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Sample records for rutheniumii arene complexes

  1. The synthesis, lipophilicity and cytotoxic effects of new ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chromone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pastuszko, Adam; Majchrzak, Kinga; Czyz, Malgorzata; Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Budzisz, Elzbieta

    2016-06-01

    A series of arene ruthenium(II) complexes with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(L)X2] (where arene=p-cymene, benzene, hexamethylbenzene or mesitylene, L=aminoflavone or aminochromone derivatives and X=Cl, I) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, MS, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the selected complexes was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy in 24-hour period. The lipophilicity of the synthesized complexes was determined by the shake-flask method, and their cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro on patient-derived melanoma populations. The most active complexes against melanoma cells contain 7-aminoflavone and 6-aminoflavone as a ligand. The relationship between the cytotoxicity of all the obtained compounds and their logP values was determined and briefly analyzed with two different patterns observed. PMID:26986980

  2. Photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of a ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complex.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Pracharova, Jitka; Stepankova, Jana; Sadler, Peter J; Kasparkova, Jana

    2016-07-01

    We report DNA cleavage by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complex [(η(6)-p-terp)Ru(II)(en)Cl](+) (p-terp=para-terphenyl, en=1,2-diaminoethane, complex 1) after its photoactivation by UVA and visible light, and the toxic effects of photoactivated 1 in cancer cells. It was shown in our previous work (T. Bugarcic et al., J. Med. Chem. 51 (2008) 5310-5319) that this complex exhibits promising toxic effects in several human tumor cell lines and concomitantly its DNA binding mode involves combined intercalative and monofunctional (coordination) binding modes. We demonstrate in the present work that when photoactivated by UVA or visible light, 1 efficiently photocleaves DNA, also in hypoxic media. Studies of the mechanism underlying DNA cleavage by photoactivated 1 reveal that the photocleavage reaction does not involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although contribution of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) to the DNA photocleavage process cannot be entirely excluded. Notably, the mechanism of DNA photocleavage by 1 appears to involve a direct modification of mainly those guanine residues to which 1 is coordinatively bound. As some tumors are oxygen-deficient and cytotoxic effects of photoactivated ruthenium compounds containing {Ru(η(6)-arene)}(2+) do not require the presence of oxygen, this class of ruthenium complexes may be considered potential candidate agents for improved photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:26778426

  3. Derivation of structure-activity relationships from the anticancer properties of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 2-aryldiazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alonso, Marta; Busto, Natalia; Jalón, Félix A; Manzano, Blanca R; Leal, José M; Rodríguez, Ana M; García, Begoña; Espino, Gustavo

    2014-10-20

    The ligands 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(1)), 1-methyl-2-pyridin-2-ylbenzimidazole (HL(2)), and 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (HL(3)) and the proligand 2-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(4)) have been used to prepare five different types of new ruthenium(II) arene compounds: (i) monocationic complexes with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-HL)]Y [HL = HL(1), HL(2), or HL(3); Y = Cl or BF4; arene = 2-phenoxyethanol (phoxet), benzene (bz), or p-cymene (p-cym)]; (ii) dicationic aqua complexes of the formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(OH2)(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))](Y)2 (Y = Cl or TfO; arene = phoxet, bz, or p-cym); (iii) the nucleobase derivative [(η(6)-arene)Ru(9-MeG)(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))](PF6)2 (9-MeG = 9-methylguanine); (iv) neutral complexes consistent with the formulation [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-L(1))] (arene = bz or p-cym); (v) the neutral cyclometalated complex [(η(6)-p-cym)RuCl(κ(2)-N,C-L(4))]. The cytototoxic activity of the new ruthenium(II) arene compounds has been evaluated in several cell lines (MCR-5, MCF-7, A2780, and A2780cis) in order to establish structure-activity relationships. Three of the compounds with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))]Cl differing in the arene moiety have been studied in depth in terms of thermodynamic dissociation constants, aquation kinetic constants, and DNA binding measurements. The biologically most active compound is the p-cym derivative, which strongly destabilizes the DNA double helix, whereas those with bz and phoxet have only a small effect on the stability of the DNA double helix. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of several compounds toward CDK1 has also been evaluated. The DNA binding ability of some of the studied compounds and their CDK1 inhibitory effect suggest a multitarget mechanism for their biological activity. PMID:25302401

  4. New π-arene ruthenium(II) piano-stool complexes with nitrogen ligands.

    PubMed

    Grau, Jordi; Noe, Verónica; Ciudad, Carles; Prieto, Maria J; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Moreno, Virtudes

    2012-04-01

    The synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and antiproliferative behavior of new π-arene ruthenium(II) piano-stool complexes with nitrogen ligands are described. Three series of organometallic compounds of formulae [RuCl(2)(η(6)-p-cym)L] were synthesized (with L=2-, 3- or 4-methylpyridine; L=2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4-, 3,5-dimethylpyridine and L=1,2-, 1,3- 1,4-methylaminobenzene). The crystal structures of [RuCl(2)(p-cym)(4-methylpyridine)], [RuCl(2)(p-cym)(3,4-dimethylpyridine)] and [RuCl(2)(p-cym)(1,4-methylaminobenzene)] were resolved and the characterization was completed by spectroscopic UV-vis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR studies. Electrochemical experiments were performed by cyclic voltammetry to estimate the redox potential of the Ru(II)/Ru(III) couple. The interaction with plasmid pBR322 DNA was studied through the examination of the electrophoretical mobility and atomic force microscopy, and interaction with ct-DNA by circular dichroism, viscosity measurements and fluorescence studies based on the DNA-ethidium bromide complex. The antiproliferative behavior of the series with L=methylpyridine was assayed against two tumor cell lines, i.e. LoVo and MiaPaca. The results revealed a moderate cytotoxicity with a higher activity for the LoVo cell line compared to the MiaPaca one. PMID:22387934

  5. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, MJ; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, CR; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, PJ; Sharma, RA

    2016-01-01

    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5–10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:26867983

  6. Antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(ii) arene complexes with mono- and bidentate pyridine-based ligands.

    PubMed

    Richter, Stefan; Singh, Sushma; Draca, Dijana; Kate, Anup; Kumbhar, Anupa; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mijatovic, Sanja; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2016-08-16

    A series of Ru(II) arene complexes of mono- and bidentate N-donor ligands with carboxyl or ester groups and chlorido ancillary ligands were synthesised and structurally characterised. The complexes have a distorted tetrahedral piano-stool geometry. The binding interaction was studied with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by absorption titration, viscosity measurement, thermal melting, circular dichroism, ethidium bromide displacement assay and DNA cleavage of plasmid DNA (pBR322), investigated by gel electrophoresis. The dichlorido complexes bind covalently to DNA in the dark, similar to cisplatin, while the monochlorido complexes bind covalently on irradiation, similar to cisplatin analogues. The compounds are selectively cytotoxic against several tumour cell lines and show specific nonlinear correlation between dose and activity. This phenomenon is closely related to their potential to act preferentially as inhibitors of cell division. PMID:27264161

  7. Dual triggering of DNA binding and fluorescence via photoactivation of a dinuclear ruthenium(II) arene complex.

    PubMed

    Magennis, Steven W; Habtemariam, Abraha; Novakova, Olga; Henry, John B; Meier, Samuel; Parsons, Simon; Oswald, Iain D H; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J

    2007-06-11

    The dinuclear RuII arene complexes [{(eta6-arene)RuCl}2(mu-2,3-dpp)](PF6)2, arene=indan (1), benzene (2), p-cymene (3), or hexamethylbenzene (4) and 2,3-dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine, have been synthesized and characterized. Upon irradiation with UVA light, complexes 1 and 2 readily underwent arene loss, while complexes 3 and 4 did not. The photochemistry of 1 was studied in detail. In the X-ray structure of [{(eta6-indan)RuCl}2(mu-2,3-dpp)](PF6)2 (1), 2,3-dpp bridges two RuII centers 6.8529(6) A apart. In water, aquation of 1 in the dark occurs with replacement of chloride with biexponential kinetics and decay constants of 100+/-1 min-1 and 580+/-11 min-1. This aquation was suppressed by 0.1 M NaCl. UV or visible irradiation of 1 in aqueous or methanolic solution led to arene loss. The fluorescence of the unbound arene is approximately 40 times greater than when it is complexed. Irradiation of 1 also had a significant effect on its interactions with DNA. The DNA binding of 1 is increased after irradiation. The non-irradiated form of 1 preferentially formed DNA adducts that only weakly blocked RNA polymerase, while irradiation of 1 transformed the adducts into stronger blocks for RNA polymerase. The efficiency of irradiated 1 to form DNA interstrand cross-links was slightly greater than that of cisplatin in both 10 mM NaClO4 and 0.1 M NaCl. In contrast, the interstrand cross-linking efficiency of non-irradiated 1 in 10 mM NaClO4 was relatively low. An intermediate amount of cross-linking was observed when the sample of DNA already modified by non-irradiated 1 was irradiated. DNA unwinding measurements supported the conclusion that both mono- and bifunctional adducts with DNA can form. These results show that photoactivation of dinuclear RuII arene complexes can simultaneously produce a highly reactive ruthenium species that can bind to DNA and a fluorescent marker (the free arene). Importantly, the mechanism of photoreactivity is also independent of oxygen. These

  8. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel; Nazarov, Alexey; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael; Keppler, Bernhard; Hartinger, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  9. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M.; Nazarov, Alexey A.; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA, indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect. PMID:24790955

  10. Antimalarial activity of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with mono- and bidentate chloroquine analogue ligands.

    PubMed

    Ekengard, Erik; Glans, Lotta; Cassells, Irwin; Fogeron, Thibault; Govender, Preshendren; Stringer, Tameryn; Chellan, Prinessa; Lisensky, George C; Hersh, William H; Doverbratt, Isa; Lidin, Sven; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Smith, Gregory S; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2015-11-28

    Eight new ruthenium and five new osmium p-cymene half-sandwich complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antimalarial activity. All complexes contain ligands that are based on a 4-chloroquinoline framework related to the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Ligands HL(1-8) are salicylaldimine derivatives, where HL(1) = N-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)methylimino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine, and HL(2-8) contain non-hydrogen substituents in the 3-position of the salicylaldimine ring, viz. F, Cl, Br, I, NO2, OMe and (t)Bu for HL(2-8), respectively. Ligand HL(9) is also a salicylaldimine-containing ligand with substitutions in both 3- and 5-positions of the salicylaldimine moiety, i.e. N-(2-((2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)methyl-imino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine, while HL(10) is N-(2-((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) The half sandwich metal complexes that have been investigated are [Ru(η(6)-cym)(L(1-8))Cl] (Ru-1-Ru-8, cym = p-cymene), [Os(η(6)-cym)(L(1-3,5,7))Cl] (Os-1-Os-3, Os-5, and Os-7), [M(η(6)-cym)(HL(9))Cl2] (M = Ru, Ru-HL(9); M = Os, Os-HL(9)) and [M(η(6)-cym)(L(10))Cl]Cl (M = Ru, Ru-10; M = Os, Os-10). In complexes Ru-1-Ru-8 and Ru-10, Os-1-Os-3, Os-5 and Os-7 and Os-10, the ligands were found to coordinate as bidentate N,O- and N,N-chelates, while in complexes Ru-HL(9) and Os-HL(9), monodentate coordination of the ligands through the quinoline nitrogen was established. The antimalarial activity of the new ligands and complexes was evaluated against chloroquine sensitive (NF54 and D10) and chloroquine resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite strains. Coordination of ruthenium and osmium arene moieties to the ligands resulted in lower antiplasmodial activities relative to the free ligands, but the resistance index is better for the ruthenium complexes compared to chloroquine. Overall, osmium complexes appeared to be less active than the corresponding ruthenium complexes. PMID:26491831

  11. Anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands.

    PubMed

    Chelopo, Madichaba P; Pawar, Sachin A; Sokhela, Mxolisi K; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2013-08-01

    Ruthenium complexes offer potential reduced toxicity compared to current platinum anticancer drugs. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands were synthesised, characterised and coordinated to an organometallic Ru(II) centre. These complexes were evaluated for activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and MDA-MB-231 as well as for toxicity in the normal cell line MDBK. They were observed to be moderately active against only the MCF-7 cells with the best IC₅₀ value of 34 μM for the cis-diastereomeric complex C4. They also displayed excellent selectivity by being relatively inactive against the normal MDBK cell line with SI values ranging from 2.3 to 7.4. PMID:23827181

  12. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chelating chloroquine analogue ligands: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimalarial activity†

    PubMed Central

    Glans, Lotta; Ehnbom, Andreas; de Kock, Carmen; Martínez, Alberto; Estrada, Jesús; Smith, Peter J.; Haukka, Matti; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Three new ruthenium complexes with bidentate chloroquine analogue ligands, [Ru(η6-cym)(L1)Cl]Cl (1, cym = p-cymene, L1 = N-(2-((pyridin-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine), [Ru(η6-cym)(L2)Cl]Cl (2, L2 = N-(2-((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) and [Ru(η6-cym)(L3)Cl] (3, L3 = N-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)methylimino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) have been synthesized and characterized. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of 2 is reported. The antimalarial activity of complexes 1–3 and ligands L1, L2 and L3, as well as the compound N-(2-(bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine (L4), against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria strains was evaluated. While 1 and 2 are less active than the corresponding ligands, 3 exhibits high antimalarial activity. The chloroquine analogue L2 also shows good activity against both the choloroquine sensitive and the chloroquine resistant strains. Heme aggregation inhibition activity (HAIA) at an aqueous buffer/n-octanol interface (HAIR50) and lipophilicity (D, as measured by water/n-octanol distribution coefficients) have been measured for all ligands and metal complexes. A direct correlation between the D and HAIR50 properties cannot be made because of the relative structural diversity of the complexes, but it may be noted that these properties are enhanced upon complexation of the inactive ligand L3 to ruthenium, to give a metal complex (3) with promising antimalarial activity. PMID:22249579

  13. Novel N-coordinate half-sandwich ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing sulfonamide fragments: Catalytic activities in the TH of acetophenone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayaci, Nilgün; Dayan, Serkan; Kalaycioglu Ozpozan, Nilgun

    2015-11-01

    The novel cationic N-coordinate ruthenium(II)/arene complexes (6-10) were prepared from the starting complex [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 dimer. The structures of the [(p-cymene)RuLCl]Cl (L = N-arenesulfonyl-4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamines) complexes were elucidated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ionic conductivity techniques, and elemental analysis methods. The 6-10 complexes were applied as catalyst in the transfer hydrogenation (TH) of ketones. The catalytic tests showed that all the complexes are moderate catalysis precursors. Especially, {[N-benzenesulfonyl-4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine]-(p-cymene)-di-chloro-ruthenium(II)} (8) and {[N-4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl-4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine]-(p-cymene)-di-chloro-ruthenium(II)} (9) compounds were found to be a good catalysts in comparison to the others giving the corresponding alcohols in a good turnover frequency value of 1534 and 1731 h-1, respectively.

  14. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II) (eta6-arene)(en)CL]+ complexes with water and nucleobases; ab initio and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Futera, Zdenek; Klenko, Julia; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jirí; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2009-09-01

    Piano stool ruthenium complexes of the composition [Ru(II)(eta6-arene)(en)Cl](+/2+) (en = ethylenediamine) represent an emerging class of cisplatin-analogue anticancer drug candidates. In this study, we use computational quantum chemistry to characterize the structure, stability and reactivity of these compounds. All these structures were optimized at DFT(B3LYP)/6-31G(d) level and their single point properties were determined by the MP2/6-31++G(2df,2pd) method. Thermodynamic parameters and rate constants were determined for the aquation process, as a replacement of the initial chloro ligand by water and subsequent exchange reaction of aqua ligand by nucleobases. The computations were carried out at several levels of DFT and ab initio theories (B3LYP, MP2 and CCSD) utilizing a range of bases sets (from 6-31G(d) to aug-cc-pVQZ). Excellent agreement with experimental results for aquation process was obtained at the CCSD level and reasonable match was achieved also with the B3LYP/6-31++G(2df,2pd) method. This level was used also for nucleobase-water exchange reaction where a smaller rate constant for guanine exchange was found in comparison with adenine. Although adenine follows a simple replacement mechanism, guanine complex passes by a two-step mechanism. At first, Ru-O6(G) adduct is formed, which is transformed through a chelate TS2 to the Ru-N7(G) final complex. In case of guanine, the exchange reaction is more favorable thermodynamically (releasing in total by about 8 kcal/mol) but according to our results, the rate constant for guanine substitution is slightly smaller than the analogous constant in adenine case when reaction course from local minimum is considered. PMID:19090568

  15. DNA binding and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of water-soluble ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok Ranjan; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2007-12-10

    Water-soluble piano-stool arene ruthenium complexes based on 1-(4-cyanophenyl)imidazole (CPI) and 4-cyanopyridine (CNPy) with the formulas [(eta6-arene)RuCl2(L)] (L = CPI, eta6-arene = benzene (1), p-cymene (2), hexamethylbenzene (3); L = CNPy, eta6-arene = benzene (4), p-cymene (5), hexamethylbenzene (6)) have been prepared by our earlier methods. The molecular structure of [(eta6-C6Me6)RuCl2(CNPy)] (6) has been determined crystallographically. Analogous rhodium(III) complex [(eta5-C5Me5)RhCl2(CPI)] (7) has also been prepared and characterized. DNA interaction with the arene ruthenium complexes and the rhodium complex has been examined by spectroscopic and gel mobility shift assay; condensation of DNA and B-->Z transition have also been described. Arene ruthenium(II) and EPh3 (E = P, As)-containing arene ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited strong binding behavior, however, rhodium(III) complexes were found to be Topo II inhibitors with an inhibition percentage of 70% (7) and 30% (7a). Furthermore, arene ruthenium complexes containing polypyridyl ligands also act as mild Topo II inhibitors (10%, 3c and 40%, 3d) in contrast to their precursor complexes. Complexes 4-6 also show significant inhibition of beta-hematin/hemozoin formation activity. PMID:18001110

  16. Synthesis, structure, and antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with N,O-chelating pyrazolone-based β-ketoamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Petrini, Agnese; Scopelliti, Rosario; Clavel, Catherine M; Dyson, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Novel ruthenium half-sandwich complexes containing (N,O)-bound pyrazolone-based β-ketoamine ligands have been prepared, and the solid-state structures of one ligand and five complexes have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Some of the complexes display moderate cytotoxicity toward the human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter line having acquired resistance to cisplatin. PMID:25412203

  17. Dual-targeting organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Qun; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Erlong; Liu, Suyan; Wang, Fuyi

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that complexation with (η(6)-arene)Ru(II) fragments confers 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores a higher potential for inducing cellular apoptosis while preserving the highly inhibitory activity of 4-anilinoquinazolines against EGFR and the reactivity of the ruthenium centre to 9-ethylguanine (Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 10224-10226). Reported herein are the synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the biological activity of a new series of ruthenium(ii) complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L)Cl]PF6 (arene = p-cymene, benzene, 2-phenylethanol or indane, L = 4-anilinoquinazolines). These organometallic ruthenium complexes undergo fast hydrolysis in aqueous solution. Intriguingly, the ligation of (arene)Ru(II) fragments with 4-anilinoquinazolines not only makes the target complexes excellent EGFR inhibitors, but also confers the complexes high affinity to bind to DNA minor grooves while maintaining their reactivity towards DNA bases, characterising them with dual-targeting properties. Molecular modelling studies reveal that the hydrolysis of these complexes is a favourable process which increases the affinity of the target complexes to bind to EGFR and DNA. In vitro biological activity assays show that most of this group of ruthenium complexes are selectively active inhibiting the EGF-stimulated growth of the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, and the most active complex [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-L13)Cl]PF6 (, IC50 = 1.36 μM, = 4-(3'-chloro-4'-fluoroanilino)-6-(2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazoline) is 29-fold more active than its analogue, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N-ethylenediamine)Cl]PF6, and 21-fold more active than gefitinib, a well-known EGFR inhibitor in use clinically. These results highlight the strong promise to develop highly active ruthenium anticancer complexes by ligation of cytotoxic ruthenium pharmacophores with bioactive organic molecules. PMID:26106875

  18. Effect of the Piperazine Unit and Metal-Binding Site Position on the Solubility and Anti-Proliferative Activity of Ruthenium(II)- and Osmium(II)- Arene Complexes of Isomeric Indolo[3,2-c]quinoline—Piperazine Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the indoloquinoline backbone and piperazine were combined to prepare indoloquinoline–piperazine hybrids and their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes in an effort to generate novel antitumor agents with improved aqueous solubility. In addition, the position of the metal-binding unit was varied, and the effect of these structural alterations on the aqueous solubility and antiproliferative activity of their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes was studied. The indoloquinoline–piperazine hybrids L1–3 were prepared in situ and isolated as six ruthenium and osmium complexes [(η6-p-cymene)M(L1–3)Cl]Cl, where L1 = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-2-N-amine, M = Ru ([1a]Cl), Os ([1b]Cl), L2 = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-4-N-amine, M = Ru ([2a]Cl), Os ([2b]Cl), L3 = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-8-N-amine, M = Ru ([3a]Cl), Os ([3b]Cl). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The antiproliferative activity of the isomeric ruthenium and osmium complexes [1a,b]Cl–[3a,b]Cl was examined in vitro and showed the importance of the position of the metal-binding site for their cytotoxicity. Those complexes containing the metal-binding site located at the position 4 of the indoloquinoline scaffold ([2a]Cl and [2b]Cl) demonstrated the most potent antiproliferative activity. The results provide important insight into the structure–activity relationships of ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes with indoloquinoline–piperazine hybrid ligands. These studies can be further utilized for the design and development of more potent chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24927493

  19. Effect of the piperazine unit and metal-binding site position on the solubility and anti-proliferative activity of ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)- arene complexes of isomeric indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-piperazine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Filak, Lukas K; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Bauer, Theresa J; Richardson, Des R; Arion, Vladimir B

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the indoloquinoline backbone and piperazine were combined to prepare indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrids and their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes in an effort to generate novel antitumor agents with improved aqueous solubility. In addition, the position of the metal-binding unit was varied, and the effect of these structural alterations on the aqueous solubility and antiproliferative activity of their ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes was studied. The indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrids L(1-3) were prepared in situ and isolated as six ruthenium and osmium complexes [(η(6)-p-cymene)M(L(1-3))Cl]Cl, where L(1) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-2-N-amine, M = Ru ([1a]Cl), Os ([1b]Cl), L(2) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-4-N-amine, M = Ru ([2a]Cl), Os ([2b]Cl), L(3) = 6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-8-N-amine, M = Ru ([3a]Cl), Os ([3b]Cl). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The antiproliferative activity of the isomeric ruthenium and osmium complexes [1a,b]Cl-[3a,b]Cl was examined in vitro and showed the importance of the position of the metal-binding site for their cytotoxicity. Those complexes containing the metal-binding site located at the position 4 of the indoloquinoline scaffold ([2a]Cl and [2b]Cl) demonstrated the most potent antiproliferative activity. The results provide important insight into the structure-activity relationships of ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes with indoloquinoline-piperazine hybrid ligands. These studies can be further utilized for the design and development of more potent chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24927493

  20. Molecular Models of Ruthenium(II) Organometallic Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the featured molecules for the month of March, which appear in the paper by Ozerov, Fafard, and Hoffman, and which are related to the study of the reactions of a number of "piano stool" complexes of ruthenium(II). The synthesis of compound 2a offers students an alternative to the preparation of ferrocene if they are only…

  1. Binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes for amyloid fibrils recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanczyc, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Metal-organic compounds represent a unique class of biomarkers with promising photophysical properties useful for imaging. Here interactions of insulin fibrils with two binuclear complexes [μ-(11,11‧-bidppz)(phen)4Ru2]4+ (1) and [μ-C4(cpdppz)(phen)4Ru2]4+ (2) are studied by linear dichroism (LD) and fluorescence. These ruthenium(II) compounds could provide a new generation of amyloid binding chromophores with long lived lifetimes, good luminescence quantum yields for the bound molecules and photo-stability useful in multiphoton luminescence imaging.

  2. Organometallic cis-Dichlorido Ruthenium(II) Ammine Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Habtemariam, Abraha; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Bifunctional neutral half-sandwich RuII complexes of the type [(η6-arene)Ru(NH3)Cl2] where arene is p-cym (1) or bip (2) were synthesised by the reaction of N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (dmba), NH4PF6 and the corresponding RuII arene dimer, and were fully characterised. X-ray crystallographic studies of [(η6-p-cym)Ru(NH3)Cl2]·{(dmba–H)(PF6)} (1a) and [(η6-bip)Ru(NH3)Cl2] (2) show extensive H-bond interactions in the solid state, mainly involving the NH3 and the Cl ligands, as well as weak aromatic stacking interactions. The half-lives for the sequential hydrolysis of 1 and 2 determined by UV/Vis spectroscopy at 310 K ranged from a few minutes for the first aquation to ca. 45 min for the second aquation; the diaqua adducts were the predominant species at equilibrium. Arene loss during the aquation of complex 2 was observed. Upon hydrolysis, both complexes readily formed mono- and di-9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) adducts in aqueous solution at 310 K. The reaction reached equilibrium after ca. 1.8 h in the case of complex 1 and was slower but more complete for complex 2 (before the onset of arene loss at ca. 2.7 h). Complexes 1 and 2 were not cytotoxic towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells up to the maximum concentration tested (100 μM). PMID:23956682

  3. A selective, long-lived deep-red emissive ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes for the detection of BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Eththilu; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Singaravadivel, Subramanian; Bhuvaneswari, Jayaraman; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2014-09-01

    A selective, label free luminescence sensor for bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated using ruthenium(II) complexes over the other proteins. Interaction between BSA and ruthenium(II) complexes has been studied using absorption, emission, excited state lifetime and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. The luminescence intensity of ruthenium(II) complexes (I and II), has enhanced at 602 and 613 nm with a large hypsochromic shift of 18 and 5 nm respectively upon addition of BSA. The mode of binding of ruthenium(II) complexes with BSA has analyzed using computational docking studies.

  4. Photophysical properties of amphiphilic ruthenium(II) complexes in micelles.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Eswaran; Mareeswaran, Paulpandian Muthu; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2014-09-01

    Amphiphilic ruthenium(II) complexes II–IV were synthesized and their photophysical properties were investigated in the presence of anionic (SDS), cationic (CTAB) and neutral (Triton X-100) micelles. The absorption and emission spectral data in the presence of micelles show that these Ru(II) complexes are incorporated in the micelles. There are two types of interaction between complexes I–IV and the micelles: hydrophobic and electrostatic. In the case of cationic micelles (CTAB), the hydrophobic interactions are predominant over electrostatic repulsion for the binding of cationic complexes II–IV with CTAB. In the case of anionic micelles (SDS), electrostatic interactions seem to be important in the binding of II–IV to SDS. Hydrophobic interactions play a dominant role in the binding of II–IV to the neutral micelles, Triton X-100. Based on the steady state and luminescence experiments, the enhancement of luminescence intensity and lifetime in the presence of micelles is due to the protection of the complexes from exposure to water in this environment. PMID:24976590

  5. Unusual mode of protein binding by a cytotoxic π-arene ruthenium(ii) piano-stool compound containing an O,S-chelating ligand.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Jana; Görls, Helmar; Häfner, Norman; Ferraro, Giarita; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Weigand, Wolfgang; Merlino, Antonello

    2016-08-01

    A new pseudo-octahedral π-arene ruthenium(ii) piano-stool compound, containing an O,S-bidentate ligand (compound 1) and showing significant cytotoxic activity in vitro, was synthesized and characterized. In solution stability and interaction with the model protein bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure and that of the adduct formed upon reaction with RNase A were obtained by X-ray crystallography. The comparison between the structure of purified compound 1 and that of the fragment bound to RNase A reveals an unusual mode of protein binding that includes ligand exchange and alteration of coordination sphere geometry. PMID:27427335

  6. Dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenchao; Zuo, Jiarui; Wang, Lili; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2014-02-28

    A new series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, which possess larger π-conjugated systems, good water solubility and pH resistance, and high photostability, were developed to act as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes. PMID:24418839

  7. A luminescent ruthenium(II) complex for light-triggered drug release and live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Karaoun, Nora; Renfrew, Anna K

    2015-09-25

    We report a novel ruthenium(II) complex for selective release of the imidazole-based drug econazole. While the complex is highly stable and luminescent in the dark, irradiation with green light induces release of one of the econazole ligands, which is accompanied by a turn-off luminescence response and up to a 34-fold increase in cytotoxicity towards tumour cells. PMID:26248575

  8. Biological activity of ruthenium and osmium arene complexes with modified paullones in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Bartel, Caroline; Schmid, Wolfgang F; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2012-11-01

    In an attempt to combine the ability of indolobenzazepines (paullones) to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and that of platinum-group metal ions to interact with proteins and DNA, ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with paullones were prepared, expecting synergies and an increase of solubility of paullones. Complexes with the general formula [M(II)Cl(η(6)-p-cymene)L]Cl, where M=Ru (1, 3) or Os (2, 4), and L=L(1) (1, 2) or L(2) (3, 4), L(1)=N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]-benzazepin-6(5H)-yliden-N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)azine and L(2)=N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6-yl)-N'-[3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-4-yl-methylene]azinium chloride (L(2)(*)HCl), were now investigated regarding cytotoxicity and accumulation in cancer cells, impact on the cell cycle, capacity of inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis as well as their ability to inhibit Cdk activity. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay yielded IC(50) values in the nanomolar to low micromolar range. In accordance with cytotoxicity data, the BrdU assay showed that 1 is the most and 4 the least effective of these compounds regarding inhibition of DNA synthesis. Effects on the cell cycle are minor, although concentration-dependent inhibition of Cdk2/cyclin E activity was observed in cell-free experiments. Induction of apoptosis is most pronounced for complex 1, accompanied by a low fraction of necrotic cells, as observed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. PMID:23037896

  9. Biological activity of ruthenium and osmium arene complexes with modified paullones in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Bartel, Caroline; Schmid, Wolfgang F.; Jakupec, Michael A.; Arion, Vladimir B.; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to combine the ability of indolobenzazepines (paullones) to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and that of platinum-group metal ions to interact with proteins and DNA, ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with paullones were prepared, expecting synergies and an increase of solubility of paullones. Complexes with the general formula [MIICl(η6-p-cymene)L]Cl, where M = Ru (1, 3) or Os (2, 4), and L = L1 (1, 2) or L2 (3, 4), L1 = N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]-benzazepin-6(5H)-yliden-N′-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)azine and L2 = N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6-yl)-N′-[3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-4-yl-methylene]azinium chloride (L2*HCl), were now investigated regarding cytotoxicity and accumulation in cancer cells, impact on the cell cycle, capacity of inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis as well as their ability to inhibit Cdk activity. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay yielded IC50 values in the nanomolar to low micromolar range. In accordance with cytotoxicity data, the BrdU assay showed that 1 is the most and 4 the least effective of these compounds regarding inhibition of DNA synthesis. Effects on the cell cycle are minor, although concentration-dependent inhibition of Cdk2/cyclin E activity was observed in cell-free experiments. Induction of apoptosis is most pronounced for complex 1, accompanied by a low fraction of necrotic cells, as observed by annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. PMID:23037896

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity studies of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-05-01

    Three new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, furan-2-carboxylic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), furan-2-carboxylic acid [4-(ethyl-propyl-amino)-2-hydroxy-benzylidene]-hydrazide (HL(2)) and furan-2-carboxylic acid (3-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) were synthesized and characterized by various spectro-analytical techniques. The hydrazone ligands act as a tridendate ligand with ONO as the donor sites and are preferably found in the enol form in all the complexes. The molecular structure of the ligands was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction of the ligands and the complexes with CT-DNA were evaluated by an absorption titration method which revealed that the compounds interact with CT-DNA through intercalation. Gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated the ability of the complexes to cleave the calf thymus DNA hydrolytically. Antioxidant studies showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes have a strong radical-scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the compounds examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibited substantial anticancer activity. PMID:26974577

  11. A Ruthenium(II) Complex Supported by Trithiacyclononane and Aromatic Diimine Ligand as Luminescent Switch-On Probe for Biomolecule Detection and Protein Staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun-Yuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Lin, Sheng; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2014-11-01

    A new ruthenium(II) complex has been developed for detection of biomolecules. This complex is highly selective for histidine over other amino acids and has been applied to protein staining in an SDS-PAGE gel.

  12. A Ruthenium(II) Complex Supported by Trithiacyclononane and Aromatic Diimine Ligand as Luminescent Switch-On Probe for Biomolecule Detection and Protein Staining

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chun-Yuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Lin, Sheng; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2014-01-01

    A new ruthenium(II) complex has been developed for detection of biomolecules. This complex is highly selective for histidine over other amino acids and has been applied to protein staining in an SDS-PAGE gel. PMID:25409703

  13. Photoinduced interactions of supramolecular ruthenium(II) complexes with plasmid DNA: synthesis and spectroscopic, electrochemical, and DNA photocleavage studies.

    PubMed

    Swavey, Shawn; DeBeer, Madeleine; Li, Kaiyu

    2015-04-01

    Two new bridging ligands have been synthesized by combining substituted benzaldehydes with phenanthrolinopyrrole (php), resulting in new polyazine bridging ligands. The ligands have been characterized by (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. These new ligands display π-π* transitions above 500 nm with modest molar absorptivities. Upon excitation at the ligand-centered charge-transfer transition, weak emission with a maximum wavelength of 612 nm is observed. When coordinated to two ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl) groups, the new bimetallic complexes generated give an overall 4+ charge. The electronic transitions of the bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes display traditional π-π* transitions at 287 nm and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions at 452 nm with molar absorptivities greater than 30000 M(-1) cm(-1). Oxidation of the ruthenium(II) metal centers to ruthenium(III) occurs at potentials above 1.4 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements indicate that the ruthenium(II) moieties behave independently. Both complexes are water-soluble and show the ability to photonick plasmid DNA when irradiated with low-energy light above 550 nm. In addition, one of the complexes, [Ru(bpy)2php]2Van(4+), shows the ability to linearize plasmid DNA and gives evidence, by gel electrophoresis, of photoinduced binding to plasmid DNA. PMID:25798576

  14. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing quinone based ligands: Synthesis, characterization, catalytic applications and DNA interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, P.; Manikandan, R.; Endo, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Viswanathamurthi, P.

    2012-12-01

    1,2-Naphthaquinone reacts with amines such as semicarbazide, isonicotinylhydrazide and thiosemicarbazide in high yield procedure with the formation of tridentate ligands HLn (n = 1-3). By reaction of ruthenium(II) starting complexes and quinone based ligands HLn (n = 1-3), a series of ruthenium complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR and ESI-MS). The ligands were coordinated to ruthenium through quinone oxygen, imine nitrogen and enolate oxygen/thiolato sulfur. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for all the complexes. Further, the catalytic oxidation of primary, secondary alcohol and transfer hydrogenation of ketone was carried out. The DNA cleavage efficiency of new complexes has also been tested.

  15. Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral study and catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, R.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Muthukumar, M.

    2011-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(B)(L)] (were B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = hydrazone Schiff base ligands) were synthesized from the reactions of hydrazone Schiff base ligand (obtained from isonicotinoylhydrazide and different hydroxy aldehydes) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py) in 1:1 molar ratio. All the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR) data. They have been tentatively assigned an octahedral structure. The synthesized complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant. They were also found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to alcohols in KOH/Isopropanol.

  16. Molecular dinitrogen complexes of ruthenium(II) porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Camenzind, M.J.; James, B.R.; Dolphin, D.; Sparapany, J.W.; Ibers, J.A.

    1988-08-24

    The existence of both mono- and bis(nitrogen) complexes of ruthenium have been previously established. Details on a series of complexes are presented herein, and results of an x-ray crystallographic study of Ru(TMP) (THF) (N/sub 2/) are reported. 30 references, 4 tables.

  17. Ruthenium- and osmium-arene complexes of 8-substituted indolo[3,2-c]quinolines: Synthesis, X-ray diffraction structures, spectroscopic properties, and antiproliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Filak, Lukas K.; Göschl, Simone; Hackl, Stefanie; Jakupec, Michael A.; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    Six novel ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-arene complexes with indoloquinoline modified ligands containing methyl and halo substituents in position 8 of the molecule backbone have been synthesised and comprehensively characterised by spectroscopic methods (1H, 13C NMR, UV–Vis), ESI mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Binding of indoloquinolines to a metal-arene scaffold makes the products soluble enough in biological media to allow for assaying their antiproliferative activity. The complexes were tested in three human cancer cell lines, namely A549 (non-small cell lung cancer), SW480 (colon carcinoma) and CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), yielding IC50 values in the 10−6–10−7 M concentration range after continuous exposure for 96 h. Compounds with halo substituents in position 8 are more effective cytotoxic agents in vitro than the previously reported species halogenated in position 2 of the indoloquinoline backbone. High antiproliferative activity of both series of substances may be due at least in part to their potential to act as DNA intercalators. PMID:23471093

  18. DNA interaction, antioxidant activity, and bioactivity studies of two ruthenium(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing-Jie; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Wang, Ji; Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Two new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (1) and [Ru(bpy)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (2) were prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex 2 was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 12.9622(14) Å, b = 17.1619(19) Å, c = 22.7210(3) Å, β = 100.930(2)°, R = 0.0536, Rω = 0.1111. The DNA-binding constants for complexes 1 and 2 were determined to be 1.92 × 105 (s = 1.72) and 2.24 × 105 (s = 1.86) M-1, respectively. The DNA-binding behaviors showed that complexes 1 and 2 interact with DNA by intercalative mode. The antioxidant activities of the ligand and the complexes were performed. Ligand, dcdppz, has no cytotoxicity against the selected cell lines. Complex 1 shows higher cytotoxicity than complex 2, but lower than cisplatin toward selected cell lines. The apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated, and the apoptotic mechanism of BEL-7402 cells was studied by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis. Complex 1 induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway and by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  19. DNA binding properties, histidine interaction and cytotoxicity studies of water soluble ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Dejan; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Puchta, Ralph; Bugarčić, Živadin D; Rilak, Ana

    2016-03-21

    In this study, two representatives of previously synthesized ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes, i.e., [Ru(Cl-tpy)(en)Cl][Cl] (1) and [Ru(Cl-tpy)(dach)Cl][Cl] (2), were chosen and a detailed study of the kinetic parameters of their reactivity toward l-histidine (l-His), using the UV-Vis and (1)H NMR techniques, was developed. The inner molecular rearrangement from N3-coordinated l-His to the N1 bound isomer, observable in the NMR data, was corroborated by DFT calculations favoring N1 coordination by nearly 4 kcal mol(-1). These two ruthenium(ii) terpyridine complexes were investigated for their interactions with DNA employing UV-Vis spectroscopy, DNA viscosity measurements and fluorescence quenching measurements. The high binding constants obtained in the DNA binding studies (Kb = 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) suggest a strong binding of the complexes to calf thymus (CT) DNA. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) showed that the complexes can displace DNA-bound EB, suggesting strong competition with EB (Ksv = 1.5-2.5 × 10(4) M(-1)). In fact, the results indicate that these complexes can bind to DNA covalently and non-covalently. In order to gain insight of the behavior of a neutral compound, besides the four previously synthesized cationic complexes [Ru(Cl-tpy)(en)Cl][Cl] (1), [Ru(Cl-tpy)(dach)Cl][Cl] (2), [Ru(Cl-tpy)(bpy)Cl][Cl] (3) and [Ru(tpy)Cl3] (P2), a new complex, [Ru(Cl-tpy)(pic)Cl] (4), was used in the biological studies. Their cytotoxicity was investigated against three different tumor cell lines, i.e., A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma cell line), and CT26 (mouse colon carcinoma cell line), by the MTT assay. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher activity than complexes 3, 4 and P2 against all the selected cell lines. The results on in vitro anticancer activity confirmed that only compounds that hydrolyze the monodentate ligand at a reasonable rate show moderate activity, provided that the chelate ligand is a hydrogen bond

  20. Synthesis, characterization; DNA binding and antitumor activity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Srishailam, A; Gabra, Nazar Mohammed; Kumar, Yata Praveen; Reddy, Kotha Laxma; Devi, C Shobha; Anil Kumar, D; Singh, Surya S; Satyanarayana, S

    2014-12-01

    Three new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(phen)2BrIPC](2+) (1), [Ru(bpy)2 BrIPC](2+) (2) and [Ru(dmb)2BrIPC](2+) (3) where, BrIPC = (6-bromo-3-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1,10]-phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2' bipyridine, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl 2,2' bipyridine, were synthesised and characterised. DNA-binding nature was investigated by spectroscopic titrations and mode of binding was assessed by viscosity measurements. The DNA-binding constants Kb of complexes 1, 2 and 3 were determined to be in the order of 10(5). Experimental results showed that these complexes interact with CT-DNA by intercalative mode. Photocleavage and antimicrobial activities were complex concentration dependent, at high concentration, high activity and vice versa. MTT assay was performed on HeLa cell lines, IC50 values of complexes in the order of 3 > 2 > 1 > cisplatin. From comet assay, cellular uptake studies, we observed that complexes could enter into the cell membrane and accumulate inside the nucleus. Molecular docking studies support the DNA binding affinity with hydrogen bonding and van der Waals attractions between base pairs and phosphate backbone of DNA with metal complexes. PMID:25318017

  1. Cellular delivery of pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes by a water-soluble arene ruthenium metalla-cage.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Mona Anca; Schmitt, Frédéric; Wiederkehr, Michaël; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Therrien, Bruno

    2012-06-28

    Three pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(1)-M(3)) of the general formula [Ru(η(6)-arene-pyrenyl)Cl(2)(pta)] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) have been synthesised and characterised. Prior to the coordination to ruthenium, pyrene was connected to the arene ligand via an alkane chain containing different functional groups: ester (L(1)), ether (L(2)) and amide (L(3)), respectively. Furthermore, the pyrenyl moieties of the M(n) complexes were encapsulated within the hydrophobic cavity of the water soluble metalla-cage, [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) (tpt = 2,4,6-tri-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine; donq = 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphthoquinonato), while the arene ruthenium end was pointing out of the cage, thus giving rise to the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) ([M(n)⊂cage](6+)). The antitumor activity of the pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(n)) and the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage][CF(3)SO(3)](6) were evaluated in vitro in different types of human cancer cell lines (A549, A2780, A2780cisR, Me300 and HeLa). Complex M(2), which contains an ether group within the alkane chain, demonstrated at least a 10 times higher cytotoxicity than the reference compound [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(2)(pta)] (RAPTA-C). All host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage](6+) showed good anticancer activity with IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 8 μM after 72 h exposure. The fluorescence of the pyrenyl moiety allowed the monitoring of the cellular uptake and revealed an increase of uptake by a factor two of the M(2) complex when encapsulated in the metalla-cage [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+). PMID:22506276

  2. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solution by ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kewei; Saha, Avishek; Dirian, Konstantin; Jiang, Chengmin; Chu, Pin-Lei E; Tour, James M; Guldi, Dirk M; Martí, Angel A

    2016-07-21

    Cationic ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes with appended pyrene groups have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. To this end, planar pyrene groups enable association by means of π-stacking onto carbon nanotubes and, in turn, the attachment of the cationic ruthenium complexes. Importantly, the ionic nature of the ruthenium complexes allows the formation of stable dispersions featuring individualized SWCNTs in water as confirmed in a number of spectroscopic and microscopic assays. In addition, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to probe the excited state interactions between the ruthenium complexes and SWCNTs. These studies show that the photoluminescence of both, that is, of the ruthenium complexes and of SWCNTs, are quenched when they interact with each other. Pump-probe transient absorption experiments were performed to shed light onto the nature of the photoluminescence quenching, showing carbon nanotube-based bands with picosecond lifetimes, but no new bands which could be unambigously assigned to photoinduced charge transfer process. Thus, from the spectroscopic data, we conclude that quenching of the photoluminescence of the ruthenium complexes is due to energy transfer to proximal SWCNTs. PMID:27353007

  3. Multipoint molecular recognition within a calix[6]arene funnel complex

    PubMed Central

    Coquière, David; de la Lande, Aurélien; Martí, Sergio; Parisel, Olivier; Prangé, Thierry; Reinaud, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    A multipoint recognition system based on a calix[6]arene is described. The calixarene core is decorated on alternating aromatic subunits by 3 imidazole arms at the small rim and 3 aniline groups at the large rim. This substitution pattern projects the aniline nitrogens toward each other when Zn(II) binds at the Tris-imidazole site or when a proton binds at an aniline. The XRD structure of the monoprotonated complex having an acetonitrile molecule bound to Zn(II) in the cavity revealed a constrained geometry at the metal center reminiscent of an entatic state. Computer modeling suggests that the aniline groups behave as a tritopic monobasic site in which only 1 aniline unit is protonated and interacts with the other 2 through strong hydrogen bonding. The metal complex selectively binds a monoprotonated diamine vs. a monoamine through multipoint recognition: coordination to the metal ion at the small rim, hydrogen bonding to the calix-oxygen core, CH/π interaction within the cavity's aromatic walls, and H-bonding to the anilines at the large rim. PMID:19237564

  4. Ruthenium(II) chalconate complexes: Synthesis, characterization, catalytic, and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, M.; Viswanathamurthi, P.

    2009-10-01

    A series of new hexa-coordinated ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(EPh 3)(B)(L)] (E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = 2'-hydroxychalcones) have been prepared by reacting [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py) with 2'-hydroxychalcones in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic, 1H, 31P and 13C NMR) data. Based on the above data, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The new complexes exhibit catalytic activity for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant and also found efficient catalyst in the transfer hydrogenation of ketones. The antifungal properties of the complexes have also been examined and compared with standard Bavistin.

  5. A functional ruthenium(ii) complex for imaging biothiols in living bodies.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Gao, Quankun; An, Xin; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-05-01

    A unique ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, DNS-bpy: 4-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)-2,2'-bipyridine], that can act as a probe for the recognition and luminescence sensing of biothiols has been designed and synthesized. Due to the presence of effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the potent electron donor (Ru-bpy centre) to the strong electron acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety), the Ru(ii) complex itself is weakly luminescent. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 with biothiols leads to the replacement of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety by biothiols, which results in the loss of PET within the complex, to allow recovery of the MLCT-based emission of the Ru(ii) complex with an 80-fold increase in luminescence intensity. Taking advantage of the high specificity and sensitivity, and the excellent photophysical properties of Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of biothiols in living Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the practical applicability of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of biothiols in living bodies. PMID:25851565

  6. Synthesis and spectrosopic identification of hybrid 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamine phosphine ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Resayes, Saud; Al-Othman, Zeid; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Kenawy, El-Refaie

    2010-05-01

    An investigation into the potential ruthenium(II) 1-3 complexes of type [RuCl(2)(P)(2)(N)(2)] using triphenylphosphine and 1,3-bis-diphenylphosphinepropane and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamine has been carried out at room temperature in dichloromethane under an inert atmosphere. The structural behaviors of the phosphine ligands in the desired complexes during synthesis were monitored by (31)P{(1)H}-NMR. The structure of complexes 1-3 described herein has been deduced from elemental analyses, infrared, FAB-MS and (1)H-, (13)C- and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy. Xerogels X1-X3 were synthesized by simple sol-gel process of complexes 1-3 using tetraethoxysilane as co-condensation agent in methanol/THF/water solution. Due to their lack of solubility, the structures of X1-X3 were determined by solid state (13)C-, (29)Si- and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and EXAFS. PMID:20657503

  7. Arene-metal π-complexation as a traceless reactivity enhancer for C-H arylation.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Paolo; Krämer, Katrina; Cambeiro, Xacobe C; Larrosa, Igor

    2013-09-11

    Current approaches to facilitate C-H arylation of arenes involve the use of either strongly electron-withdrawing substituents or directing groups. Both approaches require structural modification of the arene, limiting their generality. We present a new approach where C-H arylation is made possible without altering the connectivity of the arene via π-complexation of a Cr(CO)3 unit, greatly enhancing the reactivity of the aromatic C-H bonds. We apply this approach to monofluorobenzenes, highly unreactive arenes, which upon complexation become nearly as reactive as pentafluorobenzene itself in their couplings with iodoarenes. DFT calculations indicate that C-H activation via a concerted metalation-deprotonation transition state is facilitated by the predisposition of C-H bonds in (Ar-H)Cr(CO)3 to bend out of the aromatic plane. PMID:23962336

  8. Functionalized O6-Corona[6]arenes: Synthesis, Structure, and Fullerene Complexation Property.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis, structure, and fullerene complexation property of novel and functionalized On-corona[n]arenes were reported. Based on the fragment coupling strategy, ester-containing On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) were obtained readily starting from 1,4-hydroquinone and diethyl 2,5-difluoroterephthalate. Reduction of esters with LiAlH4 produced almost quantitatively hydroxymethylated On-corona[n]arenes, which underwent etherification with MeI to afford methoxymethyl-substituted On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) in good yields. The macrocycles adopt unique corona-type conformation with a large cylindroid cavity. They are strong macrocyclic host molecules to form 1:1 complexes with fullerenes C60 and C70 in toluene with an associate constant up to (1.59 ± 0.04) × 10(5) M(-1). PMID:27324274

  9. Synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction, antioxidant and anticancer activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone/semicarbazone bearing 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Panneerselvam; Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Jang, Yoon Jung; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2013-12-01

    A new series of octahedral ruthenium(II) complexes supported by tridentate ligands derived from phenanthrenequinone and derivatives of thiosemicarbazide/semicarbazide and other co-ligands have been synthesized and characterized. DNA binding experiments indicated that ruthenium(II) complexes can interact with DNA through non-intercalation and the apparent binding constant value (Kb) of [RuCl(CO)(PPh₃)(L₃)] (3) at room temperature was calculated to be 2.27 × 10(3)M(-1). The DNA cleavage studies showed that the complexes have better cleavage of pBR 322 DNA. Antioxidative activity proved that the complexes have significant radical scavenging activity against free radicals. Cytotoxic activities showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited more effective cytotoxic activity against selected cancer cells. PMID:24144689

  10. Tuning reactivity and site selectivity of simple arenes in C-H activation: ortho-arylation of anisoles via arene-metal π-complexation.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Paolo; Krämer, Katrina; Larrosa, Igor

    2014-12-31

    Current approaches to achieve site selectivity in the C-H activation of arenes involve the use of directing groups or highly electron-poor arenes. In contrast, simple arenes, such as anisole, are characterized by poor reactivity and selectivity. We report that π-complexation to a Cr(CO)3 unit enhances the reactivity of anisoles providing an unprecedented ortho-selective arylation. This mild methodology can be used for the late stage functionalization of bioactive compounds containing the anisole motif, allowing the construction of novel organic scaffolds with few synthetic steps. PMID:25510851

  11. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solution by ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kewei; Saha, Avishek; Dirian, Konstantin; Jiang, Chengmin; Chu, Pin-Lei E.; Tour, James M.; Guldi, Dirk M.; Martí, Angel A.

    2016-07-01

    Cationic ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes with appended pyrene groups have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. To this end, planar pyrene groups enable association by means of π-stacking onto carbon nanotubes and, in turn, the attachment of the cationic ruthenium complexes. Importantly, the ionic nature of the ruthenium complexes allows the formation of stable dispersions featuring individualized SWCNTs in water as confirmed in a number of spectroscopic and microscopic assays. In addition, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to probe the excited state interactions between the ruthenium complexes and SWCNTs. These studies show that the photoluminescence of both, that is, of the ruthenium complexes and of SWCNTs, are quenched when they interact with each other. Pump-probe transient absorption experiments were performed to shed light onto the nature of the photoluminescence quenching, showing carbon nanotube-based bands with picosecond lifetimes, but no new bands which could be unambigously assigned to photoinduced charge transfer process. Thus, from the spectroscopic data, we conclude that quenching of the photoluminescence of the ruthenium complexes is due to energy transfer to proximal SWCNTs.Cationic ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes with appended pyrene groups have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. To this end, planar pyrene groups enable association by means of π-stacking onto carbon nanotubes and, in turn, the attachment of the cationic ruthenium complexes. Importantly, the ionic nature of the ruthenium complexes allows the formation of stable dispersions featuring individualized SWCNTs in water as confirmed in a number of spectroscopic and microscopic assays. In addition, steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to probe the excited state interactions between the ruthenium complexes and SWCNTs

  12. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity studies of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes on A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Lai, Shang-Hai; Zhang, Cheng; Yin, Hui; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Four new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(bddp)](ClO4)21-4 (N-N=dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 1, bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine 2, phen: 1,10-phenanthroline 3 and dmp: 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4, bddp=benzilo[2,3-b]-1,4-diazabenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the complexes against BEL-7402, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 cell lines was investigated by MTT method. The complexes show high cytotoxic activity toward the selected cell lines with an IC50 value ranging from 5.3±0.6 to 15.7±3.6μM. The apoptosis was studied with acridine orange (AO)/ethdium bromide (EB) and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. The cellular uptake was investigated with DAPI staining method. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were performed under fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry. The complexes can induce an increase in the ROS levels and a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The comet assay was studied with fluorescent microscope. The percentage in apoptotic and necrotic cells and cell cycle arrest were assayed by flow cytometry. The effects of the complexes on the expression of caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins were studied by western blot analysis. The results show that the complexes induce apoptosis in A549 cells through an ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which was accompanied by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:27288660

  13. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing S-methylisothiosemicarbazone based tetradentate ligand: synthesis, characterization and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2013-10-01

    A series of hexa-coordinated ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [Ru(CO)(B)L(n)] (n = 1-4; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) have been synthesized by reacting dibasic quadridentate Schiff base ligands H2L(n) (n = 1-4) with starting complexes [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py). The synthesized complexes were characterized using elemental and various spectral studies including UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (31)P) and mass spectroscopy. An octahedral geometry was tentatively proposed for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The experiments on antioxidant activity showed that the ruthenium(II) S-methylisothiosemicarbazone Schiff base complexes exhibited good scavenging activity against various free radicals (DPPH, OH and NO). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT assay. The results demonstrate that the complexes have good anticancer activities against selected cancer cell line, human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human skin carcinoma cell line (A431). The DNA cleavage studies showed that the complexes have better cleavage of pBR 322 DNA. PMID:23780567

  14. A ruthenium(II) complex-based lysosome-targetable multisignal chemosensor for in vivo detection of hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyan; Zhang, Run; Zhang, Wenzhu; Du, Zhongbo; Liu, Chunjun; Ye, Zhiqiang; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-11-01

    Although considerable efforts have been made for the development of ruthenium(II) complex-based chemosensors and bioimaging reagents, the multisignal chemosensor using ruthenium(II) complexes as the reporter is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms of cellular uptake of ruthenium(II)-based chemosensors and their intracellular distribution are ill-defined. Herein, a new ruthenium(II) complex-based multisignal chemosensor, Ru-Fc, is reported for the highly sensitive and selective detection of lysosomal hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Ru-Fc is weakly luminescent because the MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) state is corrupted by the efficient PET (photoinduced electron transfer) process from Fc (ferrocene) moiety to Ru(II) center. The cleavage of Fc moiety by a HOCl-induced specific reaction leads to elimination of PET, which re-establishes the MLCT state of the Ru(II) complex, accompanied by remarkable photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) enhancements. The result of MTT assay showed that the proposed chemosensor, Ru-Fc, was low cytotoxicity. The applicability of Ru-Fc for the quantitative detection of HOCl in live cells was demonstrated by the confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Dye colocalization studies confirmed very precise distribution of the Ru(II) complex in lysosomes, and inhibition studies revealed that the caveolae-mediated endocytosis played an important role during the cellular internalization of Ru-Fc. By using Ru-Fc as a chemosensor, the imaging of the endogenous HOCl generated in live macrophage cells during the stimulation was achieved. Furthermore, the practical applicability of Ru-Fc was demonstrated by the visualizing of HOCl in laboratory model animals, Daphnia magna and zebrafish. PMID:26256295

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes Tethering EGFR-Inhibiting 4-Anilinoquinazolines.

    PubMed

    Du, Jun; Kang, Yan; Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Yu; Wang, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Qun; Wu, Kui; Wang, Fuyi

    2016-05-01

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes are promising antitumor agents for their low system toxicity and versatile chemical structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be overexpressed in a broad range of tumor cells and is regarded as a drug target in developing novel antitumor drugs. In this work, five ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes containing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores were synthesized and characterized. These complexes showed both high EGFR-inhibiting activity and strong DNA minor groove-binding activity. In vitro antiproliferation screening demonstrated that the prepared ruthenium complexes are highly cytotoxic against a series of cancer cell lines, in particular non-small-cell lung A549 and human epidermoid carcinoma A431. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the most active complex, K4, induced much more late-stage cell apoptosis and necrosis than gefitinib, the first EGFR-targeting antitumor drug in clinical use. These results indicate that the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazolines possess highly active dual-targeting anticancer activity and are promising in developing new anticancer agents. PMID:27093574

  16. Titania modification with a ruthenium(II) complex and gold nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuaizhi; Wei, Zhishun; Yoshiiri, Kenta; Braumüller, Markus; Ohtani, Bunsho; Rau, Sven; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Titania of fine anatase nanoparticles (ST01) was modified successively with two components, i.e., a ruthenium(II) complex with phosphonic anchoring groups [Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(CH2PO3H2)2bpy)](2+) bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine (Ru(II)CP) and gold nanoparticles (Au). Various compositions of two titania modifiers were investigated, i.e., Au, Au + Ru(II)CP, Au + 0.5Ru(II)CP, Ru(II)CP, 0.5Ru(II)CP and 0.25Ru(II)CP, where Au and Ru(II)CP correspond to 0.81 mol% and 0.34 mol% (with respect to titania), respectively. In the case of hybrid photocatalysts, the sequence of modification (ruthenium(II) complex adsorption or gold deposition) was investigated to check its influence on the resultant properties and thus photocatalytic performance. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were applied to characterize the structural properties of the prepared photocatalysts, which confirmed the successful introduction of modifiers of the ruthenium(II) complex and/or gold NPs. Different distributions of gold particle sizes and chemical compositions were obtained for the hybrid photocatalysts prepared with an opposite sequence. It was found that photocatalytic activities depended on the range of used irradiation (UV/vis or vis) and the kind of modifier in different ways. Gold NPs improved the photocatalytic activities, while Ru(II)CP inhibited the reactions under UV/vis irradiation, i.e., methanol dehydrogenation and acetic acid degradation. Oppositely, Ru(II)CP greatly enhanced the photocatalytic activities for 2-propanol oxidation under visible light irradiation. PMID:26661372

  17. NanoSIMS analysis of an isotopically labelled organometallic ruthenium(II) drug to probe its distribution and state in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ronald F S; Escrig, Stéphane; Croisier, Marie; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W; Meibom, Anders; Davey, Curt A; Johnsson, Kai; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-11-28

    The in vitro inter- and intra-cellular distribution of an isotopically labelled ruthenium(II)-arene (RAPTA) anti-metastatic compound in human ovarian cancer cells was imaged using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Ultra-high resolution isotopic images of (13)C, (15)N, and Ru indicate that the phosphine ligand remains coordinated to the ruthenium(II) ion whereas the arene detaches. The complex localizes mainly on the membrane or at the interface between cells which correlates with its anti-metastatic effects. PMID:26426486

  18. Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes as Two-Photon, Time-Resolved Emission Microscopy Probes for Cellular DNA**

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Elizabeth; Gill, Martin R; Green, Nicola H; Turton, David; Sazanovich, Igor V; Botchway, Stanley W; Smythe, Carl; Haycock, John W; Weinstein, Julia A; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-01-01

    The first transition-metal complex-based two-photon absorbing luminescence lifetime probes for cellular DNA are presented. This allows cell imaging of DNA free from endogenous fluorophores and potentially facilitates deep tissue imaging. In this initial study, ruthenium(II) luminophores are used as phosphorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) probes for nuclear DNA in both live and fixed cells. The DNA-bound probes display characteristic emission lifetimes of more than 160 ns, while shorter-lived cytoplasmic emission is also observed. These timescales are orders of magnitude longer than conventional FLIM, leading to previously unattainable levels of sensitivity, and autofluorescence-free imaging. PMID:24458590

  19. Coordinatively saturated cationic ruthenium(II) complexes. Preparation, characterization, and reaction with potassium superoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, N.; Suzuki, H.; Moro-oka, Y.

    1986-09-10

    Coordinatively saturated cationic ruthenium(II) complexes, (eta/sup 5/-C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 6/)Ru/sup II/)(BF/sub 4/) (1), (eta/sup 5/-C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 66/)Ru/sup II/)(BF/sub 4/) (2), ((1-5-eta/sup 5/-C/sub 6/H/sub 7/)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 6/)Ru/sup II/)(BF/sub 4/) (3), ((1-5-eta/sup 5/-C/sub 7/H/sub 9/)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 7/)Ru/sup II/)(BF/sub 4/) (4), ((1-3:5,6-eta/sup 5/-C/sub 8/H/sub 1/exclamation)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 6/)Ru/sup II/)(BG/sub 4/)(5), and ((6-EtO-1-5-eta /sup 5/-C/sub 7/H/sub 8/)(eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 6/)Ru/sup II/)(BF/sub 4/) (7), are prepared by the reaction of (eta/sup 6/-C/sub 6/H/sub 6/)RuCl/sub 2/)/sub 2/ with cyclopentadiene, pentamethylcyclopentadiene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1,3-cycloheptadiene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, and 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene, respectively, in ethanol in the presence of AgBF/sub 4/. Superoxide anion attacks at the terminal position of the dienyl moiety of 3-5 to yield ruthenium(0) complexes 8-10, containing cyclic dienone ligand. 25 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as efficient redox mediators in peroxidase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Alpeeva, Inna S; Soukharev, Valentin S; Alexandrova, Larissa; Shilova, Nadezhda V; Bovin, Nicolai V; Csöregi, Elisabeth; Ryabov, Alexander D; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2003-07-01

    Cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(II)(C~N)(N~N)(2)]PF(6) [HC~N=2-phenylpyridine (Hphpy) or 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine; N~N=2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, or 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine], are rapidly oxidized by H(2)O(2) catalyzed by plant peroxidases to the corresponding Ru(III) species. The commercial isoenzyme C of horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) and two recently purified peroxidases from sweet potato (SPP) and royal palm tree (RPTP) have been used. The most favorable conditions for the oxidation have been evaluated by varying the pH, buffer, and H(2)O(2) concentrations and the apparent second-order rate constants ( k(app)) have been measured. All the complexes studied are oxidized by HRP-C at similar rates and the rate constants k(app) are identical to those known for the best substrates of HRP-C (10(6)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Both cationic (HRP-C) and anionic (SPP and RPTP) peroxidases show similar catalytic efficiency in the oxidation of the Ru(II) complexes. The mediating capacity of the complexes has been evaluated using the SPP-catalyzed co-oxidation of [Ru(II)(phpy)(bpy)(2)]PF(6) and catechol as a poor peroxidase substrate as an example. The rate of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of catechol increases more than 10000-fold in the presence of the ruthenium complex. A simple routine for calculating the rate constant k(c) for the oxidation of catechol by the Ru(III) complex generated enzymatically from [Ru(II)(phpy)(bpy)(2)](+) is proposed. It is based on the accepted mechanism of peroxidase catalysis and involves spectrophotometric measurements of the limiting Ru(II) concentration at different concentrations of catechol. The calculated k(c) value of 0.75 M(-1) s(-1) shows that the cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes are efficient mediators in peroxidase catalysis. PMID:12774217

  1. Structural Manipulation of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Nitrone Complexes to Generate Phosphorogenic Bioorthogonal Reagents for Selective Cellular Labeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tommy Siu-Ming; Liu, Hua-Wei; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2016-07-01

    We report a new class of ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes functionalized with a nitrone group as phosphorogenic bioorthogonal probes. These complexes were very weakly emissive owing to rapid C=N isomerization of the nitrone moiety, but exhibited significant emission enhancement upon strain-promoted alkyne-nitrone cycloaddition (SPANC) reaction with bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN)-modified substrates. The modification of nitrone with a dicationic ruthenium(II) polypyridine unit at the α-C-position and a phenyl ring at the N-position led to remarkably accelerated reaction kinetics, which are substantially greater (up to ≈278 fold) than those of other acyclic nitrone-BCN systems. Interestingly, the complexes achieved specific cell membrane/cytosol staining upon specific labeling of an exogenous substrate, BCN-modified decane (BCN-C10), in live cells. Importantly, the in situ generation of the more lipophilic isoxazoline adduct in the cytoplasm resulted in increased cytotoxicity, highlighting a novel approach to apply the SPANC labeling technique in drug activation. PMID:27273833

  2. Synthesis, interaction with DNA, cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic inducing properties of ruthenium(II) molecular "light switch" complexes.

    PubMed

    Shobha Devi, C; Anil Kumar, D; Singh, Surya S; Gabra, Nazar; Deepika, N; Kumar, Y Praveen; Satyanarayana, S

    2013-06-01

    In an endeavor toward the development of metal-based anticancer drugs, we present here the design, synthesis and characterization of three ruthenium(II) functionalized phenanthroline complexes with extended π-conjugation. These complexes have been shown to act as promising CT-DNA intercalators as evidenced by UV-visible, luminescence, emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide and salt dependent studies. All three complexes [Ru(Hdpa)2PPIP](2+) (1), [Ru(Hdpa)2PIP](2+) (2), [Ru(Hdpa)24HEPIP](2+) (3) clearly demonstrated that they can bind to DNA through the intercalation mode. Cell viability experiments indicated that all complexes showed significant dose dependent cytotoxicity in selected cell lines. The apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. The complexes were docked into DNA-base-pairs using the 'GOLD' (Genetic Optimization for Ligand Docking), docking program. PMID:23665797

  3. Complex polycyclic scaffolds by metathesis rearrangement of Himbert arene/allene cycloadducts.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jonathan K; Schmidt, Yvonne; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2012-11-01

    The intramolecular arene/allene cycloaddition first described 30 years ago by Himbert and Henn permits rapid access to strained polycyclic compounds. Alkene metathesis processes cleanly rearrange appropriately substituted cycloadducts into complex, functional-group-rich polycyclic lactams of potential utility for natural product synthesis and medicinal chemistry. PMID:23067058

  4. Preparation, spectroscopy, EXAFS, electrochemistry and pharmacology of new ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Anantharaman, S.; Thilagavathi, M.; Kaveri, M. V.; Kalaivani, P.; Karvembu, R.; Dharmaraj, N.; Bertagnolli, H.; Dallemer, F.; Natarajan, K.

    2011-02-01

    A new series of new hetero-bimetallic complexes containing iron and ruthenium of the general formula [RuCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3)(L)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip; L = ferrocene derived monobasic bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand) have been synthesized by the reaction between ferrocene-derived thiosemicarbazones and ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip). The new complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, electronic, NMR ( 1H, 13C and 31P), EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Antibacterial activity of the new complexes has been screened against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species.

  5. Highly Charged Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes as Lysosome-Localized Photosensitizers for Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Yu, Bole; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Gasser, Gilles; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-11-16

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive medical technique that has received increasing attention over the last years and been applied for the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, the currently clinically used PDT agents have several limitations, such as low water solubility, poor photostability, and limited selectivity towards cancer cells, aside from having very low two-photon cross-sections around 800 nm, which limits their potential use in TP-PDT. To tackle these drawbacks, three highly positively charged ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes were synthesized. These complexes selectively localize in the lysosomes, an ideal localization for PDT purposes. One of these complexes showed an impressive phototoxicity index upon irradiation at 800 nm in 3D HeLa multicellular tumor spheroids and thus holds great promise for applications in two-photon photodynamic therapy. PMID:26447888

  6. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Haslina; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-01

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+, (bpy = 2,2'bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  7. Characterization of the Initial Intermediate Formed during Photoinduced Oxygenation of the Ruthenium(II) Bis(bipyridyl)flavonolate Complex.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaozhen; Klausmeyer, Kevin K; Farmer, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    A ruthenium(II) flavonolate complex, [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4], was synthesized to model the reactivity of the flavonol dioxygenases. The treatment of dry CH3CN solutions of [Ru(II)(bpy)2fla][BF4] with dioxygen under light leads to the oxidative O-heterocyclic ring opening of the coordinated substrate flavonolate, resulting in the formation of [Ru(II)(bpy)2(carboxylate)][BF4] (carboxylate = O-benzoylsalicylate or benzoate) species, as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Moderation of the excitation and temperature allowed isolation and characterization of an intermediate, [Ru(II)(bpy)2bpg][BF4] (bpg = 2-benzoyloxyphenylglyoxylate), generated by the 1,2-addition of dioxygen to the central flavonolate ring. PMID:27437831

  8. Electropolymerization of a Ruthenium(II) Bis(pyrazolyl)pyridine Complex to Form a Novel Ru-Containing Conducting Metallopolymer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun Jin; Holliday, Bradley J

    2010-05-12

    A new derivative of 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (bpp) symmetrically substituted with 3,4-ethylenedioxy-thienyl (EDOT) substituent groups, and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A new linear conducting metallopolymer consisting of [Ru(bpp-(EDOT)(2) )(terpy)](2+) fragments was deposited directly on to electrode surfaces as a transparent, deep red film by electrochemical coupling of the pendant EDOT moieties. XPS analysis reveals that the film has the expected structure consisting of monomer repeats without degradation or loss of metal ions. Additionally, the absorption spectrum of the polymer film shows a broad absorption range from 310 to 700 nm. PMID:21590986

  9. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  10. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse.

  11. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  12. DNA binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies on ruthenium(II) complexes of benzaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-03-01

    Four new ruthenium(II) complexes with N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-N-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), were prepared and fully characterized by various spectro-analytical techniques. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the complexes bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant studies of the ligands and complexes showed the significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes against MCF-7 cell line was assayed which showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and in vitro Antimalarial and Antitumor Activity of New Ruthenium(II) Complexes of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Chandima S. K.; Martínez, Alberto; Naoulou, Becky; Jarzecki, Andrzej A.; Suárez, Liliana; Deregnaucourt, Christiane; Sinou, Véronique; Schrével, Joseph; Musi, Elgilda; Ambrosini, Grazia; Schwartz, Gary K.; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.

    2009-01-01

    The new RuII chloroquine complexes [Ru(η6-arene)(CQ)Cl2] (CQ = chloroquine; arene = p-cymene 1, benzene 2), [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(CQ)(H2O)2][BF4]2 (3), [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(CQ)(en)][PF6]2 (en = ethylenediamine) (4), and [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(η6-CQDP)][BF4]2 (5, CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate) have been synthesized and characterized by use of a combination of NMR and FTIR spectroscopy with DFT calculations. Each complex is formed as a single coordination isomer: in compounds 1–4 chloroquine binds to ruthenium in the η1-N mode through the quinoline nitrogen atom whereas in complex 5 an unprecedented η6 bonding through the carbocyclic ring is observed. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 are active against CQ-resistant (Dd2, K1 and W2) and CQ-sensitive (FcB1, PFB, F32 and 3D7) malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum); importantly, the potency of these complexes against resistant parasites is consistently higher than that of the standard drug chloroquine diphosphate. Complexes 1 and 5 also inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells, independently of the p53 status and of liposarcoma tumor cell lines with the latter showing increased sensitivity, especially to complex 1 (IC50 8 µM); this is significant because this type of tumor does not respond to currently employed chemotherapies. PMID:19119867

  14. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2014-08-01

    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L1-6) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L1), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L2), o-vanillin(H2L3), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L4), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L5), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L6). H2L1-6 reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L1-6]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

  15. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2014-08-14

    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L(1-6)) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L(1)), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L(2)), o-vanillin(H2L(3)), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(4)), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(5)), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L(6)). H2L(1-6) reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L(1-6)]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed. PMID:24747860

  16. Nitric oxide binding and photodelivery based on ruthenium(II) complexes of 4-arylazo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mayreli; Torréns, Mabel; Mola, José L; Ortiz, Pedro J; Fragoso, Alex; Díaz, Alicia; Cao, Roberto; Prados, Pilar; de Mendoza, Javier; Otero, Antonio; Antiñolo, Antonio; Lara, Agustin

    2008-07-21

    Two fluorescent ligands, 3,5-dimethyl-4-(6'-sulfonylammonium-1'-azonaphthyl)pyrazole (dmpzn, 1) and 3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-N,N'-dimethylaminoazophenyl)pyrazole (dmpza, 2) were obtained by condensation of ketoenolic derivatives with hydrazine. 1 and 2 formed the novel dinuclear complexes [(H(2)O)(3)ClRu(micro-L)(2)RuCl(H(2)O)(3)] (3 or 4) and [(H(2)O)(NO)Cl(2)Ru(micro-L)(2)RuCl(2)(NO)(H(2)O)] (6 or 7) (where L 1 = 2 or , respectively) which were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The nitrosyl complexes were prepared by bubbling purified nitric oxide through methanol solutions of the corresponding ruthenium(II) chloroderivative or by reaction of the appropriate ligands with Ru(NO)Cl(3). Complexes 3 and 4 were found to bind NO, resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Ligand 1 also formed the mononuclear nitrosyl complex [Ru(NO)(bpy)(2)(dmpzn)]Cl(2) (8) which released NO in water at physiological pH and in the solid state as revealed by fluorescence and IR measurements, respectively. PMID:18594704

  17. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  18. Role of intercalation and redox potential in DNA photosensitization by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: assessment using DNA repair protein tests.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Etienne; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Magnusson, Fay; Chemaly, Jad; Calsou, Patrick; Vicendo, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Here we report that the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleobases may not only be modulated by their photoredox properties but also by their DNA binding mode. The damage resulting from photolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA by [Ru(bpz)3](2+), [Ru(bipy)3](2+) and the two DNA intercalating agents [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) and [Ru(bipy)2dppz](2+) has been monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tests using proteins involved in DNA repair processes (DNA-PKCs, Ku80, Ku70, and PARP-1). The data show that intercalation controls the nature of the DNA damage photo-induced by ruthenium(II) complexes reacting with DNA via an electron transfer process. The intercalating agent [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is a powerful DNA breaker inducing the formation of both single and double (DSBs) strand breaks which are recognized by the PARP-1 and DNA-PKCs proteins respectively. [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is the first ruthenium(II) complex described in the literature that is able to induce DSBs by an electron transfer process. In contrast, its non-intercalating parent compound, [Ru(bpz)3](2+), is mostly an efficient DNA alkylating agent. Photoadducts are recognized by the proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as with cisplatin adducts. This result suggests that photoaddition of [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is strongly affected by its DNA intercalation whereas its photonuclease activity is exalted. The data clearly show that DNA intercalation decreases drastically the photonuclease activity of ruthenium(II) complexes oxidizing guanine via the production of singlet oxygen. Interestingly, the DNA sequencing data revealed that the ligand dipyridophenazine exhibits on single-stranded oligonucleotides a preference for the 5'-TGCGT-3' sequence. Moreover the use of proteins involved in DNA repair processes to detect DNA damage was a powerful tool to examine the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleic acids. PMID:23835850

  19. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes. PMID:24037457

  20. Fast Electron Transfer Exchange at Self-Assembled Monolayers of Organometallic Ruthenium(II) σ-Arylacetylide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mulas, Andrea; Hervault, Yves-Marie; He, Xiaoyan; Di Piazza, Emmanuel; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Lagrost, Corinne

    2015-06-30

    A new series of ruthenium organometallic carbon-rich complexes, exhibiting fast electron transfer kinetics combined to a low oxidation potential, was synthesized for self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation on gold surfaces. The molecules consist of highly conjugated ruthenium(II) mono(σ-arylacetylide) or bis(σ-arylacetylide) complexes functionalized with different bridge units with specific (protected) anchoring groups that possess high affinity for gold, such as thiol, carbodithioate, and isocyanide. Single component and mixed SAMs were prepared and fully characterized by wettability studies, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical analyses. By applying the Laviron's formalism, fast electron transfer kinetics (≈10(4) s(-1)) were found at the derived self-assemblies while no significant effect could have been evidenced with variation of the bridging unit and of the anchoring moiety. Interestingly, a hexyl aliphatic spacer in the bridging unit with a thiol group and dilution with suitable nonelectroactive thiols lead to better SAM organization and packing, in comparison with undiluted complexes with shorter spacers. Such features make these compounds suitable alternatives to the widely used ferrocene center as redox-active building blocks for reversible charge storage devices. PMID:26053314

  1. Development of a ruthenium(II) complex based luminescent probe for imaging nitric oxide production in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Run; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wang, Guilan; Zhang, Wenzhu; Yuan, Jingli

    2010-06-18

    A unique ruthenium(II) complex, bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(4-(3,4-diaminophenoxy)-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate ([(Ru(bpy)(2)(dabpy)][PF(6)](2)), has been designed and synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective luminescence probe for the imaging of nitric oxide (NO) production in living cells. The complex can specifically react with NO in aqueous buffers under aerobic conditions to yield its triazole derivative with a high reaction rate constant at the 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) level; this reaction is accompanied by a remarkable increase of the luminescence quantum yield from 0.13 to 2.2 %. Compared with organic probes, the new Ru(II) complex probe shows the advantages of a large Stokes shift (>150 nm), water solubility, and a wide pH-availability range (pH independent at pH>5). In addition, it was found that the new probe could be easily transferred into both living animal cells and plant cells by the coincubation method, whereas the triazole derivative was cell-membrane impermeable. The probe was successfully used for luminescence-imaging detection of the exogenous NO in mouse macrophage cells and endogenous NO in gardenia cells. The results demonstrated the efficacy and advantages of the new probe for NO detection in living cells. PMID:20458707

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and DNA binding of new water-soluble cyclopentadienyl ruthenium(II) complexes incorporating phosphines.

    PubMed

    Romerosa, Antonio; Campos-Malpartida, Tatiana; Lidrissi, Chaker; Saoud, Mustapha; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Garrido-Cárdenas, Jose Antonio; García-Maroto, Federico

    2006-02-01

    The new water-soluble ruthenium(II) chiral complexes [RuCpX(L)(L')](n+) (X = Cl, I. L = PPh3; L' = PTA, mPTA; L = L' = PTA, mPTA) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane; mPTA = N-methyl-1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The salt mPTA(OSO2CF3) was also prepared and fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques. X-ray crystal structures of [RuClCp(PPh3)(PTA)] (2), [RuCpI(PPh3)(PTA)] (3), and [RuCpI(mPTA)(PPh3)](OSO2CF3) (9) have been determined. The binding properties toward DNA of the new hydrosoluble complexes have been studied using the mobility shift assay. The ruthenium chloride complexes interact with DNA depending on the hydrosoluble phosphine bonded to the metal, while the corresponding compounds with iodide, [RuCpI(PTA)2] (1), [RuCpI(PPh3)(PTA)] (3), [RuCpI(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 (6), and [RuCpI(mPTA)(PPh3)](OSO2CF3) (9), do not bind to DNA. PMID:16441141

  3. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for detection of porcine oligonucleotides using ruthenium(II) complex as intercalator label redox

    SciTech Connect

    Halid, Nurul Izni Abdullah; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ahmad, Haslina; Harun, Siti Norain

    2014-09-03

    A DNA biosensor detection of oligonucleotides via the interactions of porcine DNA with redox active complex based on the electrochemical transduction is described. A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+}, (bpy = 2,2′bipyridine, PIP = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f[[1,10-phenanthroline]) as DNA label has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectra. The study was carried out by covalent bonding immobilization of porcine aminated DNA probes sequences on screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with succinimide-acrylic microspheres and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} was used as electrochemical redox intercalator label to detect DNA hybridization event. Electrochemical detection was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) over the potential range where the ruthenium (II) complex was active. The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PIP)]{sup 2+} with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA.

  4. Studies of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes on cytotoxicity in vitro, apoptosis, DNA-binding and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yao, Jun-Hua; Liang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Wu, Fu-Hai

    2010-03-01

    Two new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb) 2(maip)](ClO 4) 21 (maip = 2-(3-aminophenyl)imizado[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and [Ru(dmb) 2(maip)](ClO 4) 22 (paip = 2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The DNA-binding behaviors of complexes 1 and 2 were studied by viscosity measurements, thermal denaturation, photocleavage, absorption titration and luminescence spectra. The results show that the two complexes intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. The DNA-binding constants Kb for complexes 1 and 2 were determined to be 1.12 ± 0.11 × 10 5 M -1 ( s = 2.17) and 3.46 ± 0.59 × 10 5 M -1 ( s = 2.11) M -1. The studies on the mechanism of photocleavage demonstrate that superoxide anion radical (O 2rad - ) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) may play an important role. The cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC 50 values are 19.21, 33.15, 38.57 and 21.15 for complex 1 and 41.77, 123.58, 255.44 and 49.11 for complex 2 against BEL-7402, C-6, HepG-2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The apoptosis assay was carried out with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining methods and the results indicate that complexes can induce the apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells. The experiments on antioxidant activity show these complexes exhibit good antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical (OH rad ).

  5. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding studies, photocleavage, cytotoxicity and docking studies of ruthenium(II) light switch complexes.

    PubMed

    Gabra, Nazar Mohammed; Mustafa, Bakheit; Kumar, Yata Praveen; Devi, C Shobha; Srishailam, A; Reddy, P Venkat; Reddy, Kotha Laxma; Satyanarayana, S

    2014-01-01

    A new ligand 3-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2yl)phenylboronic acid and its (IPPBA) three ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(phen)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ru(bpy)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Ru(dmb)2(IPPBA)](ClO4)2 (3) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV/VIS, IR, (1)H-NMR,(13)C-NMR and mass spectra. The binding behaviors of the three complexes to calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, emission spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, thermal denaturation and photoactivated cleavage. The DNA-binding constants for complexes 1, 2 and 3 have been determined to be 7.9 × 10(5) M(-1), 6.7 × 10(5) M(-1) and 2.9 × 10(5) M(-1). The results suggest that these complexes bound to double-stranded DNA in an intercalation mode. Upon irradiation at 365 nm, three ruthenium complexes were found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA from super coiled form І to nicked form ІІ. Further in the presence of Co(2+), the emission of DNA-Ru(ΙΙ) complexes can be quenched. And when EDTA was added, the emission was recovered. The experimental results show that all three complexes exhibited the "on-off-on" properties of molecular "light switch". The highest Cytotoxicity potential of the complex1 was observed on the Human alveolar adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. Good agreement was generally found between the spectroscopic techniques and molecular docked model which provides further evidence of groove binding. PMID:23982735

  6. Microwave synthesis of mixed ligand diimine–thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(ii): biophysical reactivity and cytotoxicity†

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Shaloski, Michael; Leblanc, Gabriel; Thessing, Jeffrey; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley C.; Holder, Alvin A.; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel microwave-assisted synthetic method has been used to synthesise a series of mixed ligand ruthenium(ii) compounds containing diimine as well as bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands. The compounds contain the diimine 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) and the thiosemicarbazone is derived from 9-anthraldehyde. Based on elemental analyses and spectroscopic data, the compounds are best formulated as [(phen)2Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF6)2 and [(phen)2Ru(thiosemicarbazone)](PF6)2 where thiosemicarbazone = 9-anthraldehydethiosemicarbazone, 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone, and 9-anthraldehyde-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone. Fluorescence competition studies with ethidium bromide, along with viscometric measurements suggests that the complexes bind calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) relatively strongly via an intercalative mode possibly involving the aromatic rings of the diimine ligands. The complexes show good cytotoxic profiles against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) as well as HCT 116 and HT-29 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines. PMID:20023905

  7. Lipophilic tetranuclear ruthenium(II) complexes as two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bole; Ouyang, Cheng; Qiu, Kangqiang; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-02-23

    Fluorescence detection is the most effective tool for tracking gene delivery in living cells. To reduce photodamage and autofluorescence and to increase deep penetration into cells, choosing appropriate fluorophores that are capable of two-photon activation under irradiation in the NIR or IR regions is an effective approach. In this work, we have developed six tetranuclear ruthenium(II) complexes, GV1-6, and have studied their one- and two-photon luminescence properties. DNA interaction studies have demonstrated that GV2-6, bearing hydrophobic alkyl ether chains, show more efficient DNA condensing ability but lower DNA binding constants than GV1. However, the hydrophobic alkyl ether chains also enhance the DNA delivery ability of GV2-6 compared with that of GV1. More importantly, we have applied GV1-6 as non-viral gene vectors for tracking DNA delivery in living cells by one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopies. In two-photon microscopy, a high signal-to-noise contrast was achieved by irradiation with an 830 nm laser. This is the first example of the use of transition-metal complexes for two-photon luminescent tracking of the cellular pathways of gene delivery and as DNA carriers. Our work provides new insights into improving real-time tracking during gene delivery and transfection as well as important information for the design of multifunctional non-viral vectors. PMID:25597394

  8. Catalytic dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to arenes by a dihydrido iridium P-C-P pincer complex

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.; Hagen, C.; Cramer, R.E.; Jensen, C.M.; Kaska, W.C.

    1997-01-29

    We recently found that the iridium P-C-P pincer complex IrH{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}-PBu{sup T}{sub 2}){sub 2}] (1) is a highly active, homogeneous catalyst for the transfer dehydrogenation of cyclooctane with unusual long-term stability at temperatures as high as 200 {degree}C. This reactivity has now been extended to the catalytic transfer dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to arenes. We report this novel catalytic activity as well as the results of an X-ray structure determination of 1. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Chiral Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: Stabilization of G-Quadruplex DNA, Inhibition of Telomerase Activity and Cellular Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qianqian; Liu, Yanan; Wang, Chuan; Sun, Dongdong; Yang, Xingcheng; Liu, Yanyu; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Two ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ and Δ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+, were synthesized and characterized via proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. This study aims to clarify the anticancer effect of metal complexes as novel and potent telomerase inhibitors and cellular nucleus target drug. First, the chiral selectivity of the compounds and their ability to stabilize quadruplex DNA were studied via absorption and emission analyses, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence-resonance energy transfer melting assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and polymerase chain reaction stop assay. The two chiral compounds selectively induced and stabilized the G-quadruplex of telomeric DNA with or without metal cations. These results provide new insights into the development of chiral anticancer agents for G-quadruplex DNA targeting. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol reveals the higher inhibitory activity of Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ against telomerase, suggesting that Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ may be a potential telomerase inhibitor for cancer chemotherapy. MTT assay results show that these chiral complexes have significant antitumor activities in HepG2 cells. More interestingly, cellular uptake and laser-scanning confocal microscopic studies reveal the efficient uptake of Λ-[Ru(phen)2(p-HPIP)]2+ by HepG2 cells. This complex then enters the cytoplasm and tends to accumulate in the nucleus. This nuclear penetration of the ruthenium complexes and their subsequent accumulation are associated with the chirality of the isomers as well as with the subtle environment of the ruthenium complexes. Therefore, the nucleus can be the cellular target of chiral ruthenium complexes for anticancer therapy. PMID:23236402

  10. Tetranuclear manganese(II) complexes of sulfonylcalix[4]arene macrocycles: synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Lamouchi, Meriem; Jeanneau, Erwann; Pillonnet, Anne; Brioude, Arnaud; Martini, Matteo; Stéphan, Olivier; Meganem, Faouzi; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique; Desroches, Cédric

    2012-03-01

    Two tetranuclear manganese(II) complexes {K(+)[Mn(4)(ThiaSO(2))(2)(OH)](-)} (1) and {K(+)[Mn(4)(ThiaSO(2))(2)(F)](-)} (2) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions in methanol with p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (ThiaSO(2)). For both complexes, the structure has been established from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The two complexes are best described as manganese squares sandwiched between two thiacalixarene macrocycles. In both complexes, in the center of the square formed by the four manganese(II) atoms, the unexpected presence of μ(4)-OH(-) or μ(4)-F(-) gives a negative charge to the cluster. The two tetranuclear complexes exhibit strong orange luminescence behavior resulting from the symbiosis between the ThiaSO(2) and the Mn(2+). Despite similar chemical formulation, (1) and (2) present difference in emission intensity and lifetime τ. PMID:22266843

  11. Fine control on the photochemical and photobiological properties of Ru(II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjie; Lei, Wanhua; Hou, Yuanjun; Li, Chao; Jiang, Guoyu; Zhang, Baowen; Zhou, Qianxiong; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-28

    A series of six Ru(arene) complexes, [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(dpb)(py-R)](2+) (1-6, dpb = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoquinoxaline, py-R = 4-substituted pyridine, R = N(CH3)2, NH2, OCH3, H, COOCH3 and NO2), were synthesized and their photochemical and photobiological properties were compared in detail. The electron push/pull character of the R groups has a significant impact on both ligand photodissociation and (1)O2 generation of the complexes. The photoinduced DNA covalent binding capabilities increase from 1 to 6 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and DNA photocleavage occurs simultaneously in aerobic environments. 4 has the most potent phototoxicity against human lung carcinoma A549 cells among the examined complexes. The substituent effect may be ascribed to the influences of the R groups on the energy levels of (3)MC and (3)MLCT states as well as the energy gaps between (3)MC, (3)MLCT and dpb-based (3)IL states. Similar chemical modification on bidentate and arene ligands or other sites of the pyridine ligand may lead to more efficient agents with PDT and/or PACT activities. PMID:25797273

  12. Titanium "constrained geometry" complexes with pendant arene groups.

    PubMed

    Dureen, Meghan A; Brown, Christopher C; Morton, Jason G M; Stephan, Douglas W

    2011-03-28

    The synthesis of the proligands C(5)Me(4)HSiMe(2)N(H)R) (R = CMe(2)Ph 1, 2-C(6)H(4)Ph 2) was accomplished via a straightforward salt metathesis reaction of the appropriate lithium amide and ClSiMe(2)(C(5)Me(5)H). Generation of the dilithio salt and reaction with TiCl(3)·(THF)(3) followed by oxidation gave C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)N(C(6)H(4)Ph)TiCl(2) (3) in low yield. In contrast, deprotonation of 1 and 2 and reaction with (Me(2)N)(2)TiCl(2) afforded C(5)Me(4)(SiMe(2)NR)Ti(NMe(2))(2) (R = CMe(2)Ph 4, 2-C(6)H(4)Ph 5), respectively, in good yields Treatment with MeI gave the analogs C(5)Me(4)(SiMe(2)NR)TiI(2) (R = CMe(2)Ph 6, 2-C(6)H(4)Ph 7). Reduction of 7 with potassium graphite afforded C(5)Me(4)(SiMe(2)NC(6)H(4)Ph)Ti 8. Treatment of 6 and 7 with MeMgBr afforded C(5)Me(4)(SiMe(2)NR)TiMe(2) (R = CMe(2)Ph 9, 2-C(6)H(4)Ph 10). Complexes 9 and 10 in combination with the activator [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] catalyzed the polymerization of styrene and ethylene. Copolymerization was also investigated. While the catalyst derived from 10 showed poor activity, compound 9 showed markedly higher activity than 10 and (C(5)Me(4))SiMe(2)(NtBu)]TiMe(2). PMID:21298170

  13. Oxidative Stress and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Paulina L.; Bazán, Claudia M.; Bongiovanni, María E.; Toneatto, Judith; Albesa, Inés; Becerra, María C.; Argüello, Gerardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in the need for new approaches to be developed to combat previously easily treatable infections. The main aim of this work was to establish the potential of the synthetic α-diimine chromium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes (where the α-diimine ligands are bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]-phenazine) like [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+, [Ru(phen)3]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as antibacterial agents by generating oxidative stress. The [Cr(phen)3]3+ and [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+ complexes showed activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.125 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL, while [Ru(phen)3]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ do not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the two bacterial genera studied at the concentration range used. When ciprofloxacin was combined with [Cr(phen)3]3+ for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, an important synergistic effect was observed, FIC 0.066 for S. aureus and FIC 0.064 for E. coli. The work described here shows that chromium(III) complexes are bactericidal for S. aureus and E. coli. Our results indicate that α-diimine chromium(III) complexes may be interesting to open new paths for metallodrug chemotherapy against different bacterial genera since some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities. PMID:24093107

  14. New RuII (arene) complexes with halogen-substituted bis- and tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate ligands.

    PubMed

    Orbisaglia, Serena; Di Nicola, Corrado; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Martins, Luísa M D R S; Alegria, Elisabete C B A; da Silva, M Fátima C Guedes; Rocha, Bruno G M; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Pombeiro, Armando J L; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; White, Allan H

    2014-03-24

    [RuCl(arene)(μ-Cl)]2 dimers were treated in a 1:2 molar ratio with sodium or thallium salts of bis- and tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands [Na(Bp(Br3))], [Tl(Tp(Br3))], and [Tl(Tp(iPr, 4Br))]. Mononuclear neutral complexes [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))] (1: arene=p-cymene (cym); 2: arene=hexamethylbenzene (hmb); 3: arene=benzene (bz)), [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Tp(Br3))] (4: arene=cym; 6: arene=bz), and [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Tp(iPr, 4Br))] (7: arene=cym, 8: arene=hmb, 9: arene=bz) have been always obtained with the exception of the ionic [Ru2 (hmb)2-(μ-Cl)3][Tp(Br3)] (5'), which formed independently of the ratio of reactants and reaction conditions employed. The ionic [Ru-(CH3OH)(cym)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))][X] (10: X=PF6, 12: X=O3SCF3) and the neutral [Ru(O2CCF3)(cym)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))] (11) have been obtained by a metathesis reaction with corresponding silver salts. All complexes 1-12 have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic data (IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy). The structures of the thallium and calcium derivatives of ligand Tp(Br3), [Tl(Tp(Br3))] and [Ca(dmso)6][Tp(Br3)]2 ⋅2 DMSO, of the complexes 1, 4, 5', 6, 11, and of the decomposition product [RuCl(cym)(Hpz(iPr, 4Br))2][Cl] (7') have been confirmed by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies showed that 1-9 and 11 undergo a single-electron Ru(II) →Ru(III) oxidation at a potential, measured by cyclic voltammetry, which allows comparison of the electron-donor characters of the bis- and tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate and arene ligands, and to estimate, for the first time, the values of the Lever EL ligand parameter for Bp(Br3), Tp(Br3), and Tp(iPr, 4Br). Theoretical calculations at the DFT level indicated that both oxidation and reduction of the Ru complexes under study are mostly metal-centered with some involvement of the chloride ligand in the former case, and also demonstrated that the experimental isolation of the μ(3)-binuclear complex 5' (instead of the mononuclear 5

  15. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro cytotoxicity and anticancer effects of ruthenium(II) complexes on BEL-7402 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Han, Bing-Jie; Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Lai, Shang-Hai; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Four new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)2(DQTT)](ClO4)2 (1) (DQTT=12-(1,4-dihydroquinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5,9,14-tetraazabenzo[b]triphenylene, dmb=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), [Ru(bpy)2(DQTT)](ClO4)2 (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine), [Ru(phen)2(DQTT)](ClO4)2 (3) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Ru(dmp)2(DQTT)](ClO4)2 (4) (dmp=2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the complexes was evaluated against human BEL-7402, A549, HeLa, HepG-2 and MG-63 cancer cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. The IC50 values of complexes 1-4 against BEL-7402 cells are 31.8 ± 1.0, 35.8 ± 1.6, 29.0 ± 0.8 and 25.0 ± 0.9 μM, respectively. The morphological apoptosis was investigated with AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. The DNA damage was assayed by comet assay. The inhibition of cell migration was evaluated by the wound healing assay. The levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential were studied under fluorescent microscope. The percentages in the cells of apoptotic and necrotic cells and the cell cycle arrest were determined by flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-2 family proteins was investigated by western blot analysis. The results show that the complexes induce BEL-7402 cells apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which was accompanied by regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:26828285

  16. Survey on the complexation character of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes and Caffeic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Jianbin; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Bingtai

    2014-11-01

    In this work the inclusion complex formation of Caffeic acid (CA) with p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCXn, n = 4, 6, 8) is reported aiming to improve the antioxidant activity, thermal stability and photostability properties of CA. Evidence for the formation was obtained using fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), pulsed field gradient NMR (PFG-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microphotographs (SEM). Experimental conditions including concentrations of SCXn and pH were investigated for the inclusion formation in detail. The results showed that CA was able to form inclusion complexes with SCXn in a molar ratio of 1:1, and the formation constants were varied with the pH conditions. NMR spectroscopy indicated that both the aromatic ring and the vinyl group of CA were partially covered by SCXn.

  17. Förster resonance energy transfer studies of luminescent gold nanoparticles functionalized with ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes: modulation via esterase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Tam, Anthony Yiu-Yan; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Li, Mei-Jin; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-05-14

    A number of ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) bipyridine complexes functionalized with lipoic acid moieties have been synthesized and characterized. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles with these chromophoric ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes has resulted in interesting supramolecular assemblies with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties that could be modulated via esterase hydrolysis. The luminescence of the metal complex chromophores was turned on upon cleavage of the ester bond linkage by esterase to reduce the efficiency of FRET quenching. The prepared nanoassembly conjugates have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism has also been studied by transient absorption and time-resolved emission decay measurements. The FRET efficiencies were found to vary with the nature of the chromophores and the length of the spacer between the donor (transition metal complexes) and the acceptor (gold nanoparticles). PMID:24754668

  18. Kinetic effects of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration: nitrile hydratase insights from bioinspired ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Davinder; Nguyen, Tho N; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic investigations inspired by the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase were performed on a series of ruthenium(II) complexes to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration. The rate of benzonitrile hydration was quantified as a function of catalyst, nitrile, and water concentrations. Precatalysts L(n)RuPPh3 (n = 1-3; L(1) = 4,7-bis(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(2) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(3) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfenato-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane) were activated by substitution of triphenylphosphine with substrate in hot dimethylformamide solution. Rate measurements are consistent with a dynamic equilibrium between inactive aqua (L(n)Ru-OH2) and active nitrile (L(n)Ru-NCR) derivatives with K = 21 ± 1, 9 ± 0.9, and 23 ± 3 for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Subsequent hydration of the L(n)Ru-NCR intermediate yields the amide product with measured hydration rate constants (k's) of 0.37 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 1.59 ± 0.12 M(-1) h(-1) for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Temperature dependent studies reveal that sulfur oxidation lowers the enthalpic barrier by 27 kJ/mol, but increases the entropic barrier by 65 J/(mol K). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ (Ru); 6-31G(d) (all other atoms)) support a nitrile bound catalytic cycle with lowering of the reaction barrier as a consequence of sulfur oxidation through enhanced nitrile binding and attack of the water nucleophile through a highly organized transition state. PMID:25397591

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel Ru(II)-arene complexes containing intercalating ligands.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Stefan; Rangasamy, Loganathan; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Gasser, Gilles; Grgurić-Šipka, Sanja

    2016-07-01

    Three new ruthenium(II)-arene complexes, namely [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(Me2dppz)Cl]PF6 (1), [(η(6)-benzene)Ru(Me2dppz)Cl]PF6 (2) and [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(aip)Cl]PF6 (3) (Me2dppz=11,12-dimethyldipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine; aip=2-(9-anthryl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis. The complexes were found to be well soluble and stable in DMSO. The biological activity of the three complexes was tested in three different human cancer cell lines (A549, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa) and in one human non-cancerous cell line (MRC-5). Complexes 1 and 3, carrying η(6)-p-cymene as the arene ligand, were shown to be toxic in all cell lines in the low micromolar/subnanomolar range, with complex 1 being the most cytotoxic complex of the series. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that complex 1 caused concentration- and time-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G2-M and S phases in HeLa cells. This event is followed by the accumulation of the sub-G1 DNA content after 48h, in levels higher than cisplatin and in the absence of phosphatidylserine externalization. Fluorescent microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining revealed that complex 1 induced both apoptotic and necrotic cell morphology characteristics. Drug-accumulation and DNA-binding studies performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in HeLa cells showed that the total ruthenium uptake increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and that complex 1 accumulated more efficiently than cisplatin at equimolar concentrations. The introduction of a Me2dppz ligand into the ruthenium(II)-p-cymene scaffold was found to allow the discovery of a strongly cytotoxic complex with significantly higher cellular uptake and DNA-binding properties than cisplatin. PMID:26818702

  20. Mirror-Image Organometallic Osmium Arene Iminopyridine Halido Complexes Exhibit Similar Potent Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Four chiral OsII arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (SOs,SC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (ROs,RC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (SOs,SC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (ROs,RC)-[Os(η6-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction. PMID:24114923

  1. Structures of potassium calix[4]arene crown ether inclusion complexes and application in polymerization of rac-lactide.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingguo; Zhao, Hongwei; Mao, Xiaoyang; Pan, Xiaobo; Wu, Jincai

    2016-06-21

    Reaction of 1,3-dipropoxy-p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (L(1)H2) with KN(SiMe3)2 afforded a one-dimensional (1D) chain complex [K2L(1)]n (1). Upon reaction with 1 equivalent 18-crown-6, complex 1 can convert to complex [K2(18-crown-6)L(1)] (2) which possesses a sandwich structure. Treatment of two calix[4]arene-crown ligands of 1,3-dihydroxy-p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-crown-5 (L(2)H2) and 1,2-dihydroxy-p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-crown-5 (L(3)H2) with KN(SiMe3)2 gave the dinuclear complex [K2L(2)] (3) and the mononuclear complex [K(THF)L(3)H] (4), respectively. Complexes 1-4 were all characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The variable temperature (1)H NMR spectrum indicates there is a quick rotation equilibrium of the two phenoxy groups in complex 3. In addition, complexes 1-4 have been tested for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide and the results showed that complexes 2 and 3 are highly active for the ROP of rac-lactide. The obtained polymers displayed low dispersity values (Đ) and the molecular weights are close to the calculated ones. Furthermore, complexes 2 and 3 show moderate isoselectivities of Pm = 0.67 and Pm = 0.73, respectively. PMID:27222057

  2. Arene activation by a nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex: pathways leading to phenol and ketone products.

    PubMed

    Faponle, Abayomi S; Banse, Frédéric; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are found in various nonheme iron enzymes as catalytic cycle intermediates; however, little is known on their catalytic properties. The recent work of Banse and co-workers on a biomimetic nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex provided evidence of its involvement in reactivity with arenes. This contrasts the behavior of heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes that are known to be sluggish oxidants. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism of the biomimetic iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex with arenes, we performed a computational (density functional theory) study. The calculations show that iron(III)-hydroperoxo reacts with substrates via low free energies of activation that should be accessible at room temperature. Moreover, a dominant ketone reaction product is observed as primary products rather than the thermodynamically more stable phenols. These product distributions are analyzed and the calculations show that charge interaction between the iron(III)-hydroxo group and the substrate in the intermediate state pushes the transferring proton to the meta-carbon atom of the substrate and guides the selectivity of ketone formation. These studies show that the relative ratio of ketone versus phenol as primary products can be affected by external interactions of the oxidant with the substrate. Moreover, iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are shown to selectively give ketone products, whereas iron(IV)-oxo complexes will react with arenes to form phenols instead. PMID:27099221

  3. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing CCC-pincer bis-(carbene) ligands: synthesis, structures and activities toward recycle transfer hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Naziruddin, Abbas Raja; Huang, Zhao-Jiunn; Lai, Wei-Chih; Lin, Wan-Jung; Hwang, Wen-Shu

    2013-09-28

    A new series of ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with benzene-based CCC-pincer bis-(carbene) ligands, [((R)CCC(R))Ru(CO)2(X)](0/+) and [((R)CCC(R))Ru(CO)(NN)](+) ((R)CCC(R) = 2,6-bis-(1-alkylimidazolylidene)benzene, R = Me or (n)Bu; X = I, Br, CH3CN, or 6-(aminomethyl)pyridine (ampy); NN = 2·CH3CN, or chelating ampy or bipyridine), was synthesized and fully characterized. X-Ray structure determinations revealed that these eight complexes have pseudo-octahedral configurations around the ruthenium center with the pincer ligand occupying three meridional sites. These complexes prove to be efficient precatalysts demonstrating very good activity and reusability for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones. PMID:23880878

  4. Highly unusual effects of pi-conjugation extension on the molecular linear and quadratic nonlinear optical properties of ruthenium(II) ammine complexes.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Jones, Lathe A; Harris, James A; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Persoons, André

    2003-01-29

    We have used several techniques, including hyper-Rayleigh scattering and Stark spectroscopy, to investigate the effects of polyene chain length on the optical properties of complexes containing ruthenium(II) electron donor groups and pyridinium electron acceptors. In marked contrast with all other known donor-acceptor polyenes, conjugation extension beyond a single double bond in the dipolar complexes studied leads to blue-shifting of the intramolecular charge-transfer absorptions. Furthermore, the static first hyperpolarizabilities beta0 become maximized with trans-1,3-butadienyl linkages and then decrease in complexes with three CH=CH bonds. Our results clearly demonstrate that the molecular engineering criteria for metal-containing nonlinear optical chromophores can differ dramatically from those for purely organic compounds. PMID:12537472

  5. A dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vector

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kangqiang; Yu, Bole; Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Zou, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent tracking gene delivery could provide us with a better understanding of the critical steps in the transfection process. However, for in vivo tracking applications, a small diameter (<10 nm) is one of the rigorous requirements for tracking vectors. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for two-photon tracking gene delivery based on a dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. Because this metallodendrimer has a multivalent periphery, the complex, which is 6.1 nm, showed high stability and excellent dispersibility and could stepwise condense DNA in vitro. With the outstanding photochemical properties of Ru(II) polypyridyl, this complex could track gene delivery in vivo using one- and two-photon imaging. PMID:26185052

  6. Oxovanadium(V) tetrathiacalix[4]arene complexes and their activity as oxidation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Elke; Limberg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of modeling reactive moieties and relevant intermediates on the surfaces of vanadium oxide based catalysts during oxygenation/dehydrogenation of organic substrates, mono- and dinuclear vanadium oxo complexes of doubly deprotonated p-tert-butylated tetrathiacalix[4]arene (H4TC) have been synthesized and characterized: PPh4[(H2TC)VOCl(2)] (1) and (PPh4)2[{(H2TC)V(O)(mu-O)}2] (2). According to the NMR spectra of the dissolved complexes they both retain the structures adopted in the crystalline state, as revealed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested as catalysts for the oxidation of alcohols with O(2) at 80 degrees C. Both 1 and 2 efficiently catalyze the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, crotyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-1-propanol, and fluorenol, and in most cases dinuclear complex 2 is more active than mononuclear complex 1. Moreover, the two thiacalixarene complexes 1 and 2 are in many instances more active than oxovanadium(V) complexes containing "classical" calixarene ligands tested previously. Complexes 1 and 2 also show significant activity in the oxidation of dihydroanthracene. Further investigations led to the conclusion that 1 acts as precatalyst that is converted to the active species PPh4[(TC)V==O] (3) at 80 degrees C by double intramolecular HCl elimination. For complex 2, the results of mechanistic investigations indicated that the oxidation chemistry takes place at the bridging oxo ligands and that the two vanadium centers cooperate during the process. The intermediate (PPh4)2[{H2TCV(O)}2(mu-OH)(mu-OC13H9)] (4) was isolated and characterized, also with respect to its reactivity, and the results afforded a mechanistic proposal for a reasonable catalytic cycle. The implications which these findings gathered in solution may have for oxidation mechanisms on the surfaces of V-based heterogeneous catalysts are discussed. PMID:17566134

  7. Structural Determinants of p53-Independence in Anticancer Ruthenium-Arene Schiff-Base Complexes.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mun Juinn; Babak, Maria V; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Pastorin, Giorgia; Gaiddon, Christian; Ang, Wee Han

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a key tumor suppressor gene involved in key cellular processes and implicated in cancer therapy. However, it is inactivated in more than 50% of all cancers due to mutation or overexpression of its negative regulators. This leads to drug resistance and poor chemotherapeutic outcome as most clinical drugs act via a p53-dependent mechanism of action. An attractive strategy to circumvent this resistance would be to identify new anticancer drugs that act via p53-independent mode of action. In the present study, we identified 9 Ru (II)-Arene Schiff-base (RAS) complexes able to induce p53-independent cytotoxicity and discuss structural features that are required for their p53-independent activity. Increasing hydrophobicity led to an increase in cellular accumulation in cells with a corresponding increase in efficacy. We further showed that all nine complexes demonstrated p53-independent activity. This was despite significant differences in their physicochemical properties, suggesting that the iminoquinoline ligand, a common structural feature for all the complexes, is required for the p53-independent activity. PMID:27174050

  8. Photorelease of Pyridyl Esters in Organometallic Ru(II) Arene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Abraha; Garino, Claudio; Ruggiero, Emmanuel; Alonso-de Castro, Silvia; Mareque-Rivas, Juan C; Salassa, Luca

    2015-01-01

    New Ru(II) arene complexes of formula [(η6-p-cym)Ru(N-N)(X)]2+ (where p-cym = para-cymene, N-N = 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and X = m/p-COOMe-Py, 1-4) were synthesised and characterized, including the molecular structure of complexes [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy)(m-COOMe-Py)]2+ (3) and [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy) (p-COOMe-Py)]2+ (4) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-4 are stable in the dark in aqueous solution over 48 h and photolysis studies indicate that they can photodissociate the monodentate m/p-COOMe-Py ligands selectively with yields lower than 1%. DFT and TD-DFT calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ/6-31G**) performed on singlet and triplet states pinpoint a low-energy triplet state as the reactive state responsible for the selective dissociation of the monodentate pyridyl ligands. PMID:25905605

  9. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes with hydrophobic ancillary ligand as Aβ aggregation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nilima A; Ramteke, Shefali N; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Jani, Vinod; Sonawane, Uddhavesh B; Joshi, Rajendra R; Joshi, Bimba; Erxleben, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis, spectral and electrochemical characterization of the complexes of the type [Ru(NN)2(txbg)](2+) where NN is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3f] quinoxaline (dpq) (3), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4) which incorporate the tetra-xylene bipyridine glycoluril (txbg) as the ancillary ligand are described in detail. Crystal structures of ligand txbg and complex 2 were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results indicated that at micromolar concentration all complexes exhibit significant potential of Aβ aggregation inhibition, while the ligand txbg displayed weak activity towards Aβ aggregation. Complex 1 showed relatively low inhibition (70%) while complexes 2-4 inhibited nearly 100% Aβ aggregation after 240 h of incubation. The similar potential of complexes 2-4 and absence of any trend in their activity with the planarity of polypyridyl ligands suggests there is no marked effect of planarity of coligands on their inhibitory potential. Further studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition indicated very weak activity of these complexes against AChE. Detailed interactions of Aβ with both ligand and complex 2 have been studied by molecular modeling. Complex 2 showed interactions involving all three polypyridyl ligands with hydrophobic region of Aβ. Furthermore, the toxicity of these complexes towards human neuroblastoma cells was evaluated by MTT assay and except complex 4, the complexes displayed very low toxicity. PMID:27406812

  10. Self-assembly of electroactive thiacrown ruthenium(II) complexes into hydrogen-bonded chain and tape networks.

    PubMed

    Shan, Naz; Hawxwell, Samuel M; Adams, Harry; Brammer, Lee; Thomas, Jim A

    2008-12-15

    A family of coordination complexes has been synthesized, each comprising a ruthenium(II) center ligated by a thiacrown macrocycle, [9]aneS(3), [12]aneS(4), or [14]aneS(4), and a pair of cis-coordinated ligands, niotinamide (nic), isonicotinamide (isonic), or p-cyanobenzamide (cbza), that provide the complexes with peripherally situated amide groups capable of hydrogen bond formation. The complexes [Ru([9]aneS(3))(nic)(2)Cl]PF(6), 1(PF(6)); [Ru([9]aneS(3)) (isonic)(2)Cl]PF(6), 2(PF(6)); [Ru([12]aneS(4))(nic)(2)](PF(6))(2), 3(PF(6))(2); [Ru([12]aneS(4))(isonic)(2)](PF(6))(2), 4(PF(6))(2); [Ru([12]aneS(4)) (cbza)(2)](PF(6))(2), 5(PF(6))(2); [Ru([14]aneS(4))(nic)(2)](PF(6))(2), 6(PF(6))(2); [Ru([14]aneS(4))(isonic)(2)](PF(6))(2), 7(PF(6))(2); and [Ru([14]aneS(4))(cbza)(2)](PF(6))(2), 8(PF(6))(2) have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. UV/visible spectroscopy shows that each complex exhibits an intense high-energy band (230-255 nm) assigned to a pi-pi* transition and a lower energy band (297-355 nm) assigned to metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions. Electrochemical studies indicate good reversibility for the oxidations of complexes with nic and isonic ligands (|I(a)/I(c)| = 1; DeltaEp < 100 mV), In contrast, complexes 5 and 8, which incorporate cbza ligands, display oxidations that are not fully electrochemically reversible (|I(a)/I(c)| = 1, DeltaEp > or = 100 mV). Metal-based oxidation couples between 1.32 and 1.93 V versus Ag/AgCl can be rationalized in term of the acceptor capabilities of the thiacrown ligands and the amide-bearing ligands, as well as the pi-donor capacity of the chloride ligands in compounds 1 and 2. The potential to use these electroactive metal complexes as building blocks for hydrogen-bonded crystalline materials has been explored. Crystal structures of compounds 1(PF(6)).H(2)O, 1(BF(4)).2H(2)O, 2(PF(6)), 3(PF(6))(2), 6(PF(6))(2)CH(3)NO(2), and 8(PF(6))(2) are reported. Four of the six form

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Apoptosis-Inducing Properties of Ruthenium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhong, Nan-Jing; Xie, Yang-Yin; Huang, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two new Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(FAMP)](ClO4)2 1 and 2, are synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The in vitro cytotoxicities and apoptosis-inducing properties of these complexes are extensively studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The cell cycle analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 exhibit effective cell growth inhibition by triggering G0/G1 phase arrest and inducing apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. The in vitro DNA binding properties of the two complexes are investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. PMID:24804832

  12. Cytoxicity and Apoptotic Mechanism of Ruthenium(II) Amino Acid Complexes in Sarcoma-180 Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aliny Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Castro; Almeida, Marcio Aurelio Pinheiro; Mello, Francyelli Mariana Santos; Pires, Wanessa Carvalho; Pinto, Thallita Monteiro; Delella, Flávia Karina; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Moreno, Virtudes; Batista, Alzir Azevedo; de Paula Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much attention has been focused on ruthenium complexes in antitumor therapy. Ruthenium is a transition metal that possesses several advantages for rational antitumor drug design and biological applications. In the present study, five ruthenium complexes containing amino acids were studied in vitro to determine their biological activity against sarcoma-180 tumor cells. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was evaluated by an MTT assay, and their mechanism of action was investigated. The results demonstrated that the five complexes inhibited the growth of the S180 tumor cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 22.53 µM to 50.18 µM, and showed low cytotoxicity against normal L929 fibroblast cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the [Ru(gly)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 complex (2) inhibited the growth of the tumor cells by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by an increased number of Annexin V-positive cells and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Further investigation showed that complex 2 caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; activated caspases 3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and caused a change in the mRNA expression levels of caspase 3, caspase-9 as well as the bax genes. The levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bak were increased. Thus, we demonstrated that ruthenium amino acid complexes are promising drugs against S180 tumor cells, and we recommend further investigations of their role as chemotherapeutic agents for sarcomas. PMID:25329644

  13. Can metal ion complexation compete with the self-assembly processes of calix[4]arene amine derivatives?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Laura; Creaven, Bernadette S; McGinley, John

    2014-06-14

    Self-assembly can occur spontaneously through aryl-aryl π-stacking in solution for calix[4]arenes derivatised at both the upper and lower rims with pendant aromatic rings, including pyridine rings. It was hoped that metal ion complexation would help to control the level of self-assembly occurring in solution, by disrupting these interactions. Metal ion titration studies were carried out on 3 with various zinc salts, but it was found that even with 1 : 4 ligand to metal ratio, the self-assembly process still dominated. Furthermore, in an effort to prevent the self-assembly process, the lower rim was completely substituted, but metal complexation reactions with these fully substituted calix[4]arenes still showed that the self-assembly process dominated. PMID:24740409

  14. Effect of radiation on cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human osteosarcoma MG-63 induced by a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Deng, Kun-Kang; Wu, Yong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Qing-Hua; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wu, Hai-Feng; Li, Xin-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wei; Guo, Qi-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Radiation has large influence on the cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The bioactivity of ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(dmb)2(DBHIP)](ClO4)2 (Ru1) (DBHIP = 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) was investigated in the absence and presence of radiation. The cytotoxicity of Ru1 against MG-63 cells was evaluated by CCK-8 method. Ru1 shows high cytotoxicity upon radiation. Radiation can enhance the cytotoxicity of Ru1 on MG-63 cells. The apoptosis was studied by Hoechst 33258 staining method and flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest and western blot analysis were investigated in detail. The complex induces the apoptosis in MG-63 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  15. Visible-Light-Driven Photoisomerization and Increased Rotation Speed of a Molecular Motor Acting as a Ligand in a Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Wezenberg, Sander J; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-09-21

    Toward the development of visible-light-driven molecular rotary motors, an overcrowded alkene-based ligand and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex is presented. In our design, a 4,5-diazafluorenyl coordination motif is directly integrated into the motor function. The photochemical and thermal isomerization behavior has been studied by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Upon coordination to a Ru(II) bipyridine complex, the photoisomerization process can be driven by visible (λmax = 450 nm) instead of UV light and furthermore, a large increase of the speed of rotation is noted. DFT calculations point to a contraction of the diazafluorenyl lower half upon metal-coordination resulting in reduced steric hindrance in the "fjord region" of the molecule. Consequently, it is shown that metal-ligand interactions can play an important role in the adjustment of both photophysical and thermodynamic properties of molecular motors. PMID:26271465

  16. Dual Esterase- and Steroid-Responsive Energy Transfer Modulation of Ruthenium(II) and Rhenium(I) Complex Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Song, Hai-Ou; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-11-01

    A number of adamantane-containing ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes have been synthesized, characterized, and noncovalently functionalized with β-cyclodextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (β-CD-GNPs) through the host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and adamantane. The resultant nanoconjugates have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and 2D ROESY (1) H NMR experiments. The Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties of the nanoconjugates can be modulated by both esterase-accelerated hydrolysis and competitive displacement of steroid, by monitoring the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime. The FRET efficiencies are found to vary with the nature of the chromophores and the length of the spacer between the transition metal complexes and the GNPs. This work constitutes a "proof-of-principle" assay method for the dual-functional detection of important classes of biomolecules, such as enzymes and steroids. PMID:26395881

  17. Ruthenium(II) multi carboxylic acid complexes: chemistry and application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Sousaraei, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Novel ruthenium multi carboxylic complexes (RMCCs) have been synthesized by using ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as photosensitizers for titanium dioxide semiconductor solar cells. The complexes were characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ICP and CHN analyses. The reaction details and features were then described. SEM analysis revealed that the penetration of dyes into the pores of the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface was improved by increasing the number of btec units. The solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency of complexes shows that the number of attached carboxylates on a dye has an influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized electrode. An incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 13% at 510 nm was obtained for ruthenium complexes with three btec units. PMID:24500312

  18. An ethylene-glycol decorated ruthenium(ii) complex for two-photon photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Boca, Sanda C; Four, Mickaël; Bonne, Adeline; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Astilean, Simion; Baldeck, Patrice L; Lemercier, Gilles

    2009-08-14

    A novel water-soluble Ru(ii) complex has been prepared, which represents a promising new class of selective two-photon sensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy within a confined space. PMID:19617993

  19. Ruthenium(ii) complexes of hemilabile pincer ligands: synthesis and catalysing the transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ashwin G; McBurney, Roy T; Walker, D Barney; Page, Michael J; Gatus, Mark R D; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Messerle, Barbara A

    2016-09-28

    A series of Ru(ii) complexes were synthesised based on a hemilabile pyrazole-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-pyrazole (C3N2H3)CH2(C3N2H2)CH2(C3N2H3) NCN pincer ligand 1. All complexes were fully characterised using single crystal X-ray crystallography and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Hemilabile ligands provide flexible coordination modes for the coordinating metal ion which can play a significant effect on the efficiency and mechanism of catalysis by the resulting complex. Here we observed and isolated mono-, bi- and tri-dentate complexes of both Ag(i) and Ru(ii) with 1 in which the resultant coordination mode was controlled by careful reagent selection. The catalytic activity of the Ru(ii) complexes for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of acetophenone with isopropanol was investigated. The unexpected formation of the pentaborate anion, [B5O6(OH)4](-), during the synthesis of complex 6a was found to have an unexpected positive effect by enhancing the catalysis rate. This work provides insights into the roles that different coordination modes, counterions and ligand hemilability play on the catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenations. PMID:27539740

  20. Anticancer Activity Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complex Toward Human Osteosarcoma HOS Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Si-Hong; Zhang, Gui-Qiang; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Wu, Yong; Liu, Ya-Min; Wang, Yan; Liang, Jun-Bo; Guo, Qi-Feng

    2016-08-01

    A new Ru(II) complex [Ru(dmp)2(NMIP)](ClO4)2 (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, NMIP = 2'-(2″-nitro-3″,4″-methylenedioxyphenyl)imidazo[4',5'-f][1,10]-phenanthroline) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. The cytotoxic activity of the complex against MG-63, U2OS, HOS, and MC3T3-e1 cell lines was investigated by MTT method. The complex shows moderate cytotoxicity toward HOS (IC50 = 35.6 ± 2.6 µM) and MC3T3-e1 (IC50 = 41.6 ± 2.8 µM) cell lines. The morphological studies show that the complex can induce apoptosis in HOS cells and cause an increase of reactive oxygen species levels and a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The cell cycle distribution demonstrates that the complex inhibits the cell growth at S phase. Additionally, the antitumor activity in vivo reveals that the complex can induce a decrease in tumor weight. PMID:27007877

  1. Tuning Reactivity and Site Selectivity of Simple Arenes in C–H Activation: Ortho-Arylation of Anisoles via Arene–Metal π-Complexation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches to achieve site selectivity in the C–H activation of arenes involve the use of directing groups or highly electron-poor arenes. In contrast, simple arenes, such as anisole, are characterized by poor reactivity and selectivity. We report that π-complexation to a Cr(CO)3 unit enhances the reactivity of anisoles providing an unprecedented ortho-selective arylation. This mild methodology can be used for the late stage functionalization of bioactive compounds containing the anisole motif, allowing the construction of novel organic scaffolds with few synthetic steps. PMID:25510851

  2. Hydrido carbonyl complexes of osmium(II) and ruthenium(II) containing polypyridyl ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, B.P.; Caspar, J.V.; Johnson, S.R.; Meyer, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Several different synthetic routes have been explored to produce hydrido complexes of Os(II) and Ru(II) containing polypyridyl ligands. The resulting complexes, the majority of which contain coordinated CO, are of three types: cis-(M(chelate)/sub 2/(CO)H)/sup +/, trans-(Os(chelate)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/(CO)H)/sup +/, and (Os(chelate)(diphos)(PR/sub 2/)H)/sup +/ (where M = Ru or Os and chelate is, for example, 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline or a related ligand). The electronic, infrared, and NMR spectral properties of the complexes are discussed along with the redox properties of their ground and excited states. An important observation is that the hydride ligand endows the metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited states of some of the complexes with strong reducing properties. The ground-state chemistry of the complexes is discussed especially with regard to their use as synthetic precursors to new, highly oxidizing, long-lived MLCT excited states of Os(II)< e.g., (Os/sup III/(bpy/sup -/.)(bpy)(CO)(CH/sub 3/CH))/sup 2 +/. 33 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Troponate/Aminotroponate Ruthenium-Arene Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Ligand-Tuned Mechanistic Pathway for Direct C-H Bond Arylation with Aryl Chlorides in Water.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Ambikesh D; Binnani, Chinky; Tyagi, Deepika; Rawat, Kuber S; Li, Pei-Zhou; Zhao, Yanli; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pathak, Biswarup; Singh, Sanjay K

    2016-07-01

    A series of water-soluble troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium(II)-arene complexes were synthesized, where O,O and N,O chelating troponate/aminotroponate ligands stabilized the piano-stool mononuclear ruthenium-arene complexes. Structural identities for two of the representating complexes were also established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These newly synthesized troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium-arene complexes enable efficient C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine in water. The unique structure-activity relationship in these complexes is the key to achieve efficient direct C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine. Moreover, the steric bulkiness of the carboxylate additives systematically directs the selectivity toward mono- versus diarylation of arylpyridines. Detailed mechanistic studies were performed using mass-spectral studies including identification of several key cyclometalated intermediates. These studies provided strong support for an initial cycloruthenation driven by carbonate-assisted deprotonation of 2-phenylpyridine, where the relative strength of η(6)-arene and the troponate/aminotroponate ligand drives the formation of cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-arene species, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine) (OH2)](+) by elimination of troponate/aminotroponate ligands and retaining η(6)-arene, while cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-troponate/aminotroponate species [(κ (2)-troponate/aminotroponate)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine)(OH2)2] was generated by decoordination of η(6)-arene ring during initial C-H bond activation of 2-phenylpyridine. Along with the experimental mass-spectral evidence, density functional theory calculation also supports the formation of such species for these complexes. Subsequently, these cycloruthenated products activate aryl chloride by facile oxidative addition to generate C-H arylated products. PMID:27305143

  4. Highly selective acetate optical sensing of a ruthenium(II) complex carrying imidazole and indole groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2010-07-01

    The effects of addition of F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), and OAc(-) on the UV-vis and emission spectra of Ru(II) complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(H(2)iip)](ClO(4))(2) {bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl, H(2)iip=2-indole-3-yl-imidazole[4,5-f][1,10]-phenanthroline} in dimethyl sulfone were studied. The Ru(II) complex was evidenced to be a highly selective optical sensor for OAc(-). Addition of OAc(-) elicited a distinct change in color from yellow to light orange which can be detected by naked-eye, and an almost vanished emission of the Ru(II) complex at a much lower concentration of OAc(-) than those of the other anions. PMID:20378395

  5. Protein-binding, cytotoxicity in vitro and cell cycle arrest of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ya-Min; Liang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Qiang; Cao, Di-Hua; Lin, Yang-Yang; Wu, Yong; Guo, Qi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity of two Ru(II) complexes against A549, BEL-7402, HeLa, PC-12, SGC-7901 and SiHa cell lines was investigated by MTT method. Complexes 1 and 2 show moderate cytotoxicity toward BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 53.9 ± 3.4 and 39.3 ± 2.1 μM. The effects of the complexes inducing apoptosis, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in BEL-7402 cells have been studied by fluorescence microscopy. The percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells and cell cycle arrest were studied by flow cytometry. The BSA-binding behaviors were investigated by UV/visible and fluorescent spectra.

  6. Ruthenium(ii) complexes with dppz: from molecular photoswitch to biological applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanying; Sun, Lingli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-09-14

    The DNA photoswitch [Ru(bpy)2dppz](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) has attracted much attention and become a powerful tool for studying the interaction of metal polypyridyl complexes with DNA. A large number of Ru-dppz complexes have been designed for a wide range of uses in many fields. In this perspective, we first introduce the latest results of Ru-dppz complexes that bind with DNA. The mechanisms of the light-switch effect and the structural modifications of Ru-dppz systems are also briefly introduced. We also review the recent advances in biological applications of the Ru-dppz system in DNA binders, cellular imaging, anticancer drugs, protein aggregation detection and chemosensors. PMID:27426487

  7. Time-resolved resonance raman spectra of polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, C.V.; Barton, J.K.; Turro, N.J.; Gould, I.R.

    1987-05-06

    Time-resolved resonance Raman (TR/sup 3/) spectroscopy has recently evolved as a powerful tool for the investigation of the dynamics and structures of a variety of reactive intermediates, electronic excited states, biological systems, and enzyme-substrate complexes. In this communication, the authors report the TR/sup 3/ spectra of three ruthenium complexes of special importance because of three ruthenium complexes of special importance because of their binding ability to nucleic acids, because of their success as chiral probes that recognize the conformations and helicity of nucleic acids, and because of their potential to serve as models for the interaction of metal ions with nucleic acids. They report here the results of TR/sup 3/ and transient absorption experiments which demonstrate that the excited states of three Ru(II) complexes, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) dichloride (I), tris(1,20-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) dichloride (II), and tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride (III), are indeed localized on the ligand.

  8. A mixed chloride/trifluoromethanesulfonate ligand species in a ruthenium(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Lugo, Rafael E

    2013-08-01

    The compound [2-(aminomethyl)pyridine-κ²N,N'][chlorido/trifluoromethanesulfonato(0.91/0.09)][(10,11-η)-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-amine-κN](triphenylphosphane-κP)ruthenium(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate dichloromethane 0.91-solvate, [Ru(CF₃SO₃)0.09Cl0.91(C₆H₈N₂)(C₁₅H₁₃N)(C₁₈H₁₅P)]CF₃SO₃·0.91CH₂Cl₂, belongs to a series of RuII complexes that had been tested for transfer hydrogenation, hydrogenation of polar bonds and catalytic transfer hydrogenation. The crystal structure determination of this complex revealed disorder in the form of two different anionic ligands sharing the same coordination site, which other spectroscopic methods failed to characterize. The reduced catalytic activity of the title compound was not fully understood until the crystallographic data provided evidence for the mixed ligand species. The crystal structure clearly shows that the majority of the synthesized material has a chloride ligand present. Only a small portion of the material is the expected complex [RuII(OTf)(ampy)(η²-tropNH₂)(PPh₃)]OTf, where OTf is triflate or trifluoromethanesulfonate, ampy is 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and tropNH₂ is 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-amine. PMID:23907876

  9. Photophysics of bis-bipyridyl nitro complexes of ruthenium(II) with pyridine ligands: substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Litke, Sergey V; Ershov, Aleksei Yu; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-08-14

    Emission, excitation spectra, quantum yields, and emission lifetimes are reported for the mixed ligand, bis-(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) complexes cis-[Ru(bpy)2(L)(NO2)](+) with 4-substituted pyridines as ligands L [isonicotinamide (isnc), 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy), pyridine (py), 4-phenylpyridine (phpy), 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa), 4-picoline (mepy), 4-aminopyridine (apy), and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (ampy)] in EtOH-MeOH, 4:1 (V:V), at 77 K. Radiative, k(r), and nonradiative, k(nr), decay rate constants were determined for the series of complexes, and a linear dependence of ln k(nr) on E00, with E00 as the 0-0 energy gap determined by emission spectral fitting, was obtained with a slope of -(3.35 ± 0.23) × 10(-4) cm(-1). A linear correlation of E00 for cis-[Ru(bpy)2(L)(NO2)](+) complexes and Hammett substituent constant σ(p) is found. PMID:25057909

  10. Proton coupled electron transfer from the excited state of a ruthenium(II) pyridylimidazole complex.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Andrea; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-04-28

    Proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the excited state of [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pyimH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole) to N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (monoquat, MQ(+)) was studied. While this complex has been investigated previously, our study is the first to show that the formal bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the imidazole-N-H bond decreases from (91 ± 1) kcal mol(-1) in the electronic ground state to (43 ± 5) kcal mol(-1) in the lowest-energetic (3)MLCT excited state. This makes the [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) complex a very strong (formal) hydrogen atom donor even when compared to metal hydride complexes, and this is interesting for light-driven (formal) hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions with a variety of different substrates. Mechanistically, formal HAT between (3)MLCT excited [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) and monoquat in buffered 1 : 1 (v : v) CH3CN/H2O was found to occur via a sequence of reaction steps involving electron transfer from Ru(ii) to MQ(+) coupled to release of the N-H proton to buffer base, followed by protonation of reduced MQ(+) by buffer acid. Our study is relevant in the larger contexts of photoredox catalysis and light-to-chemical energy conversion. PMID:27094541

  11. New water-soluble ruthenium(II) cytotoxic complex: biological activity and cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Morais, Tânia S; Santos, Filipa C; Jorge, Tiago F; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Marques, Fernanda; Robalo, M Paula; Matos, António; Santos, Isabel; Garcia, M Helena

    2014-01-01

    A novel water soluble organometallic compound, [RuCp(mTPPMSNa)(2,2'-bipy)][CF3SO3] (TM85, where Cp=η(5)-cyclopentadienyl, mTPPMS=diphenylphosphane-benzene-3-sulfonate and 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) is presented herein. Studies of interactions with relevant proteins were performed to understand the behavior and mode of action of this complex in the biological environment. Electrochemical and fluorescence studies showed that TM85 strongly binds to albumin. Studies carried out to study the formation of TM85 which adducts with ubiquitin and cytochrome c were performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antitumor activity was evaluated against a variety of human cancer cell lines, namely A2780, A2780cisR, MCF7, MDAMB231, HT29, PC3 and V79 non-tumorigenic cells and compared with the reference drug cisplatin. TM85 cytotoxic effect was reduced in the presence of endocytosis modulators at low temperatures, suggesting an energy-dependent mechanism consistent with endocytosis. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that TM85 targets the endomembranar system disrupting the Golgi and also affects the mitochondria. Disruption of plasma membrane observed by flow cytometry could lead to cellular damage and cell death. On the whole, the biological activity evaluated herein combined with the water solubility property suggests that complex TM85 could be a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24145065

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of labile intercalative ruthenium(ii) complexes for anticancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Chen, Yu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Jin, Chengzhi; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-08-16

    DNA binding and DNA transcription inhibition is regarded as a promising strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Herein, chloro terpyridyl Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(tpy)(N^N)Cl](+) (Ru1, N^N = 2,2'-bipyridine; Ru2, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]acenaphthylene; Ru3, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]phenanthrene; Ru4, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]pyrene) were prepared as DNA intercalative and covalent binding anticancer agents. The chloro ligand hydrolysis slowly and the octanol and water partition coefficient of Ru2-Ru4 were between 0.6 and 1.2. MALDI-TOF mass, DNA gel electrophoresis confirmed covalent and intercalative DNA binding modes of Ru2-Ru4, while Ru1 can only bind DNA covalently. As a result, Ru2-Ru4 exhibited stronger DNA transcription inhibition activity, higher cell uptake efficiency and better anticancer activity than Ru1. Ru4 was the most toxic complex toward all cancer cells which inhibited DNA replication and transcription. AO/EB, Annexin V/PI, nuclear staining, JC-1 assays further confirmed that Ru2-Ru4 induced cancer cell death by an apoptosis mechanism. PMID:27294337

  13. New Series of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes Synthesized Using Photoisomerization for Efficient Water Oxidation Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Masanari; Nagai, Sho; Takahashi, Kosuke; Saito, Kenji; Yui, Tatsuto; Yagi, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    A new series of proximal,proximal-[Ru2(tpy)2(L)XY](n+) (p,p-Ru2XY, tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, L = 5-phenyl-2,8-di(2-pyridyl)-1,9,10-anthyridine, X and Y = other coordination sites) were synthesized using photoisomerization of a mononuclear complex. The p,p-Ru2XY complexes undergo unusual reversible bridge-exchange reactions to generate p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl), p,p-Ru2(μ-OH), and p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) with μ-Cl, μ-OH, as well as hydroxo and aquo ligands at X and Y sites of p,p-Ru2XY, respectively. The geometric and electronic structures of these complexes were characterized based on UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (1)H NMR data showed C2 symmetry of p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) with the distorted L chelate and nonequivalence of two tpy ligands, in contrast to the C2v symmetry of p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl) and p,p-Ru2(μ-OH). However, irrespective of the lower symmetry, p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) is predominantly formed in neutral and weakly basic conditions due to the specially stabilized core structure by multiple hydrogen-bond interactions among aquo, hydroxo, and backbone L ligands. The electrochemical data suggested that p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) (Ru(II)-OH:Ru(II)-OH2) is oxidized to the Ru(III)-OH:Ru(III)-OH state at 0.64 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and further to Ru(IV)═O:Ru(IV)-OH at 0.79 V by successive 1-proton-coupled 2-electron processes at pH 7.0. The cyclic voltammogram data exhibited that the p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) complex works more efficiently for electrocatalytic water oxidation, compared with a similar mononuclear complex distal-[Ru(tpy)(L)OH2](2+) (d-RuOH2) and p,p-Ru2(μ-Cl) and p,p-Ru2(μ-OH), showing that the p,p-Ru2 core structure with aquo and hydroxo ligands is important for efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation. Bulk electrolysis of the p,p-Ru2(OH)(OH2) solution corroborated the electrocatalytic cycle involving the Ru(III)-OH:Ru(III)-OH state species as a resting state. The mechanistic insight into O-O bond

  14. Insights into anticancer activity and mechanism of action of a ruthenium(II) complex in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liubin; Lv, Gaochao; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Huixin; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    A ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(NHC)Cl2] (NHC=1,3-bis(4-(tert-butyl)benzylimidazol-2-ylidene), referred to as L-4, has been designed and synthesized recently in order to look for new anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. The anticancer activity and mechanism of action of L-4 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells were systematically investigated. The results revealed that L-4 exerted strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of EC109 cells, and it arrested EC109 cells at G2/M phase, accompanied with the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of EC109 can be induced by L-4 via inhibiting the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), decreasing the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of EC109 induced by L-4 was also observed from the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, overload of Ca(2+), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), redistribution of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3/-9. However, the effects of L-4 on the cell viability, GR activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis induction were remarkably attenuated by adding the reactive oxygen species scavenger, NAC. Therefore, it was concluded that L-4 can inhibit the proliferation of EC109 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggested that the ruthenium(II) complex might be a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent for human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27262377

  15. Upconverting Nanoparticles Prompt Remote Near-Infrared Photoactivation of Ru(II)-Arene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Emmanuel; Garino, Claudio; Mareque-Rivas, Juan C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Salassa, Luca

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis and full characterisation (including X-ray diffraction studies and DFT calculations) of two new piano-stool Ru(II) -arene complexes, namely [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(m-CCH-Py)][(PF)6]2 (1) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(m-CCH-Py)][(PF)6]2 (2; p-cym=p-cymene, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, bpm=2,2'-bipyrimidine, and m-CCH-Py=3-ethynylpyridine), is described and discussed. The reaction of the m-CCH-Py ligand of 1 and 2 with diethyl-3-azidopropyl phosphonate by Cu-catalysed click chemistry affords [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(P-Trz-Py)][(PF)6]2 (3) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(P-Trz-Py)][(PF)6]2 (4; P-Trz-Py=[3-(1-pyridin-3-yl-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl)-propyl]phosphonic acid diethyl ester). Upon light excitation at λ=395 nm, complexes 1-4 photodissociate the monodentate pyridyl ligand and form the aqua adduct ions [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(H2O)](2+) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(H2O)](2+). Thulium -doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are functionalised with 4, thus exploiting their surface affinity for the phosphonate group in the complex. The so-obtained nanosystem UCNP@4 undergoes near-infrared (NIR) photoactivation at λ=980 nm, thus producing the corresponding reactive aqua species that binds the DNA-model base guanosine 5'-monophosphate. PMID:26785101

  16. Crystal Structure of an L-Carnitine Complex with Pyrogallol[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, I.; Takeuchi, D.; Kitamura, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Aoki, K.

    2012-03-01

    L-Carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain fatty acids from cytosol into mitochondria for generating metabolic energy. The survey of crystal structures of carnitine-containing proteins in the Protein Data Bank reveals that carnitine can take several conformations with the quarternary trimethylammonium terminal being always bound to aromatic residues through cation-π interactions in acyltransferases or carnitine-binding proteins. In order to demonstrate the importance of cation-π interaction as a carnitine recognition mechanism in the artificial receptor-ligand system that mimics the carnitine-binding sites, we have determined the crystal structure of a complex formed between L-carnitine and pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer: PCT) as a carnitine receptor, 2PCT·2(L-carnitine)·4EtOH. There form two crystallographically independent monomeric [PCT·L-carnitine] substructures, which further form an obliquely arranged capsule-like dimeric [PCT·L-carnitine]2 structure through a pair of O-H (PCT)···O (L-carnitine) hydrogen bonds. This is the first report of PCT complex with chiral molecules. In each of the two monomeric [PCT·L-carnitine] substructures, the L-carnitine molecule takes the elongated form with an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the carboxylate oxygen, and the cationic trimethylammonium moiety is incorporated into the cavity of the bowl-shaped PCT molecule through cation-π interactions. These features are similar to those at the D-carnitine-binding site in the crystal structure of the glycine betaine/carnitine/choline-binding protein complex.

  17. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of electronically exicted polychromophoric ruthenium(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bignozzi, C.A.; Argazzi, R.; Chiorboli, C.; Scandola, F. ); Dyer, R.B. ); Schoonover, J.R.; Meyer, T.J )

    1994-04-13

    The metal to ligand charge-transfer excited states of the polychromophoric complexes [(NC)-(bpy)[sub 2]Ru[sup II](CN)Ru[sup II](bpy)[sub 2](CN)][sup +], [(NC)(bpy)[sub 2]Ru[sup II](CN)Ru[sup II](phen)[sub 2](CN)][sup +], [(NC)(phen)[sub 2]Ru[sup II](CN)Ru[sup II](bpy)[sub 2](CN)][sup +], [(NC)(bpy)[sub 2]Ru[sup II](CN)Ru[sup II](bpy)[sub 2](NC)Ru[sup II](bpy)[sub 2](CN)][sup 2+], and [NC(bpy)[sub 2]Ru[sup II](CN)Ru[sup II](dcb)[sub 2](NC)Ru(bpy)[sub 2](CN)][sup 2[minus

  18. Evaluation of DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding, radical scavenging and in vitro cytotoxic activities of ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2,4-dihydroxy benzylidene ligands.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Ayyannan, Ganesan; Raja, Gunasekaran; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-12-01

    The new ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrazone ligands, 4-Methyl-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(1)), 4-Methoxy-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)), 4-Bromo-benzoic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (HL(3)), were synthesized and characterized by various spectro analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligands were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The DNA binding studies of the ligands and complexes were examined by absorption, fluorescence, viscosity and cyclic voltammetry methods. The results indicated that the ligands and complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The DNA cleavage activity of the complexes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis assay, which revealed that the complexes are good DNA cleaving agents. The binding interaction of the ligands and complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopic method. Antioxidant studies showed that the complexes have a strong radical scavenging properties. Further, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes examined on cancerous cell lines showed that the complexes exhibit significant anticancer activity. PMID:27612830

  19. Positional and compositional disorder in a ruthenium(II) piano-stool complex.

    PubMed

    Guzei, Ilia A; Dolinar, Brian S; Khumalo, Nozipho; Darkwa, James

    2013-08-01

    In (η⁶-p-cymene)(difluorophosphinato-κO){2-[(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl-κN²]pyridine-κN}ruthenium(II) 0.85-hexafluorophosphate 0.15-tetrafluoroborate, [Ru(PO₂F₂)(C₁₀H₁₄)(C₉H₉N₃)](PF₆)0.85(BF₄)0.15, (I), the [PO₂F₂]⁻ ligand exhibits positional disorder due to one F atom and one O atom sharing the same two positions related by a mirror reflection across the O-P-F plane. The correct composition of this coordinated anion was successfully determined to be [PO₂F₂]⁻ by refining the complex with various tetrahedral anions in which terminal atoms have similar atomic form factors. The noncoordinated counter-ion is compositionally disordered between [PF₆]⁻ and [BF₄]⁻. The difficulty in determining the correct composition of this anion illustrates the importance of a crystallographer remaining impartial and open to encountering unexpected moieties in the process of elucidating a structure. PMID:23907873

  20. Probing the Quenching of Quantum Dot Photoluminescence by Peptide-Labeled Ruthenium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Charge transfer processes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have generated much interest for potential utility in energy conversion. Such configurations are generally nonbiological; however, recent studies have shown that a redox-active ruthenium(II)–phenanthroline complex (Ru2+-phen) is particularly efficient at quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs, and this mechanism demonstrates good potential for application as a generalized biosensing detection modality since it is aqueous compatible. Multiple possibilities for charge transfer and/or energy transfer mechanisms exist within this type of assembly, and there is currently a limited understanding of the underlying photophysical processes in such biocomposite systems where nanomaterials are directly interfaced with biomolecules such as proteins. Here, we utilize redox reactions, steady-state absorption, PL spectroscopy, time-resolved PL spectroscopy, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (FSTA) to investigate PL quenching in biological assemblies of CdSe/ZnS QDs formed with peptide-linked Ru2+-phen. The results reveal that QD quenching requires the Ru2+ oxidation state and is not consistent with Förster resonance energy transfer, strongly supporting a charge transfer mechanism. Further, two colors of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with similar macroscopic optical properties were found to have very different rates of charge transfer quenching, by Ru2+-phen with the key difference between them appearing to be the thickness of their ZnS outer shell. The effect of shell thickness was found to be larger than the effect of increasing distance between the QD and Ru2+-phen when using peptides of increasing persistence length. FSTA and time-resolved upconversion PL results further show that exciton quenching is a rather slow process consistent with other QD conjugate materials that undergo hole transfer. An improved understanding of the QD–Ru2+-phen system can allow for the design of more sophisticated

  1. Luminescent Nafion membranes dyed with ruthenium(II) complexes as sensing materials for dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fresnadillo, D.; Orellana, G.; Marazuela, M.D.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.

    1999-09-14

    The absorption spectroscopy, photophysics, and dioxygen quenching of [RuL{sub 3}]{sup 2+} luminescent probes, where L stands for 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 5-octadecanamide-1,10-phenanthroline, and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip), electrostatically loaded onto Nafion ionomer membrane have been investigated in air and in organic solvents and water, with the aim of developing rugged materials for optical sensing of molecular oxygen. The significant differences in size and hydrophobicity of the Ru(II) dyes have been used to probe their location within the perfluorinated ionomer pore network, as well as to gain insight into the oxygen accessibility to its microcrystalline and interfacial domains. While the absorption maximums of the probes (444--458nm) remain relative unchanged, their emission wavelengths (578--622 nm) are extremely sensitive to the degree of Nafion swelling by the solvent. This feature has been characterized by measuring the density (1.19--2.04 g cm{sup {minus}3}) of the solvent-saturated ionomer and the mass and volume fractions of solvents (0.0--0.7) uptake by the original acidic Nafion and Li{sup +}-, Na{sup +}-, or K{sup +}-exchanged films. The excited-state lifetimes of the [RuL{sub 3}]{sup 2+} complexes (0.03--4.9{micro}s) reflect important variations of the microenvironment around the luminescent probes, which are rationalized in terms of their location and oxygen accessibility when loaded onto the polysulfonated material. Emission quenching rate constants of 1.7 {+-} 0.3 M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} have been measured for the [Ru(dip){sub 3}]{sup 2+}-dyed films dipped in methanol; their oxygen sensitivity turns out to be independent of the Ru(II) loading and counterion of Nafion. Highly oxygen-sensitive luminescent membranes, suitable for continuous monitoring in organic solvents, water, or gas phase, have been prepared by immobilization of [Ru(dip){sub 3}]{sup 2+} indicator in 178-{micro}m thick Nafion, with response

  2. Efficient complexation between pillar[5]arenes and neutral guests: from host-guest chemistry to functional materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiliang; Ping, Guchuan; Li, Chunju

    2016-08-01

    Since their discovery in 2008, pillar[n]arenes have been a popular family of macrocyclic arene hosts due to their accessible one-step synthesis, convenient functionalization, symmetrical prism structures and perfect cavity host-guest properties. Compared with other macrocyclic hosts, the most peculiar recognition behavior of pillararenes is the strong binding affinities of pillar[5]arenes (P5As) towards neutral guests in organic media, which is unfeasible for classic crown ethers and calixarenes. The intriguing properties have found extensive applications in many fields from supramolecular chemistry to materials science. This feature article provides a detailed summary of the molecular recognition of P5As and neutral guests, where the driving forces, binding mechanisms, and binding selectivities are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, brief highlights of research progress in the functional applications based on the neutral guest⊂P5A motifs were also discussed, including the construction of complex topological superstructures (e.g. rotaxanes, catenanes and daisy chains), supramolecular polymers, and functional materials. PMID:27351168

  3. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Unprotected Indoles Catalyzed by η(6)-Arene/N-Me-sulfonyldiamine-Ru(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Touge, Taichiro; Arai, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Protecting-group-free transformation is a challenging and important issue in atom-economical organic synthesis. The η(6)-arene/N-Me-sulfonyldiamine-Ru(II)-BF4 complex-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 2-substituted unprotected indoles in weakly acidic hexafluoroisopropanol gives optically active indoline compounds with up to >99% ee. Under mild reaction media, halogen atoms and synthetically important protecting groups (e.g., silyl ether, acetal, benzyl ether, and ester) on indoles are maintained, which is advantageous for the synthesis of further complex indoline molecules. PMID:27509089

  4. Extending ligand field molecular mechanics to modelling organometallic π-bonded systems: applications to ruthenium-arenes.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Ralf; Deeth, Robert J

    2011-11-14

    The ligand field molecular mechanics method has been extended to treat η(6)-arene ligands coordinated to a ruthenium(II) centre by employing a dummy atom located at the centroid of the arene ring and distributing the forces on the dummy to the arene carbon atoms. Angular overlap model parameters based on orbital energies derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) calculations show that, relative to the Ru-dummy vector, the arene behaves as a very strong π donor and weak σ donor. Based on KS-DFT geometries, partial atomic charges and potential energy scans for a series of homoleptic and half sandwich complexes spanning arene, am(m)ine, imine, pyridyl, hydride and chloride ligands, a new LFMM force field has been developed which accurately reproduces the KS-DFT data. This FF was validated against 47 half-sandwich complexes obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database which, after minor corrections to account for the systematic errors between our chosen functional (BP86) and the experimental structures, yields a 'structurally tuned' FF where 93% of the Ru-L contacts are reproduced to 0.05 Å or better and all bar two bond lengths are within 0.1 Å of experiment. Over half the systems have non-hydrogen-atom rmsds of less than 0.5 Å. Larger differences are usually due to rotation of the arene moiety which is shown by ligand field molecular dynamics (LFMD) simulations to be an inherently low-energy process. Comparisons between LFMD and Car-Parrinello MD for [Ru(p-cymene)(ethylenediamine)Cl](+)show that LFMD is equally accurate but much faster enabling modelling of dynamic properties which occur on a timescale beyond the scope of CPMD. PMID:21792446

  5. Improved antiparasitic activity by incorporation of organosilane entities into half-sandwich ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Muneebah; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Land, Kirkwood M; Liu, Nicole; Hopper, Melissa; Hsiao, Allyson; Burgoyne, Andrew R; Stringer, Tameryn; Meyer, Mervin; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chibale, Kelly; Smith, Gregory S

    2015-02-01

    A series of ferrocenyl- and aryl-functionalised organosilane thiosemicarbazone compounds was obtained via a nucleophilic substitution reaction with an amine-terminated organosilane. The thiosemicarbazone (TSC) ligands were further reacted with either a ruthenium dimer [(η(6-i)PrC6H4Me)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 or a rhodium dimer [(Cp*)Rh(μ-Cl)Cl]2 to yield a series of cationic mono- and binuclear complexes. The thiosemicarbazone ligands, as well as their metal complexes, were characterised using NMR and IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The molecular structure of the binuclear ruthenium(ii) complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The thiosemicarbazones and their complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains, displaying activities in the low micromolar range. Selected compounds were screened for potential β-haematin inhibition activity, and it was found that two Rh(iii) complexes exhibited moderate to good inhibition. Furthermore, the compounds were screened for their antitrichomonal activities against the G3 Trichomonas vaginalis strain, revealing a higher percentage of growth inhibition for the ruthenium and rhodium complexes over their corresponding ligand. PMID:25559246

  6. The induction of apoptosis in HepG-2 cells by ruthenium(II) complexes through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Lai, Shang-Hai; Yao, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Yin, Hui; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-10-21

    Four new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(dhbn)](ClO4)2 (N-N = dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 1; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine 2; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline 3; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the ligand and complexes toward HepG-2, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 were assayed by MTT method. The IC50 values of the complexes against the above cells range from 17.7 ± 1.1 to 45.1 ± 2.8 μM. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against HepG-2 cells follows the order of 4 > 2 > 3 > 1. Ligand shows no cytotoxic activity against the selected cell lines. Cellular uptake, apoptosis, comet assay, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest, and the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis pathway induced by the complexes were investigated. The results indicate that complexes 1-4 induce apoptosis in HepG-2 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. PMID:27344489

  7. Selective single crystal complexation of L- or D-leucine by p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Jerry L; Dalgarno, Scott J; Hardie, Michaele J; Raston, Colin L

    2005-01-21

    p-Sulfonatocalix[6]arene, organised in the 'double cone' conformation, has multi-guest capability binding either L- or D-leucine in a single crystal in a bi-layer type arrangement from a racemic mixture of the amino acid. PMID:15645029

  8. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-11-01

    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(1)) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL(2)), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL(1) and HL(2) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations. PMID:23845986

  9. Spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations of nitro-bis-bipyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II) with 4-substituted pyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetova, K. I.; Krauklis, I. V.; Litke, S. V.; Ershov, A. Yu.; Chizhov, Yu. V.

    2016-04-01

    The luminescence, absorption, and luminescence excitation spectra of complexes cis-[Ru(bpy)2(L)(NO2)]+ [bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, L = pyridine, 4-aminopyridine, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4-picoline, isonicotinamide, or 4,4'-bipyridyl] in alcoholic (4 : 1 EtOH-MeOH) solutions are studied at 77 K. A linear correlation is established between the energy of the lowest electronically excited metal-toligand charge transfer state d π(Ru) → π*(bpy) of the complexes and the pKa parameter of the free 4-substituted pyridines used as ligands L. The B3LYP/[6-31G(d)+LanL2DZ(Ru)] hybrid density functional method is used to optimize the geometry of complexes and calculate their electronic structure and the charge distribution on the atoms of the nearest environment of ruthenium(II) ions. It is shown that there exists a mutually unambiguous correspondence between the charge on the nitrogen atom of ligands L coordinated in the complex and the pK a parameter of ligands. The calculated energies of the electronically excited metal-to-ligand charge transfer states of complexes linearly (correlation coefficient 0.99) depend on the charge on the nitrogen atom of ligands L, which completely agrees with the experimental data.

  10. Evaluation of DNA-binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mononuclear ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Krishnan; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2013-11-01

    Two 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), and its ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff bases act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the compounds was investigated by absorption spectroscopy which indicated that the compounds bind to DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes assayed against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  11. New water-soluble ruthenium(II) terpyridine complexes for anticancer activity: synthesis, characterization, activation kinetics, and interaction with guanine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rilak, Ana; Bratsos, Ioannis; Zangrando, Ennio; Kljun, Jakob; Turel, Iztok; Bugarčić, Živadin D; Alessio, Enzo

    2014-06-16

    With the aim of assessing whether ruthenium(II) compounds with meridional geometry might be utilized as potential antitumor agents, a series of new, water-soluble, monofunctional ruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula mer-[Ru(L3)(N-N)X][Y]n (where L3 = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy) or 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (Cl-tpy), N-N = 1,2-diaminoethane (en), 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (dach), or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy); X = Cl or dmso-S; Y = Cl, PF6, or CF3SO3; n = 1 or 2, depending on the nature of X) were synthesized. All complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV/visible, and 1D and 2D NMR), and for three of them, i.e., [Ru(Cl-tpy)(bpy)Cl][Cl] (3Cl), [Ru(Cl-tpy)(en)(dmso-S)][Y]2 [Y = PF6 (6PF6), CF3SO3 (6OTf)] and [Ru(Cl-tpy)(bpy)(dmso-S)][CF3SO3]2 (8OTf), the X-ray structure was also determined. The new terpyridine complexes, with the exception of 8, are well soluble in water (>25 mg/mL). (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy studies performed on the three selected complexes [Ru(Cl-tpy)(N-N)Cl](+) [N-N = en (1), dach (2), and bpy (3)] demonstrated that, after hydrolysis of the Cl ligand, they are capable of interacting with guanine derivatives [i.e., 9-methylguanine (9MeG) or guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP)] through N7, forming monofunctional adducts with rates and extents that depend strongly on the nature of N-N: 1 ≈ 2 ≫ 3. In addition, compound 1 shows high selectivity toward 5'-GMP compared to adenosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP), in a competition experiment. Quantitative kinetic investigations on 1 and 2 were performed by means of UV/visible spectroscopy. Overall, the complexes with bidentate aliphatic diamines proved to be superior to those with bpy in terms of solubility and reactivity (i.e., release of Cl(-) and capability to bind guanine derivatives). Contrary to the chlorido compounds, the corresponding dmso derivatives proved to be inert (viz., they do not release the monodentate ligand) in

  12. Photo-physical and complexation properties of chromogenic azo-calix[4]arene: Application to the detection of Eu 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebdelli, Rihab; Rouis, Ahelm; Mlika, Rym; Bonnamour, Isabelle; Ben Ouada, Hafedh; Davenas, Joel

    2011-12-01

    A studies of a tetrakis(phenylazo)calix[4]arene derivative have been developed for cation recognition. The complexation properties of this ligand towards transition metal ions have been investigated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. It has been found that the ligand has remarkable complexation ability for transition metal Ni 2+, Co 2+, Hg 2+, heavy metal ions Al 3+ and Pb 2+ with an exceptional high affinity for the lanthanide Eu 3+ ion. The stoichiometric ratio of the complexation between the ionophore and Eu 3+ ions in acetonitrile solution has been determined by applying the molar ratio method. The complexes formed are ML 2 and ML in neutral and in basic medium respectively. The recognition properties between the thin film and the ions have also been studied. The complexation properties of the ligand with Eu 3+ ion has been confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. Triflate-functionalized calix[6]arenes as versatile building-blocks: application to the synthesis of an inherently chiral Zn(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Zahim, Sara; Lavendomme, Roy; Reinaud, Olivia; Luhmer, Michel; Evano, Gwilherm; Jabin, Ivan

    2016-02-14

    Cavity-based metal complexes can find many applications notably in the fields of catalysis and biomimicry. In this context, it was shown that metal complexes of calix[6]arenes bearing three aza-coordinating arms at the small rim provide excellent structural models of the poly-imidazole sites found in the active site of many metallo-enzymes. All these N-donor ligands were synthesized from the 1,3,5-tris-methoxy-p-tBu-calix[6]arene platform, which presents some limitations in terms of functionalization. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new calix[6]arene-based building-blocks selectively protected at the small rim. Herein we describe the regioselective one step synthesis of two calix[6]arenes decorated with triflate groups, i.e. X6H4Tf2 and X6H3Tf3, from the parent calix[6]arene X6H6. It is shown that the triflate groups can either act as protecting or deactivating groups, allowing the elaboration of sophisticated calixarene-based systems selectively functionalized at the large and/or at the small rim. In addition, X6H3Tf3 is functionalized on the A, B, and D rings and thus gives access to inherently chiral compounds, as demonstrated by the synthesis of a rare example of inherently chiral cavity-based metal complex. PMID:26751614

  14. Development of a Functional Ruthenium(II) Complex that Can Act as a Photoluminescent and Electrochemiluminescent Dual-signaling Probe for Hypochlorous Acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wenzhu; Ye, Zhiqiang; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-07-01

    A functional ruthenium(II) complex that can act as a probe for response to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in aqueous media with photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) dual-signals, [Ru(bpy)2(DB-phen)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine; DB-phen: 5-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylamino)-1,10-phenanthroline)], has been designed and synthesized. The complex is highly luminescent both under the light excitation and the electrochemical induction. It can specifically react with HOCl in physiological pH aqueous media to afford its chlorinated derivative, [Ru(bpy)2(DBCA-phen)](PF6)2 [DBCA-phen: 5-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl-chloroamino)- 1,10-phenanthroline], accompanied by remarkable decreases in its PL and ECL intensities. The PL and ECL abatements of [Ru(bpy)2(DB-phen)](PF6)2 show good linear correlation to the concentration of HOCl with detection limits at low micromolar concentration level, and the PL and ECL responses of the complex to HOCl are highly specific without interferences of other reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. These features enabled [Ru(bpy)2(DB-phen)](PF6)2 to be used as a probe for the highly selective and sensitive detection of HOCl in aqueous media with PL and ECL dual-modes. PMID:25962768

  15. Unexpected high photothemal conversion efficiency of gold nanospheres upon grafting with two-photon luminescent ruthenium(II) complexes: A way towards cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingyu; Wang, Jinquan; Huang, Huaiyi; Yu, Bole; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei; Gasser, Gilles; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The design and development of functional hybrid nanomaterials is currently a topic of great interest in biomedicine. Herein we investigated the grafting of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes onto gold nanospheres (Ru@AuNPs) to improve the particles' near infrared (NIR) absorption, and ultimately allow for application in photothermal cancer therapy. As demonstrated in this article, these ruthenium(II) complexes could indeed significantly enhance gold nanospheres' two-photon luminescence (PTL) intensity and photothermal therapy (PTT) efficiency. The best dual functional nanoparticles of this study were successfully used for real-time luminescent imaging-guided PTT in live cancer cells. Furthermore, in vivo tumor ablation was achieved with excellent treatment efficacy under a diode laser (808 nm) irradiation at the power density of 0.8 W/cm(2) for 5 min. This study demonstrates that the coupling of inert Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes to gold nanospheres allows for the enhancement of two-photon luminescence and for efficient photothermal effect. PMID:26093791

  16. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN‧N″) tridentate ligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Fasfous, Ismail I.; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F.; Warad, Ismail

    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [RuII(Lsbnd Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {Lsbnd Y = YC6H4Ndbnd NC(COCH3)dbnd NC9H6N, Y = H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy = 2,2‧-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN‧N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N‧, imine-N‧ and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+. The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  17. Mass spectrometry and UV-VIS spectrophotometry of ruthenium(II) [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex in solution.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; González, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Pablo; Romerosa, Antonio; Havel, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) complexes are of great interest as a new class of cancerostatics with advantages over classical platinum compounds including lower toxicity. The stability of the [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex (I) (Cp cyclopentadienyl, mPTA N-methyl 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) in aqueous solution was studied using spectrophotometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Spectrophotometry proves that at least three different reactions take place in water. Dissolution of I leads to fast coordination of water molecules to the Ru(II) cation and then slow hydrolysis and ligand exchange of chloride and mPTA with water, hydroxide or with trifluoromethane sulfonate itself. Via MALDI and LDI of the hydrolyzed solutions the formation of singly positively charged ions of general formula RuCl(p)(Cp)(q)(mPTA)(r)(H2O)(s)(OH)(t) (p = 0-1, q = 0-1, r = 0-2, s = 0-5, t = 0-2) and of some fragment ions was shown. The stoichiometry was determined by analyzing the isotopic envelopes and computer modelling. The [RuClCp(mPTA)2](OSO2CF3)2 complex can be stabilized in dilute hydrochloric acid or in neutral 0.15 M isotonic sodium chloride solution. PMID:19902414

  18. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully. PMID:25640000

  19. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully. PMID:25640000

  20. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-02-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42 nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully.

  1. Uranium(III) complexes with bulky aryloxide ligands featuring metal-arene interactions and their reactivity toward nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Franke, Sebastian M; Tran, Ba L; Heinemann, Frank W; Hieringer, Wolfgang; Mindiola, Daniel J; Meyer, Karsten

    2013-09-16

    We report the synthesis and use of an easy-to-prepare, bulky, and robust aryloxide ligand starting from inexpensive precursor materials. Based on this aryloxide ligand, two reactive, coordinatively unsaturated U(III) complexes were prepared that are masked by a metal-arene interaction via δ-backbonding. Depending on solvent and uranium starting material, both a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-bound and Lewis-base-free U(III) precursor can easily be prepared on the multigram scale. The reaction of these trivalent uranium species with nitrous oxide, N2O, was studied and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) study on single crystals of the product revealed the formation of a five-coordinate U(V) oxo complex with two different molecular geometries, namely, square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. PMID:23987649

  2. Multifunctional supramolecular vesicles based on the complex of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yincheng; Hou, Chenxi; Ren, Jingli; Xin, Xiaoting; Pei, Yuxin; Lu, Yuchao; Cao, Shoupeng; Pei, Zhichao

    2016-07-21

    Supramolecular vesicles based on the host-guest complexation of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative have been constructed, which showed dual-responsiveness and cancer cells targetability resulting from its ferrocenecarboxylic acid units and galactose units, respectively. This work provides a good example for the construction of multifunctional nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:27387299

  3. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ida; Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti; Banks, Craig E.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  4. Highly constrained guests in complexes of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene dianion: Pentane-1,5-diammonium and choline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarotto, Márcio; Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Castellano, Eduardo Ernesto; Veglia, Alicia Viviana

    2014-06-01

    The structures of the complexes of choline and pentane-1,5-diammonium with p-t-bu-calix[6]arene dianion were determined. Both salts display the calixarene moiety at 1,2,3-alternate conformation, with two concave surfaces formed by three aromatic rings, and the phenolate units are at distal positions, interacting with two phenol units by hydrogen bonds. The salt of pentane-1,5-diammonium shows the diammonium connecting both calixarene dianion units, and one NH3+ is located endo-calix position and the other occupies an exo-calix position. The t-butyl groups and the calix cavity constrains the pentane-1,5-diammonium chain to near syn-eclipsed and gauche conformations. The other semi-calix accomodates a THF solvent molecule. The salt of choline shows the trimethylammonium groups of choline units immersed in these concave surfaces, with several interactions N+-C-H---π interactions with the aromatic semi-cavities.

  5. Complex behavior and source model of the tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, Philippe; Mora, Mauricio M.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Pacheco, Javier; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe

    2006-09-01

    Typical records of volcanic tremor and explosion quakes at Arenal volcano are analyzed with a high-resolution time-frequency method. The main characteristics of these seismic signals are: (1) numerous regularly spaced spectral peaks including both odd and even overtones; (2) frequency gliding in the range [0.9-2] Hz of the fundamental peak; (3) frequency jumps with either positive or negative increments; (4) tremor episodes with two simultaneous systems of spectral peaks affected by independent frequency gliding; (5) progressive transitions between spasmodic tremor and harmonic tremor; (6) lack of clear and systematic relationship between the occurrence of explosions and tremor. Some examples of alternation between two states of oscillation characterized by different fundamental frequencies are also observed. Some tremor and explosion codas are characterized by acoustic and seismic waves with identical spectral content and frequency gliding, which suggests a common excitation process. We propose a source model for the tremor at Arenal in which intermittent gas flow through fractures produces repetitive pressure pulses. The repeating period of the pulses is stabilized by a feedback mechanism associated with standing or traveling waves in the magmatic conduit. The pressure pulses generate acoustic waves in the atmosphere and act as excitation of the interface waves in the conduit. When the repeating period of the pulses is stable enough, they produce regularly spaced spectral peaks by the Dirac comb effect and hence harmonic tremor. When the period stability is lost, because of failures in the feedback mechanism, the tremor becomes spasmodic. The proposed source model of tremor is similar to the sound emission process of a clarinet. Fractures in the solid or viscous layer capping the lava pool in the crater act as the clarinet reed, and the conduit filled with low velocity bubbly magma is equivalent to the pipe of the musical instrument. The frequency gliding is

  6. A triphenylamine-grafted imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ruthenium(II) complex: acid-base and photoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Su-Hua; Zhang, An-Guo; Ju, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Li-Hua; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2010-04-19

    A new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of [Ru(Hipdpa)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).0.5H(+).0.5[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+) Ru(Hipdpa) {where Hdcbpy = monodeprotonated 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine and Hipdpa = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline} was synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis, standard spectroscopy techniques, and cyclic voltammetry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of Ru(Hipdpa) were studied by means of UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in 4:1(v/v) Britton-Robinson/dimethylformamide buffer solution. The four-step separate protonation/deprotonation processes were found in the ground states, and one of which taking place near the physiological pH range. The two observable excited-state protonation/deprotonation processes were found for the Ru(Hipdpa), constituting pH-induced "off-on-off" emission switches. The performance of the complexes as photosensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based liquid solar cells containing an electrolyte solution (0.05 M I(2), 0.5 M LiI, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 50% acetonitrile and 50% propylene carbonate) was investigated and found to achieve a much improved device performance (a short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.7 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 630 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 6.85%) compared to a triphenylamine-free parent complex [Ru(Hpip)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+)-based device {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} and a comparable performance to that of cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) (N3) under identical experimental conditions. A density functional theory calculation of the molecular structures and electronic properties of the complexes was also carried out in an effort to understand their effectiveness in TiO(2)-based solar cells. PMID:20337492

  7. Development of more labile low electron count Co(I) sources: mild, catalytic functionalization of activated alkanes using a [(Cp*Co)2-μ-(η4:η4-arene)] complex.

    PubMed

    Hung-Low, Fernando; Krogman, Jeremy P; Tye, Jesse W; Bradley, Christopher A

    2012-01-11

    Catalytic transfer dehydrogenation of silyl protected amines, requiring sp(3) C-H bond activation, is mediated by a bridging arene complex of the type [(Cp*Co)(2)-μ-(η(4):η(4)-arene)] under mild conditions. Mechanistic and qualitative rate studies establish the compound as a more reactive Co(I) source when compared to other known Cp*Co(I) complexes. PMID:22083519

  8. Molecular recognition and self-assembly special feature: Multipoint molecular recognition within a calix[6]arene funnel complex.

    PubMed

    Coquière, David; de la Lande, Aurélien; Martí, Sergio; Parisel, Olivier; Prangé, Thierry; Reinaud, Olivia

    2009-06-30

    A multipoint recognition system based on a calix[6]arene is described. The calixarene core is decorated on alternating aromatic subunits by 3 imidazole arms at the small rim and 3 aniline groups at the large rim. This substitution pattern projects the aniline nitrogens toward each other when Zn(II) binds at the Tris-imidazole site or when a proton binds at an aniline. The XRD structure of the monoprotonated complex having an acetonitrile molecule bound to Zn(II) in the cavity revealed a constrained geometry at the metal center reminiscent of an entatic state. Computer modeling suggests that the aniline groups behave as a tritopic monobasic site in which only 1 aniline unit is protonated and interacts with the other 2 through strong hydrogen bonding. The metal complex selectively binds a monoprotonated diamine vs. a monoamine through multipoint recognition: coordination to the metal ion at the small rim, hydrogen bonding to the calix-oxygen core, CH/pi interaction within the cavity's aromatic walls, and H-bonding to the anilines at the large rim. PMID:19237564

  9. Synthesis of novel p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene Schiff bases and their complexes with C60, potential HIV-Protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadra, Khalid Abu; Mizyed, Shehadeh; Marji, Deeb; Haddad, Salim F.; Ashram, Muhammad; Foudeh, Ayat

    2015-02-01

    Some p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene Schiff base crown ethers were synthesized, characterized using 1H, 13C-NMR, DEPT 135 and Mass spectrometry. Their complexes with C60 were isolated and characterized. The inhibition effect of these complexes on HIVP was studied and found that complexes of 9 and 10 have comparable Ki values to Pepstatine which is known as HIVP inhibitor and used as a control. The synthesis of the ligands, complexes and the inhibition behavior are discussed in this article.

  10. Half-sandwich ruthenium-arene complexes with thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis and biological evaluation of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(piperonal thiosemicarbazones)Cl]Cl complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dourth, Deidra; Shaloski, Michael; Didion, Jacob; Thessing, Jeffrey; Woods, Jason; Crowell, Vernon; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a number of organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing a series of bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from piperonal is reported. The structure of compounds have been confirmed by spectroscopic analysis (IR and NMR) as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(pPhTSC)Cl]Cl (4) (pPhTSC is piperonal-N(4)-phenylthiosemicarbazone). The interaction of the complexes ([(η6-p-cymene)Ru(pEtTSC)Cl]Cl) (3) (pEtTSC is piperonal-N(4)-ethylthiosemicarbazone) and 4 with calf thymus DNA, human serum albumin (HSA) and pBR322 plasmid DNA were studied by spectroscopic, gel electrophoresis and hydrodynamic methods. The apparent binding constant for the interaction with DNA was determined to be 3.97 × 103 M−1 and 4.07 × 103 M−1 at 293 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The complexes bind strongly to HSA with binding constants of 2.94 × 104 M−1 and 12.2 × 104 M−1 at 296 K for 3 and 4 respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of 3 and 4 has been evaluated against two human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116 and Caco-2) with IC50 values in the range 26 – 150 µM. Both 3 and 4 show good activity as a catalytic inhibitor of human topoisomerase II at concentrations as low as 20 µM. The proficiency of 3 and 4 to act as antibacterial agents was also evaluated against six pathogenic bacterial strains with the best activity seen against Gram-positive strains. PMID:21666776

  11. Crystal structures of resorcin[4]arene and pyrogallol[4]arene complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid. Model compounds for the recognition of the pipecolinyl ring, a key fragment of FK506, through C-H⋯π interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Yuji; Kato, Ryo; Murayama, Kazutaka; Aoki, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer, abbreviated as RCT) or pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer, PCT) form host-guest 1:1 complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid (DL-pipeH), RCT·DL-pipeH·EtOH·8H2O (1), PCT DL-pipeH·EtOH·4H2O (2), and PCT·DL-pipeH·3H2O (3), whose crystal structures have been determined. In each complex, the pipeH ligand is incorporated into the bowl-shaped cavity of the RCT or PCT host molecules through C-H⋯π interactions between alkyl protons of the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT, forming an [(RCT/PCT)·pipeH] structural fragment. In 1 and 3, two [(RCT/PCT) pipeH] fragments self-associate across an inversion center to form a guest-mediated, obliquely declined dimeric structure [(RCT/PCT)·L-pipeH·D-pipeH (RCT/PCT)]. In 2, each PCT-capped pipeH ligand bridges to two adjacent PCT molecules to form guest-mediated, optically-discrete helical polymers [PCT·L-pipeH]n or [PCT·D-pipeH]n. An 1H NMR experiment shows that the complexation through C-H⋯π interaction between the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT occurs also in solution, with the binding constants of 9.7 ± 0.6 M-1 for RCT and 26.5 ± 1.5 M-1 for PCT. These complexes provide a synthetic model for the recognition of the pipecolinyl-ring moiety, a key constituent of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506, FK520 or rapamycin, by their binding proteins through C-H⋯π interaction.

  12. Effect of CO on the oxidative addition of arene C-H bonds by cationic rhodium complexes.

    PubMed

    Montag, Michael; Efremenko, Irena; Cohen, Revital; Shimon, Linda J W; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Salem, Hiyam; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2010-01-01

    Sequential addition of CO molecules to cationic aryl-hydrido Rh(III) complexes of phosphine-based (PCP) pincer ligands was found to lead first to C-H reductive elimination and then to C-H oxidative addition, thereby demonstrating a dual role of CO. DFT calculations indicate that the oxidative addition reaction is directly promoted by CO, in contrast to the commonly accepted view that CO hinders such reactions. This intriguing effect was traced to repulsive pi interactions along the aryl-Rh-CO axis, which are augmented by the initially added CO ligand (due to antibonding interactions between occupied Rh d(pi) orbitals and occupied pi orbitals of both CO and the arene moiety), but counteracted by the second CO ligand (due to significant pi back-donation). These repulsive interactions were themselves linked to significant weakening of the pi-acceptor character of CO in the positively charged rhodium complexes, which is concurrent with an enhanced sigma-donating capability. Replacement of the phosphine ligands by an analogous phosphinite-based (POCOP) pincer ligand led to significant changes in reactivity, whereby addition of CO did not result in C-H reductive elimination, but yielded relatively stable mono- and dicarbonyl aryl-hydrido POCOP-Rh(III) complexes. DFT calculations showed that the stability of these complexes arises from the higher electrophilicity of the POCOP ligand, relative to PCP, which leads to partial reduction of the excessive pi-electron density along the aryl-Rh-CO axis. Finally, comparison between the effects of CO and acetonitrile on C-H oxidative addition revealed that they exhibit similar reactivity, despite their markedly different electronic properties. However, DFT calculations indicate that the two ligands operate by different mechanisms. PMID:19918810

  13. Alkali metal cation complexation by 1,3-alternate, mono-ionisable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Custelcean, Radu; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2014-04-23

    Alkali metal cation extraction behavior for two series of 1,3-alternate, mono-ionizable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds is examined. In Series 1, the proton-ionizable group is a substituent on the benzo group of the polyether ring that directs it away from the crown ether cavity. In Series 2, the proton-ionizable group is attached to one para position in the calixarene framework, thus positioning it over the crown ether ring. Competitive solvent extraction of alkali metal cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform shows high Cs+ efficiency and selectivity. Single-species extraction pH profiles of Cs+ for Series 1 and 2 ligands with the same proton-ionizable groupmore » are very similar. Thus, association of Cs+ with the calixcrown ring is more important than the the proton-ionizable group’s position in relation to the crown ether cavity. Solid-state structures are presented for two unionized ligands from Series 2, as is a crystal containing two different ionized ligand–Cs+ complexes.« less

  14. Alkali metal cation complexation by 1,3-alternate, mono-ionisable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Custelcean, Radu; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2014-04-23

    Alkali metal cation extraction behavior for two series of 1,3-alternate, mono-ionizable calix[4]arene-benzocrown-6 compounds is examined. In Series 1, the proton-ionizable group is a substituent on the benzo group of the polyether ring that directs it away from the crown ether cavity. In Series 2, the proton-ionizable group is attached to one para position in the calixarene framework, thus positioning it over the crown ether ring. Competitive solvent extraction of alkali metal cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform shows high Cs+ efficiency and selectivity. Single-species extraction pH profiles of Cs+ for Series 1 and 2 ligands with the same proton-ionizable group are very similar. Thus, association of Cs+ with the calixcrown ring is more important than the the proton-ionizable group’s position in relation to the crown ether cavity. Solid-state structures are presented for two unionized ligands from Series 2, as is a crystal containing two different ionized ligand–Cs+ complexes.

  15. Gold(I)-mediated C-H activation of arenes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pengfei; Boorman, Tanya C; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Larrosa, Igor

    2010-04-28

    We demonstrate the first Au(I)-mediated C-H activation of arenes. Au(I) salts undergo C-H activation with electron-poor arenes, in stark contrast to Au(III) salts, which activate electron-rich arenes. This operationally simple and highly regioselective process occurs under very mild conditions and gives access to a variety of Au(I)-arene complexes in excellent yields. PMID:20364835

  16. Palladium(II), Ruthenium(II), and Ruthenium(III) Complexes of 23-Thiaazuliporphyrin: The Case of Coordination-Induced Contraction.

    PubMed

    Białek, Michał J; Latos-Grażyński, Lechosław

    2016-02-15

    5,10,15,20-Tetraaryl-23-thiaazuliporphyrin (SAz) was synthesized starting from nonfunctionalized azulene using a "1 + 3" method to be applied as a monoanionic macrocyclic ligand that provides a peculiar [CNSN] coordination cavity. An insertion of palladium(II) afforded the cationic [Pd(II)(SAz)](+), which readily undergoes the seven-membered ring contraction to form palladium(II) 23-thiabenzocarbaporphyrin [Pd(SBzC)] providing the first example of metal azuliporphyrinoid contraction. A reaction of SAz and a ruthenium source ([RuCl2(CO)3]2, [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2, or [RuCl2(cod)]) yielded ruthenium(II) 23-thiaazuliporphyrin [Ru(II)(SAz)Cl(CO)]. As shown by X-ray crystallography the thiophene ring in [Ru(SAz)Cl(CO)] is sharply tilted out of the plane of the two pyrrole nitrogen and carbon atoms being bound to the ruthenium through the pyramidal sulfur in the η(1) fashion. In solution, as demonstrated by variable-temperature (1)H NMR investigations, [Ru(SAz)Cl(CO)] exists as an equilibrium mixture of two isomers that are differentiated by the direction of thiophene folding (toward or outward of the axial chloride ligand). Apart of [Ru(II)(SAz)Cl(CO)], ruthenium(III) 23-thiaazuliporphyrin [Ru(III)(SAz)Cl2] was obtained when [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 or [RuCl2(cod)]n were used for insertion. The most characteristic (1)H NMR features of paramagnetic [Ru(SAz)Cl2] are negative isotropic shifts of resonances assigned to meso-aryl, azulene, and pyrrolic hydrogen atoms. The analysis of contact shifts and the parallel density functional theory calculations of spin density distribution documented that in [Ru(SAz)Cl2] the metal ion acquires the dxy(2)(dxzdyz)(3) ground electronic state. This Cs symmetry complex has singly occupied dxz or dyz orbitals that are symmetrically unequivalent. The resulting two different spin density distributions, when merged, reflect the spectroscopic image with the very specific π-spin delocalization, also including the azulene moiety. PMID:26808147

  17. Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(pyridine)complexes: An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Benjamin J.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for third-year undergraduate a student is designed which provides synthetic experience and qualitative interpretation of the spectroscopic properties of the ruthenium complexes. It involves the syntheses and characterization of several coordination complexes of ruthenium, the element found directly beneath iron in the middle of the…

  18. Facile synthesis of bismuth(III) and antimony(III) complexes supported by silylated calix[5]arenes.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Espinosa, Daniel; Hanna, Tracy A

    2009-11-01

    A series of bismuth(III) and antimony(III) complexes supported by silicon-containing calix[5]arene ligands were synthesized and fully characterized by NMR, X-ray, IR, mp, UV/vis, and elemental analysis. Reaction of the para-tert-butylcalix[5]arene [(t)BuC5(H)(5)] disodium salt, Na(2) x (t)BuC5(H)(3), with 1 equiv of R(2)SiCl(2) (R = Me, (i)Pr, Ph, CH=CH(2)) or treatment of the (t)BuC5(H)(5) lower rim monobenzyl ether [(t)BuC5(Bn)(H)(4)] in a 1:1 ratio with Me(2)Si(NMe(2))(2) yields the (t)BuC5(SiRR')(H)(3) (1-5) and (t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))(H)(2) (6) ligands, respectively. The (1)H NMR spectra of the (t)BuC5(SiRR')(H)(3) (1-5) ligands show three pairs of doublets and three singlets for the (t)Bu peaks, consistent with a C(s) symmetry. In the case of the (t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))(H)(2) (6) ligand, the presence of the monobenzyl group changes the (1)H NMR patterns to indicate a C(1) symmetry. Treatment of (t)BuC5(SiRR')(H)(3) (1-5) or (t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))(H)(2) (6) with 1 equiv of M(O(t)Bu)(3) (M = Bi, Sb) or Sb(NMe(2))(2) readily yields metalated products of the type [M{(t)BuC5(SiRR')}] (7-16) and [MX{(t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))}] (X = O(t)Bu, (NMe(2))(2)) (17-19), respectively. All monometallic complexes [M{(t)BuC5(SiRR')}] (7-19) display excellent solubility in organic solvents including pentane and hexane. The (1)H NMR patterns for complexes 7-16 are consistent with a 1,2- or 1,3-alternate conformation while complexes [MX{(t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))}] (17-19) display patterns for a C(1) symmetry. All crystals show monomeric structures. Ligand (t)BuC5(SiPh(2))(H)(3) (3) displays a distorted cone conformation while the presence of the monobenzyl ether in (t)BuC5(Bn)(SiMe(2))(H)(2) (6) forces a partial cone conformation. Complexes 7-19 all display a distorted 1,2-alternate conformation with the metal centers displaying coordination numbers of three, four or five. No Si...M interactions were observed. PMID:19785468

  19. Photoisomerisation in Aminoazobenzene-Substituted Ruthenium(II) Tris(bipyridine) Complexes: Influence of the Conjugation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Amar, Anissa; Savel, Paul; Akdas-Kilig, Huriye; Katan, Claudine; Meghezzi, Hacène; Boucekkine, Abdou; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Fillaut, Jean-Luc

    2015-05-26

    Transition-metal complexes containing stimuli-responsive systems are attractive for applications in optical devices, photonic memory, photosensing, as well as luminescence imaging. Amongst them, photochromic metal complexes offer the possibility of combining the specific properties of the metal centre and the optical response of the photochromic group. The synthesis, the electrochemical properties and the photophysical characterisation of a series of donor-acceptor azobenzene derivatives that possess bipyridine groups connected to a 4-dialkylaminoazobenzene moiety through various linkers are presented. DFT and TD-DFT calculations were performed to complement the experimental findings and contribute to their interpretation. The position and nature of the linker (ethynyl, triazolyl, none) were engineered and shown to induce different electronic coupling between donor and acceptor in ligands and complexes. This in turn led to strong modulations in terms of photoisomerisation of the ligands and complexes. PMID:25846371

  20. Chemistry of ruthenium(II) monohydride and dihydride complexes containing pyridyl donor ligands including catalytic ketone H2-hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Abdur-Rashid, Kamaluddin; Abbel, Robert; Hadzovic, Alen; Lough, Alan J; Morris, Robert H

    2005-04-01

    In this study we determine the changes to the properties of dihydride catalysts for ketone H2-hydrogenation by successively replacing the amine donors in the known dach complex RuH2(PPh3)2(dach) (2a), dach = 1,2-(R,R)-diaminocyclohexane, with one pyridyl group in the corresponding 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine (ampy) complexes RuH2(PPh3)2(ampy) (2b) and with two pyridyl groups in the complexes RuH2(PPh3)2(bipy) (2c) and RuH2(PPh3)2(phen) (2d). The ruthenium monohydride complex, (OC-6-54)-RuHCl(PPh3)2(ampy), (1b with Cl trans to H) was prepared by the addition of 1 equiv of ampy to RuHCl(PPh3)3 in THF. Treatment of the monohydride complex with K[BH(sec-Bu)3] in THF or KOtBu/H2 in toluene resulted in the formation of a mixture of at least two isomers of the highly reactive, air-sensitive ruthenium dihydride complex 2b. One is the cis dihydride (OC-6-14)-2b or more simply c,t-2b with trans PPh3 groups and another is the cis dihydride c,c-2b (OC-6-42) that has PPh3 trans to H and PPh3 trans to N(pyridyl). The isomer c,c-2b slowly converts to c,t-2b in solution. The reaction of 1b with KOtBu under Ar results in the formation of a mixture that includes a complex with an imino ligand HN=CH-2-py while the same reaction under H2 leads to c,c-2b and then c,t-2b. The dach complex c,t-2a, reacts with ampy, 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in refluxing THF to form the substituted cis-dihydride complexes c,t-2b, (OC-6-13)-RuH2(PPh3)2(bipy) (c,t-2c with trans PPh3 groups) and (OC-6-13)-RuH2(PPh3)2(phen), c,t-2d, respectively. The dihydrides containing amino groups and cis-PPh3 groups, i.e., c,c-2a or c,c-2b, are active precatalysts for the H2-hydrogenation of acetophenone (neat or in benzene) under mild reaction conditions, whereas those with trans-PPh3 groups, c,t-2a and c,t-2b are much less active. The combination of ampy complex 1b and KOtBu also provides a catalyst in benzene that is more active than the corresponding dach system. The complexes without amino

  1. Supramolecular assemblies with calix[6]arenes and copper ions: from dinuclear to trinuclear linear arrangements of hydroxo-Cu(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Izzet, Guillaume; Akdas, Huriye; Hucher, Nicolas; Giorgi, Michel; Prangé, Thierry; Reinaud, Olivia

    2006-02-01

    Complexation of copper(II) by calix[6]arene-based ligands bearing either two or three N-benzylimidazole coordinating arms under basic conditions has been studied. Whereas the tris(imidazole) derivative stabilizes dicationic 5-coordinate aqua complexes in a mononuclear state with an intracavity bound guest, in the presence of hydroxide ions, the latter undergo dimerization. An X-ray structure revealed decoordination of one imidazole arm and formation of a bis(hydroxo) bridged Cu(II) core with a square-planar geometry for both metal centers sandwiched by two empty calixarene cavities. Upon methanolysis, the dinuclear complex underwent an unexpected rearrangement leading to the clean formation of a trinuclear complex. X-ray diffraction analyses of this novel species revealed a trinuclear core constructed around a central Cu(II) ion that is doubly bridged through either methoxide or hydroxide anions to two Cu(II) ions hold by two calixarene units. The same complex could be directly synthesized by reacting the ligand with copper(II) perchlorate in a 2:3 ratio in the presence of base. In solution, the tetrahydroxo Cu(3) complex was characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies and displayed an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal only below 100 K that accounts for a S = 1/2 fundamental state. Formation of the same di- and trinuclear species was observed with a calix[6]arene-based bis(imidazole) ligand, which demonstrates the generality of the reaction schemes. All these results emphasize the versatility of the calix[6]arene scaffold for the stabilization of metal complexes with various nuclearities. PMID:16441115

  2. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2'-hydroxy chalconate complexes of ruthenium(II) and their catalytic and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, M.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Natarajan, K.

    2008-10-01

    The reactions of [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (B = EPh 3 or pyridine; E = P or As) and 2'-hydroxychalcones in 1:2 ratio led to the formation of [Ru(CO)(B)(L) 2] (B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = 2'-hydroxychalcones). The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic and 1H NMR) data. They have been assigned an octahedral structure. The new complexes were found to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes using N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide as co-oxidant. All the new complexes were found to be active against bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella typhi and fungi Aspergillus niger. The activity was compared with standard Streptomycin or Bavistin.

  3. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2'-hydroxy chalconate complexes of ruthenium(II) and their catalytic and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, M; Viswanathamurthi, P; Natarajan, K

    2008-10-01

    The reactions of [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh3)2] (B=EPh3 or pyridine; E=P or As) and 2'-hydroxychalcones in 1:2 ratio led to the formation of [Ru(CO)(B)(L)2] (B=PPh3, AsPh3 or Py; L=2'-hydroxychalcones). The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic and 1H NMR) data. They have been assigned an octahedral structure. The new complexes were found to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide as co-oxidant. All the new complexes were found to be active against bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella typhi and fungi Aspergillus niger. The activity was compared with standard Streptomycin or Bavistin. PMID:18068426

  4. Dynamic NMR studies of restricted arene rotation in the chromiu tricarbonyl thiophene and selenophene complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, M.J.

    1994-05-27

    This thesis contains the results of organometallic studies of thiophene and selenophene coordination in transition metal complexes. Chromium tricarbonyl complexes of thiophene, selenophene, and their alkyl-substituted derivatives were prepared and variable-temperature {sup 13}C NMR spectra of these complexes were recorded in dimethyl ether. Bandshape analyses of these spectra yielded activation parameters for restricted rotation of the thiophene and selenophene ligands in these complexes. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital calculations (EHMO) of the free thiophene and selenophene ligands and selected chromium tricarbonyl thiophene complexes were performed to better explain the activation barriers of these complexes. The structure of Cr(CO){sub 3}({eta}{sup 5}-2,5-dimethylthiophene) was established by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study.

  5. Teaching Inorganic Photophysics and Photochemistry with Three Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: A Computer-Based Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garino, Claudio; Terenzi, Alessio; Barone, Giampaolo; Salassa, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Among computational methods, DFT (density functional theory) and TD-DFT (time-dependent DFT) are widely used in research to describe, "inter alia," the optical properties of transition metal complexes. Inorganic/physical chemistry courses for undergraduate students treat such methods, but quite often only from the theoretical point of…

  6. Oxo-tethered ruthenium(II) complex as a bifunctional catalyst for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation and H2 hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Touge, Taichiro; Hakamata, Tomohiko; Nara, Hideki; Kobayashi, Tohru; Sayo, Noboru; Saito, Takao; Kayaki, Yoshihito; Ikariya, Takao

    2011-09-28

    Newly developed oxo-tethered Ru amido complexes (R,R)-1 and their HCl adducts (R,R)-2 exhibited excellent catalytic performance for both asymmetric transfer hydrogenation and the hydrogenation of ketonic substrates under neutral conditions without any cocatalysts to give chiral secondary alcohols with high levels of enantioselectivity. PMID:21870824

  7. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: Synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F.; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The novel azoimine ligand, Phsbnd NHsbnd Ndbnd C(COCH3)sbnd NHPh(Ctbnd CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd PhC(OH)dbnd CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y = L1 (1) and Y = L2 (2), bpy is 2.2‧-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D 1H NMR, 13C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D 1H-1H and 13C-1H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe0/+) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  8. Rare-earth metal π-complexes of reduced arenes, alkenes, and alkynes: bonding, electronic structure, and comparison with actinides and other electropositive metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-09-21

    Rare-earth metal complexes of reduced π ligands are reviewed with an emphasis on their electronic structure and bonding interactions. This perspective discusses reduced carbocyclic and acyclic π ligands; in certain categories, when no example of a rare-earth metal complex is available, a closely related actinide analogue is discussed. In general, rare-earth metals have a lower tendency to form covalent interactions with π ligands compared to actinides, mainly uranium. Despite predominant ionic interactions in rare-earth chemistry, covalent bonds can be formed with reduced carbocyclic ligands, especially multiply reduced arenes. PMID:26247323

  9. Pillar[10]arene-based size-selective host-guest complexation and its application in tuning the LCST behavior of a thermoresponsive polymer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guocan; Zhou, Jiong; Chi, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    A new molecular recognition motif between a water soluble pillar[10]arene (WP10) and 1,10-phenanthrolinium guest (G) in water is established. Mainly driven by the cooperativity of multiple electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and π-π stacking interactions between WP10 and G, this host-guest complex exhibits a high association constant in water, which is about 17 times higher than that between WP10 and paraquat (PQ). Furthermore, this size selective host-guest complexation is employed to tune the lower critical solution temperature behavior of a random copolymer with PQ derivative pendants. PMID:25421009

  10. Because Trucks Aren't Bicycles: Orthographic Complexity as an Important Variable in Reading Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2013-01-01

    Severe enduring reading- and writing-accuracy difficulties seem a phenomenon largely restricted to nations using complex orthographies, notably Anglophone nations, given English's highly complex orthography (Geva and Siegel, "Read Writ" 12:1-30, 2000; Landerl et al., "Cognition" 63:315-334, 1997; Share, "Psychol Bul"l 134(4):584-615, 2008;…

  11. Dipyrido[4,3-b;5,6-b]acridine derivatives and their ruthenium(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chi-Ying; Wang, Tie-Lin; Jang, Youngchan

    1996-09-25

    Two of the most common bidentate chelating ligands employed in coordination chemistry are 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The latter may be considered as a 3,3{prime}-etheno-bridged derivative of the former. The steric requirements of both ligands are very similar, and differences in the properties of their metal complexes may be mostly attributed to electronic differences arising from the greater electronegativity of phen. The next higher homologue of bpy is 2,2{prime};6,2{double_prime}-terpyridine (tpy), which behave as a tridentate chelator but enjoys many of the same coordination properties as bpy. The coordination chemistry of the analogous 3,3{prime}-etheno-bridged derivatives of tpy has not yet been explored. This report will present the preparation and properties of these derivatives and their complexation with Ru(II).

  12. A TDDFT study of the ruthenium(II) polyazaaromatic complex [Ru(dppz)(phen) 2] 2+ in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Re, Nazzareno

    2004-09-01

    DFT/TDDFT calculations were performed to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of the [Ru(dppz)(phen) 2] 2+ complex in solution. TDDFT calculations in water show two groups of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions at ≈450 and 415 nm whose superposition gives account of the broad absorption band experimentally characterized at 440 nm. Also, a group of almost coincident MLCT transitions partially mixed with dppz intraligand π-π ∗ transitions centered at ≈380 nm is found to give rise to the narrow absorption band experimentally found at 380 nm. Our results provide insight into the hypochromic shifts experimentally characterized upon intercalation of the title complex into DNA.

  13. Directing Protons to the Dioxygen Ligand of a Ruthenium(II) Complex with Pendent Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tronic, Tristan A.; DuBois, M. Rakowski; Kaminsky, Werner; Coggins, Michael K.; Liu, Tianbiao; Mayer, James M.

    2011-09-26

    A side-on Ru–O₂ complex with pendent amines in the ligand backbone has been synthesized to model proton delivery in O₂ reduction (see scheme and structure; red O, purple Ru, blue N, yellow P). Protonation occurs at the amine near the O₂ ligand, forming a hydrogen bond between the ammonium ion and the O₂ ligand, leading to a small increase in O-O bond length.

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of ruthenium(II) phosphine/diimine/picolinate complexes (SCAR) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Fernando R; Poelhsitz, Gustavo V; da Cunha, Lucas V P; Barbosa, Marilia I F; Leite, Sergio R A; Batista, Alzir A; Cho, Sang H; Franzblau, Scott G; de Camargo, Mariana S; Resende, Flávia A; Varanda, Eliana A; Leite, Clarice Q F

    2013-01-01

    Rifampicin, discovered more than 50 years ago, represents the last novel class of antibiotics introduced for the first-line treatment of tuberculosis. Drugs in this class form part of a 6-month regimen that is ineffective against MDR and XDR TB, and incompatible with many antiretroviral drugs. Investments in R&D strategies have increased substantially in the last decades. However, the number of new drugs approved by drug regulatory agencies worldwide does not increase correspondingly. Ruthenium complexes (SCAR) have been tested in our laboratory and showed promising activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These complexes showed up to 150 times higher activity against MTB than its organic molecule without the metal (free ligand), with low cytotoxicity and high selectivity. In this study, promising results inspired us to seek a better understanding of the biological activity of these complexes. The in vitro biological results obtained with the SCAR compounds were extremely promising, comparable to or better than those for first-line drugs and drugs in development. Moreover, SCAR 1 and 4, which presented low acute toxicity, were assessed by Ames test, and results demonstrated absence of mutagenicity. PMID:23724039

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Ruthenium(II) Phosphine/Diimine/Picolinate Complexes (SCAR) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Fernando R.; Poelhsitz, Gustavo V.; da Cunha, Lucas V. P.; Barbosa, Marilia I. F.; Leite, Sergio R. A.; Batista, Alzir A.; Cho, Sang H.; Franzblau, Scott G.; de Camargo, Mariana S.; Resende, Flávia A.; Varanda, Eliana A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    Rifampicin, discovered more than 50 years ago, represents the last novel class of antibiotics introduced for the first-line treatment of tuberculosis. Drugs in this class form part of a 6-month regimen that is ineffective against MDR and XDR TB, and incompatible with many antiretroviral drugs. Investments in R&D strategies have increased substantially in the last decades. However, the number of new drugs approved by drug regulatory agencies worldwide does not increase correspondingly. Ruthenium complexes (SCAR) have been tested in our laboratory and showed promising activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These complexes showed up to 150 times higher activity against MTB than its organic molecule without the metal (free ligand), with low cytotoxicity and high selectivity. In this study, promising results inspired us to seek a better understanding of the biological activity of these complexes. The in vitro biological results obtained with the SCAR compounds were extremely promising, comparable to or better than those for first-line drugs and drugs in development. Moreover, SCAR 1 and 4, which presented low acute toxicity, were assessed by Ames test, and results demonstrated absence of mutagenicity. PMID:23724039

  16. Uniting Ruthenium(II) and Platinum(II) Polypyridine Centers in Heteropolymetallic Complexes Giving Strong Two-Photon Absorption.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengfei; Coe, Benjamin J; Sánchez, Sergio; Wang, Daqi; Tian, Yupeng; Nyk, Marcin; Samoc, Marek

    2015-12-01

    New trinuclear RuPt2 and heptanuclear RuPt6 complex salts are prepared by attaching Pt(II) 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (tpy) moieties to Ru(II) 4,4':2',2":4",4"'-quaterpyridine (qpy) complexes. Characterization includes single crystal X-ray structures for both polymetallic species. The visible absorption bands are primarily due to Ru(II) → qpy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions, according to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. These spectra change only slightly on Pt coordination, while the orange-red emission from the complexes shows corresponding small red-shifts, accompanied by decreases in intensity. Cubic molecular nonlinear optical behavior has been assessed by using Z-scan measurements. These reveal relatively high two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections σ2, with maximal values of 301 GM at 834 nm (RuPt2) and 523 GM at 850 nm (RuPt6) when dissolved in methanol or acetone, respectively. Attaching Pt(II)(tpy) moieties triples or quadruples the 2PA activities when compared with the Ru(II)-based cores. PMID:26562721

  17. Computational Analysis of a Zn-Bound Tris(imidazolyl) Calix[6]arene Aqua Complex: Toward Incorporating Second-Coordination Sphere Effects into Carbonic Anhydrase Biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Lucas; Essiz, Sebnem G; Wong, Sergio E; Lau, Edmond Y; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-03-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum-mechanical calculations were performed to characterize a supramolecular tris(imidazolyl) calix[6]arene Zn(2+) aqua complex, as a biomimetic model for the catalyzed hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, H2O + CO2 → H(+) + HCO3(-). On the basis of potential-of-mean-force (PMF) calculations, stable conformations had distorted 3-fold symmetry and supported either one or zero encapsulated water molecules. The conformation with an encapsulated water molecule is calculated to be lower in free energy than the conformation with an empty cavity (ΔG = 1.2 kcal/mol) and is the calculated free-energy minimum in solution. CO2 molecule partitioning into the cavity is shown to be very facile, proceeding with a barrier of 1.6 kcal/mol from a weak encounter complex which stabilizes the species by about 1.0 kcal/mol. The stabilization energy of CO2 is calculated to be larger than that of H2O (ΔΔG = 1.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the complex will preferentially encapsulate CO2 in solution. In contrast, the PMF for a bicarbonate anion entering the cavity is calculated to be repulsive in all nonbonding regions of the cavity, due to the diameter of the calix[6]arene walls. Geometry optimization of the Zn-bound hydroxide complex with an encapsulated CO2 molecule showed that multiple noncovalent interactions direct the reactants into optimal position for nucleophilic addition to occur. The calixarene complex is a structural mimic of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic divide in the enzyme, providing a functional effect for CO2 addition in the catalytic cycle. The results show that Zn-binding calix[6]arene scaffolds can be potential synthetic biomimetics for CO2 hydration catalysis, both in terms of preferentially encapsulating CO2 from solution and by spatially fixing the reactive species inside the cavity. PMID:26587594

  18. Cyanide anion binding by a triarylborane at the outer rim of a cyclometalated ruthenium(II) cationic complex.

    PubMed

    Wade, Casey R; Gabbaï, François P

    2010-01-18

    As part of our ongoing interest in the design of boron-based cyanide anion receptors, we have synthesized a triaryl borane decorated by a cationic Ru(II) complex and have investigated its anion binding properties. This new borane, [(2,2'-bpy)Ru(kappa-C,N-2-(dimesitylborylphenyl)pyridinato)]OTf ([2]OTf), binds both fluoride and cyanide anions in organic solvents to afford 2-F and 2-CN whose crystal structures have been determined. UV-vis titrations in 9/1 CHCl(3)/DMF (vol.) afforded K((F(-))) = 1.1(+/-0.1) x 10(4) M(-1) and K((CN(-))) = 3.0(+/-1.0) x 10(6) M(-1) indicating that [2](+) has a higher affinity for cyanide than for fluoride in this solvent mixture. These elevated binding constants show that the cationic Ru(II) complex increases the anion affinity of these complexes via Coulombic and inductive effects. The UV-vis spectral changes which accompany either fluoride or cyanide binding to the boron center are similar and include a 30 nm bathochromic shift of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band. This shift is attributed to an increase in the donor ability of the boron-substituted phenylpyridine ligand upon anion binding to the boron center. Accordingly, cyclic voltammetry revealed that the Ru(II/III) redox couple of [2]OTf (E(1/2) = +0.051 V vs Fc/Fc(+)) undergoes a cathodic shift upon F(-) (DeltaE(1/2) = -0.242 V vs Fc/Fc(+)) or CN(-) (DeltaE(1/2) = -0.198 V vs Fc/Fc(+)) binding. PMID:20000628

  19. Syntheses and quadratic optical nonlinearities of ruthenium(II) complexes with ethynyl-connected N-methylpyridinium electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Harries, Josephine L; Helliwell, Madeleine; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Harris, James A; Asselberghs, Inge; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Clays, Koen; Horton, Peter N; Hursthouse, Michael B

    2006-02-01

    We have prepared a number of new dipolar complexes containing ethynyl or buta-1,3-diynyl units linking electron-rich {Ru(II)(NH3)5}2+, trans-{Ru(II)(NH3)4L}+ (L = pyridine or N-methylimidazole), or trans-{Ru(II)Cl(pdma)2}+ [pdma = 1,2-phenylenebis(dimethylarsine)] centers to pyridinium electron acceptors. In acetonitrile solutions at 295 K, the new complexes display unusual blue-shifting of their metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands as the conjugation is extended, in a fashion similar to that of the corresponding ethenyl systems. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) and Stark spectroscopic measurements provide direct and indirect estimates of static first hyperpolarizabilities beta0, and both the linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are temperature- and medium-dependent. Thus, at 77 K in butyronitrile glasses, the MLCT bands display more normal red shifts upon conjugation extension. While the Stark-derived beta0 values generally increase as n (the number of ethynyl units) increases from 0 to 2, the HRS data show maximization at n = 1 for two of the ammine series but an increase upon moving from n = 1 to 2 for the pdma complexes. Comparisons with the analogous ethenyl chromophores show that the latter generally display larger beta0 values, whether determined via HRS or Stark data, and the inferiority of the ethynyl systems in terms of NLO response is more pronounced when n = 2. This differing behavior is attributable primarily to larger increases in the transition dipole moment mu12 (and, hence, donor-acceptor pi-electronic coupling) on elongation in the ethenyl chromophores. PMID:16441133

  20. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent probe for biological Cu(2+) detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingyu; Pei, Lingmin; Chen, Yu; Xu, Wenchao; Lin, Qitian; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Jingheng; Shen, Yong; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2013-11-11

    A new dinuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complex, [(bpy)2 Ru(H2 bpip)Ru(bpy)2 ](4+) (RuH2 bpip, bpy=2,2-bipyridine, H2 bpip=2,6-pyridyl(imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), was developed to act as a one- and two-photon luminescent probe for biological Cu(2+) detection. This Ru(II) complex shows a significant two-photon absorption cross section (400 GM) and displays a remarkable one- and two-photon luminescence switch in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Importantly, RuH2 bpip can selectively recognise Cu(2+) in aqueous media in the presence of other abundant cellular cations (such as Na(+) , K(+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ), trace metal ions in organisms (such as Zn(2+) , Ag(+) , Fe(3+) , Fe(2+) , Ni(2+) , Mn(2+) , and Co(2+) ), prevalent toxic metal ions in the environment (such as Cd(2+) , Hg(2+) , and Cr(3+) ), and amino acids, with high sensitivity (detection limit≤3.33×10(-8)  M) and a rapid response time (≤15 s). The biological applications of RuH2 bpip were also evaluated and it was found to exhibit low cytotoxicity, good water solubility, and membrane permeability; RuH2 bpip was, therefore, employed as a sensing probe for the detection of Cu(2+) in living cells and zebrafish. PMID:24166837

  1. Structural Studies on Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes That Bind Diastereoselectively to an Antiparallel Folded Human Telomere Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report DNA binding studies of the dinuclear ruthenium ligand [{Ru(phen)2}2tpphz]4+ in enantiomerically pure forms. As expected from previous studies of related complexes, both isomers bind with similar affinity to B-DNA and have enhanced luminescence. However, when tested against the G-quadruplex from human telomeres (which we show to form an antiparallel basket structure with a diagonal loop across one end), the ΛΛ isomer binds approximately 40 times more tightly than the ΔΔ, with a stronger luminescence. NMR studies show that the complex binds at both ends of the quadruplex. Modeling studies, based on experimentally derived restraints obtained for the closely related [{Ru(bipy)2}2tpphz]4+, show that the ΛΛ isomer fits neatly under the diagonal loop, whereas the ΔΔ isomer is unable to bind here and binds at the lateral loop end. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the ΔΔ isomer is prevented from binding under the diagonal loop by the rigidity of the loop. We thus present a novel enantioselective binding substrate for antiparallel basket G-quadruplexes, with features that make it a useful tool for quadruplex studies. PMID:24088028

  2. Rapid and highly sensitive dual-channel detection of cyanide by bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Samanta, Debabrata; Bats, Jan W; Schmittel, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes [Ru(bipy)(2)(PDA)](2+) (1) and [Ru(phen)(2)(PDA)](2+) (2) (PDA = 1,10-phenanthroline-4,7-dicarboxaldehyde) have been synthesized to detect cyanide based on the well-known formation of cyanohydrins. Both 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) were fully characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and their solid state structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their anion binding properties in pure and aqueous acetonitrile were thoroughly examined using two different channels, i.e., UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). After addition of only 2 equiv of CN(-), the PL intensity of 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) was enhanced ∼55-fold within 15 s along with a diagnostic blue shift of the emission by more than 100 nm. PL titrations of 1[PF(6)](2) and 2[PF(6)](2) with CN(-) in CH(3)CN furnished the very high overall cyanohydrin formation constants log β([CN(-)]) = 15.36 ± 0.44 (β([CN(-)]) = 2.3 × 10(15) M(-2)) and log β([CN(-)]) = 16.37 ± 0.53 (β([CN(-)]) = 2.3 × 10(16) M(-2)), respectively. For both probes, the second constant, K(2), is about 57-84 times less than K(1), suggesting that the cyanohydrin reaction is stepwise. The stepwise mechanism is further supported by results of a (1)H NMR titration of 2[PF(6)](2) with CN(-). The high selectivity of 2[PF(6)](2) for CN(-) was established by PL in the presence of other competing anions. Furthermore, the color change from orange-red to yellow and the appearance of a orange luminescence, which can be observed by the naked eye, provides a simple real-time method for cyanide detection. Finally, theoretical calculations were carried out to elucidate the details of the electronic structure and transitions involved in the ruthenium probes and their cyanide adducts. PMID:22416978

  3. DNA-binding, topoisomerases I and II inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: [Ru(dppz)2L]2+ (L = dppz-11-CO2Me and dppz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojun; Jin, Lianhe; Tan, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, [Ru(dppz)2dppz-11-CO2Me](ClO4)2 (Ru1) and [Ru(dppz)3](ClO4)2 (Ru2), have been synthesized and characterized. The spectral characteristics of Ru1 and Ru2 were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and revealed that both complexes were sensitive to solvent polarity. The binding properties of the two complexes towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements, indicating that both complexes bind to CT-DNA by means of intercalation, but with different binding affinities. Topoisomerase inhibition and DNA strand passage assay demonstrates that the two complexes are dual inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIa. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity of both complexes has been evaluated by MTT assays and Giemsa staining experiments. The main results reveal that the ester functional group has a significant effect on the DNA-binding affinities and topoisomerases inhibition effects of Ru1 and Ru2, and further advance our knowledge on the DNA-binding and topoisomerase inhibition by Ru(II) complexes.

  4. Coordination chemistry of a calix[4]arene-based NHC ligand: dinuclear complexes and comparison to I(i)Pr2Me2.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Ruth; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2016-06-01

    The preparation and coordination chemistry of 5,17-bis(3-methyl-1-imidazol-2-ylidene)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (1) is described. Starting from the bis(imidazolium) pro-ligand 1·2HI, the free carbene 1 was readily generated in solution through deprotonation using K[O(t)Bu] and its reactivity with rhodium(i) dimers [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and [Rh(CO)2Cl]2 investigated. Dinuclear complexes were isolated in both cases, where the calix[4]arene-based NHC ligand adopts a bridging μ(2)-coordination mode, and in one case characterised in the solid-state by X-ray diffraction. Using instead an isolated and well-defined (mononuclear) silver transfer agent, generated by reaction of 1·2HI with Ag2O in the presence of a halide extractor, reactions with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 and [Rh(CO)2Cl]2 produced cationic dinuclear complexes bearing μ(2)-1 and μ(2)-Cl bridging ligands. The structural formulation of the novel dinuclear adducts of 1 was aided through spectroscopic congruence with model complexes, containing monodentate 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene (I(i)Pr2Me2). PMID:27160544

  5. Binding properties of ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(bpy)2(ppn)](2+) and [Ru(phen)2(ppn)](2+) with triplex RNA: As molecular "light switches" and stabilizers for poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) triplex.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Sun, Yanmei; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Hong; Tan, Lifeng

    2016-08-01

    Stable RNA triplexes play key roles in many biological processes, while triplexes are thermodynamically less stable than the corresponding duplexes due to the Hoogsteen base pairing. To understand the factors affecting the stabilization of RNA triplexes by octahedral ruthenium(II) complexes, the binding of [Ru(bpy)2(ppn)](2+) (1, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, ppn=2,4-diaminopyrimido[5,6-b]dipyrido[2,3-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline) and [Ru(phen)2(ppn)](2+) (2, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) to poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U) (· denotes the Watson-Crick base pairing and * denotes the Hoogsteen base pairing) has been investigated. The main results obtained here suggest that complexes 1 and 2 can serve as molecular "light switches" and stabilizers for poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U), while the effectiveness of complex 2 are more marked, suggesting that the hydrophobicity of ancillary ligands has a significant effect on the two Ru(II) complexes binding to poly(U)·poly(A)*poly(U). This study further advances our knowledge on the binding of RNA triplexes with metal complexes, particularly with octahedral ruthenium polypyridyl complexes. PMID:27287059

  6. Mononuclear and dinuclear molybdenum and tungsten complexes of p-tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene and p-tert-butyltetrasulfonylcalix[4]arene: facile cleavage of the calixarene ligand framework by nickel.

    PubMed

    Buccella, Daniela; Parkin, Gerard

    2008-07-01

    The reactivity of p-tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene, [S4CalixBut(OH)4], and p-tert-butyltetrasulfonylcalix[4]arene, [(SO2)4CalixBut(OH)4], toward Mo(PMe3)5H2, Mo(PMe3)6, and W(PMe3)4(eta2-CH2PMe2)H has been used to synthesize a series of mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten calixarene compounds that feature both coordinatively saturated and unsaturated metal centers, such as [S4CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]M(PMe3)3H2 (M = Mo, W), [(SO2)4CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]M(PMe3)3H2, [S4CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]Mo(PMe3)3, [(SO2)4CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]Mo(PMe3)3, and [(SO2)4CalixBut(OH)(O)3]M(PMe3)3H. Comparison with the related {[CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]M} complexes indicates that the chemistry of the system is strongly influenced by the nature of the calixarene linker, that is, CH2, S, and SO2. For example, in contrast to the methylene-bridged calixarene system, the thiacalixarene and sulfonylcalixarene systems readily coordinate a second metal center to form homo- and heterodinuclear complexes, namely {[S4CalixBut(O)4]}[M(PMe3)3H2]2, {[(SO2)4CalixBut(O)4]}[Mo(PMe3)3H2]2 and {[S4CalixBut(O)4]}[Mo(PMe3)3H2][W(PMe3)3H2]. Of most interest, incorporation of nickel into [S4CalixBut(OH)2(O)2]M(PMe3)3H2 using Ni(PMe3)4 results in cleavage of a C- bond to give [(SArButOH)(SArButO)3][M(PMe3)3H2][Ni(PMe3)2], an observation that is of relevance to the role that nickel plays in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. PMID:18557612

  7. Host-guest chemistry of a water-soluble pillar[5]arene: evidence for an ionic-exchange recognition process and different complexation modes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Borja; Francisco, Vitor; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Garcia-Rio, Luis; Martín-Pastor, M; Paleo, M Rita; Sardina, F Javier

    2014-09-15

    The complexation of an anionic guest by a cationic water-soluble pillararene is reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), (1)H NMR, (1)H and (19)F DOSY, and STD NMR experiments were performed to characterize the complex formed under aqueous neutral conditions. The results of ITC and (1)H NMR analyses showed the inclusion of the guest inside the cavity of the pillar[5]arene, with the binding constant and thermodynamic parameters influenced by the counter ion of the macrocycle. NMR diffusion experiments showed that although a fraction of the counter ions are expelled from the host cavity by exchange with the guest, a complex with both counter ions and the guest inside the pillararene is formed. The results also showed that at higher concentrations of guest in solution, in addition to the inclusion of one guest molecule in the cavity, the pillararene can also form an external complex with a second guest molecule. PMID:25110897

  8. Selectivity of calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) in the complexation and transport of francium ion.

    PubMed

    Haverlock, Tamara J; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2003-02-01

    It is shown for the first time that a representative member of the "cesium-selective" calix[4]arene-crown-6 family exhibits a high affinity for Fr+ ion. In the investigation, the transport of 221Fr+ and Cs+ ions by calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution into the water-immiscible diluent 1,2-dichloroethane was measured and compared to address the question of selectivity of the calix-crown-6 cavity toward alkali metal ions of increasing size. Selective separation of 221Fr+ from its parent 225Ac and from the matrix Na+ ions was demonstrated. Higher distribution ratios were obtained than those for the Cs+ ion. The extraction equilibria were determined for the case of the Cs+ ion, and the same equilibria were shown to be applicable to the case of Fr+ with inclusion of additional competitive effects. PMID:12553788

  9. Asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha-chloro aromatic ketones catalyzed by eta6-arene/TsDPEN-ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Kunihiko; Utsumi, Noriyuki; Arai, Noriyoshi; Noyori, Ryoji; Murata, Kunihiko

    2007-01-18

    Asymmetric hydrogenation of various alpha-chloro aromatic ketones with Ru(OTf)(TsDPEN)(eta6-arene) (TsDPEN = N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine) produces the chiral chlorohydrins in up to 98% ee. This reaction can be conducted even on a 206-g scale. The hydrogenation of an alpha-chloro ketone with a phenol moiety has been utilized for the synthesis of (R)-norphenylephrine without protection-deprotection operations. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17217278

  10. A novel dual-functioning ruthenium(II)-arene complex of an anti-microbial ciprofloxacin derivative - Anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Ude, Ziga; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Twamley, Brendan; Fitzgerald Hughes, Deirdre; Sadler, Peter J; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-07-01

    7-(4-(Decanoyl)piperazin-1-yl)-ciprofloxacin, CipA, (1) which is an analogue of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and its ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)(CipA-H)Cl], (2) have been synthesised and the x-ray crystal structures of 1·1.3H2O·0.6CH3OH and 2·CH3OH·0.5H2O determined. The complex adopts a typical pseudo-octahedral 'piano-stool' geometry, with Ru(II) π-bonded to the p-cymene ring and σ-bonded to a chloride and two oxygen atoms of the chelated fluoroquinolone ligand. The complex is highly cytotoxic in the low μM range and is as potent as the clinical drug cisplatin against the human cancer cell lines A2780, A549, HCT116, and PC3. It is also highly cytotoxic against cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines suggesting a different mechanism of action. The complex also retained low μM cytotoxicity against the human colon cancer cell line HCT116p53 in which the tumour suppressor p53 had been knocked out, suggesting that the potent anti-proliferative properties associated with this complex are independent of the status of p53 (in contrast to cisplatin). The complex also retained moderate anti-bacterial activity in two Escherichia coli, a laboratory strain and a clinical isolate resistant to first, second and third generation β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:26993079

  11. Comparison of hydration reactions for "piano-stool" RAPTA-B and [Ru(η6-arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes: density functional theory computational study.

    PubMed

    Chval, Zdeněk; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2011-01-14

    The hydration process for two Ru(II) representative half-sandwich complexes: Ru(arene)(pta)Cl(2) (from the RAPTA family) and [Ru(arene)(en)Cl](+) (further labeled as Ru_en) were compared with analogous reaction of cisplatin. In the study, quantum chemical methods were employed. All the complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using Conductor Polarizable Continuum Model (CPCM) solvent continuum model and single-point (SP) energy calculations and determination of electronic properties were performed at the B3LYP∕6-311++G(2df,2pd)/CPCM level. It was found that the hydration model works fairly well for the replacement of the first chloride by water where an acceptable agreement for both Gibbs free energies and rate constants was obtained. However, in the second hydration step worse agreement of the experimental and calculated values was achieved. In agreement with experimental values, the rate constants for the first step can be ordered as RAPTA-B > Ru_en > cisplatin. The rate constants correlate well with binding energies (BEs) of the Pt∕Ru-Cl bond in the reactant complexes. Substitution reactions on Ru_en and cisplatin complexes proceed only via pseudoassociative (associative interchange) mechanism. On the other hand in the case of RAPTA there is also possible a competitive dissociation mechanism with metastable pentacoordinated intermediate. The first hydration step is slightly endothermic for all three complexes by 3-5 kcal∕mol. Estimated BEs confirm that the benzene ligand is relatively weakly bonded assuming the fact that it occupies three coordination positions of the Ru(II) cation. PMID:21241133

  12. Comparison of hydration reactions for "piano-stool" RAPTA-B and [Ru(η6- arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes: Density functional theory computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chval, Zdeněk; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2011-01-01

    The hydration process for two Ru(II) representative half-sandwich complexes: Ru(arene)(pta)Cl2 (from the RAPTA family) and [Ru(arene)(en)Cl]+ (further labeled as Ru_en) were compared with analogous reaction of cisplatin. In the study, quantum chemical methods were employed. All the complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using Conductor Polarizable Continuum Model (CPCM) solvent continuum model and single-point (SP) energy calculations and determination of electronic properties were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/CPCM level. It was found that the hydration model works fairly well for the replacement of the first chloride by water where an acceptable agreement for both Gibbs free energies and rate constants was obtained. However, in the second hydration step worse agreement of the experimental and calculated values was achieved. In agreement with experimental values, the rate constants for the first step can be ordered as RAPTA-B > Ru_en > cisplatin. The rate constants correlate well with binding energies (BEs) of the Pt/Ru-Cl bond in the reactant complexes. Substitution reactions on Ru_en and cisplatin complexes proceed only via pseudoassociative (associative interchange) mechanism. On the other hand in the case of RAPTA there is also possible a competitive dissociation mechanism with metastable pentacoordinated intermediate. The first hydration step is slightly endothermic for all three complexes by 3-5 kcal/mol. Estimated BEs confirm that the benzene ligand is relatively weakly bonded assuming the fact that it occupies three coordination positions of the Ru(II) cation.

  13. Hydrogenation of arenes under mild conditions using rhodium pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl complexes tethered to a silica-supported palladium heterogeneous catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.; Gao, H.; Angelici, R.J.

    2000-02-21

    The rhodium complexes [Rh(COD)(1)]BF{sub 4} (RH(N-P)) and [Rh(COD)(2)]BF{sub 4} (Rh(N-N)), containing the new pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl ligands (1 and 2) with alkoxysilane groups, were tethered on the silica-supported palladium heterogeneous catalyst Pd-SiO{sub 2} to give the TCSM (tethered complex on supported metal) catalysts Rh(N-P)/Pd-SiO{sub 2} and Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}. Under the mild conditions of 70 C and 4 atm of H{sub 2}, the two TCSM catalysts are very active for the hydrogenation of arenes (PhCO{sub 2}Me, PhOH, toluene, PhOCH{sub 3}, PhCO{sub 2}Et, 4-CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CO{sub 2}Et, dimethyl terephthalate) to cyclohexanes; the activities are higher than those of the separate homogeneous Rh(N-P) and Rh(N-N) complex catalysts, the silica-supported palladium catalyst Pd-SiO{sub 2}, or the rhodium complex catalysts tethered on just SiO{sub 2}. The catalysts are easily separated from the reaction mixtures and can be recycled several times without losing activity. Of the two TCSM catalysts, the higher activity for the hydrogenation of anisole to methyl cyclohexyl ether was observed for Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}, which gives a TOF value of 3060 mol of substrate converted/((mol of Rh)h) and a TO value of 14500 mol of substrate converted/(mol of Rh) in 6 h. Reactions of acetophenone lead to hydrogenation of the arene ring, the carbonyl group, or both, depending on the catalyst (Rh(N-P)/Pd-SiO{sub 2} or Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}) and the solvent (heptane or ethanol).

  14. Imaging Nuclei of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Chiral Ruthenium(II) Complex Coordinated by 2-(4-Phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Fen-Yong; Zheng, Kang-Di; Mei, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A pair of chiral ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ- and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(p-BEPIP)](ClO4)2 [Λ- and Δ-RM0627; bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; p-BEPIP = 2-(4-phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline], were prepared using the Sonogashira coupling reaction under microwave irradiation. The study shows that Λ-RM0627 emitted strong phosphorescence in the range 500-700 nm with a maximum at 594 nm when excited at 365 nm (the Stokes shift is about 227 nm), which was mainly located in the cell nucleus with red phosphorescence. Further studies using real-time phosphorescence observation confirmed that Λ-RM0627 can be taken up quickly by MDA-MB-231 cells and enriched in the nucleus. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of Λ-RM0627 were also evaluated, and it was found that Λ-RM0627 slightly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and HaCaT normal human epidermal cells and had little influence on the development of Zebrafish embryos at low concentration. In conclusion, the levoisomer of chiral ruthenium complexes can act as a potential phosphorescent probe that targets nuclei of living cells with low toxicity. PMID:27191197

  15. Transition Metal Complexes of Calix[4]arene: Theoretical Investigations into Small Guest Binding within the Host Cavity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Paul; Dalgarno, Scott J; Paterson, Martin J

    2016-02-11

    The ability to selectively detect or store small molecules, such as gases, is of enormous commercial potential. Calixarenes have been studied extensively as host molecules; however, recent synthetic advances have seen the formation of new polymetallic calixarene clusters, which have not yet been explored for such purposes. We therefore present a theoretical study, using Density Functional Theory, to thoroughly investigate the binding preferences of calix[4]arene, with a variety of transition metal cations coordinated to the calixarene tetraphenolic pocket, toward a series of important small molecules, H2S, SO2, H2O, O2, H2, N2, N2O, CO2, NH3, and HCN. It was found that the inclusion of a metal atom at the lower-rim of the calixarene caused significant strengthening of binding energy with all of the small molecules in our study as compared to metal-free calixarene. The guests, SO2 and NH3, were found to bind strongest with H2 binding weakest. Our calculations predict that simply introducing metal coordination of any type to calix[4]arene will make the largest difference to the binding energies. Subsequently changing the type, oxidation state, or the spin state of the metal coordinated to the calixarene tetraphenolic pocket was found to have a lesser effect on these. PMID:26783648

  16. Efficient and versatile catalysis of N-alkylation of heterocyclic amines with alcohols and one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzazoles with newly designed ruthenium(II) complexes of PNS thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Prakash, Govindan; Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-06-01

    Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with phosphine-functionalized PNS type thiosemicarbazone ligands [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(L)] (1-6) (E = P or As, L = 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene) thiosemicarbazone (PNS-H), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-methylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Me), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Ph)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2 and 6 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that all the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate PNS fashion. All the ruthenium complexes (1-6) were tested as catalyst for N-alkylation of heteroaromatic amines with alcohols. Notably, complex 2 was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards N-alkylation of a wide range of heterocyclic amines with alcohols. Complex 2 can also catalyze the direct amination of 2-nitropyridine with benzyl alcohol to the corresponding secondary amine. Furthermore, a preliminary examination of performance for N,N-dialkylation of diamine showed promising results, giving good conversion and high selectivity. In addition, N-alkylation of ortho-substituted anilines (-NH2, -OH and -SH) led to the one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles, also revealing the catalytic activity of complex 2. PMID:24705796

  17. Synthesis of novel anticancer ruthenium-arene pyridinylmethylene scaffolds via three-component reaction.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Gajanan Raosaheb; Sinha, Sohini; Chhabra, Mohit; Paira, Priyankar

    2016-06-01

    A novel three components approach for the synthesis of bioactive Ru-arene pyridinylmethylene complexes has been developed using pyridine carboxaldehyde, amino pyridine and dichloro (p-cymene) ruthenium(II) dimer as starting materials. These scaffolds were screened for their anticancer activity against breast cancer (MCF7) and human Epitheloid Cervix Carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. It was established that compounds [(η(6)-pcymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-(3,5-dinitro-pyridin-2-yl)-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-amine)]PF6 (4o), [(η(6)-pcymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-N-(3,5-dibromo-pyridin-2-yl)-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-amine)]PF6 (4c), [(η(6)-pcymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-(3,5-dibromo-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-amine)]PF6 (4j) and [(η(6)-pcymene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-3(3-bromo-5-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-amine)]PF6 (4b) were significantly active against both the cell lines. PMID:27090558

  18. η(6) -Arene-Zirconium-PNP-Pincer Complexes: Mechanism of Their Hydrogenolytic Formation and Their Reactivity as Zirconium(II) Synthons.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Gudrun T; Wadepohl, Hubert; Clot, Eric; Gade, Lutz H

    2016-06-27

    The cyclometalated monobenzyl complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) -CH)ZrBnX] 1 (iPr) Cl and 1 (Ph) I reacted with dihydrogen (10 bar) to yield the η(6) -toluene complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr(η(6) -tol)X] 2 (iPr) Cl and 2 (Ph) I (cbzdiphos=1,8-bis(phosphino)-3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole). The arene complexes were also found to be directly accessible from the triiodide [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )ZrI3 ] through an in situ reaction with a dibenzylmagnesium reagent and subsequent hydrogenolysis, as exemplified for the η(6) -mesitylene complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(η(6) -mes)I] (3 (Ph) I). The tolyl-ring in 2 (iPr) Cl adopts a puckered arrangement (fold angle 23.3°) indicating significant arene-1,4-diido character. Deuterium labeling experiments were consistent with an intramolecular reaction sequence after the initial hydrogenolysis of a Zr-C bond by a σ-bond metathesis. A DFT study of the reaction sequence indicates that hydrogenolysis by σ-bond metathesis first occurs at the cyclometalated ancillary ligand giving a hydrido-benzyl intermediate, which subsequently reductively eliminates toluene that then coordinates to the Zr atom as the reduced arene ligand. Complex 2 (Ph) I was reacted with 2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide giving the deep blue, diamagnetic Zr(II) -diisocyanide complex [(Cbzdiphos(Ph) )Zr(CNDipp)2 I] (4 (Ph) I). DFT modeling of 4 (Ph) I demonstrated that the HOMO of the complex is primarily located as a "lone pair on zirconium", with some degree of back-bonding into the C≡N π* bond, and the complex is thus most appropriately described as a zirconium(II) species. Reaction of 2 (Ph) I with trimethylsilylazide (N3 TMS) and 2 (iPr) Cl with 1-azidoadamantane (N3 Ad) resulted in the formation of the imido complexes [(Cbzdiphos(R) )Zr=NR'(X)] 5 (iPr) Cl-NAd and 5 (Ph) I-NTMS, respectively. Reaction of 2 (iPr) Cl with azobenzene led to N-N bond scission giving 6 (iPr) Cl, in which one of the NPh-fragments is coupled with the carbazole

  19. Methods for preparation of cyclopentadienyliron (II) arenes

    DOEpatents

    Keipert, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    Two improved methods for preparation of compounds with the structure shown in equation X [(Cp)--Fe--(Ar)].sup.+.sub.b X.sup.b- (X) where Cp is an eta.sup.5 complexed, substituted or unsubstituted, cyclopentadienyl or indenyl anion, Ar is an eta.sup.6 complexed substituted or unsubstituted, pi-arene ligand anad X is a b-valent anion where b is an integer between 1 and 3. The two methods, which differ in the source of the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex, utilize a Lewis acid assisted ligand transfer reaction. The cyclopentadienyl anion ligand, assisted by a Lewis acid is transferred to ferrous ion in the presence of an arene. In the first method, the cyclopentadienyl anion is derived from ferrocene and ferrous chloride. In this reaction, the cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product is derived partially from ferrocene and partially from the ferrous salt. In the second method, the cyclopentadienyl anion - Lewis acid complex is formed by direct reaction of the Lewis acid with an inorganic cyclopentadienide salt. The cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene product of this reaction is derived entirely from the ferrous salt. Cyclopentadienyliron (II) arene cations are of great interest due to their utility as photoactivatable catalysts for a variety of polymerization reactions.

  20. Discovery and investigation of anticancer ruthenium-arene Schiff-base complexes via water-promoted combinatorial three-component assembly.

    PubMed

    Chow, Mun Juinn; Licona, Cynthia; Yuan Qiang Wong, Daniel; Pastorin, Giorgia; Gaiddon, Christian; Ang, Wee Han

    2014-07-24

    The structural diversity of metal scaffolds makes them a viable alternative to traditional organic scaffolds for drug design. Combinatorial chemistry and multicomponent reactions, coupled with high-throughput screening, are useful techniques in drug discovery, but they are rarely used in metal-based drug design. We report the optimization and validation of a new combinatorial, metal-based, three-component assembly reaction for the synthesis of a library of 442 Ru-arene Schiff-base (RAS) complexes. These RAS complexes were synthesized in a one-pot, on-a-plate format using commercially available starting materials under aqueous conditions. The library was screened for their anticancer activity, and several cytotoxic lead compounds were identified. In particular, [(η6-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene)RuCl(4-methoxy-N-(2-quinolinylmethylene)aniline)]Cl (4) displayed low micromolar IC50 values in ovarian cancers (A2780, A2780cisR), breast cancer (MCF7), and colorectal cancer (HCT116, SW480). The absence of p53 activation or changes in IC50 value between p53+/+ and p53-/- cells suggests that 4 and possibly the other lead compounds may act independently of the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in cancer. PMID:25023617

  1. Ruthenium− and Osmium−Arene Complexes of 2-Substituted Indolo[3,2-c]quinolines: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroscopic Properties, and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of new modified indolo[3,2-c]quinoline ligands L1−L8 with metal-binding sites is reported. By coordination to ruthenium− and osmium−arene moieties 16 complexes of the type [(η6-p-cymene)M(L)Cl]Cl (1a,b−8a,b), where M is RuII or OsII and L is L1−L8, have been prepared. All compounds were comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, IR, UV−vis, and NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (2a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 7a, and 7b). The complexes were tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, namely, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma), and A549 (non-small-cell lung cancer), yielding IC50 values in the submicromolar or low micromolar range. PMID:21253447

  2. Water-Soluble Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Chiral 4-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-formamide Oxoaporphine (FOA): In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity by Stabilization of G-Quadruplex DNA, Inhibition of Telomerase Activity, and Induction of Tumor Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Qi-Pin; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Nan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-06-11

    Three water-soluble ruthenium(II) complexes with chiral 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine (FOA) were synthesized and characterized. It was found that these ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited considerable in vitro anticancer activities and that they were the effective stabilizers of telomeric and G-quadruplex-DNA (G4-DNA) in promoter of c-myc, which acted as a telomerase inhibitor targeting G4-DNA and induced cell senescence and apoptosis. Interestingly, the in vitro anticancer activity of 6 (LC-003) was higher than those of 4 (LC-001) and 5 (LC-002), more selective for BEL-7404 cells than for normal HL-7702 cells, and preferred to activate caspases-3/9. The different biological behaviors of the ruthenium complexes could be correlated with the chiral nature of 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine. More significantly, 6 exhibited effective inhibitory on tumor growth in BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and higher in vivo safety than cisplatin. These mechanistic insights indicate that 6 displays low toxicity and can be a novel anticancer drug candidate. PMID:25988535

  3. Electrophilic arene hydroxylation and phenol O-H oxidations performed by an unsymmetric μ-η(1):η(1)-O2-peroxo dicopper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel

    2012-02-13

    Reactions of the unsymmetric dicopper(II) peroxide complex [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(m-XYL(N3N4))](2+) (1 O(2), where m-XYL is a heptadentate N-based ligand), with phenolates and phenols are described. Complex 1 O(2) reacts with p-X-PhONa (X = MeO, Cl, H, or Me) at -90 °C performing tyrosinase-like ortho-hydroxylation of the aromatic ring to afford the corresponding catechol products. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that reactions occur through initial reversible formation of metastable association complexes [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(p-X-PhO)(m-XYL(N3N4))](+) (1 O(2)⋅X-PhO) that then undergo ortho-hydroxylation of the aromatic ring by the peroxide moiety. Complex 1 O(2) also reacts with 4-X-substituted phenols p-X-PhOH (X = MeO, Me, F, H, or Cl) and with 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol at -90 °C causing rapid decay of 1 O(2) and affording biphenol coupling products, which is indicative that reactions occur through formation of phenoxyl radicals that then undergo radical C-C coupling. Spectroscopic UV/Vis monitoring and kinetic analysis show that reactions take place through reversible formation of ground-state association complexes [Cu(II)(2)(μ-η(1):η(1)-O(2))(X-PhOH)(m-XYL(N3N4))](2+) (1 O(2)⋅X-PhOH) that then evolve through an irreversible rate-determining step. Mechanistic studies indicate that 1 O(2) reacts with phenols through initial phenol binding to the Cu(2)O(2) core, followed by a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) at the rate-determining step. Results disclosed in this work provide experimental evidence that the unsymmetric 1 O(2) complex can mediate electrophilic arene hydroxylation and PCET reactions commonly associated with electrophilic Cu(2)O(2) cores, and strongly suggest that the ability to form substrate⋅Cu(2)O(2) association complexes may provide paths to overcome the inherent reactivity of the O(2)-binding mode. This work provides experimental evidence that the presence of a H(+) completely determines the

  4. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cottet, Kevin; Marcos, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described. PMID:22423288

  5. Electronic structure, molecular electrostatic potential and spectral characteristics of pillar[6]arene hosts and their complexes with n-octyltriethylammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Peerannawar, Swarada R; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2012-06-28

    Electronic structure, charge distribution and (1)H NMR in pillar[6]arene (P6) conformers, their diisobutoxy derivatives and their host-guest complexes have been investigated by employing the density functional theory. It has been shown that a P6 conformer obtained by flipping of alternate hydroquinone units turns out to be of lowest energy, owing to the hydrogen bonded network at both rims of the host. As opposed to this, a conformer void of hydrogen bonding interactions has largely been destabilized. The O-HO interactions are analyzed using molecular electrostatic potential topography as a tool. Modification of a P6 host by substituting a diisobutoxy group at reactive phenols (DIBP6) renders rigid pillar-shape architecture to the host in which electron-rich regions are localized within the cavity and near portals. Complexation of n-octyltriethylammonium ions (n-OTEA) with P6 and DIBP6 reveals qualitatively different binding patterns. It has been shown that the conformer in which n-OTEA penetrates from the lower rim of the host and partially encapsulates within the P6 cavity turns out to be 1.4 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the complex showing complete guest encapsulation. Host-guest binding patterns, viz. encapsulation or portal interactions, can be distinguished from (1)H NMR chemical shifts. The shielding of ethyl and n-octyl chain protons in an n-OTEA⊂DIBP6 complex points to encapsulation of the guest which has been rationalized from natural bond orbital analyses. These inferences are in consonance with (1)H NMR experiments. PMID:22596047

  6. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing N(4)-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and phosphine ligands: NMR and electrochemical studies of cis- trans isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graminha, Angelica E.; Batista, Alzir A.; Ellena, Javier; Castellano, Eduardo E.; Teixeira, Letícia R.; Mendes, Isolda C.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2008-03-01

    [Ru(HL)(PPh 3) 2Cl]Cl complexes have been obtained in which HL = N(4)- ortho (complex 1), N(4)- meta (complex 2) and N(4)- para-tolyl 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (complex 3). NMR and electrochemical studies indicate that both cis and trans isomers exist in solution, and that the cis isomers are converted into the trans isomers with time. Crystal structure determination of ( 1) reveals that the trans isomer is formed in the solid state.

  7. DNA-binding, photocleavage studies of ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-(2-quinolinyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Chen, Zhen-gan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Lu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Da-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes with [Ru(L)2(qip)]2+ (L = bpy (2,2'- bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline); qip = 2-(2-quinolinyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR. The binding properties of two complexes towards CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experiment results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Strong quenching in emission intensity of two Ru(II) complexes were observed upon addition of Ag+ in the absence and presence of CT-DNA. Furthermore, the two complexes can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA under irradiation at 365 nm, and complex 2 exhibits a stronger DNA-photocleavage efficiency than complex 1. The mechanism of DNA cleavage suggests that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent.

  8. Piling Up Pillar[5]arenes To Self-Assemble Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nierengarten, Iwona; Guerra, Sebastiano; Ben Aziza, Haifa; Holler, Michel; Abidi, Rym; Barberá, Joaquín; Deschenaux, Robert; Nierengarten, Jean-François

    2016-04-25

    New liquid-crystalline pillar[5]arene derivatives have been prepared by grafting first-generation Percec-type poly(benzylether) dendrons onto the macrocyclic scaffold. The molecules adopt a disc-shaped structure perfectly suited for self-organization into a columnar liquid-crystalline phase. In this way, the pillar[5]arene cores are piled up, thus forming a nanotubular wire encased within a shell of peripheral dendrons. The capability of pillar[5]arenes to form inclusion complexes has been also exploited. Specifically, detailed binding studies have been carried out in solution with 1,6-dicyanohexane as the guest. Inclusion complexes have also been prepared in the solid state. Supramolecular organization into the Colh mesophase has been deduced from X-ray diffraction data and found to be similar to that observed within the crystal lattice of a model inclusion complex prepared from 1,4-dimethoxypillar[5]arene and 1,6-dicyanohexane. PMID:26888329

  9. Physicochemical properties and theoretical modeling of actinide complexes with a para-tert-Butylcalix[6]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendants. Extraction capability of the calixarene toward f elements.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Flor de María; Varbanov, Sabi; Padilla, Juan; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2008-09-01

    The coordination ability of the hexaphosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene B6bL6 toward actinides is established, as well as its good separation ability of the actinide ions UO2 2+ and Th(IV) over trivalent rare earths such as La(III), Eu(III), and Y(III). Spectrophotometric titration of uranyl with B6bL6 in CH 3CN yields log beta 11 = 7.1 and log beta 12 = 12.5 for the 1:1 and 1:2 (UO2 2+/B 6bL6) species, respectively. Actinide complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 (M/L) stoichiometries are isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-vis. Compounds 1 and 3 fulfill their CN = 8 just with B 6bL (6), while compounds 2 and 4 require coordinated nitrates and/or water molecules. The luminescence spectra of the uranyl complexes and the parameters such as FWMH, vibronic spacing (upsilon sp), and the U-O bond length, as well as the luminescence lifetimes, permit the understanding of the coordination chemistry of these actinide calixarene complexes. Energy transfer from the B6bL6 ligand to the uranyl ion is demonstrated to be relevant in compound 1 with Q abs = 2.0%. The uranyl complex emission reveals a biexponential decay with tau s from 210 to 220 micros and tau L from 490 to 650 micros for compounds 1 and 3, respectively. The liquid-liquid extraction results demonstrate the good extraction capability of B 6bL (6) toward actinides but not for rare earths at room temperature. The extracted species keeps the 1(cation)/1(calixarene) ratio for the UO2 2+, Th 4+, and Eu 3+ ions. A good capacity of B6bL 6 toward Th4+ ions using aqueous phase 2 containing even up to 0.3 M thorium nitrate and an organic phase of 2.47 x 10 (-4) M B6bL6 in chloroform is found. The spectroscopic properties of the isolated uranyl complexes and the extraction studies reveal a uranophilic nature of B6bL6. The molecular modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:18686994

  10. Arene-metal-carborane triple-decker sandwiches. Designed synthesis of homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of cobalt, iron, ruthenium, and osmium

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.H. Jr.; Sinn, E.; Grimes, R.N. )

    1989-06-21

    This paper describes the systematic preparation and characterization of new families of triple-decker sandwich complexes incorporating formal cyclo-Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} bridging ligands, including the first species of this class containing second- or third-row transition metals. Complexes of general formula (L)M(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 3})M{prime}(L) (M = Ru, Os; M{prime} = Co, Ru; L = cymene (p-isopropyltoluene), Cp, or C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}) were obtained in stepwise fashion via (1) synthesis of closo-(L)M(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 4}H{sub 4}) metallacarboranes, (2) decapitation (apex BH removal) of these complexes to give nido-(L)M(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 5}), (3) bridge deprotonation to form the corresponding mono- or dianion, and (4) reaction of the anion with an arene metal halide to generate the desired triple-decker compound. In addition, the cobalt-iron triple-decker CpCo(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 3})FeCp was prepared via treatment of ({eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 8}H{sub 10})Fe(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 4}){sup {minus}} with Na{sup +}Cp{sup {minus}} and CoCl{sub 2} followed by air oxidation. The reaction of (CO){sub 3}RuCl{sub 2} with (C{sub 5}me{sub 5})Co(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 3}){sup 2{minus}} gave the pseudo-triple-decker complex (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co(Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 3})Ru(CO){sub 3}. The triple-deckers, especially those containing osmium, are susceptible to chlorination by RuCl{sub 3}, OsCl{sub 3}, or dichloromethane, forming exclusively the 4-chloro derivatives. All of the characterized triple-decker complexes are air-stable crystalline solids (except for the osmium-ruthenium species, which are air sensitive) and have been structurally characterized from their {sup 11}B and {sup 1}H NMR, infrared, visible-UV, and unit- and high-resolution mass spectra.

  11. Interaction of a dinuclear fluorescent Cd(II) complex of calix[4]arene conjugate with phosphates and its applicability in cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasu Mummidivarapu, V V; Hinge, Vijaya Kumar; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2015-01-21

    A triazole-linked hydroxyethylimino conjugate of calix[4]arene () and its cadmium complex have been synthesized and characterized, and their structures have been established. In the complex, both the Cd(2+) centers are bound by an N2O4 core, and one of it is a distorted octahedral, whereas the other is a trigonal anti-prism. The fluorescence intensity of the di-nuclear Cd(ii) complex is quenched only in the presence of phosphates and not with other anions studied owing to their binding affinities and the nature of the interaction of the phosphates with Cd(2+). These are evident even from their absorption spectra. Different phosphates exhibit changes in both their fluorescence as well as absorption spectra to varying extents, suggesting their differential interactions. Among the six phosphates, H2PO4(-) has higher fluorescence quenching even at low equivalents of this ion, whereas P2O7(4-) shows only 50% quenching even at 10 equivalents. The fluorescence quenching is considerable even at 20 ppb (0.2 μM) of H2PO4(-), whereas all other phosphates require a concentration of 50-580 ppb to exhibit the same effect on fluorescence spectra. Thus, the interaction of H2PO4(-) is more effective by ∼30 fold as compared to that of P2O7(4-). Fluorescence quenching by phosphate is due to the release of from its original cadmium complex via the formation of a ternary species followed by the capture of Cd(2+) by the phosphate, as delineated based on the combination of spectral techniques, such as absorption, emission, (1)H NMR and ESI MS. The relative interactive abilities of the six phosphates differ from each other. The removal of Cd(2+) is demonstrated to be reversible by the repeated addition of the phosphate followed by Cd(2+). The characteristics of the ternary species formed in each of these six phosphates have been computationally modeled using molecular mechanics. The computational study revealed that the coordination between cadmium and -CH2-CH2-OH breaks and new

  12. Luminescent ruthenium(II) bipyridyl-phosphonic acid complexes: pH dependent photophysical behavior and quenching with divalent metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Montalti, M.; Wadhwa, S.; Kim, W.Y.; Kipp, R.A.; Schmehl, R.H.

    2000-01-10

    The synthesis, redox behavior, and photophysical properties of a series of Ru(II) bipyridyl complexes having diimine ligands with phosphonate and phosphonic acid substituents are presented. The phosphonate-containing ligands examined include diethyl 4-(2,2{prime}-bipyrid-4-yl)benzylphosphonate (bpbzp), diethyl 4(2,2{prime}-bipyrid-4-yl)-phenylphosphonate (bppp), and 4,4{prime}-(diethyl phosphonato)-2,2{prime}bipyridine (bpdp), and the [(bpy){sub 2}Ru(L)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} complexes of both the diethyl phosphonate and the phosphonic acid were prepared. The Ru(III/II) potentials are more positive for the phosphonate complexes than for the phosphonic acids, and the first reduction is localized on the phosphonate-containing ligand for the bppp and bpdp complexes. The first reduction of the phosphonic acid complexes is at more negative potentials and cannot be distinguished from bpy reduction. For the bppp and bpdp complexes luminescence arises from a Ru(d{pi}) {r{underscore}arrow} bpy-phosphonate ({pi}*) MLCT state; the phosphonic acid complexes luminesce at higher energies from a MLCT state not clearly isolated on one ligand. Iron(III) and copper(II) complex with and very efficiently quench the luminescence of all the phosphonic acid complexes in nonaqueous solvents. The quenching mechanism is discussed on the basis of luminescence decay and picosecond transient absorption measurements.

  13. Ruthenium(II) complexes of 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione: Cytotoxicity against tumor cells and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity enhanced upon combination with benznidazole.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rodrigo S; da Silva, Monize M; Graminha, Angelica E; Meira, Cássio S; Santos, Jamyle A F Dos; Moreira, Diogo R M; Soares, Milena B P; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Castellano, Eduardo E; Bloch, Carlos; Cominetti, Marcia R; Batista, Alzir A

    2016-03-01

    Three new mixed and mononuclear Ru(II) complexes containing 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione (tzdtH) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic analysis, molar conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra and X-ray diffraction. The complexes presented unique stereochemistry and the proposed formulae are: [Ru(tzdt)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (1), cis-[Ru(tzdt)2(PPh3)2] (2) and trans-[Ru(tzdt)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 (3), where dppb=1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane and bipy=2,2'-bipyridine. These complexes demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines when compared to cisplatin. Specifically, complex 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against MCF-7 breast cells, while complexes 1 and 3 were more active in DU-145 prostate cells. Binding of complexes to ctDNA was determined by UV-vis titration and viscosity measurements and revealed binding constant (Kb) values in range of 1.0-4.9×10(3)M(-1), which are characteristic of compounds possessing weak affinity to ctDNA. In addition, these complexes presented antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Specifically, complex 3 demonstrated strong potency, moderate selectivity index and acted in synergism with the approved antiparasitic drug, benznidazole. Additionally, complex 3 caused parasite cell death through a necrotic process. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Ru(II) complexes have powerful pharmacological activity, while the metal-free tzdtH does not provoke the same outcome. PMID:26795676

  14. Ruthenium(II) Complexes with 2-Phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives that Strongly Combat Cisplatin-Resistant Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiangping; Huang, Huaiyi; Guan, Ruilin; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin was the first metal-based therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of human cancers, but its clinical activity is greatly limited by tumor drug resistance. This work utilized the parent complex [Ru(phen)2(PIP)]2+ (1) to develop three Ru(II) complexes (2–4) with different positional modifications. These compounds exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin in HeLa, A549 and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Complex 4, the most potent member of the series, was highly active against A549R cancer cells (IC50 = 0.8 μM). This complex exhibited 178-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 142.5 μM) in A549R cells. 3D multicellular A549R tumor spheroids were also used to confirm the high proliferative and cytotoxic activity of complex 4. Complex 4 had the greatest cellular uptake and had a tendency to accumulate in the mitochondria of A549R cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that complex 4 induced A549R cell apoptosis via inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), elevated intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest, making it an outstanding candidate for overcoming cisplatin resistance. PMID:26763798

  15. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael, Jr.; Canisius Mbarushimana, P.; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-04-01

    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[ d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine) 2Ru(TSC)](PF 6) 2 (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 10 4 M -1. They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 10 4 M -1. The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC 50 values range from 7 to 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC 50 values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II.

  16. Towards targeting anticancer drugs: ruthenium(ii)-arene complexes with biologically active naphthoquinone-derived ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Kubanik, Mario; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Kim, Kunwoo; Anderson, Robert F; Klapproth, Erik; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Söhnel, Tilo; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-08-16

    Anticancer active metal complexes with biologically active ligands have the potential to interact with more than one biological target, which could help to overcome acquired and/or intrinsic resistance of tumors to small molecule drugs. In this paper we present the preparation of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]-naphthoquinone-derived ligands and their coordination to a Ru(II)(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl moiety. The synthesis of oxime derivatives resulted in the surprising formation of nitroso-naphthalene complexes, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds were shown to be stable in aqueous solution but reacted with glutathione and ascorbic acid rather than undergoing reduction. One-electron reduction with pulse radiolysis revealed different behavior for the naphthoquinone and nitroso-naphthalene complexes, which was also observed in in vitro anticancer assays. PMID:27214822

  17. New bipyridyl/phenanthroline ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(III) complexes possessing acetate appended thioether. Evidence for oxidative linkage isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Rajeev

    2006-03-01

    The acetate bearing dithioether, sodium di(2-carboxymethylsufanyl)maleonitrile, L 1 upon reaction with [Ru II(bpy) 2Cl 2]·2H 2O, [Ru II(phen) 2Cl 2]·2H 2O, [Ru III(bpy) 2Cl 2] + or [Ru III(phen) 2Cl 2] + in methanol formed complexes of the type [(bpy) 2Ru{S 2(CH 2COO) 2C 2(CN) 2}], ( 1), [(phen) 2Ru{S 2(CH 2COO) 2C 2(CN) 2}], ( 2), [(bpy) 2Ru{(OOCCH 2) 2S 2C 2(CN) 2}] +, ( 5) and [(phen) 2Ru{(OOCCH 2) 2S 2C 2(CN) 2}] +, ( 6) respectively. Four other Ru(III) complexes with di(benzylsulfanyl)maleonitrile, L 2, [(bpy) 2Ru{S 2(PhCH 2)C 2(CN) 2}] 3+, ( 7) and [(phen) 2Ru{S 2(PhCH 2) 2C 2(CN) 2}] 3+, ( 8), and with acetate, [(bpy) 2Ru(OOCCH 3) 2] +, ( 9) and [(phen) 2Ru(OOCCH 3) 2] +, ( 10) were also synthesized. In the cyclic voltammetry, complexes ( 1) and ( 2) exhibited quasireversible oxidation waves at 1.01 and 1.02 V vs. Ag/AgCl over GC electrode in DMF, while the corresponding Ru(III) L 1 complexes ( 5) and ( 6) exhibit reversible oxidation at E1/2 0.59 and 0.58 V, respectively, under identical conditions. This is unlike the voltammetric behavior of the Ru(II) and Ru(III) L 2 complexes, wherein the complex pairs ( 3), ( 7) and ( 4), ( 8) exhibited identical voltammograms with single reversible one electron waves at E1/2 0.98 and 0.92 V, respectively under identical conditions. The voltammograms of Ru(II)-L 2 complexes (3) and (4) also became irreversible in presence of nearly four molar equivalent of sodium acetate. Hence, the irreversible redox behavior of complexes (1) and (2) has been interpreted in terms of rapid linkage isomerization, i.e. shift in κ 2-S,S' to κ 2-O,O' coordination, following the Ru(II)/Ru(III) electrode process. The electronic spectra of Ru(III)-L 1 complexes ( 5) and ( 6) resemble closely with that of ( 9) and ( 10) instead of Ru(III)-L 2 complexes ( 7) and ( 8), further supports proposed linkage isomerization. The cationic complexes were obtained as [PF 6] - salts and all compounds were characterized using analytical and spectral (IR

  18. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-03-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1-500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells.

  19. DNA Binding and Photocleavage Properties, Cellular Uptake and Localization, and in-Vitro Cytotoxicity of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Varying Lengths in Bridging Alkyl Linkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Bao-Yan; Liu, Jin; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Wang, You-Jun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    Two new dinuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes containing three and ten methylene chains in their bridging linkers are synthesized and characterized. Their calf thymus DNA-binding and plasmid DNA photocleavage behaviors are comparatively studied with a previously reported, six-methylene-containing analog by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA viscosity measurements, DNA thermal denaturation, and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. Theoretical calculations applying the density functional theory (DFT) method for the three complexes are also performed to understand experimentally observed DNA binding properties. The results show that the two complexes partially intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. Cellular uptake and colocalization studies have demonstrated that the complexes could enter HeLa cells efficiently and localize within lysosomes. The in-vitro antitumor activity against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cells of the complexes are studied by MTT cytotoxic analysis. A new method, high-content analysis (HCA), is also used to assess cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of the three complexes. The results show that the lengths of the alkyl linkers could effectively tune their biological properties and that HCA is suitable for rapidly identifying cytotoxicity and can be substituted for MTT assays to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26811966

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand diimine-piperonal thiosemicarbazone complexes of ruthenium(II): Biophysical investigations and biological evaluation as anticancer and antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Thessing, Jeffrey; Shaloski, Michael; Mbarushimana, P. Canisius; Brock, Alyssa; Didion, Jacob; Woods, Jason; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories to synthesize a series of ruthenium-thiosemicarbazone complexes. The new thiosemicarbazone ligands are derived from benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbaldehyde (piperonal) and the complexes are formulated as [(diimine)2Ru(TSC)](PF6)2 (where the TSC is the bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand). The diimine in the complexes is either 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. The complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic means (NMR, IR and UV-Vis) as well as by elemental analysis. We have studied the biophysical characteristics of the complexes by investigating their anti-oxidant ability as well as their ability to disrupt the function of the human topoisomerase II enzyme. The complexes are moderately strong binders of DNA with binding constants of 104 M−1. They are also strong binders of human serum albumin having binding constants on the order of 104 M−1. The complexes show good in vitro anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HCT-116 and indeed show some cytotoxic selectivity for cancer cells. The IC50 values range from 7 – 159 μM (after 72 h drug incubation). They also have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains of pathogenic bacteria with IC50 values as low as 10 μM; little activity was seen against Gram-negative strains. It has been established that all the compounds are catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II. PMID:21552381

  1. Mononuclear and Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing 2,2'-Bipyridine or 1,10-Phenanthroline and Pyrazole-3,5-Bis(benzimidazole). Synthesis, Structure, Isomerism, Spectroscopy, and Proton-Coupled Redox Activity.

    PubMed

    Baitalik, Sujoy; Flörke, Ulrich; Nag, Kamalaksha

    1999-07-12

    A number of mixed-ligand mononuclear and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(3)pzbzim)](ClO(4))(2).2H(2)O (1), [(phen)(2)Ru(H(3)pzbzim)](ClO(4))(2).3H(2)O (2), [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(bpy)(2)](ClO(4))(3).5H(2)O (3), [(phen)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4))(3).4H(2)O (4), [(bpy)(2)Ru(H(2)pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4))(3).4H(2)O (5), [(bpy)(2)Ru(pzbzim)Ru(bpy)(2)](ClO(4)).3H(2)O (6), and [(phen)(2)Ru(pzbzim)Ru(phen)(2)](ClO(4)).2H(2)O (7), where H(3)pzbzim = pyrazole-3,5-bis(benzimidazole), bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, have been prepared and characterized. Complexes 3-5 isolated as mixtures of diastereoisomers have been separated by fractional recrystallization. In the cases of 3 and 4, the meso (LambdaDelta) and racemate (rac) (LambdaLambda, DeltaDelta) forms, and for 5, two enantiomeric pairs [(LambdaDelta, DeltaLambda) and (LambdaLambda, DeltaDelta)] have been obtained. These, as well as the meso and rac diastereoisomers of 6, have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the meso (LambdaDelta) form of 3 (C(57)H(53)N(14)Cl(3)O(17)Ru(2)) has been determined, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 11.672(2) Å, b = 41.696(9) Å, c = 12.871(2) Å, beta = 90.03(2)(o), and Z = 4. The acid-base and redox chemistry of the binuclear complexes has been studied over the pH range 1-12 in acetonitrile-water (3:2) medium. The equilibrium constants of the species involving protonation and deprotonation of the benzimidazole NH protons and the metal oxidation states covering +2 and +3 have been evaluated by spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric measurements. During spectrophotometric titrations of the complexes with cerium(IV), the metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions are replaced by the newly generated ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition. The luminescence spectra of the complexes in solution (at 298 K) and in frozen glass (at 77 K) and

  2. A ruthenium(ii) based photosensitizer and transferrin complexes enhance photo-physical properties, cell uptake, and photodynamic therapy safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kaspler, Pavel; Lazic, Savo; Forward, Sarah; Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    Metal-based photosensitizers are of interest as their absorption and chemical binding properties can be modified via the use of different ligands. Ru(2+) based photosensitizers are known to be effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents against bacteria, whereas use for oncological indications in vivo has not been demonstrated with the same level of evidence. We present data showing that premixing the Ru(2+)-complex TLD1433 with transferrin increases the molar extinction coefficient, including longer activation wavelengths, reduces photobleaching rates, and reduces the toxicity of the complex improving overall PDT efficacy. As the transferrin receptor is upregulated in most malignancies, premixing the Ru(2+) complex with transferrin converts the active pharmaceutical ingredient TLD1433 into a drug of potentially considerable clinical utility. PMID:26947517

  3. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) vinyl complexes as highly sensitive and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic probes for the sensing of carbon monoxide in air.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Anita; Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Moragues, María E; Sancenón, Félix; Dingwall, Paul; Brown, Neil J; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; White, Andrew J P; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2015-10-01

    The detection of carbon monoxide in solution and air has been achieved using simple, inexpensive systems based on the vinyl complexes [M(CHCHR)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3 )2 ] (R=aryl, BTD=2,1,3-benzothiadiazole). Depending on the nature of the vinyl group, chromogenic and fluorogenic responses signalled the presence of this odourless, tasteless, invisible, and toxic gas. Solutions of the complexes in CHCl3 underwent rapid change between easily differentiated colours when exposed to air samples containing CO. More significantly, the adsorption of the complexes on silica produced colorimetric probes for the naked-eye detection of CO in the gas phase. Structural data for key species before and after the addition of CO were obtained by means of single X-ray diffraction studies. In all cases, the ruthenium and osmium vinyl complexes studied showed a highly selective response to CO with exceptionally low detection limits. Naked-eye detection of CO at concentrations as low as 5 ppb in air was achieved with the onset of toxic levels (i.e., 100 ppm), thus resulting in a remarkably clear colour change. Moreover, complexes bearing pyrenyl, naphthyl, and phenanthrenyl moieties were fluorescent, and greater sensitivities were achieved (through turn-on emission fluorescence) in the presence of CO both in solution and air. This behaviour was explored computationally using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) experiments. In addition, the systems were shown to be selective for CO over all other gases tested, including water vapour and common organic solvents. Supporting the metal complexes on cellulose strips for use in an existing optoelectronic device allows numerical readings for the CO concentration to be obtained and provision of an alarm system. PMID:26270512

  4. Proton-induced reversible modulation of the luminescent output of rhenium(I), iridium(III), and ruthenium(II) tetrazolate complexes.

    PubMed

    Werrett, Melissa V; Muzzioli, Sara; Wright, Phillip J; Palazzi, Antonio; Raiteri, Paolo; Zacchini, Stefano; Massi, Massimiliano; Stagni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    One of the distinct features of metal-tetrazolate complexes is the possibility of performing electrophilic additions onto the imine-type nitrogens of the coordinated five-membered ring. These reactions, in particular, provide a useful tool for varying the main structural and electronic properties of the starting tetrazolate complexes. In this paper, we demonstrate how the use of a simple protonation-deprotonation protocol enables us to reversibly change, to a significant extent, the light-emission output and performance of a series of Re(I)-tetrazolate-based phosphors of the general formulation fac-[Re(N(∧)N)(CO)3L], where N(∧)N denotes diimine-type ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and L represents a series of different 5-aryl tetrazolates. Indeed, upon addition of triflic acid to these neutral Re(I) complexes, a consistent blue shift (Δλmax ca. 50 nm) of the emission maximum is observed and the protonated species also display increased quantum yield values (4-13 times greater than the starting compounds) and longer decay lifetimes. This alteration can be reversed to the initial condition by further treating the protonated Re(I) complex with a base such as triethylamine. Interestingly, the reversible modulation of luminescent features by the same protonation-deprotonation mechanism appears as a quite general characteristic of photoactive metal tetrazolate complexes, even for compounds in which the 2-pyridyl tetrazolate ligands coordinate the metal center with a bidentate mode, such as the corresponding Ir(III) cyclometalates [Ir(C(∧)N)2L] and the Ru(II) polypyridyl derivatives [Ru(bpy)2L](+). In these cases, the protonation of the starting materials leads to red-shifted and more intense emissions for the Ir(III) complexes, while almost complete quenching is observed in the case of the Ru(II) analogues. PMID:24354312

  5. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing 2-pyridineformamide- and 2-benzoylpyridine-derived thiosemicarbazones and PPh 3: NMR and electrochemical studies of cis- trans-isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graminha, Angelica E.; Batista, Alzir A.; Mendes, Isolda C.; Teixeira, Letícia R.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2008-04-01

    [RuCl(L)(PPh 3) 2] complexes with 2-benzoylpyridine- and 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones (HL) were obtained and fully characterized. The complexes form cis- trans isomers. The cis isomer is disfavored by the sterical effect of two bulky groups close to each other whereas the trans isomer is disfavored by the electronic effect of competition of two phosphorous for π-bonding d orbitals of the metal. Our results suggest that, although both factors may be operating simultaneously, in CH 2Cl 2 solution the balance of these counterpoising effects favors the formation of the trans isomer.

  6. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  7. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 ± 1.4) × 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  8. Evidence for static localization in the lowest optically excited states of ruthenium(II) diimine complexes: a solvent- and time-dependent photoselection study at 77 K

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, M.L.; Blakley, R.L.; DeArmond, M.K.; Arthur, M.L.

    1988-03-02

    The 77 K absorption, emission, steady-state excitation photoselection (SSExP), and time-resolved excitation photoselection (TRExP) results are reported for 11 (Ru(L)/sub 3/)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ complexes with 2,2'-diimine ligands (L). The ligands are 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,2'-bipyrazine (bpz), 2-(2-pyridyl)quinoline (pq), and 2,2'-biquinoline (biq). Complexes of the form (Ru(L)/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/ (L = bpy, phen, bpz, pq, and biq) were examined as well as mixed-ligand complexes of the form (Ru(bpy)/sub n/(L)/sub 3-n/)/sup 2 +/ (n = 1, 2) (L = phen, bpz, and pq). Data are also presented for the monomeric model complex, (Ru(bpy)(py)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/ (py = pyridine). Data indicate that optical excitation leads to static localization of the optically excited electron. A model is developed that rationalizes the maximum value obtainable in the SSExP data. Solvent effects observed in the TRExP data are explained in terms of relative rates of spin-lattice relaxation associated with different solvents.

  9. Monometallic osmium(II) complexes with bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)benzene or -pyridine: a comparison study with ruthenium(II) analogues.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiang-Yang; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2013-06-01

    Seven bis-tridentate osmium complexes with Mebib or Mebip (Mebib is the 2-deprotonated form of 1,3-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)benzene and Mebip is bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyridine) have been prepared, and their electrochemical and spectroscopic properties are compared with ruthenium structural analogues. Among them, four complexes have the [Os(NCN)(NNN)]-type coordination, including [Os(Mebib)(Mebip)](PF6)2 (1(PF6)2), [Os(dpb)(Mebip)](PF6) (2(PF6), dpb is the 2-deprotonated form of 1,3-di(pyrid-2-yl)benzene), [Os(Mebib)(ttpy)](PF6) (3(PF6), ttpy = 4'-tolyl-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), and [Os(dpb)(ttpy)](PF6) (4(PF6)). The other three complexes are [Os(Mebip)2](PF6)2 (5(PF6)2), [Os(Mebip)(tpy)](PF6)2 (6(PF6)2, tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), and [Os(ttpy)2](PF6)2 (7(PF6)2) with the [Os(NNN)(NNN)]-type coordination. Single crystals of 2(PF6) and 6(PF6)2 have been obtained, and their structures are studied by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The Os(II/III) redox potentials of 1(PF6)2 to 7(PF6)2 progressively increase from +0.04, +0.23, +0.24, +0.36, +0.56, +0.79 to +0.94 V vs Ag/AgCl, which are 200-300 mV less positive relative to the Ru(II/III) potentials of their ruthenium counterparts. The highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of 1(+)-7(2+) are calculated to vary in a descending order. The ruthenium and osmium complexes have singlet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions of similar energies and band shapes, while the osmium complexes display additional (3)MLCT transitions in the lower-energy region. Complexes 6(PF6)2 and 7(PF6)2 emit weakly at 780 and 740 nm, respectively. Complex 1(PF6)2 was synthesized as the oxidized Os(III) salt because of the low Os(II/III) potential. The transformation of 1(2+) to 1(+) by chemical reduction or electrolysis led to the emergence of the (1)MLCT transitions in the visible region. PMID:23688019

  10. Temperature and viscosity dependence of the electron-transfer reaction between plastocyanin and cytochrome c labeled with a ruthenium(II) bipyridine complex.

    PubMed

    Harris, M R; Davis, D J; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1997-04-11

    The temperature and viscosity dependence of the photo-induced electron-transfer reaction between plastocyanin and cytochrome c labeled at Lys13 with Ru(4,4'-dicarboxybipyridine)(bipyridine)(2+)2 have been investigated. In these studies, a short pulse of 450 nm light was used to excite the ruthenium complex which was oxidatively quenched by the iron center of cytochrome c. The resulting Fe(II) cytochrome c was then rapidly reoxidized by plastocyanin. The reactions were investigated over a temperature range of 3.5 to 37 degrees C under low ionic strength conditions such that protein/protein complex formation was favored. The enthalpy of activation was 7 kcal mol-1 and the entropy of activation was -20 cal mol-1 K-1. Increasing the viscosity by the addition of sucrose up to 70% resulted in a 4-fold decrease in the rate constant for electron transfer. The overall results suggest a rate-limiting step that involves either dissociation of the dominant protein/protein complex or surface diffusion of the associated proteins. PMID:9131042