.69 post-test1, 0.68 post-test2). For the expansion subjects, the scores increased significantly (0.56 baseline versus 0.74 post-test) in the Tiechang group, and also increased mildly (0.52 baseline versus 0.59 post-test) in the Daping group. Empowering secondary school students to teach others about AIDS was a highly effective model for spreading AIDS prevention knowledge among the rural Chinese population. PMID:19933206

  6. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  7. Urban and rural variations in the characteristics associated with elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the urban and rural differences in characteristics associated with elder mistreatment (EM) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of 269 urban and 135 rural participants aged 60 years or greater was performed. Among those with EM, rural participants were more likely to be women, have lower levels of education and income, have lower levels of health status and quality of life, have worse change in recent health, and have lower levels of psychosocial well-being. Both higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support were associated with increased risk of EM. PMID:23473295

  8. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Patrick W. C.; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y.; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25872015

  9. Prevalence of Uncorrected Refractive Error and Other Eye Problems Among Urban and Rural School Children

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Amruta S.; Khandekar, Rajiv; Dharmadhikari, Sheetal; Dole, Kuldeep; Gogate, Parikshit; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Aim: To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. Study Design: This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Materials and Methods: Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. Results: We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48) and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64), respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children. PMID:20142964

  10. Four children and one toy: Chinese and Canadian children faced with potential conflict over a limited resource.

    PubMed

    French, Doran C; Chen, Xinyin; Chung, Janet; Li, Miao; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Quartets of Chinese (n=125) and Canadian (n=133) 7-year-old children were observed as they played with a single attractive toy. Chinese children exhibited more assertive and general rule bids, engaged in more spontaneous giving, and reacted more positively to assertions of others whereas Canadian children more frequently referred to norms of sharing. Evidence of cultural scripts for dealing with potential conflict, that is, sharing for Canadian children and hierarchical organization for Chinese children, emerged. Passive and reticent behaviors in Chinese children and assertion and object control by Canadian children were associated with group acceptance, results suggesting the meaning of these patterns of social behavior may differ in these two countries. PMID:21418056

  11. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  12. Examining the Overall Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books: Issues and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the overall quality of 31 recently published bilingual children's picture books in English/simplified Chinese, English/simplified Chinese with pinyin, and English/traditional Chinese. These books were analyzed from six aspects, which were genre, topic, cover and body, the credibility of authors, illustrators and…

  13. Copying Skills in Relation to Word Reading and Writing in Chinese Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given…

  14. Specific Reading Difficulties in Chinese, English, or Both: Longitudinal Markers of Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness, and RAN in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Phil D.; Wong, Terry; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a…

  15. Variations on the bilingual advantage? Links of Chinese and English proficiency to Chinese American children's self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Bunge, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: (a) among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and (b) across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223) was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES), children's bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English) were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation. PMID:25324795

  16. Variations on the bilingual advantage? Links of Chinese and English proficiency to Chinese American children's self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: (a) among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and (b) across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223) was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES), children's bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English) were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation. PMID:25324795

  17. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Seale, Anna C; Davies, Mark R; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998-2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type-specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  18. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark R.; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  19. Same Beginnings, Different Stories: A Comparison of American and Chinese Children's Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Leichtman, Michelle D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined social, emotional, and cognitive characteristics of American and Chinese 6-year-olds' narratives. Found that, compared to American children, Chinese children showed greater orientation toward social engagement, greater concern with moral correctness, greater concern with authority, a less autonomous orientation, more expressions of…

  20. Chinese Children's Statistical Learning of Orthographic Regularities: Positional Constraints and Character Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese children acquire the untaught positional constraints of stroke patterns that are embedded in left-right structured and top-bottom structured characters. Using an orthographic regularity pattern elicitation paradigm, 536 Hong Kong Chinese children at different levels of reading (kindergarten, 2nd, and 5th grades)…

  1. Contribution of Discourse and Morphosyntax Skills to Reading Comprehension in Chinese Dyslexic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…

  2. American and Chinese Children's Understanding of Basic Relational Concepts in Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred first- and second-grade Chinese children's knowledge of basic relational concepts in following directions was assessed on the "Applications Booklet" of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised" (BTBC-R, 1986). Chinese children's performance was then compared with that of the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Results indicated that…

  3. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  4. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao

    2006-01-01

    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  5. Family Involvement in Children's Mathematics Education Experiences: Voices of Immigrant Chinese American Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Senfeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examines ways in which Chinese immigrant families are involved in their children's mathematics education, particularly focusing on how different types of families utilize different forms of capital to support their children's mathematics education. The theoretical framework defines four types of Chinese immigrant families--working…

  6. Communicative Development in Bilingually Exposed Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reetzke, Rachel; Zou, Xiaobing; Sheng, Li; Katsos, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the association of bilingual exposure with structural and pragmatic language development in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: The parents of 54 children with ASD exposed to 1 (n = 31) or 2 (n = 23) Chinese languages completed (a) a questionnaire to evaluate their child's competence in structural…

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children among Chinese Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Shuqiao; Zou, Tao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Abela, John R. Z.; Auerbach, Randy P.; Tong, Xi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a Chinese translation of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], and to evaluate its reliability and validity. The original version of the MASC was translated into Chinese…

  8. Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

    2014-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

  9. Clinical Profile of Snake Bite in Children in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A high incidence of snake bite envenomation has been reported from rural India. Due to inadequate epidemiological data, the incidence is underestimated. This study analyses the pattern of snake bite and their management in children in rural areas of Maharashtra, India. To determine the age, mode of presentation, seasonal variation, clinical profile and outcome of patients with snake bite less than 15 years of age. Methods This study is a retrospective, descriptive study including 162 patients, who presented with history of snake bite. Clinical data about age, sex, clinical manifestations, complications and outcome were obtained from case records and were analyzed. Findings Out of the 162 patients 98 (60.49%) were males. The bites were vasculotoxic in 147 (90.74%) and neuroparalytic in 15 (9.25%) patients. Mainly bites occurred from July to September with 84 (51.85%) bites. Bites were more common in males in age more than 5 years (89%) with bite marks mainly on lower limbs in 120 (74.04%) patients. Deaths were reported in patients who reported late to the hospital with a mortality rate of 1.85%. Conclusion Snake bite is a life threatening emergency. The key to minimizing mortality and severe morbidity is aggressive management of the ABC‘s of resuscitation, and timely and judicious administration of adequate dose of anti-venom. PMID:24910739

  10. Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan

    2010-01-01

    This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

  11. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  12. Disordered Sleep and Myopia Risk among Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongqiang; Morgan, Ian G.; Chen, Qianyun; Jin, Ling; He, Mingguang; Congdon, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disordered sleep and myopia are increasingly prevalent among Chinese children. Similar pathways may be involved in regulation of both sleep cycles and eye growth. We therefore sought to examine the association between disordered sleep and myopia in this group. Methods Urban primary school children participating in a clinical trial on myopia and outdoor activity underwent automated cycloplegic refraction with subjective refinement. Parents answered questions about children's sleep duration, sleep disorders (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire [CSHQ]), near work and time spent outdoors. Results Among 1970 children, 1902 (96.5%, mean [standard deviation SD] age 9.80 [0.44] years, 53.1% boys) completed refraction and questionnaires. Myopia < = -0.50 Diopters was present in both eyes of 588 (30.9%) children (1329/3804 = 34.9% of eyes) and 1129 children (59.4%) had abnormal CSHQ scores (> 41). In logistic regression models by eye, odds of myopia < = -0.50D increased with worse CSHQ score (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.01 per point, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] [1.001, 1.02], P = 0.014) and more night-time sleep (OR 1.02, 95% CI [1.01, 1.04, P = 0.002], while male sex (OR 0.82, 95% CI [0.70, 0.95], P = 0.008) and time outdoors (OR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.95, 0.99], P = 0.011) were associated with less myopia. The association between sleep duration and myopia was not significant (p = 0.199) for total (night + midday) sleep. Conclusions Myopia and disordered sleep were both common in this cohort, but we did not find consistent evidence for an association between the two. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00848900 PMID:25811755

  13. Effect of Iodine Excess on Physical and Intellectual Growth of Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, J. J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-six children from a high-iodine Chinese village were found to have higher goiter incidence, thyroid gland volume, and urinary/creatinine ratio than 51 children from an iodine-normal village. All children from both villages were euthyroid. Excess iodine did not substantially affect the children's physical or intellectual growth. (Author/JDD)

  14. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  15. Correlates of lifetime suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders in a Chinese rural community.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Li, Jie; Huang, Jian; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with affective disorders who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt. In a Chinese rural community, individuals with suicide attempt (N = 30) and those without suicide attempt (N = 166) were assessed with Present State Examination (PSE). Attempters had a significantly higher level of family economic status, higher rate of lifetime depressed mood and hopelessness, and delusions than nonattempters. The logistic regression models also indicated that depressed mood and hopelessness were the most important predictors of suicide attempts. No significant difference in treatment condition was found between attempters and non-attempters. Early identification and interventions focusing on reducing depressed mood, hopelessness, and controlling psychotic symptoms may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders residing in the community. PMID:17178647

  16. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  17. Development of reading-related skills in Chinese and English among Hong Kong Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Law, Ada Bui-Yan; Li, Tong; Cheung, Amelie Cho-Yi; Wong, Anita M-Y; Shu, Hua

    2014-06-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each-those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls-participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:24530801

  18. Rural Dispositions of Floating Children within the Field of Beijing Schools: Can Disadvantaged Rural Habitus Turn into Recognised Cultural Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Jia, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of urbanisation in China has seen a massive increase in the movement of the rural population to work and live in urban regions. In this large-scale migration context, the educational, health, and psychological problems of floating children are becoming increasingly visible. Different from extant studies, we focus our investigation…

  19. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (<18 years of age) from 2011. One state from each of the nine US census regions with substantial rural representation and varying degrees of community vulnerability was selected. An area deprivation index was constructed and used in conjunction with rurality to examine differences in the rate of ACSC hospitalizations among children in the sample states. A mixed model with both fixed and random effects was used to test influence of rurality and area deprivation on the odds of a pediatric hospitalization due to an ACSC within the sample. Of primary interest was the interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  20. New Clues to Reaching Very Young Children and Families in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena

    2006-01-01

    The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives (Rural Early Childhood), a research program of the Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute, and Child Trends analyzed data from two nationally representative samples of young children being followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study by the National Center for…

  1. Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Fitness among Third-Grade Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…

  2. Factors Associated with Early Risk for School-Aged Children Living in Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Gunvalson, Diane

    Early onset of at-risk behaviors has been recognized as an important predictor of severity of negative outcomes during adolescence, but little is known about rural children's involvement in such behaviors and related variables. In two rural Midwest counties with high concentrations of child poverty, a survey of 162 predominantly Caucasian fifth-…

  3. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  4. Rural Issues in Planning Services for Young Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrab, Phyllis R.

    Policy planners can create improved systems of care and new support systems for rural families who are raising children with disabling conditions or special health care needs, by recognizing the unique needs of these families, the ecology of local service delivery systems, and the special resource requirements of rural areas. Lack of information…

  5. Education of Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural Areas: New Horizons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David P.

    Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…

  6. PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 for Screening Depression in Chinese Rural Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-wei; Yu, Yu; Hu, Mi; Liu, Hui-ming; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore cut-off scores of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) for depression screening in Chinese rural elderly. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 839 residents aged 60 years and above in rural areas of Liuyang County. PHQ-9 was adopted to evaluate depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I) was adopted to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD) as a golden standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio, Youden’s index and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were analyzed on PHQ-9 and PHQ-2. Results The Cronbach's alphas of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 were 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. The score of 8 of the PHQ-9 showed the highest Youden’s index of 0.85, with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.89 respectively, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96–0.98). The score of 3 of PHQ-2 showed the highest Youden’s index of 0.79, with both sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 and the AUC was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90–0.97). Conclusions Both PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 are valid screening instruments for depression in the rural elderly in China, with recommended cut-off scores of 8 and 3 respectively. PMID:26978264

  7. Does Workplace Social Capital Associate with Hazardous Drinking Among Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Workers?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). Methods A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Results Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04–1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05–1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13–1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Conclusions Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population. PMID:25502013

  8. Assessment of mental health literacy using a multifaceted measure among a Chinese rural population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Xi-guang; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population. Setting Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China. Participants This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18–60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18–60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=−0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38–2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=−0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=−0.07, p<0.05). Conclusions MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated. PMID:26438139

  9. Development of children from urban and rural areas of West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Grebneva, N N; Zagainova, A B; Krivoschekov, S G

    2001-11-01

    Four hundred and twenty three Slavic children aged 4-9 were tested for age sex-tape related physiological features, the effects of residence (urban vs. rural), kindergarten or school establishments on physical development. The data obtained indicated that total body dimensions decreased in preschool and school age children from 1989-1999. Urban schoolchildren tended to be asthenic. Urban schoolchildren differed from the rural in their adaptation response to the standard step-test. PMID:11768443

  10. Rural/urban Background, Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Chinese College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Heng; Li, Jian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine, first, the relationship of having a rural vs. urban background with suicidal ideation in Chinese college students, and second, whether a potential relationship was mediated by depression. Methods A survey was conducted among 1,145 undergraduate students at a university in China. Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms were measured by the revised Hopkins’ Symptom checklist (SCL-90-R). Associations between rural vs. urban background, depression and suicidal ideation were estimated by multivariable linear regression-based β coefficients, logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The magnitude of indirect effect and bias-corrected 95% CIs were obtained through bootstrap techniques. Results Rural background was positively associated with depression, which was in turn associated with suicidal ideation. The OR for rural status and suicidal ideation equaled 2.15 (95% CI = 1.36–3.41). This OR was slightly, though significantly (p<0.05) attenuated by additional adjustment for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.15–3.44). Conclusion Having a rural background is a determinant of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Depression may only marginally mediate this association. PMID:23977015

  11. Disparities in Pulmonary Function in Healthy Children across the Indian Urban–Rural Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Sooky; Kirkby, Jane; Bonner, Rachel; Wade, Angela; Subramanya, Vinita; Lakshman, Padmanabha T.; Rajan, Babitha; Nooyi, Shalini C.; Stocks, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Marked socioeconomic health-care disparities are recognized in India, but lung health inequalities between urban and rural children have not been studied. Objectives: We investigated whether differences exist in spirometric pulmonary function in healthy children across the Indian urban–rural continuum and compared results with those from Indian children living in the UK. Methods: Indian children aged 5 to 12 years were recruited from Indian urban, semiurban, and rural schools, and as part of the Size and Lung Function in Children study, London. Anthropometric and spirometric assessments were undertaken. Measurements and Main Results: Acceptable spirometric data were obtained from 728 (58% boys) children in India and 311 (50% boys) UK-Indian children. As an entire group, the India-resident children had significantly lower z FEV1 and z FVC than UK-Indian children (P < 0.0005), when expressed using Global Lung Function Initiative–2012 equations. However, when India-resident children were categorized according to residence, there were no differences in z FEV1 and z FVC between Indian-urban and UK-Indian children. There were, however, significant reductions of ∼0.5 z scores and 0.9 z scores in both FEV1 and FVC (with no difference in FEV1/FVC) in Indian-semiurban and Indian-rural children, respectively, when compared with Indian-urban children (P < 0.0005). z Body mass index, socioeconomic circumstances, tobacco, and biomass exposure were individually significantly associated with z FEV1 and z FVC (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: The presence of an urban–rural continuum of lung function within a specific ethnic group emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on lung growth in emerging nations such as India, which must be taken into account when developing ethnic-specific reference values or designing studies to optimize lung health. PMID:25412016

  12. Writing Quality in Chinese Children: Speed and Fluency Matter

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Cathy Ming Wai; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Zhang, Juan; Wong, Anita M. Y.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children’s writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6–9. Age 9 writing compositions were scored using a 7-element rubric; following confirmatory factor analyses, 5 of these elements were retained to represent overall writing quality for subsequent analyses. Measures of vocabulary knowledge, Chinese word dictation, phonological awareness, speed of processing, speeded naming, and handwriting fluency at ages 6–9 were all significantly associated with the obtained overall writing quality measure even when the statistical effect of age was removed. With vocabulary knowledge, dictation skill, age, gender, and phonological awareness included in a regression equation, 35% of the variance in age 9 writing quality was explained. With the variables of speed of processing, speeded naming, and handwriting fluency additionally included as a block, 12% additional variance in the equation was explained. In addition to gender, overall unique correlates of writing quality were dictation, speed of processing, and handwriting fluency, underscoring the importance of both general automaticity and specific writing fluency for writing quality development in children. PMID:25750486

  13. Sexual violence against women and children in Chinese societies.

    PubMed

    Ko Ling Chan

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the reported patterns of sexual violence against women and children in China. It reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for various types of sexual violence and discusses community knowledge and perceptions of these violent acts. It also critically examines three major problems of sexual violence research in China. First, the diversity of findings and study methods reported by surveys and criminal reports reflects the problems in obtaining accurate figures on the scope of the problem. Second, precautions must be taken in reading studies on Chinese culture-specific risk factors for domestic violence. Third, the study of culture-specific factors should not focus solely on cultural factors in a vacuum but rather, should examine traditional culture in the context of modern societies and consensus international standards of human rights. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. PMID:19008337

  14. Rural/Urban Differences in Barriers to and Burden of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Slifkin, Rebecca T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the barriers and difficulties experienced by rural families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in caring for their children. Methods: The National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was used to examine rural-urban differences in types of providers used, reasons CSHCN had unmet health care needs,…

  15. "When I Was Little": Childhood Recollections in Chinese and European Canadian Grade School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubo

    2009-01-01

    Recollection of early childhood experiences was investigated in 225 European Canadian and 133 Chinese children (ages 8, 11, and 14) by a memory fluency task that measured accessibility of multiple early memories and elicited the earliest memory. Younger children provided memories of events that occurred at earlier ages than older children.…

  16. Scaffolding Preschool Children's Problem Solving: A Comparison between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Multiple Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Chinese mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children in different problem solving tasks. Participants were 57 children (including 29 girls) from seven kindergartens in Beijing, their mothers and teachers. Mothers varied in educational levels while all teachers were professionally qualified. Children solved four…

  17. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  18. The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

  19. Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

  20. Scaling up... : Professional Development to Serve Young Children in Chinese Welfare Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Cotton, Janice N.; Zhao, Wen; Muntaner-Gelabert, Jeronia

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 a group of American adoptive parents led by Jenny Bowen created Half the Sky Foundation (HTS) to provide nurturing care and education for children living in Chinese orphanages (known as children's welfare institutions). Jenny, a former screenwriter and film director, and her husband Richard wanted to ensure that the children still waiting…

  1. Transfer of Reading-Related Cognitive Skills in Learning to Read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keung, Yuen-Ching; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant…

  2. Young Children and the Rural Information Gap: The Weaknesses of Major Data Sources for Examining the Well-being of Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzano, Jeffrey; Fiorillo, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The devolution of increasing amounts of responsibility for the design and implementation of child and family policy has increased demand for measures of child well-being at lower levels of geography. Currently, however, it is unclear the extent to which commonly used measures of well-being can be estimated for children living in rural areas. To…

  3. Same beginnings, different stories: a comparison of American and Chinese children's narratives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Leichtman, M D

    2000-01-01

    This study examined social, emotional, and cognitive characteristics of American and Chinese children's narratives. Twenty-four American and 26 Chinese 6-year-old children participated. Each child was interviewed individually twice with a 1-week delay interval. During the two interviews, children were asked to tell 11 stories prompted by pictures and standard verbal leads and to recount 7 emotional memories. Content analyses were performed on children's stories and memories. In line with predictions, findings indicated that compared with American children, Chinese children showed greater orientation toward social engagement, greater concern with moral correctness, greater concern with authority, a less autonomous orientation, more expressions of emotions, and more situational details in both their stories and memories. A few gender differences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of different value systems and early socialization practices in these two cultures. PMID:11108099

  4. Building Interest in Math and Science for Rural and Underserved Elementary School Children Using Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Eric; DeLoach, Scott; Pauly, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The "Robot Roadshow Program" is designed to increase the interest of elementary school children in technical disciplines, specifically math and science. The program focuses on children from schools categorized as rural or underserved, which often have limited access to advanced technical resources. We developed the program using robots…

  5. Nutritional evaluation of children in high-risk rural and indigenous populations in Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panama continues to have a substantial incidence of malnutrition. Among the most affected populations are children in rural areas and in indigenous populations. We evaluated nutritional status of preschool (PS) and school-aged (SA) children in two high-risk areas in Panama to determine the prevalenc...

  6. Staging an Educated Self: Linguistic Displays of Schooling among Rural Zambian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemensen, Nana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores interpretations of schooling as produced by 6-12-year-old children in a rural Zambian community. Applying linguistic-anthropological analyses of their peer interactions, the author discusses symbolic reworkings of schooling and "educatedness" among children frequently labeled as "slow" or…

  7. Access to Dental Care for Rural Children: A Survey of Nebraska General Dentists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Kimberly K.; Salama, Fouad; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dentists are too few in number to care for all children. Therefore, the level of pediatric dental services provided by general dentists, especially in rural areas, is crucial to improving the dental health of children. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to establish a baseline in regard to the quantity of pediatric…

  8. Children at Work in Rural Northern Nigeria: Patterns of Age, Space and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Elsbeth

    2004-01-01

    Children are increasingly recognised by geographers and other social scientists as independent actors who make valuable (albeit often overlooked) economic contributions to households and society. Hausa children in rural Northern Nigeria are highly mobile and play important economic roles supporting married women who spend much time in their walled…

  9. Children at Risk in America's Rural Schools: Economic and Cultural Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.

    The problems of rural students at risk of school failure and incompletion are in many ways similar to problems of urban low-income children and young people. These problems include poverty, unemployed parents, substance abuse, low self-esteem, child abuse, and sexual activity. However, children in many chronically depressed and isolated rural…

  10. Teaching Mathematical Concepts to Rural Preschool Children Through a Home-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Roy W., Jr.

    Preschool children (ages 3, 4, and 5) participating in the Appalachia Preschool Educational Program were studied to determine if mathematical concepts could be effectively taught through a preschool program accessible to rural children. The 34-week program consisted of 3 elements: (1) a daily half-hour television broadcast, (2) weekly home…

  11. Language Skills in Low-SES Rural Appalachian Children: Kindergarten to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Mary E.; Fish, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of language in low-SES rural Appalachian children from kindergarten through middle childhood. Findings showed that the children's language skills improved significantly between kindergarten and middle childhood, with all middle childhood language means within the average range. However, all areas of language…

  12. Emotionally Supportive Classroom Contexts for Young Latino Children in Rural California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Leslie; Jensen, Bryant; Ramirez, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Some have described the academic underperformance of Latino children, on the one hand, and their relatively strong socioemotional competencies on the other, as a "Latino Paradox." We unpack the affective climate of early elementary classrooms to explore how this paradox is addressed in a rural school district where children from…

  13. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  14. Interactive Technology To Teach Rural Social Workers about Special Needs Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.; And Others

    Effective provision of services to disabled rural children and their families requires collaborative effort between special educators and social workers. However, such a collaborative effort is impeded by social workers' lack of knowledge about special education laws and services and about disabled children and their families. A major…

  15. AIDS Knowledge and HIV Stigma among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess the level of AIDS knowledge and its relationship with personal stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among children living in communities of high HIV prevalence in rural China. The data were collected in 2009 from 118 orphanage orphans (children who had lost both of their parents to HIV and…

  16. Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

  17. The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

  18. Children Learning Chinese as a Home Language in an English-Dominant Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Sinming

    2015-01-01

    Many Chinese families face many difficulties in maintaining their heritage language for their children in English-dominant societies. This article first looks at the losses from monolingualism and benefits of bilingualism. Then, it explores the common methods used today in teaching Chinese. We conclude that families and community play an…

  19. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  20. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  1. Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

  2. Some Extra Problems That the Bilingual Teachers of Chinese Children Should Consider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peter Chin-tang

    This article discusses some special problems related to bilingual education for Chinese-speaking children. Three major questions are raised. The first results from confusion over the meaning of the term "Chinese"; one must decide whether Mandarin, Canton, or Taishan should be used as the language of instruction. It is suggested that Mandarin be…

  3. The Education of New Chinese Immigrant Children in Hong Kong: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Ting, Cynthia Law Man

    2011-01-01

    In describing the current status of the education of new Chinese immigrant children (NCIC) in Hong Kong and to provide data useful for designing new policies, this article highlights the region's rise of new Chinese immigrants and the characteristics of the NCIC. Challenges to improve access to and equity in education in Hong Kong, overall quality…

  4. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  5. Securing Funding in Rural Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corinne Welt, Comp.

    The problem of securing funds to support programs for the young handicapped child is a major one for rural service providers. The process of securing funds from within the rural community itself should include nine steps: (1) defining the needy; (2) determining responsibility; (3) identifying resources; (4) considering the message; (5) choosing…

  6. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. Methods Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper airway norms of Chinese adults were used to make age comparisons. Nine upper airway and 14 craniofacial variables were measured. Results Chinese boys tended to have a thicker soft palate (P = 0.008), and less depth in the retropalatal (P = 0.011), retroglossal (P = 0.034) and hypopharyngeal (P < 0.001) pharynx than Chinese girls, whereas no gender dimorphism was found in Caucasian children. Ethnic differences were found in the depth of the retroglossal oropharynx in both genders and the position of the hyoid bone in boys. Compared with Chinese adults, the overall size of the upper airway in Chinese children was smaller. The mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination were found to be statistically significantly, albeit weakly correlated with upper airway variables. Conclusions Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of Chinese 12-year-old children were established, indicating gender-specific differences, and some ethnic differences were found in comparison with those of 12-year-old Caucasian children. An association between the mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination with upper airway variables was also noticeable. PMID:25218804

  7. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  8. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18-74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3-9.4%), 57.3% (36.9-77.6%), 48.4% (32.4-64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9-32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  9. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18–74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3–9.4%), 57.3% (36.9–77.6%), 48.4% (32.4–64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9–32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  10. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…