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Sample records for rutin

  1. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Jin; Lee, Sung-Nae; Kim, Karam; Joo, Da Hye; Shin, Shanghun; Lee, Jeongju; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jihyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; Kim, Min Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2016-07-01

    Rutin, a quercetin glycoside is a member of the bioflavonoid family which is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the anti‑aging effects of rutin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human skin. We examined the effects of rutin using a cell viability assay, senescence-associated-β-galactosidase assay, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in vitro. To examine the effects of rutin in vivo, rutin‑containing cream was applied to human skin. A double-blind clinical study was conducted in 40 subjects aged between 30-50 years and divided into control and experimental groups. The test material was applied for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks, dermal density, skin elasticity, the length and area of crow's feet, and number of under-eye wrinkles following the application of either the control or the rutin-containing cream were analyzed. Rutin increased the mRNA expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and decreased the mRNA expression of matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) in HDFs. We verified that ROS scavenging activity was stimulated by rutin in a dose‑dependent manner and we identified that rutin exerted protective effects under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, rutin increased skin elasticity and decreased the length, area and number of wrinkles. The consequences of human aging are primarily visible on the skin, such as increased wrinkling, sagging and decreased elasticity. Overall, this study demonstrated the biological effects of rutin on ROS-induced skin aging. PMID:27220601

  2. Absorption and Metabolism Characteristics of Rutin in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Song, Jinhui; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal absorption and metabolism characteristics of the potentially beneficial polyphenol rutin were studied by measuring the intracellular accumulation and transport of rutin into Caco-2 cells with the sensitive and reliable analytical method of HPLC-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Rutin and glucuronidated rutin were absorbed differently by the basolateral and apical membranes, and rutin showed differential permeability through the apical and basolateral sides. Approximately 33% of the rutin was metabolized to glucuronidated rutin, and the intracellular concentration of glucuronidated rutin was much lower than that of parent rutin. P-glycoprotein and multidrug-resistant proteins 2 and 3 were involved in the transmembrane transport and intracellular accumulation of rutin by Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that a specific transport system mediates rutin movement across the apical membrane in Caco-2 cells and that metabolic enzymes are important for this process. PMID:24198722

  3. Rutin ameliorates kidney interstitial fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Ding; Zhu, Qiu-Hua; Li, Min; Chen, Hua; Guo, Ying; Fan, Li-Pei; Yue, Liang-Sheng; Li, Liu-Yang; Zhao, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Rutin reportedly conveys many beneficial effects, including renoprotection; however, it has not yet been demonstrated to have a renoprotective effect against obstructive nephropathy. The present study is the first to show a protective effect of rutin against obstructive renal injury induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each, including vehicle- or rutin-treated sham operated groups, and vehicle- or rutin-treated UUO groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of rutin (100mg/kg) for 2weeks. All rats were euthanized on postoperative day 14. Histological findings showed that rutin administration significantly reduced renal interstitial injury and suppressed interstitial collagen deposits in UUO rats. Moreover, rutin decreased macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory cytokine expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65. Furthermore, rutin inhibited extracellular matrix accumulation by reducing expression of type I/III collagen and fibronectin. Rutin also prevented the epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes of renal tubular cells by decreasing α-smooth muscle actin expression and retaining E-cadherin expression. These effects of rutin were in parallel with the reductions in Smad3 activity and pivotal to the fibrogenic potential of TGF-β1. Taken together, the renoprotective effects of rutin in obstructive nephropathy were likely due to anti-inflammatory effects and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27035719

  4. Effects of rutin on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rutin is an important flavonoid that is consumed in the daily diet. The cytoprotective effects of rutin, including antioxidative, and neuroprotective have been shown in several studies. Neurotoxic effects of acrylamide (ACR) have been established in humans and animals. In this study, the protective effects of rutin in prevention and treatment of neural toxicity of ACR were studied. Results Rutin significantly reduced cell death induced by ACR (5.46 mM) in time- and dose-dependent manners. Rutin treatment decreased the ACR-induced cytotoxicity significantly in comparison to control (P <0.01, P < 0.001). Rutin (100 and 200 mg/kg) could prevent decrease of body weight in rats. In combination treatments with rutin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), vitamin E (200 mg/kg) and ACR, gait abnormalities significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). The level of malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the brain tissue of rats in both preventive and therapeutic groups that received rutin (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion It seems that rutin could be effective in reducing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of it might be mediated via antioxidant activity. PMID:24524427

  5. Computational molecular characterization of the flavonoid rutin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we make use of a model chemistry within Density Functional Theory (DFT) recently presented, which is called M05-2X, to calculate the molecular structure of the flavonoid Rutin, as well as to predict the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV-Vis) spectra, the dipole moment and polarizability, the free energy of solvation in different solvents as an indication of solubility, the HOMO and LUMO orbitals, and the chemical reactivity parameters that arise from Conceptual DFT. The calculated values are compared with the available experimental data for this molecule as a means of validation of the used model chemistry. PMID:20569488

  6. Rutin and total quercetin content in amaranth (Amaranthus spp.).

    PubMed

    Kalinova, Jana; Dadakova, Eva

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to confirm the presence of rutin, one of the most common quercetin glycosides, and other quercetin derivatives in plants of genus Amaranthus, to investigate the influence of the species and variety on rutin distribution in the plant and content changes during growing season. The rutin content was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in individual plant parts at the beginning of the growth, at the flowering stage and at the maturity stage of five Amaranthus species. The total quercetin content was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography too. The rutin content in amaranth ranged from 0.08 (in seeds) to 24.5 g/kg dry matter (in leaves). Comparison of the determined total quercetin content and the calculated content of quercetin released from rutin did not prove important presence of quercetin or other quercetin derivatives than rutin. Only amaranth leaves sampled at the maturity stage probably contained quercetin or quercetin derivatives. Significant differences in the rutin content were established among species and as well varieties. Amaranthus hybrid and A. cruentus were the best sources of rutin. PMID:19067170

  7. Spectroscopic study on binding of rutin to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, Alexander V.; Levchenko, Lidiya A.; Sadkov, Anatoli P.

    2007-10-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques were used to study the interaction of the flavonoid rutin with human serum albumin (HSA) as well as spectral properties of the protein-bound flavonoid. Both quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein (Trp214) and the ligand fluorescence, appearing upon complexation with HSA, were used to determine binding parameters. The binding constant determined from the quenching of the Trp214 fluorescence by rutin is equal to 6.87 ± 0.22 × 10 4 M -1 and that obtained from the fluorescence of HSA-bound rutin is 3.8 ± 0.4 × 10 4 M -1. Based on the Job plot analysis, the 1:1 binding stoichiometry for the HSA-rutin complex was determined. The efficient quenching of the Trp214 fluorescence by rutin, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from excited Trp214 to rutin, and competitive binding of warfarin indicate that the binding site for the flavonoid is situated within subdomain IIA of HSA. The presence of the sugar moiety in the flavonoid molecule reduces affinity of rutin for binding to HSA but does not affect the binding stoichiometry and location of the binding site compared with aglycone analogues.

  8. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity. PMID:27239252

  9. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  10. Effects of rutin on the redox reactions of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Ding, Yun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Pingzhang

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are widely used to attenuate oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside) on hemoglobin (Hb)- dependent redox reactions, i.e. oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate. It was found that rutin induced generation of H2O2, which in turn oxidized Hb rapidly. Meanwhile, rutin exhibited anti-oxidant effect by effectively reducing ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb at physiological pH. In comparison with quercetin, rutin had stronger capability on reducing ferryl species while lesser pro-oxidant effect on H2O2 generation, thus it exhibited more protective effect on H2O2-induced Hb oxidation. Circular dichroism spectrum showed no significant change in the secondary structure of Hb after flavonoid addition, while molecular docking revealed different binding modes of quercetin and rutin with Hb. These results might provide new insights into the potential nutritional and physiological implications of rutin and quercetin with redox active heme proteins regarding their ani- and pro-oxidant effects. PMID:27126166

  11. Rutin inhibits amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lin; Li, Ya-Nan; Zhang, He; Su, Ya-Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Shao-Wei; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence showed that amylin deposition is not only found in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, but also in other peripheral organs, such as kidneys, heart and brain. Circulating amylin oligomers that cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain may be an important contributor to diabetic cerebral injury and neurodegeneration. Moreover, increasing epidemiological studies indicate that there is a significant association between T2DM and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amylin and β-amyloid (Aβ) may share common pathophysiology and show strikingly similar neurotoxicity profiles in the brain. To explore the potential effects of rutin on AD, we here investigated the effect of rutin on amylin aggregation by thioflavin T dyeing, evaluated the effect of rutin on amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity by the MTT assay, and assessed oxidative stress, as well as the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuronal cells. Our results showed that the flavonoid antioxidant rutin inhibited amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity, decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, attenuated mitochondrial damage and increased the GSH/GSSG ratio. These protective effects of rutin may have resulted from its ability to inhibit amylin aggregation, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. These in vitro results indicate that rutin is a promising natural product for protecting neuronal cells from amylin-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, and rutin administration could be a feasible therapeutic strategy for preventing AD development and protecting the aging brain or slowing neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26242245

  12. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  13. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus—Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Lippolis, Rosa; Sorrentino, Alida; Liberti, Sarah; Fragnito, Federica; Siciliano, Rosa Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus. PMID:26544973

  15. The flavonoids hesperidin and rutin promote neural crest cell survival.

    PubMed

    Nones, Jader; Costa, Ana Paula; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    The neural crest (NC) corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potentials. The derivatives of the NC at trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system in addition to melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and some endocrine cells. Environmental factors control the fate decisions of NC cells. Despite the well-known influence of flavonoids on the central nervous system, the issue of whether they also influence NC cells has not been yet addressed. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are integral components of the human diet. The biological activities of these compounds cover a very broad spectrum, from anticancer and antibacterial activities to inhibition of bone reabsorption and modulation of inflammatory response. In the present work, we have investigated the actions of the flavonoids hesperidin, rutin and quercetin on NC cells of quail, in vitro. We show for the first time, that hesperidin and rutin increase the viability of trunk NC cells in culture, without affecting cell differentiation and proliferation. The molecular mechanism of this action is dependent on ERK2 and PI3K pathways. Quercetin had no effect on NC progenitors. Taken together, these results suggest that flavonoids hesperidin and rutin increase NC cell survival, which may be useful against the toxicity of some chemicals during embryonic development. PMID:22855262

  16. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. PMID:27106712

  17. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS), one picomolar (1 pM) of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants’ defensive state. PMID:26742102

  18. Microwave Accelerated Transglycosylation of Rutin by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus sp. SK13.002

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Pan, Beilei

    2011-01-01

    Rutin was subjected to intermolecular transglycosylation assisted with microwave irradiation using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) produced from Bacillus sp. SK13.002. Compared with the conventional enzymatic method for rutin transglycosylation (without microwave irradiation), microwave-assisted reaction (MAR) was much faster and thus more efficient. While the conventional reaction took dozens of hours to reach the highest conversion rate of rutin and yield of transglycosylated rutin, MAR of rutin transglycosylation completed within only 6 min providing almost the same conversion rate of rutin and yield of products consisting of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-glucosylated rutins. The optimum transglycosylation conditions for microwave irradiation were 40 °C and 60 W with the reaction system consisting mainly of the mixture of 0.3 g rutin (0.49 mmol) pre-dissolved in 15 mL methanol, 1.8 g maltodextrin in 15 mL of 0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and CGTase (900 U). Results from this study indicated that MAR could be a potentially useful and economical technique for a faster and more efficient transglycosylation of rutin. PMID:21747706

  19. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  20. Rutin nanostructured lipid cosmeceutical preparation with sun protective potential.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Rabab; Mostafa, Dina M

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is related to unprotected exposure to sunlight. Despite the broad expansion of sunscreen market, various researches are focused on the inefficiency and danger of sun products. This study was focused on the development of photoprotective nanoparticulate dermal preparations of the antioxidant flavonoid Rutin (RT). Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared using different types of lipids. Based on particle size (PS), size distribution (PDI) and Zeta potential (Z) as well as rheological properties, NLC containing Plurol® stearique (NLC-P) and Apifil® (NLC-A) were selected and loaded with different concentrations of RT to form the medicated nanocreams. F4 (NLC-A with 2% RT) attained highest occlusive effect, drug encapsulation and release efficiencies as well as sun protective factor (SPF). Different concentrations of TiO2 were added to F4 aiming to ameliorate the sun protective effect. F7 (containing 5% TiO2) attained the highest SPF and area under the UV absorbance curve and had a critical wavelength above 370 nm, which proved its high efficiency as sunscreen. The in-vitro antioxidant effect of F7 was more than two fold that of the standard antioxidant. This study provides a suitable cosmeceutical lipidic colloidal system of Rutin to be employed as a successful photoprotective preparation. PMID:26398812

  1. Inhibition of Photodegradation of Highly Dispersed Folic Acid Nanoparticles by the Antioxidant Effect of Transglycosylated Rutin.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kazunori; Semba, Kumi; Shakudo, Ryosuke; Sato, Hideyuki; Deki, Yuto; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-04-20

    We developed highly dispersible and photostable nanoparticles of vitamin, folic acid (FA). FA was wet bead milled with milling and dispersing adjuvants and transglycosylated compounds such as α-glucosyl hesperidin (Hesperidin-G) and rutin (Rutin-G), which solubilized FA. The milled slurries of FA particles with transglycosylated compounds consisted of nanosized particles with a median diameter of <100 nm. The lyophilized formulations of these slurries retained their nanometer size after resuspension in water with no aggregation. The apparent solubility of FA in these formulations was 100-fold higher than that of untreated FA. The solubilizing effect of Rutin-G may affect the particle size reduction and dispersibility of FA. The photostability results showed that the strong antioxidant activity of Rutin-G substantially increased the photostability of FA solution. On the basis of these results, bead milling of FA with Rutin-G is a promising technique for developing highly dispersible, photostable nanoparticle FA formulations. PMID:27039660

  2. Higher peroxidase activity, leaf nutrient contents and carbon isotope composition changes in Arabidopsis thaliana are related to rutin stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2014-09-15

    Rutin, a plant secondary metabolite that is used in cosmetics and food additive and has known medicinal properties, protects plants from UV-B radiation and diseases. Rutin has been suggested to have potential in weed management, but its mode of action at physiological level is unknown. Here, we report the biochemical, physiological and oxidative response of Arabidopsis thaliana to rutin at micromolar concentrations. It was found that fresh weight; leaf mineral contents (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, copper and aluminum) were decreased following 1 week exposure to rutin. Arabidopsis roots generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species after rutin treatment, consequently increasing membrane lipid peroxidation, decreasing leaf Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) contents and losing root viability. Carbon isotope composition in A. thaliana leaves was less negative after rutin application than the control. Carbon isotope discrimination values were decreased following rutin treatment, with the highest reduction compared to the control at 750μM rutin. Rutin also inhibited the ratio of CO2 from leaf to air (ci/ca) at all concentrations. Total protein contents in A. thaliana leaves were decreased following rutin treatment. It was concluded carbon isotope discrimination coincided with protein degradation, increase lipid peroxidation and a decrease in ci/ca values may be the primary action site of rutin. The present results suggest that rutin possesses allelopathic potential and could be used as a candidate to develop environment friendly natural herbicide. PMID:25046753

  3. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26688570

  4. Encapsulation of rutin and naringenin in multilamellar vesicles for optimum antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kerdudo, Audrey; Dingas, Alexandre; Fernandez, Xavier; Faure, Chrystel

    2014-09-15

    Rutin and naringenin, two phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties were encapsulated in lipid-based onion-type multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). After vesicles formation, the free, adsorbed/encapsulated analytes were well separated with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and rutin and naringenin were quantified with UV-HPLC at 258 nm and 290 nm. A mathematical model was developed to separately calculate the encapsulation and the adsorption yields of both phenols. Naringenin was shown to be poorly encapsulated (<10%) but highly adsorbed on MLVs surface (>60%) whatever MLVs composition. Conversely, rutin showed high encapsulation efficiency (>60%). Entrapment of rutin was proved to be efficient since no leak was observed within 30 days in concentrated MLVs phase, while 16.0±0.3% of rutin was still encapsulated after 30 days when MLVs were diluted in water. Free rutin broke up into quercetin while the encapsulated one remained stable. DPPH assay confirmed that only free and adsorbed rutin participated in antioxidant activity. PMID:24767021

  5. Subcritical Water Induced Complexation of Soy Protein and Rutin: Improved Interfacial Properties and Emulsion Stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Hou, Jun-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid with important antioxidant and pharmacological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited mainly because of its poor water solubility. The subcritical water (SW) treatment provides an efficient technique to solubilize and achieve the enrichment of rutin in soy protein isolate (SPI) by inducing their complexation. The physicochemical, interfacial, and emulsifying properties of the complex were investigated and compared to the mixtures. SW treatment had much enhanced rutin-combined capacity of SPI than that of conventional method, ascribing to the well-contacted for higher water solubility of rutin with stronger collision-induced hydrophobic interactions. Compared to the mixtures of rutin with proteins, the complex exhibited an excellent surface activity and improved the physical and oxidative stability of its stabilized emulsions. This improving effect could be attributed to the targeted accumulation of rutin at the oil-water interface accompanied by the adsorption of SPI resulting in the thicker interfacial layer, as evidenced by higher interfacial protein and rutin concentrations. This study provides a novel strategy for the design and enrichment of nanovehicle providing water-insoluble hydrophobic polyphenols for interfacial delivery in food emulsified systems. PMID:27467966

  6. Effects of Watercress Containing Rutin and Rutin Alone on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-like MG-63 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Hanbit; Park, Heajin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Haesung; Oh, Hyun Il; Hwang, Hye Seong

    2014-01-01

    Most known osteoporosis medicines are effective for bone resorption, and so there is an increasing demand for medicines that stimulate bone formation. Watercress (N. officinale R. Br.) is widely used as a salad green and herbal remedy. This study analyzed a watercress extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified a rutin as one of its major constituents. Osteogenic-related assays were used to compare the effects of watercress containing rutin (WCR) and rutin alone on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The reported data are expressed as percentages relative to the control value (medium alone; assigned as 100%). WCR increased cell proliferation to 125.0±4.0% (mean±SD), as assessed using a cell viability assay, and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early differentiation marker, to 222.3±33.8%. In addition, WCR increased the expression of collagen type I, another early differentiation marker, to 149.2±2.8%, and increased the degree of mineralization, a marker of the late process of differentiation, to 122.9±3.9%. Rutin alone also increased the activity of ALP (to 154.4±12.2%), the expression of collagen type I (to 126.6±6.2%), and the degree of mineralization (to 112.3±5.0%). Daidzein, which is reported to stimulate bone formation, was used as a positive control; the effects of WCR on proliferation and differentiation were significantly greater than those of daidzein. These results indicate that WCR and rutin can both induce bone formation via the differentiation of MG-63 cells. This is the first study demonstrating the effectiveness of either WCR or rutin as an osteoblast stimulant. PMID:25177168

  7. Effects of Watercress Containing Rutin and Rutin Alone on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-like MG-63 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Hanbit; Park, Heajin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Haesung; Oh, Hyun Il; Hwang, Hye Seong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Most known osteoporosis medicines are effective for bone resorption, and so there is an increasing demand for medicines that stimulate bone formation. Watercress (N. officinale R. Br.) is widely used as a salad green and herbal remedy. This study analyzed a watercress extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified a rutin as one of its major constituents. Osteogenic-related assays were used to compare the effects of watercress containing rutin (WCR) and rutin alone on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The reported data are expressed as percentages relative to the control value (medium alone; assigned as 100%). WCR increased cell proliferation to 125.0±4.0% (mean±SD), as assessed using a cell viability assay, and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early differentiation marker, to 222.3±33.8%. In addition, WCR increased the expression of collagen type I, another early differentiation marker, to 149.2±2.8%, and increased the degree of mineralization, a marker of the late process of differentiation, to 122.9±3.9%. Rutin alone also increased the activity of ALP (to 154.4±12.2%), the expression of collagen type I (to 126.6±6.2%), and the degree of mineralization (to 112.3±5.0%). Daidzein, which is reported to stimulate bone formation, was used as a positive control; the effects of WCR on proliferation and differentiation were significantly greater than those of daidzein. These results indicate that WCR and rutin can both induce bone formation via the differentiation of MG-63 cells. This is the first study demonstrating the effectiveness of either WCR or rutin as an osteoblast stimulant. PMID:25177168

  8. DNA damaging, cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding efficacy of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Roy, Atanu Singha; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Samanta, Sintu; Ghosh, Sudip K; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-04-26

    Flavonoids are widely used as anti-oxidants, anti-cancer agents and possess metal ion chelation properties. In this report we have investigated the DNA binding (and damaging), cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin (SA) binding efficacy of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex using differential spectroscopic methods. The rutin-Cu(ii) complex was able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) at lower concentrations and its DNA damaging properties were also confirmed from the agarose gel based assay, fluorescence and UV-vis studies. The copper complex was found to be effective against the growth of HeLa cells in vivo. The binding constants (Kb) of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex towards HSA and BSA were found to be (0.98 ± 0.03) and (1.05 ± 0.02) × 10(5) M(-1), respectively, at 299 K and observed to increase with the increase in temperature. Site selectivity studies revealed that the rutin-Cu(ii) complex binds near site 1 (subdomain IIA) of SAs. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the mode of interaction of rutin and its copper complex with SAs are different from each other. Both ΔH° and ΔS° were observed to be positive for the interaction of the rutin-Cu(ii) complex with SAs, indicating the presence of hydrophobic association in binding. The values of ΔH° were estimated to be negative (-42.07 ± 2.92 and -23.29 ± 2.33 kJ mol(-1) for HSA and BSA respectively) in the binding of rutin with SAs. It implies that after chelation with Cu(ii) ion, rutin alters its binding mode which could have varying applications to its other physicochemical activities. PMID:27035097

  9. Novel reduction of Cr(VI) from wastewater using a naturally derived microcapsule loaded with rutin-Cr(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yun; Jiang, Meng; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Shejiang

    2015-03-21

    The harmfulness of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is dramatically decreased when Cr(VI) is reduced to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)). Rutin, a natural flavonoid, exhibits excellent antioxidant activity by coordinating metal ions. In this study, a complex containing rutin and Cr(III) (rutin-Cr(III)) was synthesized and characterized. The rutin-Cr(III) complex was much easier to reduce than rutin. The reduction of the rutin-Cr(III) complex was highly pH-dependent, with 90% of the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) in 2h under optimal conditions. A biodegradable, sustained-release system encapsulating the rutin-Cr(III) complex in a alginate-chitosan microcapsule (rutin-Cr(III) ACMS) was also evaluated, and the reduction of Cr(VI) was assessed. This study also demonstrated that low-pH solutions increased the reduction rate of Cr(VI). The environmentally friendly microcapsules can reduce Cr(VI) for prolonged periods of time and can easily biodegrade after releasing the rutin-Cr(III) complex. Given the excellent performance of rutin-Cr(III) ACMS, the microcapsule system represents an effective system for the remediation of Cr(VI) pollution. PMID:25528232

  10. Design, synthesis and biological activity of a novel Rutin analogue with improved lipid soluble properties.

    PubMed

    Baldisserotto, Anna; Vertuani, Silvia; Bino, Alessia; De Lucia, Daniela; Lampronti, Ilaria; Milani, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto; Manfredini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent interest in flavonoids has increased greatly due to their biological and pharmacological activities. Flavonoids, consist of a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic substances, naturally occurring in fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine, and are an integral part of the human diet. Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid that is widely consumed worldwide from plant-derived beverages and foods as traditional and folk medicine remedy as well. Rutin exhibit important pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, neuroprotective and hormone therapy. Here, we present the synthesis, antimicrobial, antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on human leukemic K562 cells of compound R2, a new semi-synthetic derivative of Rutin as compared to Rutin itself. The new derivative was also included in finished topical formulations to evaluate a potential application to the dermatology field in view of the antioxidant/antimicrobial/antiinflammatory properties. Stability studies were performed by HPLC; PCL assay and ORAC tests were used to determine the antioxidant activity. R2 presented an antioxidant activity very close to that of the parent Rutin while bearing much better lipophilic character. Regarding antiproliferative effects on the human K562 cell line, R2 was found to be more effective than parent Rutin. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that R2 inhibits NF-kB activity and promotes cellular apoptosis. PMID:25496805

  11. Rutin protects rat articular chondrocytes against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide through SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji-Young; Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-05-13

    The progressive degeneration and ossification of articular chondrocytes are main symptoms in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Several flavonoids may provide an adjunctive alternative for the management of moderate OA in humans. Rutin, a natural flavone derivative (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside), is well known for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties against oxidative stress. However, the protective function of rutin related to OA, which is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage, remains unclear. The present study investigated the protective effects of rutin, an activator of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), involved in the inhibition of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in rat chondrocytes. SIRT1 activation by rutin attenuated levels of inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB/MAPK signaling, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 by sirtinol counteracted the beneficial effects of rutin in H2O2-treated chondrocytes. The findings of these studies suggested the potential involvement of SIRT1 in the pathogenesis of OA, and indicated that rutin is a possible therapeutic option for OA. PMID:27086847

  12. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    PubMed

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour. PMID:26782554

  13. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  14. Mechanism for Highly Efficient Non-Radiative Deactivation of Electronic Excitation in Rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, S. L.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Buganov, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state and pulsed spectroscopic methods are used to study the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the biologically important plant pigment rutin at room temperature and 77 K in organic solvents and a buffer solution at pH 7.0. The large dipole moment μe = 13.3 D of the rutin molecule in a Franck-Condon excited state indicates that rutin is dipolar in this excited state. The nonstationary S1 → Sn induced absorption spectra are characterized by a short-wavelength band at λabs max = 460 nm and low-intensity absorption in the 500-750 range which clearly belongs to associates of rutin. No residual induced absorption which might be related to triplet-triplet T1→Tk transitions in rutin was observed over the entire spectral range for times >50 ns. S1 → S0 fluorescence with a quantum yield Φfl ~ 10-4 was also observed at room temperature. The fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectra manifest a weak dependence on the excitation and detection wavelengths, which may be related to the presence of conformers in the solution owing to rotation of the phenol B ring around a single 1'-2 bond. Lowering the temperature of a glassy frozen solution of rutin in ethanol to 77 K raises Φfl by a factor of 750. A rate constant kic = 3.7·1011 s-1 for internal conversion from the S1 state at room temperature is calculated from the spectral-luminescence data. It is found that the main channel for exchange of electronic excitation energy in the rutin molecule at room temperature is S1(π,π*) ~~> S0-internal conversion induced by the charge-transfer state.

  15. Gastroprotective effect of rutin against indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Ihab T

    2010-09-01

    Several reports have indicated that indomethacin-induced gastropathy is mediated through generation of free radicals, neutrophil infiltration and disturbance in nitric oxide production. Rutin is a potent antioxidant flavonoid. Recently, rutin was reported to inhibit neutrophil infiltration and to modulate nitric oxide production in gastric mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of rutin against indomethacin-induced gastric injury. Accordingly, four groups of rats were used. The first three groups were injected orally with vehicle, rutin (200 mg/kg) and indomethacin (48 mg/kg) respectively. The fourth group was injected with rutin 1 hr before indomethacin. Animals were killed after 6 hr of indomethacin administration. Gastric juice acidity and gastric injury were evaluated directly. Moreover, the activities of myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase and the contents of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total nitrite/nitrate (as a marker of nitric oxide production) were determined in mucosal tissues. Indomethacin increased gastric ulcer index, gastric myeloperoxidase activity, gastric acidity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance contents compared with control. On the other hand, indomethacin decreased glutathione, nitrite/nitrate contents and superoxide dismutase activity. Histopathological examination of the stomachs of indomethacin-treated rats revealed degenerative changes in gastric tissues. Pre-treatment with rutin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from reduction in the ulcer index, attenuation of histopathological changes and amelioration of the altered oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. These results indicate that rutin has a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastropathy probably through inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, suppression of oxidative stress generation and replenishing nitrite/nitrate levels

  16. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. PMID:25624204

  17. Rutin Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abarikwu, S. O.; Otuechere, C. A.; Ekor, M.; Monwuba, K.; Osobu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYC) as an anticancer alkylating agent has been known as a male reproductive toxicant. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rutin (RUT) on CYC-induced reproductive toxicity. Sexually mature Wistar rats (weighing 199 ± 10 g with five animals in each group) were given CYC (15 mg/kg) and/or RUT (30 mg/kg) twice a week via gavage for 4 weeks. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, daily sperm production (DSP), testicular, and epididymal antioxidant systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), and testicular steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-HSD and spermatogenesis marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) in the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles were investigated at the end of the fourth week. By the end of the fourth week, RUT prevented lower sperm counts, sperm motility, DSP, and higher abnormal sperm numbers induced by CYC. In testes, RUT decreased SOD, LDH, and SDH and increased CAT, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, ALP, and ACP induced by CYC. In epididymis, RUT increased SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, GR, GST SDH, ALP and ACP and decreased MDA and LDH induced by CYC. In seminal vesicles, marker enzymes were unchanged in rats given CYC alone or in combination with RUT. It appears that RUT ameliorates CYC reproductive toxicity at the investigated dose. PMID:22778522

  18. Concentration of rutin model solutions from their mixtures with glucose using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Swallow; Hossain, Md M; Saleh, Zaid S

    2010-01-01

    Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m(2) having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables-transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate-on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4-5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30 degrees C), with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3-4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1-0.5 g/L). The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35-0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate) and glucose (in the permeate), the best results were

  19. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Rutin on Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Macikova, Pavla; Halouzka, Vladimir; Hrbac, Jan; Bartak, Petr; Skopalova, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The performances of ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, IL/CPE) and iron phthalocyanine (IP/CPE) modified carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical determinations of rutin were evaluated and compared to the performance of unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV), and amperometry were used for rutin analysis. The best current responses of rutin were obtained at pH 4.0 for all tested techniques. IL/CPE electrode was found to perform best with DPAdSV technique, where a detection limit (LOD) as low as 5 nmol L−1 of rutin was found. On the other hand, IP/CPE showed itself to be an optimum choice for DPV technique, where LOD of 80 nmol L−1 was obtained. Analytical applicability of newly prepared electrodes was demonstrated on determination of rutin in the model samples and the extracts of buckwheat seeds. To find an optimum method for buckwheat seeds extraction, a boiling water extraction (BWE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), pressurized solvent extraction (PSE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were tested. PMID:22654602

  20. Rutin-loaded chitosan microspheres: Characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Donato; Failla, Paola; Costa, Nicola; Pullano, Salvatore; Fiorillo, Antonino; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2016-11-01

    Rutin was microencapsulated in a chitosan matrix using the spray-drying technique and the resulting system was investigated. High amounts of rutin were efficiently entrapped within polymeric microspheres, and these microparticles were characterized by a smooth surface and afforded a controlled release of the active compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of rutin-loaded microspheres was investigated in in vitro models of NCTC 2544 and C-28 cells treated with LPS by determining the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. The rutin-loaded microspheres showed an increase of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with respect to the free active compound. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that massive intracellular uptake of the chitosan microspheres took place after a few hours of incubation and that the drug was localized in the cytosol compartment of the treated cells. The improved anti-inflammatory activity of the rutin-loaded microspheres was further confirmed by an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. PMID:27516307

  1. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  2. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of Rutin-zinc(II) flavonoid -metal complex.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Norma Estefania Andrades; Novak, Estela Maria; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Velosa, Adélia Segin; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of compounds analogous to natural products from secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, is a promising source of novel drugs. Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) is a natural flavone, which has, in its chemical structure, different sites for coordination with transition metals and the complexation with these metals enhances its biological properties. Rutin-zinc(II), a flavonoid-metal complex, was synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (1)H NMR. The antioxidant and antitumor activities, as well as the cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity of this complex were evaluated and compared with the free rutin. Rutin-zinc(II) has not shown any cytotoxicity against normal cells (fibroblasts and HUVECs) or toxicity in BALB/c mice, but has shown antioxidant activity in vitro and cytotoxicity against leukemia (KG1, K562 and Jurkat), multiple myeloma (RPMI8226) and melanoma (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) cell lines in vitro. In Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model, Rutin-zinc(II) modulated the mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, angiogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:26091902

  3. Inhibitory effects of rutin on the endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, In-Chul; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) has important functions in regulation of coagulation and inflammation. EPCR shedding from the cell surface is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Rutin is one of the major flavonoids from the buckwheat plant Fagopyrum tataricum. In this study, we investigated the effects of rutin on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding. We used a CLP model because this model more closely resembles human sepsis. Data showed rutin was a potent inhibitor of PMA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding by suppression of TACE expression. Treatment with rutin resulted in a decrease of PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest the potential application of rutin for treatment of PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. PMID:24622777

  4. Therapeutic potential of treatment with the flavonoid rutin after cortical focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Amélia Miranda Gomes; Marcilio, Fralini Dos Santos; Frazão Muzitano, Michelle; Giraldi-Guimarães, Arthur

    2013-03-29

    Flavonoids have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions, and they have been described as neuroprotective and able to reduce damage in CNS diseases. We evaluated the action of the flavonoid rutin in an animal model of focal cortical ischemia induced by unilateral thermocoagulation of superficial blood vessels of motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) primary cortices. Ischemic rats were submitted to daily injections (i.p.) for five days, starting immediately after induction of ischemia. We tested two doses: 50mg/kg or 100mg/kg of body weight. Sensorimotor tests were used to evaluate functional recovery. Bioavailability in plasma was done by chromatographic analysis. The effect of treatment in lesion volume and neurodegeneration was evaluated 48 h and 72 h after ischemia, respectively. We observed significant sensorimotor recovery induced by rutin, and the dose of 50mg/kg had more pronounced effect. Thus, this dose was used in further analyses. Plasma availability of rutin was detected from 2h to at least 8h after ischemia. The treatment did not result in reduction of lesion volume but reduced the number of degenerated neurons at the periphery of the lesion. The results suggest rutin as an efficient drug to treat brain ischemia since it was able to promote significant recovery of sensorimotor loss, which was correlated to the reduction of neurodegeneration in the periphery of cortical injury. Increasing studies with rutin and other flavonoids might give support for further clinical trials with these drugs. PMID:23370003

  5. Effect of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout on serum glucose-lowering in animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Jang, Ik Soon; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Yoon, So-Jung; Baek, Sujeong; Lee, Joo Yong; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Chung, Keun-Yook; Woo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the anti-diabetic effects of rutin from tartary buckwheat sprout in type 2 diabetes mouse model. The rutin content in tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) is five times higher than that found in common buckwheat sprout (CBS) as evident from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Administration of either rutin or TBS ethanolic extract to diabetes mice decreased the serum glucose level significantly. Rutin down-regulated the expression levels of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B; it is negative regulator of insulin pathway, both transcriptionally and translationally in myocyte C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, rutin can play a critical role in down-regulation of serum glucose level in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27279072

  6. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  7. Simultaneous determination of rutin and ascorbic acid mixture in their pure forms and combined dosage form.

    PubMed

    Attia, Tamer Z

    2016-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and rutin in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC separation was performed on Phenomenex C18 analytical column with 0.1% v/v acetic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), as mobile phase. The separation was done at ambient temperature with flow rate of 1mL·min(-1) in isocratic mode. HPLC measurements were carried out using ultraviolet detection wavelength at 257nm. The average retention times were 2.72 and 7.00min for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 5.0-30.0 for ascorbic acid and 10.0-60.0μg·mL(-1) for rutin. The limits of detection were 1.06 and 1.89μg·mL(-1) and limits of quantification were 3.54 and 6.31μg·mL(-1) for ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. The proposed HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for determination of ascorbic acid in its tablets and for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference method show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in respect to accuracy and precision. PMID:27341400

  8. The behavioral response of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to citronellal, citral, and rutin.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Liu, Shuli

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral response of Lasioderma serricorne adults to citronellal, citral, and rutin was investigated by using the area preference method. The L. serricorne adults were exposed to citronellal, and citral at the rate of 1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:1000 (citronellal: ethanol, v/v) for 1, 2, 12 and 24 h, to rutin at the rate of 10, 30 and 90 g/m(2) for 1, 2, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The citronellal and citral had attractive activity at the low rates and repellent potential at the high rates. The highest behavioral response values of L. serricorne adults to citronellal and citral were -88.89 % at the rate of 1:100 and 100.00 % at the rate of 1:50 respectively. Rutin had strong repellent effectiveness on L. serricorne adults, which significantly increased with increasing rates with the highest behavioral response values 100.00 % at the rate of 90 g/m(2) after 12 h exposure. These data suggest that the citronellal, citral, and rutin have great potential for preventing stored products from L. serricorne infestation. PMID:27390639

  9. Complex of Rutin with β-Cyclodextrin as Potential Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Mizera, Mikołaj; Piotrowska, Hanna; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Goscianska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Robert; Bednarski, Waldemar; Majka, Zbigniew; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain and characterize an RU-β-CD complex in the context of investigating the possibility of changes in the solubility, stability, antioxidative and microbiological activity as well as permeability of complexated rutin as against its free form. The formation of the RU-β-CD complex via a co-grinding technique was confirmed by using DSC, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, and its geometry was assessed through molecular modeling. It was found that the stability and solubility of the so-obtained complex were greater compared to the free form; however, a slight decrease was observed inits antibacterial potency. An examination of changes in the EPR spectra of thecomplex excluded any reducing effect of complexation on the antioxidative activity of rutin. Considering the prospect of preformulation studies involving RU-β-CD complexes, of significance is also the observed possibility of prolongedly releasing rutin from the complex at a constant level over along period of 20 h, and the fact that twice as much complexated rutin was able topermeate compared to its free form. PMID:25822535

  10. Development of an antioxidant biomaterial by promoting the deglycosylation of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zúñiga, Johana M; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda; Peralta, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Robles-Burgueño, M Refugio; Auras, Rafael; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin) and quercetin have shown antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. The aim of this work was to determine the conversion of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin during the production of poly(l-lactic acid) films with potential to deliver these flavonoids toward tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices. Three poly(l-lactic acid) formulations with 17.7, 39.6 and 39.1mg/g of rutin were prepared by the extrusion process. Processing temperatures (130-165°C) promoted the deglycosylation of rutin to produce isoquercetin and subsequently quercetin, identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The effect of the process on the antioxidant activity of the films was determined by measuring the capacity to scavenge 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The material with the highest proportion of quercetin showed the highest antioxidant activity which could be used to produce delivering devices of the flavonoids to tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices. PMID:26988520

  11. Complex of rutin with β-cyclodextrin as potential delivery system.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Mizera, Mikołaj; Piotrowska, Hanna; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Goscianska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Robert; Bednarski, Waldemar; Majka, Zbigniew; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain and characterize an RU-β-CD complex in the context of investigating the possibility of changes in the solubility, stability, antioxidative and microbiological activity as well as permeability of complexated rutin as against its free form. The formation of the RU-β-CD complex via a co-grinding technique was confirmed by using DSC, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, and its geometry was assessed through molecular modeling. It was found that the stability and solubility of the so-obtained complex were greater compared to the free form; however, a slight decrease was observed inits antibacterial potency. An examination of changes in the EPR spectra of thecomplex excluded any reducing effect of complexation on the antioxidative activity of rutin. Considering the prospect of preformulation studies involving RU-β-CD complexes, of significance is also the observed possibility of prolongedly releasing rutin from the complex at a constant level over along period of 20 h, and the fact that twice as much complexated rutin was able topermeate compared to its free form. PMID:25822535

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of lipophilic rutin and vanillyl esters from fish byproducts.

    PubMed

    Mbatia, Betty; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Mattiasson, Bo; Mulaa, Francis; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2011-07-13

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from salmon ( Salmon salar ) byproduct. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction, and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In the DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters, and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol, but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation, and PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic, which could enhance its function in lipid systems. PMID:21630661

  13. Protective effects of rutin against potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was investigated for its protective effects against the KBrO3 induced renal injuries in rat. Methods Group I was control (untreated), group II was given saline 0.5 ml/kg bw (0.9% NaCl), group III was administered KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) intragastric twice a week for four weeks. Rutin was administered to group VI (50 mg/kg bw) and Group V (70 mg/kg bw) along with KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) while group VI was given rutin (70 mg/kg bw) alone twice a week for four weeks. Protective effects of rutin on KBrO3-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were determined for biochemical parameter of urine, and serum, various antioxidant enzymes, DNA and histopathological damages in kidneys. Results The level of urinary red blood cells, leucocytes count, specific gravity, urea, creatinine and urobilinogen was increased (P<0.01) whereas creatinine clearance was reduced. Serum level of protein, albumin, globulin, nitrite, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly increased (P<0.01) by KBrO3. Marked histopathological lesions, elevated DNA fragmentation and AgNORs count in renal tissues was determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione contents were decreased (P<0.01) while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased (P<0.01) with KBrO3 treatment in kidneys. DNA ladder assay was intimately related with the DNA fragmentation assay. Telomerase activity was found positive in the KBrO3 treated kidneys. Treatment with rutin effectively ameliorated the alterations in the studied parameters of rat. Rutin administration alone to rats did not exhibit any significant change in any of the parameters studied. Conclusion These results suggest that rutin works as an antioxidant in vivo by scavenging reactive oxygen species and this serves to prevent oxidative renal damage in rat treated with KBrO3. PMID:23116356

  14. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone.

  15. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters. PMID:26428697

  16. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Decorating Soybean Seed Ferritin as a Rutin Nanocarrier with Prolonged Release Property in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Sun, Guoyu; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Zhongkai; Li, Quanhong; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The instability and low bioavailability of polyphenols limit their applications in food industries. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and soybean seed ferritin deprived of iron (apoSSF) were fabricated as a combined double shell material to encapsulate rutin flavonoid molecules. Firstly, due to the reversible assembly characteristics of phytoferritin, rutin was successfully encapsulated within apoSSF to form a ferritin-rutin complex (FR) with an average molar ratio of 28.2: 1 (rutin/ferritin). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin were 18.80 and 2.98 %, respectively. EGCG was then bound to FR to form FR-EGCG composites (FRE), and the binding number of EGCG was 27.30 ± 0.68 with a binding constant K of (2.65 ± 0.11) × 10(4) M(-1). Furthermore, FRE exhibited improved rutin stability, and displayed prolonged release of rutin in simulated gastrointestinal tract fluid, which may be attributed to the external attachment of EGCG to the ferritin cage potentially reducing enzymolysis in GI fluid. In summary, this work demonstrates a novel nanocarrier for stabilization and sustained release of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:27323763

  17. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs).

    PubMed

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone. PMID:25544184

  18. Protective effect of rutin on LPS-induced acute lung injury via down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Chien-Ying; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Pan, Pin-Ho; Horng, Chi-Ting; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, is the important pathogen of acute lung injury (ALI), which is a clinical syndrome that still lacks effective therapeutic medicine. Rutin belongs to vitamin P and possesses various beneficial effects. In this study, we investigate the potential protective effects and the mechanisms of rutin on LPS-induced ALI. Pre-administration with rutin inhibited LPS-induced arterial blood gas exchange and neutrophils infiltration in the lungs. LPS-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were suppressed by rutin. In addition, the inhibitory concentration of rutin on phosphorylation of Akt was similar as MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation. In conclusion, rutin is a potential protective agent for ALI via suppressing the blood gas exchange and neutrophil infiltration. The mechanism of rutin is down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:25091621

  19. Alkali metal salts of rutin - Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS), antioxidant and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Samsonowicz, M; Kamińska, I; Kalinowska, M; Lewandowski, W

    2015-12-01

    In this work several metal salts of rutin with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium were synthesized. Their molecular structures were discussed on the basis of spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-VIS) studies. Optimized geometrical structure of rutin was calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(∗∗) method and sodium salt of rutin were calculated by B3LYP/LanL2DZ method. Metal chelation change the biological properties of ligand therefore the antioxidant (FRAP and DPPH) and antimicrobial activities (toward Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of alkali metal salts were evaluated and compared with the biological properties of rutin. PMID:26184478

  20. Rutin, a Flavonoid and Principal Component of Saussurea Involucrata, Attenuates Physical Fatigue in a Forced Swimming Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chen, Chun-Ting; Wu, Hsueh-Fu; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antifatigue effects of rutin, a flavonoid extracted from the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata. Mice were subjected to a weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) on alternate days for 3 wk. Rutin was administered orally to the mice for 7 days in dosages of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight, and several biomarkers of physical fatigue were evaluated: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). On Day 7, the rutin-treated mice had a 3-fold longer exhaustive swimming time than the control mice, as well as significantly reduced blood LA concentrations. The 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight rutin-supplemented groups displayed 11.2%, 22.5%, and 37.7% reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively, in brain and muscle tissues compared with the control exercised group. Our results indicated that the administration of rutin protected the mice against the depletion of SOD and GPx activities significantly. Following 7 days of rutin treatment, we sacrificed the mice and analyzed their soleus muscle and brain for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. We observed that rutin treatment increased PGC-1α and SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression. The changes in these markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with increased maximal endurance capacity. The application of 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze the rutin-responsive protein profiles in the WFST mouse brain further revealed the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, myelin basic protein, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha, and TPI, indicating that rutin might inhibit anxiety through the upregulation of the expression of anxiety-associated proteins. Western blot analysis of MAPK expression further confirmed the antianxiety effects

  1. Absorption improvement of tranilast by forming highly soluble nano-size composite structures associated with α-glucosyl rutin via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideyuki; Fujimori, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroki; Kadota, Kazunori; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2015-05-01

    Tranilast (TL) composite particles with α-glucosyl rutin (Rutin-G) were developed to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of TL. Composite formulation of TL/Rutin-G was prepared using the spray-drying method, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated with respect to the morphology, particle size distribution, solubility and crystallinity. The nanostructure formation of Rutin-G was characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy when Rutin-G or TL/Rutin-G spray-dried particles (SDPs) were introduced into water. A pharmacokinetic study was also performed to assess the improvement of oral absorption in rats. TL/Rutin-G SDPs were spherical particles with a diameter of 5.5μm. Even in the acidic condition, the remarkable improvement in solubility of TL was achieved, as evidenced by a 32.2-fold increase in solubility compared with untreated TL. The median size of Rutin-G nanostructures in water was 2nm. The formation of Rutin-G nanostructures and their drug inclusion properties may enhance the solubility and dissolution behavior of TL. A drastic increase was found in the exposure of TL in rats, with an increase in Cmax and AUC values of 114- and 36.4-fold, respectively, compared with those of untreated TL. These findings indicated that a TL formulation spray-dried with Rutin-G could enhance its solubility and absorption and thus its therapeutic properties. PMID:25725261

  2. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on a multi-walled carbon nanotube and ionic liquid composite film modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuhui; Li, Li; Zhao, Xueping; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviors of rutin at the MWNTs-IL-Gel/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. Good electrocatalysis behavior towards the oxidation of rutin with enhancement of the redox peak current and decrease of the peak-to-peak separation was demonstrated. The electrochemical parameters of rutin were calculated giving values of the charge-transfer coefficient (alpha) and the electrode reaction standard rate constant (k(s)) as 0.47 and 0.2s(-1), respectively. In addition, the MWNTs-IL-Gel/GCE was characterized by different methods including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), clay film thickness, and UV-vis spectra. The oxidation peak currents of rutin in such modified electrode increased linearly with the concentration of rutin in the range from 7.2 x 10(-8) to 6.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1). These results suggest that the proposed electrode can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of rutin. PMID:20708387

  3. Rutin improves endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of iNOS and VCAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Chun; Horng, Chi-Ting; Chen, Shyan-Tarng; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Chien-Ying; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2016-02-01

    Endotoxins exist anywhere including in water pools, dust, humidifier systems, and machining fluids. The major causal factor is endotoxins in many serious diseases, such as fever, sepsis, multi-organ failure, meningococcemia, and severe morbidities like neurologic disability, or hearing loss. Endotoxins are also called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and are important pathogens of acute lung injury (ALI). Rutin has potential beneficial effects including anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-platelet aggregation. Pre-treatment with rutin inhibited LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. LPS-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was suppressed by rutin, but there was no influence on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, activation of the nuclear factor (NF)κB was reduced by rutin. Furthermore, we found that the inhibitory concentration of rutin on expression of VCAM-1 and iNOS was similar to NFκB activation. In conclusion, rutin is a potential protective agent for ALI via inhibition of neutrophil infiltration, expression of VCAM-1 and iNOS, and NFκB activation. PMID:25080890

  4. Determination of rutin and isoquercetin contents in Hibisci mutabilis Folium in different collection periods by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Diangang; Mei, Qing; Wan, Xiangluan; Que, Hongling; Li, Luyang; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-01-01

    Hibisci mutabilis Folium (HMF), the dried leaf of Hibiscus mutabilis (Malvaceae), is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. This article aimed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of rutin and isoquercitrin contents in the HMF, and to compare the content variation in all the samples, including nearly withered yellow leaf, in different collection periods, so as to provide research basis for the quality evaluation and determination of the optimal collection period. A reversed-phase HPLC separation method was employed, with a BDS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 m × 250 mm, 5 μm), under the following conditions: acetonitrile-0.3% phosphoric acid (15:85, v/v) solution as the mobile phase, flow rate 1.0 mL/min at 30°C and detection wavelength 254 nm. The calibration curves for rutin and isoquercitrin were linear over the range of 1.5-48 and 0.25-8 μg/mL, and the average recoveries were 99.92 and 100.45% (RSD: 2.39% and 2.11%, respectively)]. Based on the analysis results, it was found that contents of rutin and isoquercitrin in HMF (mature green leaf) harvested in different periods had significant difference, and reached the highest in mid-December. It was also found that the contents of the two components in the mature green leaf were much higher than those in the nearly withered leaf from the same collection period. In conclusion, the results indicated that the HPLC method was easy-to-operate and precise, and could be applied for the determination of rutin and isoquercitrin contents in the HMF. The experimental data also showed that early winter should be the most suitable collection period for HMF. PMID:26089170

  5. Hydrolysis of the Rutinose-Conjugates Flavonoids Rutin and Hesperidin by the Gut Microbiota and Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Flavonols and flavanones are polyphenols exerting many healthy biological activities. They are often glycosylated by rutinose, which hampers absorption in the small intestine. Therefore they require the gut microbiota to release the aglycone and enable colonic absorption. The role of the gut microbiota and bifidobacteria in the release of the aglycones from two major rutinosides, hesperidin and rutin, was investigated. In bioconversion experiments, the microbiota removed rutinose from both rutin and hesperidin, even though complete hydrolysis was not obtained. To investigate whether bifidobacteria can participate to the hydrolysis of rutinosides, 33 strains were screened. Rutin was resistant to hydrolysis by all the strains. Among six tested species, mostly Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenultum were able to hydrolyze hesperidin, by means of a cell-associated activity. This result is in agreement with the presence of a putative α-l-rhamnosidase in the genome of B. pseudocatenulatum, while most of the available genome sequences of bifidobacteria aside from this species do not bear this sequence. Even though B. pseudocatenulatum may contribute to the release of the aglycone from certain rutinose-conjugated polyphenols, such as hesperidin, it remains to be clarified whether this species may exert a role in affecting the bioavailability of the rutinoside in vivo. PMID:25875120

  6. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  7. Rutin Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis with AMPK Activation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sangjin; Lee, Mak-Soon; Chang, Eugene; Shin, Yoonjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2015-01-01

    Decreased mitochondrial number and dysfunction in skeletal muscle are associated with obesity and the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The specific aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of rutin on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Supplementation with rutin reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, despite equivalent energy intake (p < 0.05). Rutin significantly increased mitochondrial size and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as well as gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), transcription factor A (Tfam), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, sirtulin1 (SIRT1) in skeletal muscle (p < 0.05). Moreover, rutin consumption increased muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by 40% (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggested at least partial involvement of muscle mitochondria and AMPK activation in the rutin-mediated beneficial effect on obesity. PMID:26402699

  8. Dose response effect of rutin a dietary antioxidant on alcohol-induced prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance - a histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Shenbagam, Madhavan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of rutin on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 rats served as control and group 2 rats received rutin 100 mg/kg body weight. Hepatotoxicity was induced in groups 3-6 rats (20% ethanol) for 60 days. In addition, groups 4-6 rats received rutin at doses of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively for the last 30 days of the experiment. We observed a significant increase in the activities of liver marker enzymes, serum amino transferases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, and a decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and its related enzymes, vitamins C and E when compared to ethanol-fed rats. Rutin supplementation along with ethanol significantly decreased the levels of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and significantly elevated the activities of liver SOD, CAT, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, vitamins C and E when compared to untreated ethanol supplemented rats. Among the three doses, 100 mg/kg body weight of rutin was found to exert a more pronounced hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced toxicity. Our results were also confirmed by the histopathologic observations. PMID:20727014

  9. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  10. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found. PMID:25466051

  11. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26343778

  12. An effective biphase system accelerates hesperidinase-catalyzed conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gong, An; Yang, Cai-Feng; Bao, Qi; Shi, Xin-Yi; Han, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Isoquercitrin is a rare, natural ingredient with several biological activities that is a key precursor for the synthesis of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ). The enzymatic production of isoquercitrin from rutin catalyzed by hesperidinase is feasible; however, the bioprocess is hindered by low substrate concentration and a long reaction time. Thus, a novel biphase system consisting of [Bmim][BF4]:glycine-sodium hydroxide (pH 9) (10:90, v/v) and glyceryl triacetate (1:1, v/v) was initially established for isoquercitrin production. The biotransformation product was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the bonding mechanism of the enzyme and substrate was inferred using circular dichroism spectra and kinetic parameters. The highest rutin conversion of 99.5% and isoquercitrin yield of 93.9% were obtained after 3 h. The reaction route is environmentally benign and mild, and the biphase system could be reused. The substrate concentration was increased 2.6-fold, the reaction time was reduced to three tenths the original time. The three-dimensional structure of hesperidinase was changed in the biphase system, which α-helix and random content were reduced and β-sheet content was increased. Thus, the developed biphase system can effectively strengthen the hesperidinase-catalyzed synthesis of isoquercitrin with high yield. PMID:25731802

  13. An effective biphase system accelerates hesperidinase-catalyzed conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Gong, An; Yang, Cai-Feng; Bao, Qi; Shi, Xin-Yi; Han, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Isoquercitrin is a rare, natural ingredient with several biological activities that is a key precursor for the synthesis of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ). The enzymatic production of isoquercitrin from rutin catalyzed by hesperidinase is feasible; however, the bioprocess is hindered by low substrate concentration and a long reaction time. Thus, a novel biphase system consisting of [Bmim][BF4]:glycine-sodium hydroxide (pH 9) (10:90, v/v) and glyceryl triacetate (1:1, v/v) was initially established for isoquercitrin production. The biotransformation product was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the bonding mechanism of the enzyme and substrate was inferred using circular dichroism spectra and kinetic parameters. The highest rutin conversion of 99.5% and isoquercitrin yield of 93.9% were obtained after 3 h. The reaction route is environmentally benign and mild, and the biphase system could be reused. The substrate concentration was increased 2.6-fold, the reaction time was reduced to three tenths the original time. The three-dimensional structure of hesperidinase was changed in the biphase system, which α-helix and random content were reduced and β-sheet content was increased. Thus, the developed biphase system can effectively strengthen the hesperidinase-catalyzed synthesis of isoquercitrin with high yield. PMID:25731802

  14. Determination of rutin in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengchun; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hao; Lin, Baoli; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Guoxin

    2015-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of rutin in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of tolbutamide as internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used as sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm particle size), using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase with gradient elution, delivered at a flow-rate of 0.4 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a XEVO TQD mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The MRM transitions of m/z 610.91→302.98 and m/z 271.2→155.1 were used to quantify for rutin and tolbutamide, respectively. This assay method has been fully validated in terms of specificity, linearity, recovery and matrix effect, accuracy, precision and stability. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 25-2000 ng/mL for rutin. Only 3 min was needed for an analytical run. This developed method was successfully used for determination of rutin in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study. PMID:25030991

  15. Quantitative analysis of biomarker rutin in different species of genus Ficus by validated NP and RP-HPTLC methods.

    PubMed

    AlAjmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Hussain, Afzal

    2015-11-01

    Biomarker rutin was analyzed in methanol extracts of leaves of five different species of genus Ficus (Ficus carica, Ficus nitida, Ficus ingens, Ficus palmata and Ficus vasta) by NP-HPTLC (Method I) and RP- HPTLC methods (Method II). The development and validation for method I was carried out with silica gel 60F254 plates using EA: GAA: FA: H2O (10:1:1:2.5, v/v/v/v) as developing system. Method II was carried out on silica gel 60F254 RP-18 plates using mobile phase ACN: H2O (4:6 v/v). Both analyses were scanned at 305 nm and were found to give well resolved peak of rutin at Rf0.28±0.01 and 0.68±0.03 for Method I and Method II, respectively. The percentage of rutin was found to be 0.51% & 0.66% in F. ingens, 0.24% & 0.54% in F. palmata and 0.14% & 0.17% in F. vasta by Method I & Method II, respectively. Method II (RP-HPTLC) was found to be more accurate, precise and sensitive than Method I. Method II can be used as an important tool for standardization and quality control of bulk drugs and in-process formulations of rutin. PMID:26687740

  16. [Determination of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan for Uyghur medicine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Muhetaer, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Chu, Ganghui; Yin, Xuebo; Munira, Abudukeremu

    2015-12-01

    Uyghur medicine is one important part of the national medicine system. Uyghur medicine modernization, namely the study of effective components with modern technologies, is the only way for the scientification, standardization, and industrialization of Uyghur medicine. Here we developed a selective extraction method for rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan. The three active species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and the mobile phase of CH3OH-0.4% H3PO4 (50 :50, v/v). Rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were baseline separated with each other and the interference species with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 degrees C. Under the optimal conditions, linear correlation were obtained in the mass concentration range of 12.5-150 μg/mL (r = 0.999 8) for rutin, 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.999 9) for quercetin, and 12.5-125 μg/mL (r = 0.998 8) for kaempferol. The recoveries (n = 5) of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were 100.25% ( RSD = 1.1%), 97.60% ( RSD = 0.47%) and 97.75% (RSD = 0.71%), respectively. The method can be used to determine the contents of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in Althaea rosea (L) Gavan and provide the guidance for the analysis of the flavonoids in other Uyghur medicines. PMID:27097460

  17. Investigation of Ru/TiN Bottom Electrodes Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sang Yeol; Kim, Beom Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kim, Hyeong Joon; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Kwanghee; Lim, Han-Jin; Yoo, Cha-Young; Kim, Sung-Tae

    2004-09-01

    Ru thin films were prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using cyclopentadienyl-propylcyclopentadienlylruthenium(II) [RuCp(i-PrCp)] and the nucleation behaviors of Ru films on Ta2O5, TiN, Si3N4, SiO2, TiO2 substrates were investigated. It appeared that the difference in nucleation behaviors on various substrates is due to the bonding type between atoms in substrate materials. The nucleation property of Ru films on TiN was successfully improved by plasma treatment of the TiN substrate using Ar before film deposition. It was found that the Ar plasma treatment selectively removes N ions from the surface, makes the TiN surface more metallic or ionic (due to the residual Ti-O bonding), and reduces the nucleation barrier. In addition, the oxidation resistance of Ru/TiN layers was improved by H2 annealing, which made the Ru films more dense.

  18. Rutin Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Provides Neuroprotection in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Possibly Through Suppressing the RAGE-NF-κB Inflammatory Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangzhi; Dong, Yushu; Huo, Rentao; Wen, Kai; Zhang, Yinsong; Liang, Guobiao

    2016-06-01

    As is known to all, neuroinflammation plays a vital role in early brain injury pathogenesis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been shown that rutin have a property of inhibiting inflammation in many kinds of animal models. However, the effect of rutin on neuroinflammation after SAH remains uninvestigated. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of rutin on neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanism in an experimental rat model of SAH performed by endovascular perforation. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group, SAH + vehicle group and SAH + rutin group (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at 30 min after SAH. After sacrificed at 24 h after SAH, all rats were examined by following tests, including neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and neuronal cell death in cerebral cortex. The level of inflammation in brain was estimated by means of multiple molecules, including RAGE, NF-κB, and inflammation cytokines. Our results indicated that rutin could significantly downregulate the increased level of REGE, NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines in protein level. In addition, rutin could also ameliorate a series of secondary brain injuries such as brain edema, destruction of blood-brain barrier, neurological deficits and neuronal death. This study indicated that rutin administration had a neuroprotective effect in an experimental rat model of SAH, possibly through inhibiting RAGE-NF-κB mediated inflammation signaling pathway. PMID:26869040

  19. Synergistic antioxidant action of vitamin E and rutin SNEDDS in ameliorating oxidative stress in a Parkinson’s disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shrestha; Narang, Jasjeet K.; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-09-01

    Purpose. Oxidative stress is the leading cause in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule with wide therapeutic applications. It suffers from the problem of low oral bioavailability which is due to its poor aqueous solubility. Methods. In order to increase the solubility self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rutin were prepared. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected based on solubility/miscibility studies. Optimization was done by a three-factor, four-level (34) Box–Behnken design. The independent factors were oil, surfactant and co-surfactant concentration and the dependent variables were globule size, self-emulsification time, % transmittance and cumulative percentage of drug release. The optimized SNEDDS formulation (RSE6) was evaluated for various release studies. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Oxidative stress models which had Parkinson’s-type symptoms were used to determine the antioxidant potential of rutin SNEDDS in vivo. Permeation was assessed through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results. An optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol + vitamin E–Solutol HS 15–Transcutol P at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and characterized. The globule size and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124 ± 0.01, respectively. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the percentage of drug release was achieved in the case of the optimized formulation as compared to rutin suspension. Pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The optimized formulation had significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Conclusion. Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing the oral bioavailability and efficacy of rutin, thus

  20. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD. PMID:25785882

  1. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:25204084

  2. Quantification of Quercetin and Rutin from Benincasa hispida Seeds and Carissa Congesta Roots by High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography and High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Indian Ayurvedic system, Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are well-known plants used for major and minor ailments. BH has been regarded as Kushmanda, whereas CC has been used in immune-related disorders of the human system. Quercetin and rutin identified from the vast plethora of plant extracts have proved to possess ethnopharmacological relevance. Materials and Methods: In present studies, we have determined quercetin and rutin in terms of percentage in BH seeds and CC roots by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction and phytochemical screening, the extracts were subjected to quantification for the presence of quercetin and rutin by HPTLC and HPLC. Results: HPTLC showed quercetin as 44.60, 27.13% and rutin as 32.00, 36.31% w/w, whereas HPLC revealed quercetin as 34.00, 35.00% and rutin as 21.99, 45.03% w/v in BH and CC extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The BH and CC extracts have elucidated peaks that were corresponding with standard peaks on undertaking chromatographic studies. SUMMARY Quercetin and rutin are isolated from BH seeds and CC roots by High Performance. Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPTLC revealed presence of quercetin as 44.60, 27.13 % and rutin as 32.00, 36.31 % w/w. HPLC revealed presence of quercetin as 34.00, 35.00 % and rutin as 21.99, 45.03 % w/v. Abbreviation Used: HPTLC: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography; HPLC: High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, CC: Carissa congesta, BH: Benincasa hispida PMID:26941534

  3. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears are rich in bioactive compounds such as protodioscin, a saponin, and rutin, a flavonoid. Protodioscin and rutin are routinely quantified separately, and an approach permitting simultaneous measurement would significantly improve speed of analysis. We have optimized an extraction procedure and modified a method of high-performance liquid chromatography by coupling to an ultraviolet detector to simultaneously analyze protodioscin and rutin in asparagus extracts. An acidic ethanol solvent was more efficient than methanol, acetonitrile, or water in coextraction of protodioscin and rutin. Protodioscin and rutin were detected at 210 nm, with retention times of 12.6 min and 7.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by high linear correlations between 3.13 and 1000.0 μg/mL for protodioscin (r(2)= 0.9999), and between 0.3 and 1087.5 μg/mL for rutin (r(2)= 0.9997). The limit(s) of detection and quantification for protodioscin were 1.6 μg/mL and 3.13 μg/mL, respectively, and for rutin 0.2 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. White asparagus spears and the crown of the plants were revealed to be rich sources of protodioscin and contained 2.59 to 10.4 mg/g dry weight. Green asparagus spears, particularly the upper portion, were rich in rutin and contained between 1.51 and 7.29 mg/g dry weight. PMID:21535581

  4. Protective Effect of Rutin and Naringin on Sperm Quality in Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Butchi Akondi, Raju; Kumar, Phani; Annapurna, Akula; Pujari, Manasa

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the important causes of the type 1 diabetes induced changes in the sperm quality. Bioflavonoids, Rutin 10 mg/Kg and Naringin 10 mg/Kg were evaluated for their protective effects on sperm parameters, oxidative stress, and histopathology of type 1 diabetic rats. Results demonstrated the reduction in sperm count, sperm motility and vitality in diabetic rats. Mass drug administration (MDA) levels were increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase levels were decreased. Histopathological changes were evident and in accordance with the above results. In the treatment groups, both Rutin and Naringin in combination with insulin treatment in diabetic rats produced protection from diabetes and improved all the sperm parameters, decreased the MDA levels and increased the SOD and catalase levels. Protection was evident in histological examination. Our data suggests that the possible protection of testicular tissue and reproduction from oxidative stress have been induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24250392

  5. Naringin and Rutin Alleviates Episodic Memory Deficits in Two Differentially Challenged Object Recognition Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nayak, Pawan G.; Kishore, Anoop; Shenoy, Rekha R.; Mallikarjuna Rao, Chamallamudi; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline or dementia is a debilitating problem of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, including special conditions like chemobrain. Dietary flavonoids proved to be efficacious in delaying the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Two such flavonoids, naringin (NAR) and rutin (RUT) were reported to have neuroprotective potential with beneficial effects on spatial and emotional memories in particular. However, the efficacy of these flavonoids is poorly understood on episodic memory, which comprises an important form of autobiographical memory. Objective: This study objective is to evaluate NAR and RUT to reverse time-delay-induced long-term and scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated both short-term and long-term episodic memory forms using novel object recognition task. Open field paradigm was used to assess locomotor activity for any confounding influence on memory assessment. Donepezil was used as positive control and was effective in both models at 1 mg/kg, i.p. Results: Animals treated with NAR and RUT at 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. spent significantly more time exploring novel object compared to familiar one, whereas control animals spent almost equal time with both objects in choice trial. NAR and RUT dose-dependently increased recognition and discriminative indices in time-induced long-term as well as scopolamine-induced short-term episodic memory deficit models without interfering with the locomotor activity. Conclusion: We conclude that, NAR and RUT averted both short- and long-term episodic memory deficits in Wistar rats, which may be potential interventions for neurodegenerative diseases as well as chemobrain condition. SUMMARY Incidence of Alzheimer's disease is increasing globally and the current therapy is only symptomatic. Curative treatment is a major lacuna. NAR and RUT are natural flavonoids proven for their pleiotropic

  6. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination. PMID:26868552

  7. Hyperoside and rutin of Nelumbo nucifera induce mitochondrial apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mechanism in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    GUON, TAE EUN; CHUNG, HA SOOK

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the mechanism of 2 flavonol glycosides, hyperoside and rutin, in the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells through the bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation method. The chemical structure of hyperoside and rutin, isolated from the roots of Nelumbo nucifera, were established using extensive 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and absolute high resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral analytical methods. The treatment of HT-29 colon cancer cells with hyperoside and rutin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The concomitant activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway of hyperoside and rutin occurred via modulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and B-cell lymphoma 2 expression, resulting in the activation of cleaved caspases-3, −8 and −9 and cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The findings of the present study indicate that hyperoside and rutin induce apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, and that this phenomenon is mediated via the death receptor-mediated and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways. These results suggest that hyperoside and rutin may be useful in the development of a colon cancer therapy protocol. PMID:27073499

  8. Prevention by alpha-tocopherol and rutin of glutathione and ATP depletion induced by oxidized LDL in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, A.; Salvayre, R.; Delchambre, J.; Nègre-Salvayre, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) are thought to play an important role in atherogenesis. Mildly oxidized LDL are cytotoxic to cultured endothelial cells. Toxic doses of oxidized LDL promote the peroxidation of cellular lipids (beginning at 6 h and being maximal after 12 h of pulse with oxidized LDL) and glutathione and ATP depletion (beginning after 15 h of pulse and evolving concurrently with the cytotoxicity). 2. Antioxidants from 3 different classes (rutin, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol) were compared as to their ability to inhibit the cytotoxic effect of oxidized LDL to endothelial cells. 3. Effective concentrations of alpha-tocopherol inhibited cellular lipid peroxidation, glutathione and ATP depletion and the cytotoxic effect. 4. Ascorbic acid was less effective than alpha-tocopherol and rutin, and exhibited a dose-dependent biphasic effect in the presence of oxidized LDL. 5. Effective concentrations of rutin inhibited glutathione and ATP depletion as well as cytotoxicity, but did not block cellular lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the glutathione and ATP depletion is directly correlated to the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL, whereas cellular lipid peroxidation is probably not directly the cause of cellular damage leading to cell death. 6. The association of antioxidants of 3 different classes allowed the suppression of the biphasic effect of ascorbic acid and increased the efficacy of the protective effect. The potential consequences for prevention of the pathogenic role of oxidized LDL in endothelial injury are discussed. PMID:8640336

  9. Rutin- and selenium-attenuated cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, S O; Iserhienrhien, B O; Badejo, T A

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause oxidative damage in the testes of rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of rutin (RUT, 30 mg/kg) and selenium (Se, 0.15 ppm) alone or in combination against Cd (200 ppm)-induced lipid peroxidation, steroidogenesis and changes in antioxidant defence system in the rat testes. The obtained results showed that Cd increased lipid peroxidation and abnormal sperm count and decreased plasma testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and testicular steroidogenic enzymes: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD activities as well as epididymal sperm counts and motility, while RUT and Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication with Cd was also followed by significantly decreased activity of the antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)). Treatment with RUT and Se reversed Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant defence system and significantly prevented Cd-induced testes damage and depletion of plasma and testicular Se levels. RUT and Se appear not to have more profound effects than their separate effects against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, although Se was more potent than RUT in the recovery of testosterone levels. These results suggest that both RUT and Se do not have synergistic role against Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:23424207

  10. A novel and label-free immunosensor for bisphenol A using rutin as the redox probe.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Li, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Sining

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a new and label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of bisphenol A was reported. MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified on glassy carbon electrode surface to enhance current response. The Anti-BPA was immobilized on the modified electrode through AuNPs. Rutin was used for the first time as the redox probe to construct electrochemical immunosensor of bisphenol A. The peak current change due to the specific immuno-interaction between anti-BPA and BPA on the modified electrode surface was utilized to detect bisphenol A. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to trace the assembly process of the electrochemical immunosensor. Experimental factors affecting the sensitivity of the immunosensor were examined in terms of incubation time and pH of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Under optimized conditions, the linear range of calibration curve based on the relationship between current response and BPA concentration was from 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-6)M with detection limit of 8.7×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The proposed immunosensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity, stability and was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in real sample. PMID:27591610

  11. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Rutin on OLETF Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung Hoon; Yu, Jae Myung; Lee, Seong Jin; Kang, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Jung; Kim, Doo Man

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Rutin is a major representative of the flavonol subclass of flavonoids and has various pharmacological activities. Currently, data are lacking regarding its effects on VSMC proliferation induced by intermittent hyperglycemia. Here, we demonstrate the effects of rutin on VSMC proliferation and migration according to fluctuating glucose levels. Materials and Methods Primary cultures of male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat VSMCs were obtained from enzymatically dissociated rat thoracic aortas. VSMCs were incubated for 72 h with alternating normal (5.5 mmol/L) and high (25.0 mmol/L) glucose media every 12 h. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the proliferative molecular pathway [including p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Akt], the migratory pathway (big MAPK 1, BMK1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptotic pathway were analyzed. Results We found enhanced proliferation and migration of VSMCs when cells were incubated in intermittent high glucose conditions, compared to normal glucose. These effects were lowered upon rutin treatment. Intermittent treatment with high glucose for 72 h increased the expression of phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2), phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-PI3K, phospho-NF-κB, phospho-BMK1, and ROS, compared to treatment with normal glucose. These effects were suppressed by rutin. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-Akt, JNK, and apoptotic pathways [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL, Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and caspase-3] were not affected by fluctuations in glucose levels. Conclusion Fluctuating glucose levels increased proliferation and migration of OLETF rat VSMCs via MAPK (ERK1/2), BMK1, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways. These effects

  12. Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, a complete environmental carcinogen, induces oxidative and inflammatory skin damage, thereby increasing the risk of skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a wide variety of plant polyphenols have been reported. Rutin (3-rhamnosyl-glucosylquercetin), a polyphenol present in many edible plants, possesses diverse pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticancer activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin in vivo. Topical application of rutin onto the dorsal skin of female HR-1 hairless mice 30 min prior to UVB irradiation diminished epidermal hyperplasia and the levels of proteins modified by 4-hydroxynonenal, which is a biochemical hallmark of lipid peroxidation. Topical application of rutin also significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), two representative inflammatory enzymes, in hairless mouse skin. Rutin inhibited the DNA binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in mouse skin exposed to UVB. Moreover, rutin attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and JNK decreased UVB-induced expression of COX-2 in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that rutin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in UVB-irradiated mouse skin by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which is attributable to its suppression of p38 MAP kinase and JNK signaling responsible for AP-1 activation. PMID:24875145

  13. Rutin ameliorates renal fibrosis and proteinuria in 5/6-nephrectomized rats by anti-oxidation and inhibiting activation of TGFβ1-smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Lu, Jin-Shan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was reported to have beneficial effect on drug induced nephropathy. The present study aimed to introduce 5/6 nephrectomized rat model to further evaluate its renal protective effect. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were induced to develop chronic renal failure through 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx). After that, animals were treated orally with saline, rutin at 15 and 45 mg/kg, and losartan (10 mg/kg) daily for 20 weeks; sham-operated animals were also involved as control. After treatment for 8 and 20 weeks, blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical examination; all the kidney remnants were collected for histological examination. The protein levels of TGF-β1, smad2 and phosphorylated-smad2 (p-smad2) in kidney were measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. Results: Results suggested that rutin could reduce the proteinurea, blood urine nitrogen and blood creatinine in 5/6 Nx animals significantly, as well as oxidation stress in the kidney. By histological examination, rutin administration alleviated glomerular sclerosis scores and tubulointerstitial injuries in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry also suggested rutin could reduce the expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen IV in kidney tissues. By western blot, we found the rutin could reduce the TGF-β1, p-smad2 expression in the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions: This study suggests that the rutin can improve renal function in 5/6 Nx rats effectively. Its effect may be due to its anti-oxidation and inhibiting TGFβ1-Smad signaling. PMID:26191162

  14. Rutin, A Natural Flavonoid Protects PC12 Cells Against Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Neurotoxicity Through Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rikang; Sun, Yongbing; Huang, Hesong; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jinlong; Shen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Free radicals induced neural damage is implicated in CNS diseases and rutin isolated form Lonicera japonica are reported to have neuroprotective activity. Previously, we confirmed that rutin exerted neuroprotective effect against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of rutin is still not fully uncovered. Here, we found that rutin significantly decreased SNP-induced reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells. Rutin reversed the declined GSH/GSSG ratio and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by SNP. Moreover, rutin activated both the protein Akt/mTOR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways and the neuroprotective effects of rutin were blocked by either the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059. In summary, these results demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of rutin might be through activating both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings support that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS diseases related to NO neurotoxicity. PMID:26255195

  15. Profiling of rutin-mediated alleviation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Zygophyllum fabago.

    PubMed

    Yildiztugay, Evren; Ozfidan-Konakci, Ceyda

    2015-07-01

    Zygophyllum fabago grows in arid, saline soil, or disturbed sites, such as former industrial or mining areas. This species is able to grow in coarse mineral substrates contaminated with heavy metals. To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rutin (Rtn) on certain heavy metal stress responses such as antioxidant defense systems and water status, seedlings were subjected to 100 and 200 μM CdCl2 treatment without or with 0.25 and 1 mM Rtn for 7 and 14 d (days). Cd stress decreased growth (RGR), water content (RWC), leaf osmotic potential (Ψ(Π)), and chlorophyll fluorescence, all of which could be partly alleviated by addition of Rtn. Activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase increased within the first 7 d after exposure to Cd. However, failure of antioxidant defense in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evidenced by an abnormal rise in superoxide anion radical ( O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide contents and a decline in hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) scavenging activity, resulting in enhancement of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) as a marker of Cd-induced oxidative stress. However, exogenously applied Rtn considerably improved the stress tolerance of plants via a reduction in Cd accumulation, modulation of POX activity, increase of proline (Pro) content, decrease in TBARS and ROS content and consequent lowering of oxidative damage of membrane. Overall, 0.25 and 1 mM Rtn could protect Z. fabago from the harmful effects of 100 μM Cd-induced oxidative stress throughout the experiment. PMID:24488808

  16. Pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-jun; Lu, Si-jie; Yao, Tong-wei; Zeng, Su

    2009-11-01

    Rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium (RDS) possesses very good activity as an inhibitor of the complement system of warm-blooded animals and HIV. An ion-pair coupled with solid-phase extraction technique (IP-SPE) was developed to extract RDS from rat plasma, urine, bile and protein solution samples. The assay was applied to pharmacokinetics of RDS, including plasma pharmacokinetics, excretion and protein binding studies. After i.v. 5, 20 and 100 mg x kg(-1) RDS via tail vein in rats, the plasma concentration-time profiles were fitted using 3P97 software. The average terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was 3.432 +/- 0.185 2 h. The relationship of dose and AUC of RDS was linear within the dosage range. This suggested that the disposition of RDS in rats belong to linear kinetics and the pharmacokinetic parameters of RDS were dose independent. After iv RDS 20 mg x kg(-1) in rats, the biliary excretion amount of parent drug amount was only 0.3181% +/- 0.2087% of given dosage, and the urinary excretion was 86.0% +/- 6.1% in 36 h. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to determine the protein binding of RDS in plasma (from SD rat, Beagle dog and human), human serum albumin (HSA) and human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The mean protein binding rate in plasma of SD rat, Beagle dog and human plasma of RDS were 80%-90%, in which the range of concentration of RDS was 5 to 100 microg x mL(-1). The protein binding to HSA was 85.7% +/- 1.3% and 14.0% +/- 3.2% to AGP. PMID:21351726

  17. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies on Rutin-Rich Tartary Buckwheat Dough in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Noda, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the toxicity of rutin-rich dough from the Tartary buckwheat variety 'Manten-Kirari,' acute and subacute toxicity studies (10,000 and 5,000 mg/kg flour, respectively) were performed using rats. In the acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group was not significantly different when compared with that of the control group. On pathologico-anatomic observation, no unusual symptoms were observed in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group when compared with the control group. In the subacute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight and food intake in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated and common buckwheat groups were not significantly different when compared with the control group. However, some investigated properties, such as urine protein and serum albumin, were significantly different in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups when compared with the control group. However, these changes were not caused by toxicity, but by transient changes. On pathologico-anatomic observation, some abnormalities were observed in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, bronchi and pituitary gland in some rats. However, the incidental rates in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups did not differ when compared to controls. Therefore, these abnormalities may be caused by natural generation. Based on these results, we concluded that dough at a dose of 5,000 mg flour/kg is at a non effect level. PMID:26052149

  18. Protective effects of quercetin glycosides, rutin, and isoquercetrin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    PubMed

    Magalingam, Kasthuri Bai; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that free radicals induced oxidative stress is a major causative agent in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease. Quercetin glycosides, namely rutin and isoquercitrin, are flavonoid polyphenol compounds found ubiquitously in fruits and vegetables and have been known to possess antioxidant effects. This study was designed to compare the neuroprotective effects of quercetin glycosides rutin and isoquercitrin in 6-OHDA-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. The results showed that both rutin and isoquercitrin significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione level that were attenuated by 6-OHDA in PC-12 cells. There was no significant difference in the activation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase enzymes between rutin and isoquercitrin. These two glycosides were equally effective in suppressing lipid peroxidation in 6-OHDA-induced PC-12 cells as both compounds suppressed the malondialdehyde generation and prevented cell damage. In conclusion, quercetin glycosides rutin and isoquercetrin are having a significant neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA toxicity in PC-12 cells. PMID:26542606

  19. Application of ionic liquids in vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin isolation of three flavonoids rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from Sorbus tianschanica leaves.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiyan; Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Zang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin were effectively extracted from Sorbus tianschanica leaves by an ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method. A series of ionic liquids with various anions and alkyl chain length of the cations were studied and the extraction was performed in [C6mim][BF4] aqueous solution. After optimization by a factorial design and response surface methodology, total extraction yield of 2.37mg/g with an error of 0.12mg/g (0.71±0.04mg/g, 1.18±0.06mg/g and 0.48±0.02 for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, respectively) was achieved under -0.08MPa for vacuum, 19min and 420W for microwave irradiation time and power, and 15mL/g for liquid-solid ratio. The proposed method here is more efficient and needs a shorter extraction time for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from S. tianschanica leaves than reference extraction techniques. In stability studies performed with standard rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, the target analytes were stable under the optimum conditions. The proposed method had a high reproducibility and precision. In addition, separation of rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from [C6mim][BF4] extraction solution was completed effectively by AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption and desorption process. Ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted extraction is a simple, rapid and efficient sample extraction technique. PMID:26874229

  20. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects. PMID:27396192

  1. Depot-specific effects of treadmill running and rutin on white adipose tissue function in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Lei, Ting; Xin, Lili; Zhou, Lingmei; Cheng, Jinbo; Qin, Liqiang; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ involved in regulating metabolic homeostasis under obese condition. Strategies that could positively affect WAT function would hold promise for fighting against obesity and its complications. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of treadmill exercise training and rutin intervention on adipose tissue function from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and whether fat depot-specific effects existed. In epididymal adipose tissue, high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in reduction in adiponectin mRNA expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ and DsbA-L protein expression, elevation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation ex vivo were blunted from HFD group. The combination of rutin with exercise (HRE) completely restored GRP78 and p-JNK protein expression to normal levels, as well as blunted signaling ex vivo. In inguinal adipose tissue, HFD led to increased adiponectin mRNA expression, PPAR-γ, GRP78, and p-JNK protein expression, and reduction in DsbA-L. HRE is effective for restoring p-JNK, PPAR-γ, and DsbA-L. In conclusion, depot-specific effects may exist in regard to the effects of rutin and exercise on key molecules involved in regulating adipose tissue function (i.e., ER stress markers, PPAR-γ and DsbA-L, adiponectin expression, and secretion, ex vivo catecholamine stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation) from DIO mice. PMID:27192989

  2. Cardioprotective effects of rutin via alteration in TNF-α, CRP, and BNP levels coupled with antioxidant effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Saklani, Ravi; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray; Kumar, Binit; Srivastava, Sushma; Mathur, Rajani

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a dreadful complication of diabetes responsible for 80 % mortality in diabetic patients, but unfortunately its pharmacotherapy is still incomplete. Rutin is a naturally occurring flavonoid having a long history of use in nutritional supplements for its action against oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia, the key players involved in the progression of DCM, but remains unexplored for its role in DCM. This study was conducted to address this lacuna. It was performed in 4-week-old Streptozotocin-induced (45 mg/kg) diabetic rats for a period of 24 weeks to mimic the cardiotoxic effect of chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic patient's heart and to investigate the effect of rutin (50 mg/kg/day) in ameliorating these effects. Heart of the diabetic rats showed altered ECG parameters, reduced total antioxidant capacity, increased inflammatory assault, and degenerative changes. Interestingly, rutin treatment significantly ameliorated these changes with decrease in blood glucose level (p > 0.001), % HbA1c (p > 0.001) and reduced expression of TNF-α (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), and BNP (p < 0.01) compared to diabetic control rats. In addition, rutin provided significant protection against diabetes associated oxidative stress (p < 0.05), prevented degenerative changes in heart, and improved ECG parameters compared to diabetic control rats. The heart-to-body weight ratio was significantly reduced in rutin treatment group compared to diabetic control rats (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study implicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are the central players involved in the progression of DCM and rutin ameliorates DCM through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions on heart. PMID:27443845

  3. Argpyrimidine-tagged rutin-encapsulated biocompatible (ethylene glycol dimers) nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Dhara, Kaliprasanna; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus represents a major metabolic disorder affecting millions of people all over the world. Currently available therapeutic treatments are not good enough to control the long-term complications of diabetes. Active targeting via inclusion of a specific ligand on the nanoparticles provides effective therapeutic approach in different diseases. However, such specific drug delivery systems have not been explored much in diabetes due to lack of suitable biological targets in this disorder. Our objective is to synthesize a ligand-tagged drug-loaded nanoparticle for delivery of the drug at specific sites to enhance its therapeutic efficiency in diabetic condition. The nanoparticles have been prepared by using biocompatible ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester) dimers. Although advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the root causes of diabetic complications, argpyrimidine, an AGE, possesses antioxidant and reducing activities. AGE interacts selectively with its cell surface receptors (RAGE), which are significantly increased in diabetic condition. We have selected RAGE as the target of argpyrimidine, which is tagged on the nanoparticles as a ligand. Rutin, having anti-hyperglycemic and anti-glycating activities, has been used for nanoencapsulation. Rutin-loaded argpyrimidine-tagged nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized. We have demonstrated the drug releasing capacity and target specificity of the synthesised drug delivery system under ex vivo and in vivo conditions. PMID:27234699

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin, and Betulinic Acid in the Extract of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels by UPLC

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanqi; Li, Shuyi; Han, Dandan; Meng, Kehan; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Chunjie

    2015-01-01

    Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels, which belongs to genus Disporopsis, has been widely used for the treatment of abnormal sweating, chronic cough, and so forth. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was developed for the determination of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels roots. UPLC analysis was conducted by using a Shim-pack XR-ODS column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid and with a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, detected at 210, 254, and 280 nm. The method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2.0%. The recoveries for the four components in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels were between 98.5 and 100.9%. The average contents of rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid in roots were 5.63, 2.51, 3.87, and 2.41 μg/g, respectively. The method was accurate and reproducible and it can provide a quantitative basis for quality control of Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. PMID:26798553

  5. Effects of UV-B irradiation on the levels of anthocyanin, rutin and radical scavenging activity of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tsurunaga, Yoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Katsube, Takuya; Kudo, Akihide; Kuramitsu, Osamu; Ishiwata, Masaki; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2013-11-01

    The effects of various light compositions on the levels of anthocyanin, rutin and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts were evaluated. Dark-grown 6-day-old buckwheat sprouts were irradiated with different sources of visible and ultraviolet (UV) light. Particularly, we examined the effect of UV-B at wavelengths of 260-320 nm, 280-320 nm, and 300-320 nm on the production of flavonoid compounds, using multiple fluorescent lights and cylinders that filter out certain portions of the UV-B. The results showed that irradiation with UV-B>300 nm increased the levels of anthocyanin and rutin, as well as the DPPH radical scavenging activity. When sprouts were irradiated with UV-B light at wavelengths of 260-300 nm, yellowing or withering occurred within 24h of irradiation, indicating that wavelengths in this range are detrimental to the growth of buckwheat sprouts. PMID:23768393

  6. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  7. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  8. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  9. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  10. Simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in crude and processed Fructus Gardeniae extracts by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Enhong; Zhang, Chengrong; Li, Xiaomeng

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fructus Gardeniae, commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Zhizi in chinese, is derived from the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis of the Madder Family. To our knowledge, previously reported analytical methods were not developing for simultaneous determination of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in Fructus Gardeniae and its processed products of chaozheng pin (CZP) extracts. Materials and Methods: In this study, a HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination four major active components in Fructus Gardeniae and its processed products. Results: The contents of geniposide, chlorogenic acid, crocin1, and rutin in Fructus Gardeniae samples analyzed were 2.492 - 4.242%, 0.162 - 0.407%, 0.417 -0.837%, and 0.116 - 0.251%, respectively. Conclusion: The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of Fructus Gardeniae. PMID:22262927

  11. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on formulation of TPGS loaded nanoemulsion of rutin - pharmacodynamic and antioxidant studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shrestha; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic bioflavonoid, Rutin possesses wide range of pharmacological activities. However, it shows poor bioavailability when administered orally. The aim of this study was to formulate and compare the potential of nanoemulsions for the solubility enhancement of rutin (RU) by using different techniques. RU-loaded nanoemulsions were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique using sefsol 218 and tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) (1:1), solutol HS15 andtranscutol P as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The prepared formulations were compared for various parameters like droplet size, percentage transmittance, zeta potential, viscosity, refractive index and in vitro release. The HPH nanoemulsions showed smaller droplet size and increased in vitro release when compared to nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification method. The optimized formulation showed spherical globules with average globule diameter of 18 nm and zeta potential of -41 mV. Cumulative percentage drug released obtained for RU, PF6 (spontaneous emulsification formulation F6) and HF6 (HPH formulation F6) were 41.5 ± 0.04%, 49.5 ± 0.06% and 94.8 ± 0.03%, respectively, after 6 h. The permeability of RU from HF6 was found to be ≈4.6 times higher than RU suspension during ex vivo everted gut sac studies. Antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH assay and reducing power assay method. Results showed a high scavenging efficiency toward DPPH radicals by HF6. Anti-inflammatory effect of RU as determined by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method was found to be higher (75.2 ± 4.8%) when compared to RU suspension (46.56 ± 3.5%). It can be inferred that TPGS-loaded nanoemulsion of RU serve as an effective tool in increasing solubility and permeability of RU. PMID:24625264

  12. Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2008-06-10

    We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft. PMID:18457827

  13. Determination of rutin in cigarette tobacco, filters, mainstream smoke and burned ash of different branded cigarettes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Li, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Bi, Jianjie; Su, Shudong

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco consists of at least 3,800 chemical constituents. Among them, rutin is an important polyphenolic secondary metabolite in tobacco, which has positive actions such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-protozoal properties. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze rutin in tobacco and filters, mainstream smoke, and burned ash of ten varieties of cigarettes made in China. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS2 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 350 nm using a photodiode array detector. The calibration curves for the determination of analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9998). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.59% and 1.53%. The recoveries were between 98.47 and 100.84%. Under the optimized conditions, namely 45 mL/g of solvent to solid ratio, 30 min of extraction time and 200 W of ultrasound power, the concentrations of rutin in tobacco and filter, mainstream smoke, burned ash of different brands cigarettes were 10.20-63.98, 0.10-0.32, 0.06-0.16 and 0 μg/per cigarette, respectively. PMID:22450684

  14. Rat electropharmacograms of the flavonoids rutin and quercetin in comparison to those of moclobemide and clinically used reference drugs suggest antidepressive and/or neuroprotective action.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, Wilfried

    2009-04-01

    In order to be able to test single constituents of herbal plant extracts with respect to possible clinical usefulness, the model of local field potential analysis leading to the so-called electropharmacogram has been successfully used in rats to classify the effects of theanine and theogallin in the past. The present investigation aims at the prediction of efficacy and possible mechanisms of action of rutin and quercetin. Adult rats (day-night converted) were instrumented with four bipolar concentric electrodes into the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation. Field potentials were recorded during a pre-drug reference period of 45 min followed by oral administration of the particular test compound and 4h recording thereafter. Data were transmitted wirelessly to the computer for spectral frequency analysis. Rutin (5-80 mg/kg) as well as quercetin (5-40 mg/kg orally) produced similar electropharmacograms with dose dependent decreases of spectral alpha2 and beta1 frequencies within all brain areas. Peak effects were reached 4h after administration. The pattern of changes approached that obtained after 2.5mg/kg of moclobemide during the first hour as revealed by discriminant analysis in comparison to a large matrix of other drugs with known clinical indications. Data suggest antidepressant capabilities for rutin and quercetin with inhibition of monoamino oxidase at least as part of the mechanism of action. Both compounds should be tested clinically in patients with symptoms of depression. PMID:19303757

  15. Highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on β-cyclodextrin-gold@3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns for simultaneous determination of myricetin and rutin.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jianqiang; Deng, Guogang; Li, Yucong; Xie, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Hui; Li, Can-Peng

    2015-09-10

    The application of macrocyclic hosts for construction of different electrochemical devices and separation matrices has attracted much attentions due to their benign biocompatibility and simplicity of synthesis. Myricetin and rutin are considered two of the most bioactive flavonoids, which have been proved to exhibit various physiological functions. This work reports a simple and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-gold@3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns (β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs) nanohybrids. The simultaneous electrochemical determination of myricetin and rutin using a β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs-modified glassy carbon electrode was established. The results show that the β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs-modified electrode displayed electrochemical signal superior to those of Au@PTCA-;SWCNHs and SWCNHs towards myricetin and rutin. The proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 0.01-10.00 μM both for myricetin and rutin with relatively low detection limits of 0.0038 μM for myricetin and 0.0044 μM (S/N = 3) for rutin, respectively. The excellent performance of the sensing platform is considered to be the synergic effects of the SWCNHs (e.g. their good electrochemical properties and large surface area) and β-CD (e.g. a hydrophilic external surface, a high supramolecular recognition, and a good enrichment capability). PMID:26388478

  16. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l-1 sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l-1 fresh weight, 1.78 g l-1 dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g-1). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  17. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l(-1) fresh weight, 1.78 g l(-1) dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g(-1)). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  18. Extraction and Purification of Quercitrin, Hyperoside, Rutin, and Afzelin from Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim Leaves Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    PubMed

    He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Dongmei; Deng, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based on ethanol/NaH2 PO4 was developed for the extraction and purification of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim leaves. These 4 flavonoids were 1st extracted from dried Z. bungeanum leaves using a 60% ethanol solution and subsequently added to the ATPS for further purification. The partition behavior of the 4 flavonoids in ATPS was investigated. The optimal ATPS conditions were: 29% (w/w) NaH2 PO4 , 25% (w/w) ethanol concentration, 1% (w/w) added amount of leaf extracts, no pH adjustment, and repeated 1 h extractions at 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions for the 10 g ATPS, the absolute recovery of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin reached 90.3%, 83.5%, 92.3%, and 89.1%, respectively. Compared to the 60% ethanol extracts, the content of quercitrin (44.8 mg/g), hyperoside (65.6 mg/g), rutin (56.4 mg/g), and afzelin (6.84 mg/g) in the extracts increased by 49.9%, 38.8%, 45.6%, and 36.8% respectively. The extracts after ATPS also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl IC50 value (10.5 μg/mL) decreased by 41.8%, and the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt value (966 μmol Trolox/g) and ferric reducing power value (619 μmol Trolox/g) increased by 29.8% and 53.7%, respectively. Furthermore, scale-up experiments indicated that a larger scale experiment was feasible for the purification of the 4 flavonoids. PMID:27240023

  19. Optimizing the models for rapid determination of chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin in plant samples by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhiyi; Shan, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiajun; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-01

    Polyphenols in plant samples have been extensively studied because phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plants and can be used as antioxidants in promoting human health. A method for rapid determination of three phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin) in plant samples using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS) is studied in this work. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. The results show that individual spectral preprocessing and variable selection has no or slight influence on the models, but the combination of the techniques can significantly improve the models. The combination of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for removing the variant background, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) for correcting the scattering effect and randomization test (RT) for selecting the informative variables was found to be the best way for building the optimal models. For validation of the models, the polyphenol contents in an independent sample set were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the predicted values and the contents determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis are as high as 0.964, 0.948 and 0.934 for chlorogenic acid, scopoletin and rutin, respectively.

  20. The increased binding affinity of curcumin with human serum albumin in the presence of rutin and baicalin: A potential for drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun; Hao, Ai-Jun; Xu, Liang; Wang, Dan; Ji, Hui; Sun, Shi-Jie; Chen, Bo-Qi; Liu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of rutin and baicalin on the interaction of curcumin (CU) with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under imitated physiological conditions. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by CU was a simultaneous static and dynamic quenching process, irrespective of the presence or absence of flavonoids. The binding constants between CU and HSA in the absence and presence of rutin and baicalin were 2.268 × 105 M- 1, 3.062 × 105 M- 1, and 3.271 × 105 M- 1, indicating that the binding affinity was increased in the case of two flavonoids. Furthermore, the binding distance determined according to Förster's theory was decreased in the presence of flavonoids. Combined with the fact that flavonoids and CU have the same binding site (site I), it can be concluded that they may simultaneously bind in different regions in site I, and formed a ternary complex of flavonoid-HSA-CU. Meanwhile, the results of fluorescence quenching, CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra revealed that flavonoids further strengthened the microenvironmental and conformational changes of HSA induced by CU binding. Therefore, it is possible to develop a novel complex involving CU, flavonoid and HSA for CU delivery. The work may provide some valuable information in terms of improving the poor bioavailabiliy of CU.

  1. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

  2. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  3. Nanotheranostics: Congo Red/Rutin-MNPs with Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and H2O2-Responsive Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease in APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingbing; Dai, Fengying; Fan, Zhanming; Ma, Guanghui; Tang, Qunwei; Zhang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    As nanotheranostics, Congo red/Rutin-MNPs combine the abilities of diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biocompatible nanotheranostics system based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, with ultrasmall size and excellent magnetic properties, can specifically detect amyloid plaques by magnetic resonance imaging, realize targeted delivery of AD therapeutic agents, achieve drug controlled release by H2O2 response, and prevent oxidative stress. PMID:26270904

  4. Polygonum aviculare L. and its active compounds, quercitrin hydrate, caffeic acid, and rutin, activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induce cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-05-01

    Polygonum aviculare L. is a member of the Polygonaceae family of plants, which has been known for its antioxidant and anti-obesity effects. However, the wound healing function of P. aviculare extract has not been assessed. In this study, we identified a novel property of P. aviculare extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator based on a screen of 350 plant extracts using HEK293-TOP cells retaining the Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter gene. P. aviculare extract accelerated the migration of HaCaT keratinocytes without showing significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, P. aviculare extract efficiently re-epithelized wounds generated on mice. Additionally, ingredients of P. aviculare extract, such as quercitrin hydrate, caffeic acid, and rutin, also accelerated the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, based on our findings, P. aviculare extract and its active ingredients could be potential therapeutic agents for wound healing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26929003

  5. Comparative Study of Novel Ratio Spectra and Isoabsorptive Point Based Spectrophotometric Methods: Application on a Binary Mixture of Ascorbic Acid and Rutin

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Hany W.; Bakheit, Ahmed H.; Naguib, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents novel methods for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of rutin (RU) (coformulated drug) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation. The seven methods are ratio difference (RD), isoabsorptive_RD (Iso_RD), amplitude summation (A_Sum), isoabsorptive point, first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD), mean centering (MCN), and ratio subtraction (RS). On the other hand, RU was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 358 nm in addition to the two novel Iso_RD and A_Sum methods. The work introduced in this paper aims to compare these different methods, showing the advantages for each and making a comparison of analysis results. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4–50 μg/mL for AA and RU. The results show the high performance of proposed methods for the analysis of the binary mixture. The optimum assay conditions were established and the proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of the two drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and combined pharmaceutical tablets with excellent recoveries. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. PMID:26885440

  6. Optimization of Ionic Liquid Based Simultaneous Ultrasonic- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Rutin and Quercetin from Leaves of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjian; Lu, Zhicheng; He, Xin; Li, Zhao; Shi, Kunming; Yang, Lei; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    An ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (ILs-UMAE) method has been proposed for the extraction of rutin (RU), quercetin (QU), from velvetleaf leaves. The influential parameters of the ILs-UMAE were optimized by the single factor and the central composite design (CCD) experiments. A 2.00 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as the experimental ionic liquid, extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time 12 min, liquid-solid ratio 32 mL/g, microwave power of 534 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Compared to conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE), the RU and QU extraction yields obtained by ILs-UMAE were, respectively, 5.49 mg/g and 0.27 mg/g, which increased, respectively, 2.01-fold and 2.34-fold with the recoveries that were in the range of 97.62–102.36% for RU and 97.33–102.21% for QU with RSDs lower than 3.2% under the optimized UMAE conditions. In addition, the shorter extraction time was used in ILs-UMAE, compared with HRE. Therefore, ILs-UMAE was a rapid and an efficient method for the extraction of RU and QU from the leaves of velvetleaf. PMID:25243207

  7. The flavonols quercetin, rutin and morin in DNA solution: UV-vis dichroic (and mid-infrared) analysis explain the possible association between the biopolymer and a nucleophilic vegetable-dye.

    PubMed

    Solimani, R

    1997-08-29

    Previous studies showed evidence that quercetin can bind DNA by intercalation [R. Solimani et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 43 (1995) 876-882] and a comparison with the flavanol dihydroquercetin indicated that the interaction is correlated to the planarity and hydrophobicity of the benzopyranic-4-one plane [R. Solimani, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 18 (1996) 287-295]. In this study flow linear dichroism (LD) spectra of the hydrophobic quercetin were compared with hydrophilic aglycoside morin and 3-glycoside rutin in the same conditions: [DNA] = 3.1 x 10(-2) mol/l phosphate, [dye] = (1.0-4.0) x 10(-4) mol/l. Morin and rutin in an aqueous environment showed the same behaviour as quercetin in buffer-ethanol (70:30, v/v) solution, with their common benzopyranic-4-one part within the biopolymer. The LD(R) values (LD normalised to the relative isotropic absorption) indicated a greater affinity of the quercetin for the DNA. Comparison of the LD(R) of morin and rutin showed a ratio LD(R)morin/LD(R)rutin approximately 1.1-1.2 very close to unity and this suggests the localisation of the 3-rutinoside of rutin outside the intercalation site. Dichroic measurements recorded in extreme conditions of concentration partly clarified the sequences of interaction between quercetin and DNA in solution which shows the prototypical behaviour of the flavonolic group. This consists of an initial weak external association, where an electrostatic component is excluded, and which can evolve to intercalation changing the DNA concentration, whereas the quantity of the flavonol influences relatively the association. The carbonylic region of the benzopyranic-4-one chromophore is probably localised outside the intercalation site. This was suggested by indirect infrared (attenuated total reflection ATR) data of the quercetin-ethanol solution: the presence of free and chelated carbonyl determines a greater density of negative charges in this region of the chromophore, with the consequent lower probability

  8. γH2AX formation kinetics in PBMCs of rabbits exposed to acute and fractionated radiation and attenuation of focus frequency through preadministration of a combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Yashavarddhan, M H; Shukla, Sandeep K; Srivastava, Nitya N; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Dutta, Sangeeta; Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Singh, Abhinav; Bajaj, Sania; Gupta, Manju L

    2016-07-01

    DNA damage can be assessed by the quantitation of γH2AX foci that form at DSB sites. This study examines the generation and persistence of γH2AX foci, variability in foci size after acute and fractionated radiation exposure, and the effect of pretreatment with a safe radioprotective formulation termed G-003M on foci generation and persistence. G-003M contains a combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin hydrate, and was administered intramuscularly to rabbits 1 hr prior to Co(60) gamma irradiation. Rabbits were assigned to one of the following treatment groups: untreated, G-003M alone, irradiated (single dose 8 Gy, fractionated 2 Gy/day for 4 days or single dose 2 Gy) or G-003M preadministration followed by radiation exposure. Foci continuously persisted for a week in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rabbits exposed to a single 8 Gy dose. However, the number of foci gradually decreased after reaching a maximum at 1 h. In rabbits exposed to fractionated radiation, foci detected 1 hr after the final exposure were significantly larger (P < 0.001) than in rabbits exposed to a single 8 Gy dose, but disappeared completely after 24 h. In both groups, foci reappeared on days 11-15 in terminally ill animals. G-003M pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the formation of γH2AX foci in all irradiated rabbits. This study reveals that γH2AX focus assessment could be used to confirm radiation exposure, that focus size reflects the type of radiation exposure (acute or fractionated), that the re-appearance of foci is a strong indicator of imminent death in animals, and that G-003M provides protection against radiation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:455-468, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27338557

  9. Occurrence of Rutin and Chlorogenic Acid in Elderberry Leaf, Flower, and Stem in Response to Genotype, Environment, and Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is being increasingly consumed as a nutraceutical. In Europe, tea made from flowers of the subspecies nigra is a popular treatment for respiratory infections, but little is known about the medicinal attributes of the subspecies canadensis. Poten...

  10. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a traditional Chinese herb that has shown antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids are considered to be major contributors to these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical pattern of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of diff...

  11. Countering effects of a combination of podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin β-D-glucoside and rutin hydrate in minimizing radiation induced chromosomal damage, ROS and apoptosis in human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sangeeta; Yashavarddhan, M H; Srivastava, Nitya Nand; Ranjan, Rajiv; Bajaj, Sania; Kalita, Bhargab; Singh, Abhinav; Flora, Swaran J S; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conceptualized with the aim of developing a safe radioprotector for human application against radiation induced toxicity. For this study, a formulation (G-002M) prepared by combining three active principles isolated from rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum, was evaluated for its potential to protect genomic DNA of human blood cells exposed to different doses of radiation (5,7&10Gy). Blood samples were pretreated (-1hr to exposure) with G-002M. Parameters of Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) assay like PCC-index, PCC-rings and PCC-fragments were used to estimate radiation induced chromosomal aberrations. Radiation (7Gy) induce ROS generation and its modulation by G-002M was determined by flow-cytometry and fluorescent microscopy while apoptosis (0,2,24&48 hr) was analyzed using TUNEL assay. Effect on spindle organization in G2/M arrested cells by all the three compounds individually was studied using immunofluorescence microscopy. Irradiation caused dose dependent linear increase in PCC-rings and fragments, while decline in PCC index. G-002M pretreatment significantly decreased these chromosomal aberrations at all the radiation doses and assisted cell survival as indicated by increased PCC index compared with radiation only group. Significant decrease in radiation induced intracellular ROS (45 ± 3%) and apoptosis (49.9%) was also exhibited by the formulation. On podophyllotoxin treatment, most of the cells have shown blocked spindles however, depicted normal arrangement. G-002M also demonstrated a highly significant Dose Modifying Factor or DMF (PCC-rings: 2.27 and PCC-fragments: 1.60). Present study based on many parameters along with DMF study, strongly suggests that G-002M is an effective formulation with a potential to minimize chromosomal damage even at very high radiation doses. PMID:26993954

  12. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout. PMID:25306322

  13. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  14. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  15. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  16. Quantitative determination of seven chemical constituents and chemo-type differentiation of chamomiles using high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matricaria recutita L. (German Chamomile), Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman Chamomile) and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat are commonly used chamomiles. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for estimation of six flavonoids (rutin, luteolin-7-O-ß-glucoside, chamaemeloside...

  17. Data for induction of cytotoxic response by natural and novel quercetin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Alexis H; Su, Cathy; Engen, Anya; Salinas, Victoria A; Maeda, Junko; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Yasushi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2016-03-01

    The flavonoids quercetin, and its natural glycosides isoquercetin and rutin, are phytochemicals commonly consumed in plant-derived foods and used as a food beverage additive. Semi-synthetic maltooligosyl isoquercetin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin were developed by synthetic glycosylation to improve their water solubility for food and other applications. Using a system of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, this study examined the differences in cytotoxic responses induced by short and continuous exposure of natural and synthetic flavonoids. By assessing cell viability after short term exposure and clonogenicity with continuous exposure under various flavonoids, quercetin aglycone is confirmed to be the most cytotoxic flavonoids, and heavily glucosylated maltooligosyl rutin was the least cytotoxic. The other heavily glucosylated maltooligosyl isoquercetin showed intermediate cytotoxicity and similar toxicity as isoquercetin. PMID:26862569

  18. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nash, Leslie A; Peters, Sandra J; Sullivan, Philip J; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  19. Enzymatic modification of chitosan with quercetin and its application as antioxidant edible films.

    PubMed

    Torres, E; Marín, V; Aburto, J; Beltrán, H I; Shirai, K; Villanueva, S; Sandoval, G

    2012-01-01

    Quercetin, rutin, naringin, hesperidin and chrysin were tested as substrates for chloroperoxidase to produce reactive quinones to graft onto chitosan. Quercetin and rutin quinones were successfully chemically attached to low molecular weight chitosan. The quercetin-modified chitosan showed an enhancement of plastic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as of thermal degradability. Finally, chitosan-quercetin films visibly decreased enzymatic oxidation when applied to Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. PMID:22586910

  20. Dependence of the solubility of natural flavonoids in water on the concentration of miramistin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.

    2014-05-01

    In organized media of the cationic surfactant miramistin and the polymers polyvinylpyrrolidone and human serum albumin, the solubility of natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin increased by one or two orders of magnitude. The increase was more significant for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. The solubility also depended on the structure and self-organization of molecules in organized media and the site of flavonoids in them. The calculated binding constants increased in the series polyvinylpyrrolidone < miramistin < human serum albumin.

  1. Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 rhamnoside hydrolase, a new type of flavonoid glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira; Jin, Fengxie

    2012-07-01

    A novel rutin-α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing α-L-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the α-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

  2. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase. PMID:27138247

  3. Assessment of the role of flavonoids for inducing osteoblast differentiation in isolated mouse bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Bankar, Rohini; Roy, Partha

    2013-06-15

    Quercetin and rutin are common flavonoids in fruit and vegetables, and have been reported to affect bone development. However, the effect of flavonoids on osteoblast differentiation remains a matter of controversy. In the present study, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were isolated and characterized for their use in osteoblast differentiation using two flavonoids, quercetin and rutin. BMMSCs were cultured in various concentrations of quercetin and rutin during the osteoblast differentiation period of 10 days. Both quercetin and rutin were found to up regulate the osteoblast differentiation in dose dependent manner, albeit to lesser extent in case of former than that of latter. Quercetin and rutin also increased alkaline phosphatase activity by about 150 and 240% and demonstrated mineralization up to 110 and 200% respectively as compared to control (which was considered as 100%). Further, both the flavonoids were also found to increase the expression of some of the prominent markers for differentiation of osteoblast like osteopontin, osterix, RunX2, osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin. The current data suggests that certain classes of flavonoids like rutin and quercetin can be used in the cure and management of osteodegenerative disorders due to their osteoblast specific differentiation activities. PMID:23570998

  4. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75 % ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40 μg/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200 μg/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients. PMID:25694726

  5. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Mikołaj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-01

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin.

  6. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Mikołaj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-01

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin. PMID:25589394

  7. The Antidepressant-like Effect of Ethanol Extract of Daylily Flowers (金針花 Jīn Zhēn Huā) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chang, Hui-Chi; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the prediction of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) report, depression will be the highest burden disease by the year 2030. Daylily flower (金針花 Jīn Zhēn Huā ; the flower of Hemerocallis fulva) is traditionally used for soothing in Chinese dietary therapy. The major flavonoid of daylily flowers, rutin, is also characterized to be an antidepressant. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of daylily flowers (DFEtoH) and rutin by forced swimming test (FST) and neurotransmitter metabolism of brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala). Results show that either short- or long-term tests, the extract and rutin significantly reduce the immobility time and increased swimming time of FST, which are compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). The extract and rutin also increase the serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine concentration of these brain regions (P < 0.05). In long-term tests, the daylily flowers extract markedly increased serotonin concentration and reduced serotonin turnover rate in these brain regions but not frontal cortex. In conclusion, present data illustrated that DFEtoH does have antidepressant-like effects possibly via the regulation of serotonergic system. Moreover, rutin might be playing a very important role in the antidepressant-like effects of DFEtoH. PMID:24716156

  8. A novel concept for the treatment of couperosis based on nanocrystals in combination with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    PubMed

    Pyo, Sung Min; Meinke, Martina; Klein, Anja F; Fischer, Tanja C; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-08-20

    For the post laser treatment of couperosis a new dermal formulation was developed combining three actives: vitamin K1, A1 and rutin, where both vitamins were incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the poorly soluble antioxidant rutin formulated as nanocrystal. All three formulations were stable over 6 months either on their own or after their incorporation into a hydrogel. Vitamin A1 at 0.3% in emulsions shows local skin irritation due to very rapid release. By forming SLN, prolonged release with less irritation potential but deeper penetration was achieved in porcine ear skin. Due to the nanosized rutin, the new hydrogel showed clearly increased antioxidant activity, representing a stronger protection potential against reactive oxygen species (ROS), compared to marketed anti-redness products with rutin as raw drug powder or water-soluble derivative. In addition, rutin nanocrystals showed up to 5 times pronounced penetration compared to μm-sized raw drug powder. The orientating in-vivo case study revealed a three to six times faster recovery after laser treatment of couperosis by twice daily application of the new hydrogel, regarding scabbed-over areas and erythema. Continued use of the new gel also showed preventive properties against recurrences of veins for at least 8 month. PMID:27265313

  9. Inhibitory effect of Salicornia europaea on the marine alga Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Yongqing; Nie, Lingling; Lv, Sulian; Kuang, Tingyun; Li, Yinxin

    2012-06-01

    Exploiting the negative biochemical interference between plants and algal species has been suggested as a method to control harmful algal blooms. In this work, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the salt marsh halophyte Salicornia europaea against the marine alga Skeletonema costatum. S. europaea suppressed the growth of S. costatum in a nutrient-sufficient co-culture system, indicating that the inhibition of algal growth was because of the phytotoxic effect of S. europaea, rather than nutrient competition. We tested aqueous and organic extracts from S. europaea roots against S. costatum. The organic extracts inhibited growth and affected the cell size and chlorophyll a content of S. costatum in a dose-dependent manner. Among the three tested organic extracts, the methanol extract had the greatest effects on S. costatum, followed by butanol extract, and then the chloroform extract. Two flavonoids, rutin and quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, were identified in the methanol extract by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of rutin was much higher than that of quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside. In an algal bioassay, rutin inhibited the growth of S. costatum and the inhibitory effect increased with increasing rutin concentration and with decreasing initial algal density. Therefore, we concluded that S. europaea negatively affects the growth of S. costatum, and that rutin, a metabolite of S. europaea, may play a role in this inhibitory effect. PMID:22744186

  10. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. PMID:26213075

  11. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

  12. Association between Paraoxonases Gene Expression and Oxidative Stress in Hepatotoxicity Induced by CCl4

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Mohamed M.; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; Al-Harbi, Naif O.; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Alsurayea, Saad M.; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced liver injuries in rat model. Methods. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was the control group and received dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and olive oil. Group II received rutin. Groups III was treated with CCl4. Group IV was administered rutin after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Liver enzymes level, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. The genes expression levels were monitored by real time RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Results. CCl4 group showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid profile and a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), paraoxonase-3 (PON-3), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABAC1) genes expression levels. Interestingly, rutin supplementation completely reversed the biochemical and gene expression levels induced by CCl4 to control values. Conclusion. CCl4 administration causes aberration of genes expression levels in oxidative stress pathway resulting in DNA damage and hepatotoxicity. Rutin causes hepatoprotective effect through enhancing the antioxidant genes. PMID:25478064

  13. Anti microbial and anti-oxidant properties of the isolated compounds from the methanolic extract from the leaves of Tectona grandis.

    PubMed

    Nayeem, Naira; Karvekar, Md

    2011-09-01

    The compounds Gallic acid (GA), rutin(R), quercitin (Q), ellagic acid (EA) and sitosterol(S) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis. These compounds were subjected to antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The zone of inhibition of isolated compounds was evaluated by cup plate method against bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Eschericia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and fungi Candida albicans. The anti oxidant activity of the extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated by using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Rutin has shown significant anti microbial activity against both the gram positive and gram negative bacteria when compared to the other compounds. The results of the anti oxidant activity revealed that quercitin showed good activity followed by rutin gallic acid, ellagic acid and sitosterol. The difference in both these activities of the isolated compounds was attributed to the number and position of the phenolic OH groups. PMID:24826018

  14. Corrective effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake on biochemical and genotoxical parameters in mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; da Silva, Juliana; Daumann, Francine; Dajori, Ana Luiza Formentin; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; de Lira, Fabio; Campos, Fernanda; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Côrrea, Dione Silva; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Acerola contains high levels of vitamin C and rutin and shows the corresponding antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress on the other hand is an important factor in the development of obesity. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and antigenotoxic effects of acerola juice in different stages of maturity (unripe, ripe and industrial) and its main pharmacologically active components vitamin C and rutin, when given as food supplements to obese mice. Initial HPLC analyses confirmed that all types of acerola juice contained high levels of vitamin C and rutin. DPPH tests quantified the antioxidant properties of these juices and revealed higher antioxidant potentials compared to pure vitamin C and rutin. In an animal test series, groups of male mice were fed on a standard (STA) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The latter consisted of a variety of supermarket products, rich in sugar and fat. This CAF diet increased the feed efficiency, but also induced glucose intolerance and DNA damage, which was established by comet assays and micronucleus tests. Subsequently, CAF mice were given additional diet supplements (acerola juice, vitamin C or rutin) for one month and the effects on bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, and brain were examined. The results indicated that food supplementation with ripe or industrial acerola juice led to a partial reversal of the diet-induced DNA damage in the blood, kidney, liver and bone marrow. For unripe acerola juice food supplementation, beneficial effects were observed in blood, kidney and bone marrow. Food supplementation with vitamin C led to decreased DNA damage in kidney and liver, whereas rutin supplementation led to decreased DNA damage in all tissue samples observed. These results suggest that acerola juice helps to reduce oxidative stress and may decrease genotoxicity under obesogenic conditions. PMID:24296107

  15. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  16. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat) Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD. PMID:22548048

  17. Safety and efficacy evaluation of gelatin-based nanoparticles associated with UV filters.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Areias; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Mariz, Inês Fátima Afonso; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rosado, Catarina; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-04-01

    The safety and efficacy assessment of nanomaterials is a major concern of industry and academia. These materials, due to their nanoscale size, can have chemical, physical, and biological properties that differ from those of their larger counterparts. The encapsulation of natural ingredients can provide marked improvements in sun protection efficacy. This strategy promotes solubility enhancement of flavonoids and yields an improved active ingredient with innovative physical, physicochemical and functional characteristics. Rutin, a flavonoid, has chemical and functional stability in topical vehicles exerting a synergistic effect in association with ultraviolet (UV) filters. However, the solubility of rutin is a limiting factor. Additionally, this bioactive compound does not have tendency to permeate across the stratum corneum. As an alternative to common synthetic based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles were designed. The present study investigated the pre-clinical safety of gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) using an in vitro method and also assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the association of GNPs with three commonly used chemical UV filters (ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and methoxydibenzoylmethane). The non-irritant and adequate safety profile under sun-exposed skin conditions of the nanomaterials and the emulsions qualified the products for clinical efficacy assays. The in vivo results indicated that the GNPs increased the antioxidant protection of the emulsions developed. However, the presence of rutin in the nanosized material did not enhance performance on the SPF test. In conclusion, these findings characterized the nanomaterials as an innovative platform for multifunctional bioactive sunscreens. PMID:26613861

  18. Analysis of phenolics in wine by high performance thin-layer chromatography with gradient elution and high resolution plate imaging.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Hettiarachchi, Chandima G; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Health benefits of wine, especially with red wine, have been linked to the presence of a wide range of phenolic antioxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with high resolution digital plate images to visually compare multiple wine samples simultaneously on a single chromatographic plate and to quantify levels of gallic acid, caffeic acid, resveratrol and rutin, as representatives of the four different classes of phenolics found in wines. We also wanted to investigate the contribution of the investigated phenolic compounds to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the wine samples. The average concentrations of caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and rutin in the red wines were 2.15, 30.17, 0.59 and 2.47 mg/L respectively with their concentration below limit of quantification in the white wine samples. The highest concentration of resveratrol and rutin is found in the Cabernet and Shiraz wine samples. The amounts of gallic acid are correlated with TPC (r=0.58). Italian wines have the highest correlation between TPC and TAC (r=0.99) although they do not contain detectable amounts of resveratrol, they contain significant amount of rutin. Therefore, antioxidant properties might be associated with the presence of flavanols in these wines. PMID:25255450

  19. Isolation and identification of biologically active compounds from Forsythia viridissima flowers.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides, rutin and isoquercitrin, lignan glycosides, arctiin and matairesinoside, as well as phenylethanoid verbascoside (= acteoside), ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol have been isolated from the flowers of Forsythia viridissima. Two other isolated substances were characterized respectively as a wax and a hydrocoloidal polysaccharide consisting of galactose, galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, xylose, and rhamnose. PMID:15481244

  20. Breeding of ‘Manten-Kirari’, a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar ‘Manten-Kirari’, whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line ‘f3g-162’ (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with ‘Hokkai T8’ (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. ‘Manten-Kirari’ had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of ‘Hokkai T8’. Dough prepared from ‘Manten-Kirari’ flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in ‘Hokkai T8’ dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in ‘Hokkai T8’, whereas no panelists reported bitterness in ‘Manten-Kirari’. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of ‘Manten-Kirari’ were similar to those of ‘Hokkai T8’, which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, ‘Manten-Kirari’ is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  1. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin. PMID:25829633

  2. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: By scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuguo, Deng; Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important.

  3. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  4. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  5. Flavonoids from leaves of Olea europaea L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    de Laurentis, N; Stefanizzi, L; Milillo, M A; Tantillo, G

    1998-01-01

    We isolated and identified the following flavonoid compounds from the dried leaves of some blooming cultivars of Olea europaea L.: hesperidin, rutin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol. The structure of the isolated flavonoids was determined by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HPLC. PMID:9872014

  6. Radioprotective effects in vivo of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves against X-ray-induced chromosomal damage: comparative study versus several flavonoids and sulfur-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Lorente, J; Alcaraz, M

    2002-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of a polyphenolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaves (OL); the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, which are widely used as pharmaceuticals; and the sulfur-containing compounds dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, evaluating the reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse before and after X-ray irradiation. With treatment before X-irradiation, the most effective compounds were, in order, rutin > DMSO > OL > PTU > diosmin. These results showed, for the polyphenols studied, a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.965) between anticlastogenic activity and antioxidant capacity. The magnitude of protection with treatment after X-irradiation were lower, and the most effective compounds were, in order, OL > diosmin > rutin; DMSO and PTU lacked radioprotective activity. Therefore, OL is the only substance that showed a significant anticlastogenic activity both before and after X-ray irradiation treatments. Structurally, the free oxygen radicals and lipoperoxyradicals scavenging capacity and, consequently, the anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic compounds are based principally on the presence of specific functional groups, mainly catechol groups (rutin, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin), that also increase the stability of the aroxyl-polyphenol radical generated in the above processes. PMID:12495584

  7. Investigation of the free radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ellnain-Wojtaszek, M; Kruczyński, Z; Kasprzak, J

    2003-02-01

    The free radical scavenging activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been determined by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method. The investigation has also included selected constituents of G. biloba leaves, protocatechuic and p-coumaric acids, quercetin, rutin, isoginkgetin and (+)-catechin. PMID:12628386

  8. Characterization of putative receptors specific for quercetin on bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Becker, C.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates (R-BSA), quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells (SMC). To investigate whether there are binding sites or receptors for these polyphenol-containing molecules on SMC, the authors have synthesized /sup 125/I-labeled rutin-bovine serum albumin ((/sup 125/I)R-BSA) of high specific activity (20 Ci/mmol). SMC were isolated from a bovine thoracic aorta and maintained in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% calf serum in culture. These SMC at early subpassages were suspended (3-5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated with (/sup 125/I)R-BSA (10 pmol) in the presence or absence of 200-fold unlabeled R-BSA, TGP, BSA, rutin, quercetin or related polyphenols, and catecholamines. Binding of (/sup 125/I)R-BSA to SMC was found to be reproducible and the radioligand was displaced by R-BSA, and also by TGP, rutin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, but not by BSA, ellagic acid, naringin, hesperetin, dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. The binding was saturable, reversible, and pH-dependent. These results demonstrate the presence of specific binding sites for quercetinon arterial SMC.

  9. Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle with Antioxidants as a New Carrier That Generates Lower Oxidative Stress Impact on Cells.

    PubMed

    Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Rahmani, Saher; Lauret, Céline; Morena, Marion; Bidel, Luc Philippe Régis; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Balaguer, Patrick; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Charnay, Clarence; Badia, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were covalently coated with antioxidant molecules, namely, caffeic acid (MSN-CAF) or rutin (MSN-RUT), in order to diminish the impact of oxidative stress induced after transfection into cells, thus generating safer carriers used for either drug delivery or other applications. Two cellular models involved in the entry of NPs in the body were used for this purpose: the intestinal Caco-2 and the epidermal HaCaT cell lines. Rutin gave the best results in terms of antioxidant capacities preservation during coupling procedures, cellular toxicity alleviation, and decrease of ROS level after 24 h incubation of cells with grafted nanoparticles. These protective effects of rutin were found more pronounced in HaCaT than in Caco-2 cells, indicating some cellular specificity toward defense against oxidative stress. In order to gain more insight about the Nrf2 response, a stable transfected HaCaT cell line bearing repeats of the antioxidant response element (ARE) in front of a luciferase reporter gene was generated. In this cell line, both tBHQ and quercetin (Nrf2 agonists), but not rutin, were able to induce, in a dose-dependent fashion, the luciferase response. Interestingly, at high concentration, MSN-RUT was able to induce a strong Nrf2 protective response in HaCaT cells, accompanied by a comparable induction of HO-1 mRNA. The level of these responses was again less important in Caco-2 cells. To conclude, in keratinocyte cell line, the coupling of rutin to silica nanoparticles was beneficial in term of ROS reduction, cellular viability, and protective effects mediated through the activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. PMID:27367273

  10. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption. PMID:24425891

  11. On the mechanism of antithrombotic action of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, R J; Korbut, R; Robak, J; Swies, J

    1987-02-01

    Flavonols (quercetin and rutin) and flavanes (cyanidol and meciadonol) were studied for their effect on non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase activities, binding to albumin and platelet membranes. These biochemical properties of four flavonoids were compared with respect to their antithrombotic action in vivo and their efficacy at influencing the platelet-endothelium interaction in vitro. All four flavonoids inhibited the ascorbate-stimulated formation of malondialdehyde by boiled rat liver microsomes (quercetin greater than rutin approximately cyanidol approximately meciadonol) and inhibited platelet lipoxygenase activity (quercetin greater than cyanidol greater than meciadonol greater than rutin) whereas only flavonols, but not flavanes, stimulated cyclo-oxygenase and were bound to platelet membranes. The same two flavonols dispersed platelet thrombi which were adhering to the rabbit aortic endothelium in vitro (EC50 for quercetin was 80 nM and for rutin 500 nM) and prevented platelets from aggregation over blood-superfused collagen strip in vivo (ED50 for quercetin was 5 nmol/kg and for rutin 33 nmol/kg i.v.). Cyanidol and meciadonol were not effective as anti-thrombotic agents. It is concluded that activated platelets adhering to vascular endothelium generate lipid peroxides and oxygen-free radicals which inhibit endothelial biosynthesis of prostacyclin and destroy endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Flavonols are anti-thrombotic because they are selectively bound to mural platelet thrombi and owing to their free radical scavenging properties resuscitate biosynthesis and action of endothelial prostacyclin and EDRF. Thus, flavonols release the thrombolytic and vasoprotective endothelial mediators only in these vascular segments which are covered by a carpet of aggregating platelets. PMID:3101704

  12. Flavonoid profiles of three Bupleurum species and in vitro hepatoprotective of activity Bupleurum flavum Forsk.

    PubMed Central

    Gevrenova, Reneta; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Denkov, Nikolay; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bupleurum L. (Aspiaceae) species are used as herbal remedy in Chinese traditional medicine. Objective: The aim was to investigate the flavonoids in three annual European Bupleurum species, including B. baldense, B. affine and B. flavum, and to test their antioxidant and possible hepatoprotective effects. Materials and Methods: Flavonoids from the methanol-aqueous extracts were quantified by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography. Bupleurum extracts (1–220 mg/ml) were tested for their antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS assays, as well as on isolated liver rat microsomes. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of B. flavum flavonoid (BFF) mixture and rutin, and narcissin, isolated from the same mixture, were evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) toxicity models in isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Narcissin was the dominant flavonol glycoside in B. flavum being present at 24.21 ± 0.19 mg/g, whilst the highest content of rutin (28.63 ± 1.57 mg/g) was found in B. baldense. B. flavum possessed the strongest DPPH (IC50 22.12 μg/ml) and ABTS (IC50 118.15 μg/ml) activity. At a concentration 1 mg/ml of BFF (rutin 197.58 mg/g, narcissin 75.74 mg/g), a stronger antioxidant effect in microsomes was evidenced in comparison with silymarin, rutin and narcissin. The hepatoprotective effect of BFF significantly reduced the elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde, and ameliorated glutathione, being most active in t-BuOOH-induced injury model when compared with CCl4 toxicity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In BFF, synergism of rutin and narcissin could be responsible for stronger protection against mitochondrial induced oxidative stress. PMID:25709205

  13. Characterisation of honeys according to their content of phenolic compounds using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sergiel, Iwona; Pohl, Pawel; Biesaga, Magdalena

    2014-02-15

    A simple, fast and specific high performance liquid chromatography separation with an electro-spray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry detection in a negative single reaction ion monitoring scan mode was developed and used for the characterization of Polish honeys according to the content of phenolic acids, including caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, homogentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acids, and flavonoids, i.e., apigenin, genistein, hesperetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rhamnetin, rutin, tricetin and quercetin. Target compounds were isolated and pre-concentrated from the honey matrix by means of the solid phase extraction using Strata X (500mg) cartridges. Analysed honeys did not contain tricetin and genistein. Hesperetin was determined for the first time in heather and linden honeys while rutin in rape honey. PMID:24128495

  14. Secondary Metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an Endemic Turkish Species

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  15. Secondary metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species.

    PubMed

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  16. Development and validation of a simple high performance thin layer chromatography method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay to quantify free radical scavenging activity in wine.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to: (a) develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to rapidly assess and compare free radical scavenging activity or anti-oxidant activity for major classes of polyphenolics present in wines; and (b) to investigate relationship between free radical scavenging activity to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the wine samples. The most potent free radical scavengers that we tested for in the wine samples were found to be resveratrol (polyphenolic non-flavonoid) and rutin (flavonoid), while polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) although present in all wine samples were found to be less potent free radical scavengers. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of resveratrol and rutin, while total polyphenolic content was mostly influenced by the presence of the less potent free radical scavengers gallic and caffeic acids. PMID:26616951

  17. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented. PMID:27252586

  18. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp. PMID:24171765

  19. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lian-Xin; Zou, Liang; Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhu, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae) is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn). From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion: The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat. PMID:23930003

  20. Physico-chemical Properties of Supramolecular Complexes of Natural Flavonoids with Biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinchenko, V. M.; Lipkovska, N. O.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Pogorelyi, V. K.

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (a water-soluble biopolymer) and human serum albumin (a globular protein) form supramolecular complexes with natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin in aqueous medium. The interaction with these biomacromolecules (BMM) causes the alteration of flavonoid spectral, protolytic, and other properties; in particular, it essentially increases their solubility. Absorption and solubility measurements revealed the supramolecular compounds of 1:1 stoichiometry for all systems studied. First it was demonstrated experimentally that the interaction with BMM promotes the tautomeric transformation in quercetin molecule. The mechanism of tautomerization via flavonoid molecular structure was discussed. Adsorption of BMM and their supramolecular compounds with flavonoids onto nanosilica was studied as a function of pH, and the properties of the biomacromolecules, flavonoids, and silica surface. It was found that BMM either complexed with quercetin (rutin) or preliminary immobilized on nanosilica increases the flavonoid adsorption.

  1. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    PubMed

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:25532284

  2. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits. PMID:27364042

  3. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Garcia, Luane; Ribeiro Souza, Aparecido; Sanz Lobón, Germán; Dos Santos, Wallans Torres Pio; Alecrim, Morgana Fernandes; Fontes Santiago, Mariângela; de Sotomayor, Rafael Luque Álvarez; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0) was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99), showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds. PMID:27529208

  4. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of ‘most-active fraction’ or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. PMID:25863125

  5. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. PMID:25863125

  6. The caper (Capparis L.): ethnopharmacology, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Nizar; Elfalleh, Walid; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida; Nasri, Nizar

    2011-03-01

    Caper (Capparis L.), a shrub plant with a large natural distribution, is used in traditional medicines to cure various illnesses. Phytochemicals studies have shown the presence of many beneficial compounds such as spermidine, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, stigmasterol, campesterol, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Biological studies reveal important antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. The presented review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of caper plants. PMID:20851750

  7. Effect of several antioxidants on thawed ram spermatozoa submitted to 37°C up to four hours.

    PubMed

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Alvarez-Rodríguez, M; Alvarez, M; Anel, L; de Paz, P; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2012-12-01

    Thawed ram spermatozoa were incubated at 37°C in the presence of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), TEMPOL (TPL), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and rutin (RUT), at 0.1 and 1 mm, in order to test their effects on sperm physiology. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from four rams were thawed, pooled, washed and incubated in TALP-Hepes with 1 mm or 0.1 mm of each antioxidant, performing a replicate with induced oxidative stress (Fe(2+) /ascorbate). Motility (CASA), viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (flow cytometry) were analysed at 2 and 4 h. Lipoperoxidation (MDA production), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA status (TUNEL) were analysed at 4 h. Antioxidants, except DHA 0.1 mm, decreased motility and kinematic parameters, but had little effect on viability or mitochondrial activity. Except 1 mm DHA, the antioxidants reduced ROS at 4 h. Moreover, NAC 1 mm, rutin and TEMPOL reduced ROS and DNA damage in the presence of oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine, rutin 1 mm and TEMPOL reduced lipoperoxidation in the presence of oxidative stress. However, DHA did not affect lipoperoxidation. At 1 mm, DHA increased DNA damage in the absence of oxidative stress. Dehydroascorbic acid effects could arise from spermatozoa having a low capacity for reducing it to ascorbic acid, and it may be tested in the presence of other antioxidants or reducing power. Future research should focus in testing whether the inhibition of motility observed for NAC, rutin and TEMPOL is reversible. These antioxidants might be useful at lower temperatures (refrigerated storage or cryopreservation) when their protective effects could be advantageous. PMID:22372742

  8. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation. PMID:24468619

  9. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids derived from medicinal plants in preventing methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jeferson L.; Posser, Thais; Missau, Fabiana; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; dos Santos, Adair R. S.; Souza, Diogo O.; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Farina, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of three flavonoids (myricetin, myricitrin and rutin) derived from medicinal plants against methyl mercury (MeHg)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with MeHg induced a significant decrease in mitochondrial function, which was correlated with decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The co-incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with myricetin or myricitrin caused a concentration-dependent decrease of MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The flavonoid rutin was ineffective in counteracting MeHg toxicity. Among the three tested flavonoids, myricetin was the most efficient in protecting against MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, myricetin completely blocked MeHg-induced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation and partially prevented MeHg-induced GSH depletion. The ability of myricetin to attenuate MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress appears to be related to its higher scavenging capability when compared to myricitrin and rutin. Overall, the results suggest that MeHg-induced mitotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress. The ability of myricetin to prevent MeHg-induced oxidative damage in brain mitochondria renders this flavonoid a promising molecule for further in vivo studies in the search for potential antidotes to counteract MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21127717

  10. Antioxidative effects and percutaneous absorption of five polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Rubio, Laia; Touriño, Sonia; Martí, Meritxell; Barba, Clara; Fernández-Campos, Francisco; Coderch, Luisa; Parra, José Luís

    2014-10-01

    A new strategy was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effectiveness of five topically applied polyphenols following skin penetration profiles. The antioxidants were the following polyphenol derivatives: epicatechin, resveratrol, rutin, quercetin, and trolox, which was used as the reference antioxidant. The hydrophilic/lipophilic character of these compounds was evaluated, and their antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH method. The percutaneous absorption of these polyphenols was obtained by an in vitro methodology using porcine skin biopsies. This methodology involves the quantification of the antioxidants present in each specific skin layer to evaluate antioxidant effectiveness. The antioxidant activity in each skin layer was also determined by the DPPH method. The results indicated that lipophilic antioxidants (epicatechin, resveratrol, quercetin, and trolox) penetrated deeper into the skin layers, whereas a more hydrophilic compound, rutin, remained on the skin surface. The antioxidant evaluation of each skin compartment suggested that resveratrol and rutin were the most effective topically applied compounds in view of their antioxidant activity and their skin penetration profile. PMID:25041725

  11. [Determination of 7 flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo biloba reference extract].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Meng-meng; Fu, Xin-tong; Chen, You-gen; Guo, Hong-zhu

    2015-10-01

    Six flavonol glycosides were isolated and calibrated from Ginkgo biloba extract, and then used to calibrate the content in 2 baiches of G. biloba reference extract, so was rutin. RSD values of rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glu- coside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnop-yranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coum-aroyl) - glucoside were around 1.1%-4.6%, nevertheless, RSD values of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were more than 5%. According to the results, the reference extract of G. biloba can be used as the substitute to determine rutin, kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside instead of corresponding reference substances. So reference extract in place of single component reference in assay is feasible. PMID:27062820

  12. Bioactivities of phytochemicals in Araiostegia yunnanensis (Christ).

    PubMed

    Chen, Longsheng; Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-11-01

    The profile and bioactivity of phytochemicals in Araiostegia yunnanensis (Christ) Cop were investigated. The total flavonoids content in A. yunnanensis is about 84.90 mg/g. By means of HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, the main flavonoids in A. yunnanensis were tentatively identified as myricetin 3-O-rhamnosylglucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-apiosylglucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnosylgalactoside, and luteolin 7-O-glucoside. The extract (0.268 mg/ml total flavonoids) from A. yunnanensis showed very strong superoxide anion radical scavenging potential and reducing power, which are higher than those of rutin (0.25 mg/ml). The extract (0.268 mg/ml total flavonoids) from A. yunnanensis exhibited similar DPPH scavenging activity with rutin (0.25 mg/ml). However, rutin (0.25 mg/ml) showed a significantly higher ABTS radical scavenging effect than that of the extract (0.268 mg/ml total flavonoids) from A. yunnanensis. The methanol extract from A. yunnanensis showed obviously cytotoxic effects on A549 cells and it had no effect against acetylcholinesterase. PMID:25976789

  13. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea.

    PubMed

    Peng, L X; Zou, L; Wang, J B; Zhao, J L; Xiang, D B; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  14. Buckwheat phenolic metabolites in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kreft, Marko

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, F. tataricum Gaertner) groats and flour have been established globally as nutritional foods because of their high levels of proteins, polyphenols and minerals. In some regions, buckwheat herb is used as a functional food. In the present study, reports of in vitro studies, preclinical and clinical trials dealing with the effect of buckwheat and its metabolites were reviewed. There are numerous reports of potential health benefits of consuming buckwheat, which may be in the form of food, dietary supplements, home remedies or possibly pharmaceutical drugs; however, adverse effects, including those resulting from contamination, must be considered. There are reports of antioxidative activity of buckwheat, which contains high levels of rutin and quercetin. On the other hand, both cytotoxic and antigenotoxic effects have been shown. Reduction of hyperlipidaemia, reduction of blood pressure and improved weight regulation have been suggested. Consuming buckwheat may have a beneficial effect on diabetes, since lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin response have been reported. In addition, buckwheat metabolites, such as rutin, may have intrinsic protective effects in preserving insulin signalling. Rutin has also been suggested to have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The literature indicates that buckwheat is safe to consume and may have various beneficial effects on human health. PMID:27046048

  15. Metabolomic Analysis and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Hairy Root Culture of Tartary Buckwheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohua; Bok Kim, Yeon; Romij Uddin, Md; Kim, Sun Ju; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10). A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3’H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species. PMID:23799007

  16. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  17. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

  18. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Norhani; Oskoueian, Armin

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (P < 0.05). The total VFA concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:24175289

  19. Optimization of Pyrogallol Autoxidation Conditions and Its Application in Evaluation of Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Capacity for Four Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-An; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun; Fan, Xue-Hui; García Martín, Juan Francisco

    2016-03-01

    In this study, some factors influencing pyrogallol autoxidation, including EDTA, temperature, and solvent, were systematically investigated to improve its feasibility in the evaluation of antioxidants for the first time. Subsequently, the improved pyrogallol autoxidation conditions were used to assess the superoxide anion scavenging activity (SASA) of four commonly used antioxidants, namely, ascorbic acid, rutin, catechin, and gallic acid, by both the reaction rate method and the terminated method. The results indicate that pyrogallol autoxidation could be successfully used to determine the antioxidant capacity of ascorbic acid and rutin, which correspondingly suggests the feasibility of its use to measure the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of polysaccharides and flavonols, because these compounds have a similar basic structural unit as ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. Unexpectedly, however, pyrogallol autoxidation cannot be used to evaluate the SASA of catechin and gallic acid, although their good antioxidant capacity was confirmed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Together, these results suggest the importance of noting the conditions used for pyrogallol autoxidation when assessing the SASA of targeted compounds. PMID:26997318

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings

    PubMed Central

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27–0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius. PMID:26347795

  1. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Sethiya, Neeraj K; Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Mishra, Shri Hari

    2013-01-01

    Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts. PMID:23662279

  2. Enhanced biocatalysis mechanism under microwave irradiation in isoquercitrin production revealed by circular dichroism and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, An; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Wang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    An efficient and rapid process for isoquercitrin production by hesperidinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rutin was successfully developed under microwave irradiation detecting the affinity by circular dichroism (CD) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. A maximum isoquercitrin yield of 91.5±2.7% was obtained in 10min with the conditions of 10g/L hesperidinase, 2g/L rutin, 30°C and microwave power density 88.9W/L. Enzymatic reaction rate and Vm/Km in the microwave reactor were 6.34-fold higher than in a continuous flow microreactor and 1.24-fold higher than in a biphasic system. CD and SPR analysis results also showed that hesperidinase has a better selectivity and affinity (3.3-fold than in a batch reactor) to generate isoquercitrin under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation greatly improved the reaction efficiency and productivity, leading to a more positive economical assessment. The binding affinity indicates the presence of strong multivalent interactions between rutin and hesperidinase under microwave irradiation. PMID:26803794

  3. Highly Variable Contents of Phenolics in St John's Wort Products Impact Their Transport in the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Model: Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Rationale for Product Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Jiang, Wen; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine content uniformity of phenolics in the St John's Wort (SJW) supplements, and to demonstrate how variations in the product matrices affect their absorption and efflux. LC and LC-MS/MS methods were used to determine the phenolic contents of twelve different products purchased locally or from the internet. Three representative extracts were further submitted to Caco-2 cell transport experiment and transport of rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin were evaluated. The results indicated that twelve different products displayed twelve different HPLC fingerprints, but all products contained the following major compounds: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and amentoflavone. The content uniformity of these major compounds was poor across products, with the smallest difference in the amounts of amentoflavone (2.6 folds) and largest difference in that of isoquercitrin (28.8 folds). The Caco-2 experiments indicated transport of rutin was vectorial, with the permeabilities varied about 2 folds in both direction of transport. The vectorial permeabilities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were similarly different. Use of efflux transporter inhibitors studies suggested that MRP2 was involved in isoquercitrin's efflux and the product matrix affected the extent of its efflux. In conclusion, different SJW supplements had highly variable contents of phenolics, and the variability in product matrix and phytochemical compositions affected the permeabilities of key phenolics across the Caco-2 monolayers, which may further impact their bioavailabilities. Therefore, standardization will be necessary to ensure safe and efficacious use of supplements such as SJW. PMID:20450158

  4. Anti-Fading Media for Live Cell GFP Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Alexey M.; Kudryavtseva, Elena I.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    2012-01-01

    Photostability is one of the most important characteristic of a dye for fluorescence microscopy. Recently we demonstrated that vitamins present in imaging media dramatically accelerate photobleaching of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and many other green fluorescent and photoactivatable proteins. Here we tested all vitamins of commonly used media (such as Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, DMEM) one-by-one and found that only two vitamins, riboflavin and pyridoxal, decrease photostability of EGFP. Thus, DMEM without riboflavin and pyridoxal can be used as an imaging medium, which ensures high photostability of GFPs at the expense of minimal biochemical disturbance. Then, we tested some antioxidants and found that a plant flavonoid rutin greatly enhances photostability of EGFP during live cell microscopy. In complete DMEM, rutin increased EGFP photostability up to the level of vitamin-depleted DMEM. Moreover, being added to vitamin-depleted DMEM, rutin was able to further suppress EGFP photobleaching. Potentially, new medium formulations can be widely used for fluorescence microscopy of GFP-expressing cells and model multicellular organisms in a variety of imaging applications, where photostability represents a challenge. PMID:23285248

  5. Natural and glucosyl flavonoids inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and induce synthetic lethality in BRCA mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, JUNKO; ROYBAL, ERICA J.; BRENTS, COLLEEN A.; UESAKA, MITSURU; AIZAWA, YASUSHI; KATO, TAKAMITSU A.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene. PMID:24317580

  6. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  7. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  8. Flavonoids stimulate cholecystokinin peptide secretion from the enteroendocrine STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Al Shukor, Nadin; Ravallec, Rozenn; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Animal experiments showed that flavonoids might have the potential for an anti-obesity effect by reducing weight and food intake. However, the exact mechanisms that could be involved in these proposed effects are still under investigation. The complex process of food intake is partially regulated by gastrointestinal hormones. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is the best known gastrointestinal hormone to induce satiety signal that plays a key role in food intake regulation. It is released from the endocrine cells (I cell) in response to the ingestion of nutrients into the small intestine. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, rutin and baicalein) on stimulation of CCK release in vitro using enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. In comparison with the control, quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin resulted in a significant increase in CCK secretion with quercetin showing the highest activity. On the other hand, no significant effect was seen by rutin and baicalein. To our knowledge, this is the first report to study the stimulation of CCK peptide hormone secretion from STC-1 cells by quercetin and kaempferol, rutin, apigenin and baicalein. Based on the cell-based results in this work, it can be suggested that the reported activity of flavonoids against food intake and weight could be mediated by stimulation of CCK signal which in turn is responsible for food intake reduction, but future animal and human studies are needed to confirm this conclusion at organism level. PMID:27496247

  9. Population Variability of Main Secondary Metabolites in Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Çirak, Cüneyt; Radusiene, Jolita; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakstas, Valdas; Çamaş, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the variation in the content of naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, phloroglucinol derivatives hyperforin and adhyperforin, the phenolic acids as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and the flavonols, namely, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin, rutin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and biflavonoid amentoflavone among wild H. lydium Boiss. populations from five different growing sites of Turkey for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf and stem tissues. After dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. The populations varied significantly in the content of chemical compounds. Among different plant parts, flowers were found to be main repository site of hyperforin, adhyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, amentoflavone, quercetin, avicularin, rutin and (+)-catechin accumulations whereas rest of the compounds tested were accumulated primarily in leaves in all growing localities. The stems were the least accumulative organ that did not yield hyperforin, adhyperforin and rutin. The chemical diversity among the populations and plant parts is discussed as being possibly the result of different environmental, morphological and genetic factors. PMID:26330888

  10. Biosynthesis of two quercetin O-diglycosides in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    An, Dae Gyun; Yang, So Mi; Kim, Bong Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Various flavonoid glycosides are found in nature, and their biological activities are as variable as their number. In some cases, the sugar moiety attached to the flavonoid modulates its biological activities. Flavonoid glycones are not easily synthesized chemically. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to synthesize quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→2) xyloside and quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→6) rhamnoside (also called rutin) using two uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in Escherichia coli. To synthesize quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→2) xyloside, sequential glycosylation was carried out by regulating the expression time of the two UGTs. AtUGT78D2 was subcloned into a vector controlled by a Tac promoter without a lacI operator, while AtUGT79B1 was subcloned into a vector controlled by a T7 promoter. UDP-xyloside was supplied by concomitantly expressing UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (ugd) and UDP-xyloside synthase (UXS) in the E. coli. Using these strategies, 65.0 mg/L of quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→2) xyloside was produced. For the synthesis of rutin, one UGT (BcGT1) was integrated into the E. coli chromosome and the other UGT (Fg2) was expressed in a plasmid along with RHM2 (rhamnose synthase gene 2). After optimization of the initial cell concentration and incubation temperature, 119.8 mg/L of rutin was produced. The strategies used in this study thus show promise for the synthesis of flavonoid diglucosides in E. coli. PMID:26931782

  11. Anticancer activity of Pupalia lappacea on chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has enthused scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of newer anticancer agents from natural sources. Here we demonstrated the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Pupalia lappacea (L) Juss (Amaranthaceae) (EAPL) on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 cells. Methods Antiproliferative activity of EAPL was determined by MTT assay using carvacrol as a positive control. Induction of apoptosis was studied by annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometer and modulation in protein levels of p53, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c and cleavage of PARP were studied by Western blot analysis. The standardization of the extract was performed through reverse phase-HPLC using Rutin as biomarker. Results The results showed dose dependent decrease in growth of K562 cells with an IC50 of 40 ± 0.01 μg/ml by EAPL. Induction of apoptosis by EAPL was dose dependent with the activation of p53, inhibition of PCNA, decrease in Bcl2/Bax ratio, decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in release of cytochrome c, activation of multicaspase and cleavage of PARP. Further HPLC standardization of EAPL showed presence 0.024% of Rutin. Conclusion Present study significantly demonstrates anticancer activity of EAPL on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (K562) cells which can lead to potential therapeutic agent in treating cancer. Rutin, a known anti cancer compound is being reported and quantified for the first time from EAPL. PMID:23351440

  12. Precision improvement for the analysis of flavonoids in selected Thai plants by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Suntornsuk, Leena; Anurukvorakun, Oraphan

    2005-02-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the analyses of kaempferol in Centella asiatica and Rosa hybrids and rutin in Chromolaena odorata was developed. The optimization was performed on analyses of flavonoids (e.g., rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and apigenin) and organic carboxylic acids (e.g., ethacrynic acid and xanthene-9-carboxylic acid) by investigation of the effects of types and amounts of organic modifiers, background electrolyte concentrations, temperature, and voltage. Baseline separation (R(s) = 2.83) of the compounds was achieved within 10 min in 20 mM NaH2PO4 - Na2HPO4 (pH 8.0) containing 10% v/v ACN and 6% v/v MeOH using a voltage of 25 kV, a temperature of 30 degrees C, and a detection wavelength set at 220 nm. The application of the corrected migration time (t(c)), using ethacrynic acid as the single marker, was efficient to improve the precision of flavonoid identification (% relative standard deviation (RSD) = 0.65%). The method linearity was excellent (r2 > 0.999) over 50-150 microg/mL. Precision (%RSD < 1.66%) and recoveries were good (> 96% and %RSDs < 1.70%) with detection and quantitation limits of 2.23 and 7.14 microg/mL, respectively. Kaempferol in C. asiatica and R. hybrids was 0.014 g/100 g (%RSD = 0.59%) and 0.044 g/100 g (%RSD = 1.04%), respectively, and rutin in C. odorata was 0.088 g/100 g (%RSD = 0.06%). PMID:15690438

  13. Polyphenols protect against protein glycoxidation.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    Glycoxidation belongs to posttranslational protein modifications which underlie pathological sequelae of diabetes and other diseases, and contribute to aging. Search for efficient inhibitors of glycoxidation is therefore of considerable importance. We studied the effect of various polyphenols on the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (90 uM) incubated in vitro with glucose, fructose or ribose (100mM) for 6 days in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Polyphenols have multiple biological actions including antioxidant activity and chelation of transition metal ions. The extent of glycoxidation was evaluated using fluorimetic parameters reflecting formation of Advanced Glycoxidation End Products (AGEs: 325/440nm), dityrosine (330/415nm), formylkynurenine (325/434nm) and kynurenine (365/480nm) and confirmed by estimation of AGEs using an ELISA kit. The results confirmed reliability of easily measurable fluorimetric parameters such as AGEs, dityrosine and formylkynurenine level for estimation of the extent of glycoxidation.All the polyphenols used (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, genistein, naringin, propyl gallate, quercitrin and rutin) decreased the extent of albumin glycoxidation. The extent of protection varied for different sugars (e. g. 1mM genistein: 24.4±1.7 for glucose, 44.5±0.2 for fructose 51.4±0.3 for ribose) The sequence of protective effect was: ferulic acid>caffeic acid>propyl gallate>naringin>quercitrin>genistein for glucose, caffeic acid>ferulic acid>propyl gallate>genistein>quercitrin>rutin>naringin for fructose and genistein>ferulic acid>caffeic acid>rutin>propyl gallate>naringin>quercitrin>gallic acid. These results confirm that polyphenols, natural components of human diet, protect against protein glycation in a model in vitro system. This study was performed within the framework of COSTCM1001 action and was sponsored by Grant 2011/01/M/N23-02065 of the National Science Center of Poland. PMID:26461390

  14. A cupin domain-containing protein with a quercetinase activity (VdQase) regulates Verticillium dahliae's pathogenicity and contributes to counteracting host defenses

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Islam, Md. Rashidul; Adam, Lorne R.; Daayf, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified rutin as part of potato root responses to its pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Rutin was directly toxic to the pathogen at doses greater than 160 μM, a threshold below which many V. dahliae pathogenicity-related genes were up-regulated. We identified and characterized a cupin domain-containing protein (VdQase) with a dioxygenase activity and a potential role in V. dahliae-potato interactions. The pathogenicity of VdQase knock-out mutants generated through Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation was significantly reduced on susceptible potato cultivar Kennebec compared to wild type isolates. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a higher accumulation of flavonols in the stems of infected potatoes and a higher concentration of rutin in the leaves in response to the VdQase mutants as compared to wild type isolates. This, along with the HPLC characterization of high residual and non-utilized quercetin in presence of the knockout mutants, indicates the involvement of VdQase in the catabolism of quercetin and possibly other flavonols in planta. Quantification of Salicylic and Jasmonic Acids (SA, JA) in response to the mutants vs. wild type isolates revealed involvement of VdQase in the interference with signaling, suggesting a role in pathogenicity. It is hypothesized that the by-product of dioxygenation 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinolcarboxylic acid, after dissociating into phloroglucinol and protocatechuoyl moieties, becomes a starting point for benzoic acid and SA, thereby interfering with the JA pathway and affecting the interaction outcome. These events may be key factors for V. dahliae in countering potato defenses and becoming notorious in the rhizosphere. PMID:26113857

  15. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes. PMID:10722101

  16. Isolation from Cussonia barteri of 1'-O-chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1'-O-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Papajewski, S; Vogler, B; Conrad, J; Klaiber, I; Roos, G; Walter, C U; Süssmuth, R; Kraus, W

    2001-11-01

    1'-O-Chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1'-O-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters, have been isolated, in addition to six known quinic acid esters, rutin, and a mixture of saponins, from the methanol extract of Cussonia barteri Seemann (Araliaceae) leaves collected in Cameroon. Structure determination was achieved by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopy. All compounds were tested for inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1, for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Cladosporium cucumerinum, and for haemolytic activity. PMID:11731915

  17. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    PubMed

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24422395

  18. A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam from the flowers of Albizia lebbeck with platelets anti-aggregatory activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Abd-El-Halim, Mohamed Farag; Kalil, Ashraf Taha; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ahmad, Mohamed Shamim; El-Tahir, Kamal Hussin; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Abdel-Mageed, Wael Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Albizia lebbeck. It showed a significant anti-aggregatory activity against adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced guinea-pigs' platelets aggregation in vitro. Six more known compounds were also isolated and fully characterized by measuring 1D and 2D NMR, two of them are the triterpenes β-amyrin and 11α, 12α-oxidotaraxerol, two ceramide derivatives and two flavonoids, kampferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin. PMID:25796149

  19. Antiprotozoal activity of the constituents of Teloxys graveolens.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Fernando; Velázquez, Claudia; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Esquivel, Baldomero

    2003-08-01

    Antiprotozoal activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens led to the isolation of one coumarinic acid derivative, melilotoside, and five flavonoids, pinocembrine, pinostrobin, chrysin, narcissin and rutin. Among them, melilotoside exhibited the most potent activity toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC(50) 12.5 and 16.8 micro g/mL, respectively). Narcissin showed selectivity against E. histolytlica (IC(50) 17.2 micro g/mL). The results support data for the traditional use of T. graveolens in some gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:12916068

  20. Phytochemical and biological investigation of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Amina H; Toaima, Soad M; Hammoda, Hala M; Shawky, Eman; Kinoshita, Eri; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2008-02-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the bulbs and flowers of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB., cultivated in Egypt, was carried out, which resulted in the isolation of four alkaloids, lycorine (1), hippeastrine (2), 11-hydroxyvittatine (3), and (+)-8-O-demethylmaritidine (4), and of two flavonoids, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside (5), and rutin (6). The volatile constituents of the plant flowers were analyzed for the first time by GC/MS, which led to the identification of 26 known compounds (Table 1). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether extract of the flowers of H. littoralis was investigated. PMID:18293433

  1. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers. PMID:26471679

  2. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  3. Countercurrent assisted quantitative recovery of metabolites from plant-associated natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Garzon, Jahir; Friesen, J Brent; Zhang, Yu; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-07-01

    NAtural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are chemically simple but physiologically important plant constituents that exhibit unique solubilizing properties of other metabolites, including bioactive constituents. The high polarity of NADES introduces a challenge in the ability of conventional solid-support based chromatography to recover potential bioactive metabolites. This complicates the systematic explanation of the NADES' functions in botanical extracts. The present study utilizes countercurrent separation (CCS) methodology to overcome the recovery challenge. To demonstrate its feasibility, Glucose-Choline chloride-Water (GCWat, 2:5:5, mole/mole) served as a model NADES, and four widely used marker flavonoids with different polarities (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein) were chosen as model target analytes. In order to prepare GCWat with high consistency, a water drying study was performed. The unique capabilities of the recently introduced CherryOne system, offering volumetric phase metering, were used to monitor the CCS operations. The collected fractions were analyzed using UHPLC and NMR/quantitative NMR. CCS was able to recover the analytes from the NADES matrix with quantitative recoveries of 95.7%, 94.6%, 97.0%, and 96.7% for rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and daidzein respectively. The CCS strategy enables recovery of target metabolites from NADES-containing crude extracts as well as from other chemical mixtures, and moreover offers a means of using NADES as environmentally friendly extraction solvents. PMID:27118320

  4. Separation and determination of flavonoids in three traditional chinese medicines by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Ping; Ma, Lihong; Xu, Kaixuan; Lin, Xiuli

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are important active ingredients in many traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection was employed to separate and detect eight flavonoids, rutin, quercetrin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide, catechin, apigenin, and luteolin, in a home-made capillary electrophoresis device. Under the separation voltage of 2000 V, the eight flavonoids could be completely separated within 33 min in 18 mM borax running buffer at pH 10.2. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes and the detection limits for flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 0.85 μM. Then, the method was applied to separate and determine the flavonoids in three traditional Chinese medicines, hippophae rhamnoides, hypericum perforatum, and cacumen platycladi. Finally, rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, and quercetrin were discovered in these medicines and the concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 9.94 mg/g. The recoveries of flavonoids ranged from 84.7 to 113%, which showed the high reliability of this method. PMID:26829244

  5. A peculiar segmented flow microfluidics for isoquercitrin biosynthesis based on coupling of reaction and separation.

    PubMed

    Gong, An; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Jun; Sheng, Sheng; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-10-01

    A segmented flow containing a buffer-ionic liquid/solvent in a micro-channel reactor was applied to synthesize isoquercitrin by the hesperidinase-catalyzed selective hydrolysis of rutin, based on a novel system of reaction coupling with separation. Within the developed microchannel reactor with one T-shaped inlet and outlet, the maximum isoquercitrin yield (101.7 ± 2.6%) was achieved in 20 min at 30 °C and 4 μL/min. Compared with a continuous-flow reactor, reaction rate was increased 4-fold due to a glycine-sodium hydroxide:[Bmim][BF4]/glycerol triacetate (1:1, v/v) system that formed a slug flow in microchannel and significantly increased mass transfer rates. The mass transfer coefficient significantly increased and exhibited a linear relationship with the flow rate. Hesperidinase could be efficiently reused at least 5 times, without losing any activity. The bonding mechanism and secondary structure of hesperidinase indicated that hesperidinase had a greater affinity to rutin at a production rate of 4 μL/min in this segmented flow microreactor. PMID:26163760

  6. A rapid RP-HPTLC densitometry method for simultaneous determination of major flavonoids in important medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gupta, Ajai P; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, Vijay K

    2007-08-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of flavonoids in herbal extracts Bauhinia variegata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Lonicera japonica, Rosa bourboniana, Rosa brunonii, and Rosa damascena. The HPTLC of flavonoids was performed on RP-18 F(254) TLC plates with dual run, water (5% formic acid)/methanol (70:30) and water (5% formic acid)/methanol (50:50) as mobile phases. Densitometric determination of flavonoids was performed at lambda = 280 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r(2 )= 0.998 +/- 0.0003 in the concentration range of 150-800 ng/spot for apigenin and rutin and 200-1000 ng/spot for quercetin, luteolin, and quercitrin with respect to peak area. The average recovery for apigenin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin, and quercitrin was 97-99.8% indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for determination of flavonoids. PMID:17654615

  7. Reversed phase-HPLC for rapid determination of polyphenols in flowers of rose species.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Gupta, Ajai P; Kaul, Vijay K

    2008-02-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, robust, and improved HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of 10 polyphenols, namely gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, m-coumaric acid, quercitrin, myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol in fresh flowers of Rosa bourboniana and R. brunonii and in both fresh flowers and marc (left after industrial distillation of rose oil) of R. damascena. Six polyphenols, gallic acid, rutin, quercitrin, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, were detected and quantified in all extracts. The chromatographic separation of 10 polyphenols was achieved in less than 16 min by RP-HPLC (Phenomenex, Luna C18 (2) column, 5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm) using linear gradient elution of water and acetonitrile (0.02% trifluroacetic acid) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min at lambda 280 nm. Standard calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.39-500 microg/mL. Good results were achieved with respect to repeatability (RSD <3%) and recovery (98.6-100.8%). The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, LOD, and LOQ. PMID:18172921

  8. Distinctive Metabolism of Flavonoid between Cultivated and Semiwild Soybean Unveiled through Metabolomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae-Yong; Kang, Young-Gyu; Yun, Bohyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Hong, Young-Shick

    2016-07-27

    Soybeans are an important crop for agriculture and food, resulting in an increase in the range of its application. Recently, soybean leaves have been used not only for food products but also in the beauty industry. To provide useful and global metabolite information on the development of soy-based products, we investigated the metabolic evolution and cultivar-dependent metabolite variation in the leaves of cultivated (Glycine max) and semiwild (G. gracilis) soybean, through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach, as they grew from V (vegetative) 1 to R (reproductive) 7 growth stages. The levels of primary metabolites, such as sucrose, amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were decreased both in the G. gracilis and G. max leaves. However, the secondary metabolites, such as pinitol, rutin, and polyphenols, were increased while synthesis of glucose was elevated as the leaves grew. When metabolite variations between G. gracilis and G. max are compared, it was noteworthy that rutin and its precursor, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, were found only in G. gracilis but not in G. max. Furthermore, levels of pinitol, proline, β-alanine, and acetic acid, a metabolite related to adaptation toward environmental stress, were different between the two soybean cultivars. These results highlight their distinct metabolism for adaptation to environmental conditions and their intrinsic metabolic phenotype. This study therefore provides important information on the cultivar-dependent metabolites of soybean leaves for better understanding of plant physiology toward the development of soy-based products. PMID:27356159

  9. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  10. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  11. Protective Efficacy of the Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), from India in Neuronal Hippocampal Cells against Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mamta; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Manickam, Manimaran; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Srivastava, Mousami; Sugadev, Ragumani; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the protective efficiency of extracts of the Indian variety of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (=Cordyceps sinensis) (CSEs) in HT22 (murine hippocampal) cells under hypoxic conditions. Various parameters such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species, levels of endogenous antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, and oxidation of macromolecules were analyzed. In addition, the radical scavenging abilities of hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals were also studied. Antioxidant compounds, ascorbic acid, hesperidin, and rutin were quantified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The information acquired from high-performance thin-layer chromatography profiling was subjected to principal component analysis for data clustering. Findings of this research revealed that ascorbic acid and rutin were highest in aqueous CSE, whereas the maximum amount of hesperidin was found in 25% alcoholic CSE. In vitro studies showed that all the CSEs protected HT22 cells well by upregulating the level of endogenous antioxidants and preventing the oxidation of lipids and proteins. These extracts also reduced the amount of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors on par with the normoxic control with more or less equal protection in the cells under hypoxia, and indicated significant radical scavenging potential. PMID:26756295

  12. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  13. Metabolite profiling and expression analysis of flavonoid, vitamin C and tocopherol biosynthesis genes in the antioxidant-rich sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tahira; Kesari, Vigya; Watt, Ian; Wishart, David; Todd, James F; Schroeder, William R; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Krishna, Priti

    2015-10-01

    In this study, phenolic compounds were analyzed in developing berries of four Canadian grown sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) cultivars ('RC-4', 'E6590', 'Chuyskaya' and 'Golden Rain') and in leaves of two of these cultivars. Among phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid was the highest in berries, while gallic acid was predominant in leaves. In the flavonoid class of compounds, myricetin/rutin, kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were detected in berries and leaves. Berries of the 'RC-4' cultivar had approximately ⩾ 2-fold higher levels of myricetin and quercetin at 17.5mg and 17.2 mg/100 g FW, respectively, than the other cultivars. The flavonoid content in leaves was considerably more than in berries with rutin and quercetin levels up to 135 mg and 105 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Orthologs of 15 flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes were identified within the transcriptome of sea buckthorn mature seeds. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of these genes in developing berries indicated relatively higher expression of genes such as CHS, F3'H, DFR and LDOX in the 'RC-4' cultivar than in the 'Chuyskaya' cultivar. Vitamin C levels in ripened berries of the Canadian cultivars were on the high end of the concentration range reported for most other sea buckthorn cultivars. Orthologs of genes involved in vitamins C and E biosynthesis were also identified, expanding the genomic resources for this nutritionally important plant. PMID:26318327

  14. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Jiang, Hao; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit L; Yue, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa. PMID:25525823

  15. In Vitro Gender-Dependent Inhibition of Porcine Cytochrome P450 Activity by Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrand, Bo; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Woll, Felicia; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25685784

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-06-01

    This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719μg/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5μg/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219μg/g dry weight), morin (101±68μg/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42μg/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-γ+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

  17. Antioxidant activity, lipophilicity and extractability of polyphenols from pig skin - development of analytical methods for skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Zillich, Olesya V; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Hasenkopf, Katrin; Eisner, Peter; Kerscher, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Permeation of polyphenols through the stratum corneum barrier is a precondition for the protective action of polyphenols against oxidative skin damage. Prior to in vitro skin permeation experiments, we developed a method for the quantification of polyphenols in pig skin, including organic solvent extraction and HPLC analysis. Catechine hydrate, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid were chosen for this study as representatives of phenolics with different lipophilicity and molecular weight. The antioxidative activities of polyphenols as well as their octanol-water partition coefficients at different pH values were determined. Extraction of polyphenols from pig skin was optimized by variation of solvent composition, homogenization intensity and time, as well as partial exclusion of oxygen during extraction. The highest recovery rates could be reached by extraction with the methanol-water mixture (90:10, v/v), containing 0.2 g/L l-ascorbic acid, after the cryo-milling for 4 min. Recoveries of 72% for total phenolics, 96% for quercetin and protocatechuic acid, 90% for rutin and 74% for trans-resveratrol, were achieved. These extraction parameters will be selected for the polyphenol extraction from pig skin for further in vitro drug permeation studies. PMID:23703300

  18. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation. PMID:25369199

  19. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty-one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Qi, Yadong; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde; Chin, Kit L

    2016-06-01

    The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26394363

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Components from Hawthorn Leaves Flavonoids in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shourong; Yan, Huiyu; Niu, Kai; Zhang, Sixi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive, and throughout liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven flavonoid compounds, namely, rutin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, hyperoside, vitexin, shanyenoside A and quercetin in rat plasma after intravenous administration of hawthorn leaves flavonoids (HLF) using lysionotin as an internal standard (IS). The target compounds were extracted using protein precipitation by methanol. The detection was achieved by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The optimal mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 609.3/300.1 for rutin, 593.1/413.2 for vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, 577.3/413.2 for vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, 463.2/300.1 for hyperoside, 431.2/311.2 for vitexin, 407.2/245.1 for shanyenoside A, 301.1/151.1 for quercetin and 343.2/313.1 for the IS, respectively. The method was fully validated with respect to specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and stability experiments. A sufficiently sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was first developed in this study to simultaneously evaluate the pharmacokinetics of seven flavonoids in rat plasma following intravenous administration of HLF. PMID:25368407

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Amazon Astrocaryum aculeatum extracts and its association to oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jobim, Micheli Lamberti; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; dos Santos Alves, Camilla Filippi; Oliveira, Raul Moreira; Mostardeiro, Clarice Pinheiro; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; de Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Manica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2014-04-01

    Several compounds present in fruits as polyphenols are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. These proprieties are relevant mainly in tropical areas, as Amazonian region where infectious are highly prevalent. Therefore, this study investigated the antimicrobial activity of tucumã Amazonian fruit against 37 microorganisms. The potential role of oxidative metabolism imbalance was also studied as causal mechanism of antimicrobial activity. The results showed antibacterial effect of pulp and peel tucumã hydro-alcoholic extracts on three Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes) and antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial contribution of main chemical compounds (quercetin, rutin, β-carotene and gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids) found in tucumã extracts was also investigated showing an inhibitory effect depending of the organism mainly by quercetin in bacteria and rutin in C. albicans. Analysis of kinetic of DNA releasing in extracellular medium by fluorescence using DNA Pico Green assay(®) and reactive oxygen species production (ROS) showed potential oxidative imbalance contribution on tucumã inhibitory effect. In B. cereus and C. albicans this effect was clear since after 24h the ROS levels were higher when compared to negative control group. In conclusion, tucumã extracts present antimicrobial activity to four microorganisms that have large problems of drug resistance, and the possible mechanism of action of this Amazon fruit is related to REDOX imbalance. PMID:23870852

  2. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains. PMID:26808488

  3. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry. PMID:26270801

  4. Metabolomics-Based Screening of Biofilm-Inhibitory Compounds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Burdock Leaf.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaixiang; Tang, Yuxia; Song, Xinyi; Wang, Hongxin

    2015-01-01

    Screening of anti-biofilm compounds from the burdock leaf based on metabolomics is reported here. The crystal violet assay indicated 34% ethanol elution fraction of burdock leaf could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 mg·mL(-1). Then, the chemical composition of burdock leaf fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and 11 active compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ursolic acid, rutin, cynarin, luteolin, crocin, benzoic acid, and Tenacissoside I) were identified. Lastly, UPLC-MS analysis was employed to obtain the metabolic fingerprints of burdock leaf fractions before and after inhibiting the biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The metabolic fingerprints were transformed to data, analyzed with PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and the peaks whose area was significantly changed were found out. Thus, 81 compounds were screened as potential anti-biofilm ingredients. Among them, rutin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were identified and confirmed as the main anti-biofilm compounds in burdock leaf. The study provided basic anti-biofilm profile data for the compounds in burdock leaf, as well as provided a convenient method for fast screening of anti-biofilm compounds from natural plants. PMID:26370951

  5. Characterization of bioactive agents in five types of marketed sprouts and comparison of their antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic effects in fructose-loaded SHRs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kozo; Koyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Ryuya; Kitahara, Takashi; Nakajima, Takero; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are important precursors of cardiovascular disease. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic potential of five types of sprouts in fructose-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Powdered sprouts (PSs) were produced from mung bean, broccoli, radish, and buckwheat sprouts and germinated soybeans by lyophilization. The PSs were analyzed for nutritional composition and bioactive agents (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], coenzyme Q10 [CoQ10], rutin, and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate [IP6]) and functionally tested in SHRs given water containing 25 % fructose and diets containing 30 % PS for 46 days. All PSs were nutritionally rich in protein and dietary fiber. CoQ10, GABA/rutin, and GABA/IP6 were abundant in broccoli, buckwheat, and germinated soybean PSs, respectively. Mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat PSs caused significant reductions in heart rates and/or serum triglycerides. Mung bean PS also significantly reduced serum total cholesterol. These data supported the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic potential of mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat sprouts. PMID:26787977

  6. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

  7. Review of anticancer mechanisms of isoquercitin

    PubMed Central

    Orfali, Guilherme di Camillo; Duarte, Ana Carolina; Bonadio, Vivien; Martinez, Natalia Peres; de Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Carvalho, Patricia Oliveira; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    This review was based on a literature search of PubMed and Scielo databases using the keywords “quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, isoquercitin (IQ), quercetin-3-glucoside, bioavailability, flavonols and favonoids, and cancer” and combinations of all the words. We collected relevant scientific publications from 1990 to 2015 about the absorption, bioavailability, chemoprevention activity, and treatment effects as well as the underlying anticancer mechanisms of isoquercitin. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. The subclass of flavonols receives special attention owing to their health benefits. The main components of this class are quercetin, rutin, and IQ, which is a flavonoid and although mostly found as a glycoside, is an aglycone (lacks a glycoside side chain). This compound presents similar therapeutic profiles to quercetin but with superior bioavailability, resulting in increased efficacy compared to the aglycone form. IQ has therapeutic applications owing to its wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic. The protective effects of IQ in cancer may be due to actions on lipid peroxidation. In addition, the antitumor effect of IQ and its underlying mechanism are related to interactions with Wnt signaling pathway, mixed-lineage protein kinase 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, apoptotic pathways, as well proinflammatory protein signaling. This review contributed to clarifying the mechanisms of absorption, metabolism, and actions of IQ and isoquercitrin in cancer. PMID:27081641

  8. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Some Medicinal Herbs by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Matei, Alina O; Gatea, Florentina; Radu, Gabriel L

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry in negative mode method was developed for the identification and quantitative determination of 13 individual phenolics (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, fisetin, isorhamnetin, hesperidin and chrysin) from ethanolic extracts [30, 50 and 70% (w/v)] of Calendula officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, Galium verum and Origanum vulgare and some commercial extracts of these medicinal herbs. Correlation coefficients (r(2)) from calibration curves for all the compounds were between 0.9971 and 0.9996. Limit of detection was in the range of 0.070-0.280 µg/mL and limit of quantification was from 0.233 to 0.932 µg/mL. The method was partially validated and the results obtained are: the intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were within 0.086 and 2.821% and recovery values vary from 95.84% (coumaric acid) to 103.20% (rutin). PMID:25583972

  9. Casein/pectin nanocomplexes as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery systems prepared with natural biopolymers are of particular interests for applications in food, pharmaceutics and biomedicine. In this study, nanocomplex particles of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and pectin were fabricated and investigated as potential oral delivery vehicles. Nanocomplexes were prepared with three mass ratios of NaCas/pectin by acidification using glucono-δ-lactone and thermal treatment. NaCas/pectin at 1:1 mass ratio resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and the smallest and most uniform nanocomplexes. Thermal treatment at 85 °C for 30 min facilitated the formation of stable, compact, and spherical nanocomplexes. Heating not only greatly increased the yield of nanocomplexes but also significantly improved the encapsulation capability of rutin studied as a model compound. Pectin in nanocomplexes delayed the hydrolysis of NaCas by pepsin at gastric conditions and enabled the controlled release of most rutin in simulated intestinal conditions. The nanocomplexes based on food-sourced biopolymers have promising features for oral delivery of nutrients and medicines. PMID:25800678

  10. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress. PMID:25724149

  11. Antioxidant properties and preliminary evaluation of phytochemical composition of different anatomical parts of amaranth.

    PubMed

    Kraujalis, Paulius; Venskutonis, Petras R; Kraujalienė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties of amaranth extracts isolated sequentially by acetone and methanol/water from defatted plant leaves, flowers, stems and seeds were assessed by ABTS(+•), DPPH(•), ORAC and total phenols content (TPC) assays. In addition, antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct QUENCHER method using the same assays. Leaves and flowers of amaranth as well as their extracts possessed the highest antioxidant activities. Radical scavenging capacity in ABTS(+•) assay for leaves, flowers, stems and seeds evaluated by QUENCHER method were 144.24 ± 2.41, 112.33 ± 7.45, 19.05 ± 1.13 and 21.82 ± 1.06 μmol trolox equivalents in 1 g of dry weight, respectively. On-line HPLC-DPPH(•) assay was used to determine the activity of separated compounds and it was observed that rutin was the main radical scavenger in amaranth extracts. Preliminary screening of extract composition was performed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS and rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were identified by measuring their accurate mass and retention time. PMID:23912804

  12. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  13. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  14. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect. PMID:22624330

  15. Monoamine oxidase B and free radical scavenging activities of natural flavonoids in Melastoma candidum D. Don.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Lin, R D; Shen, L Y; Yang, L L; Yen, K Y; Hou, W C

    2001-11-01

    Monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity and free radicals are elevated in certain neurological diseases. Four natural flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, and quercetin, were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Melastoma candidum D. Don. They exhibited an inhibitory effect on MAO-B. These potent flavonoids were purified using bioassay-guided fractionation and were separated by Diaion, Sephadex LH-20, and MCI CHP20P columns. The IC(50) values of the four potent flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, and quercetin on monoamine oxidase were 19.06, 11.64, 3.89, and 10.89 microM and enzyme kinetics analysis revealed apparent inhibition constants (K(i)) of 21.01, 2.72, 1.83, and 7.95 microM, respectively, on the substrate, benzylamine. The four potent compounds also exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as determined using a spin trapping electron spin resonance method. This suggests that the four flavonoids from M. candidum possess both MAO-B inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities. These important properties may be used for preventing some neurodegenerative diseases in the future. PMID:11714358

  16. Combinatorial Activity of Flavonoids with Antibiotics Against Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Cristina; Serra, Sofia C; Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria José; Mcbain, Andrew J; Salgado, António J; Simões, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The use of resistance-modifying agents is a potential strategy that is used to prolong the effective life of antibiotics in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance. Since certain flavonoids are potent bacterial efflux pump inhibitors, we assessed morin, rutin, quercetin, hesperidin, and (+)-catechin for their combined activity with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, oxacillin, and ampicillin against drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Four established methods were used to determine the combined efficacy of each combination: microdilution checkerboard assays, time-kill determinations, the Etest, and dual disc-diffusion methods. The cytotoxicity of the flavonoids was additionally evaluated in a mouse fibroblast cell line. Quercetin and its isomer morin decreased by 3- to 16-fold the minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin against some S. aureus strains. Rutin, hesperidin, and (+)-catechin did not promote any potentiation of antibiotics. Despite the potential cytotoxicity of these phytochemicals at a high concentration (fibroblast IC50 of 41.8 and 67.5 mg/L, respectively), quercetin is commonly used as a supplement for several therapeutic purposes. All the methods, with exception of the time-kill assay, presented a high degree of congruence without any apparent strain specificity. PMID:25734256

  17. Screening dietary flavonoids for the reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohana, S; Ganesan, M; Agilan, B; Karthikeyan, R; Srithar, G; Beaulah Mary, R; Ananthakrishnan, D; Velmurugan, D; Rajendra Prasad, N; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-07-19

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of inhibitors to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Although various screening procedures have been practiced so far to develop first three generations of P-gp inhibitors, their toxicity and drug interaction profiles are still a matter of concern. To address the above important problem of developing safe and effective P-gp inhibitors, we have made systematic computational and experimental studies on the interaction of natural phytochemicals with human P-gp. Molecular docking and QSAR studies were carried out for 40 dietary phytochemicals in the drug-binding site of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of P-gp. Dietary flavonoids exhibit better interactions with homology modeled human P-gp. Based on the computational analysis, selected flavonoids were tested for their inhibitory potential against P-gp transport function in drug resistant cell lines using calcein-AM and rhodamine 123 efflux assays. It has been found that quercetin and rutin were the highly desirable flavonoids for the inhibition of P-gp transport function and they significantly reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assays to paclitaxel in P-gp overexpressing MDR cell lines. Hence, quercetin and rutin may be considered as potential chemosensitizing agents to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. PMID:27216424

  18. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Guangzhi; Li, Nianghui; Yin, Yanyan; Zhu, Baojun; Chen, Meiling; Huang, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying (P > 0.05) and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities. PMID:26904629

  19. Anticancer activity of rhamnoallosan against DU-145 cells is kinetically complementary to coexisting Polyphenolics in Psidium guajava budding leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chou; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Huang, Kuan-Dar; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2009-07-22

    Psidium guajava L. is a valuable farm fruit plant having many medicinal uses. Previously its budding leaves (PE) were shown to contain huge amounts of soluble polyphenolics (SP) including (in mg/g) gallic acid (348), catechin (102), epicatechin (60), rutin (100), quercetin (102), and rutin (100) and to exhibit potent anticancer activity. However, reconstitution of these polyphenolics recovered only 40% of the original bioactivity, and the soluble carbohydrate (SC) portion in PE was suspected to contribute the remaining. PE contained a novel rhamnoallosan, which had a carbohydrate/protein (w/w) ratio = 29.06%/10.27% (=2.83, average molecular mass of 5029 kDa), characteristically evidencing a peptidoglycan, consisting of a composition (mole % ratio) of rhamnose/allose/arabinose/tallose/xylose/fucose/glucose/mannose/galactose = 36.05:24.24:8.76:7.95:7.37:5.90:3.69:3.19:2.85 and of amino acid (in wt %) glycine/leucine/proline/alanine/methionine/isoleucine/valine/histidine/tyrosine/phenylalanine/cysteine/aspartic acid/lysine/glutamic acid = 37.12:12.68:10.05:8.97:5.99:4.89:4.83:4.25:4.05:2.78:1.86:1.10:0.73:0.70. Kinetic analysis showed comparable apparent cell-killing rate coefficients (k(app)) to be 4.03 x 10(3) and 2.92 x 10(3) cells mg(-1) h(-1), respectively, by SP and SC, evidencing the complementary anti-DU-145 bioactivity in nature. PMID:19552430

  20. Electrochemical versus spectrophotometric assessment of antioxidant activity of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) products and individual compounds.

    PubMed

    Gorjanović, Stanislava; Pastor, Ferenc T; Vasić, Radica; Novaković, Miroslav; Simonović, Mladen; Milić, Sonja; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2013-09-25

    Antioxidant (AO) activity of extracts of hop cones (Serbian domestic varieties) and commercial hop products (Saaz, Spalter, Spalter select, and Magnum pellets) was determined by parallel application of recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic and widely used DPPH assay. Correlations between 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and total phenolics (TPC) determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC) (0.99), and between H2O2 scavenging (HPS) and humulone content (H) determined by conductometric method (0.94), total resins (TR) (0.85), and hop storage index (HIS) (-0.90), were found statistically significant at p < 0.05 level while complete lack of HPS correlation with TPC and DPPH was observed. To obtain an insight into differences between results of AO assays applied, activity of individual compounds, prevalent hop phenolics, and bitter acids was determined. By far superior HPS activity of humulone was followed by catechin, quercetin, xanthohumol, lupulone, and rutin. In contrast, DPPH scavenging activity of phenolics (quercetin > catechin > rutin > xantohumol) was found substantially higher than activity of bitter acids. According to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), higher AO activity was ascribed to phenolics, while almost neglecting humulone. Besides reliability, low cost, and an easy-to-handle procedure, an ability to recognize humulone as the major contributor of hop AO activity could allow DC polarographic assay to be applied in analysis of various hop-derived products. PMID:23971792

  1. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-02-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  2. Comprehensive assessment of phenolics and antiradical potential of Rumex hastatus D. Don. roots

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Roots of Rumex hastatus (Polygonaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including liver and lung diseases. In this study, various solvent extracts of R. hastatus roots, like methanolic, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous fractions were assessed through their antioxidant properties in vitro and determination of phenolic contents. Methods Several parameters like DPPH˙, ABTS˙+, ˙OH, H2O2, superoxide free radical scavenging, iron chelating power, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching power, antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated. High Performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was also considered. Results Though all the fractions exhibited dose dependant activity. The samples with the highest activity were the butanol and methanol fractions in all the assays except hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay where chloroform fraction showed the highest scavenging aptitude. On the other hand, aquous fraction showed significant beta carotene linoleic acid, while n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited a lesser antioxidant activity in all the assays. HPLC revealed the presence of rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, vitexin and luteolin. Conclusion These results have to some extent substantiated the use of R. hastatus roots against different diseases, as an excellent basis of potential antioxidant due to the presence of sufficient amount of phenolics such as rutin and luteolin. PMID:24507200

  3. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression in hairy roots of tartary buckwheat under light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Nam-Il; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2014-12-01

    Differential expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in the hairy roots of tartary buckwheat cultivars "Hokkai T8" and "Hokkai T10" were studied over a time course of the light-dark cycle. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system was applied for inducing hairy roots. Further, a total of six phenolic compounds and two anthocyanins were analyzed in the hairy roots which were exposed to both light and dark conditions, and their amounts were estimated by HPLC. The gene expression levels peaked on day 5 of culture during the time course of both dark and light conditions. Notably, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtC4H, FtCHI, FtF3H, FtF3'H-1, and FtFLS-1 were more highly expressed in Hokkai T10 than in Hokkai T8 under dark conditions, among which FtPAL and FtCHI were found to be significantly upregulated, except on day 20 of culture. Significantly higher levels of phenolic compound, rutin, along with two anthocyanins were detected in the hairy roots of Hokkai T10 under both conditions. Furthermore, among all the phenolic compounds detected, the amount of rutin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots was found to be ∼5-fold (59,01 mg/g dry weight) higher than that in the control (12.45 mg/g dry weight) at the respective time periods under light and dark conditions. PMID:25194705

  4. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights. PMID:25660878

  5. Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui

    2015-05-01

    Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion. PMID:25858540

  6. Flow Cytometric Method for the Detection of Flavonoids in Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2016-09-01

    Here, we describe an easy-to-use flow cytometric method using diphenylboric acid 2-amino ethyl ester (DPBA) stain for the detection of flavonoids in cells from human/animal origin. Flavonoid bioavailability and bioactivity depend on structure, conjugation and the cell type to which they are presented. We have studied cellular uptake of five flavonoids with different structures and conjugation forms. First, parameters including fixation method, technical and batch variability, and concentration were optimized. Second, uptake of two aglycones-quercetin and hesperetin-and their corresponding glycosides-rutin and hesperidin-in Caco-2 cells was compared. Third, the aglycone quercetin, glycoside rutin, and glucuronide baicalin were added to the Caco-2, HepG2, and CHO-K1 cell lines at 1, 10, and 20 µM concentrations and cellular uptake was measured after 1, 4, and 7 h. We conclude that quercetin was taken up by cells in a dose-dependent way, and that HepG2 cells had the highest uptake factors, followed by CHO-K1 and Caco-2 cells. Confocal microscopy showed cell type-dependent localization of quercetin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. No uptake of flavonoid glycosides was detected. This flow cytometric method can be used for future research unravelling mechanisms behind flavonoid bioactivity in health and disease at the cellular level. PMID:27280551

  7. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed. PMID:25924532

  8. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    PubMed

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions. PMID:25902978

  9. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of six flavonoids from Fructus Sophorae extract in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lu; Ren, Yanping; Cao, Liang; Sun, Yingguang; Sun, Qian; Sheng, Ning; Yuan, Lin; Zhi, Xuran; Zhang, Lantong

    2012-09-01

    In this study, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of six flavonoids including sophoricoside, genistin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in rat plasma after oral administration of Fructus Sophorae extract using sulfamethalazole as internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C(18) column with a simple linear gradient elution. The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning after electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 431.1/267.9 for sophoricoside and genistin, 269.0/133.0 for genistein, 609.2/300.0 for rutin, 301.0/150.9 for quercetin, 284.9/93.0 for kaempferol and 252.0/155.9 for IS. The total run time was 8.0 min. Full validation of the assay was implemented including specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect. This is the first report on determination of the major flavones in rat plasma after oral administration of Fructus Sophorae extract. The results provided a meaningful basis for the clinical application of this herb. PMID:22867839

  10. Comparison of various easy-to-use procedures for extraction of phenols from apricot fruits.

    PubMed

    Zitka, Ondrej; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Skalickova, Sylvie; Sobrova, Pavlina; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N) using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM), quercitrin (4 µM) and quercetin (4 µM). Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was found in amounts of

  11. New Synthetic Pyrazine Carboxamide Derivatives as Potential Elicitors in Production of Secondary Metabolite in In vitro Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Doležal, Martin; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Kubeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silymarin, an active polyphenolic fraction of Silybum marianum, and high flavonoid content of Fagopyrum possess various interesting biological activities. The substituted pyrazine-2-carboxamides were previously used as effective elicitors of studied secondary metabolites. Objective: To study the effect of new synthetic pyrazine carboxamide derivatives, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and 3-(3-((trifluoromethyl) benzyl) amino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), on flavonolignan and flavonoid production in S. marianum and Fagopyrumes culentum in vitro cultures. Materials and Methods: Callus and suspension cultures were cultured on MS medium containing α-naphtaleneacetic acid or 2,4-D. Three elicitor concentrations for different exposure times were tested. Dried and powdered samples of callus and suspension cultures were extracted with methanol and analyzed by DAD-HPLC. Results: Compound 1 showed as a good elicitor of taxifolin production. The effect on silymarin complex was less visible with a maximum between 24 and 48 h after 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. The detailed analysis showed that silychristin was the most abundant. Compound 2 was effective in rutin production only in callus culture with maximum 24 h and 168 h after application of 3.3756 ×10−3 mol/L concentration and 48 and 72 h after 3.3756 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. Conclusion: From the results of the performed experiments, it can be concluded that compound 1 shows to be suitable elicitor for enhanced production of taxifolin and silychristin in S. marianum, mainly when 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration was used, and compound 2 is suitable for increase rutin production in callus cultures and less appropriate for suspension cultures of F. esculentum. SUMMARY The influence of two new synthetic pyrazine-2-carboxamidesderivatives on secondary metabolite content of Silybum marianum and Fagopyrum esculentum in vitro cultures was tested.In S. marianum, the derivate N-(4

  12. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  13. Research on flavonoids contents in Fructus sophorae with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Sui, Lu-zhi; Lu, Yuan-qi

    2013-11-01

    Genistin, genistein, kaempferol, quercetin and rutin, five kinds of flavonoids in Fructus sophorae, have been analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis with internal standard calibration. Buffer pH and concentration, applied voltage, β-cyclodextrin and ethanol concentration were optimized and the optimum conditions are: 20 mmol/L borax (pH 9.5) with 8 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin and 5% (v/v) ethanol and at a voltage of 25 kV. The contents of five flavonoids in Fructus Sophorae grown in different area of Dezhou, Shandong Province of China were determined by the developed method and with satisfactory results. The distributions of the studied flavonoids were also investigated. PMID:24191317

  14. Flavonoids and biological activities of Jussiaea repens.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M S; Soliman, F M; Shehata, I A; Rabee, M; Fawzy, G A

    2007-05-01

    A new acylated avicularin, namely avicularin 2''-(4'''-O-n-pentanoyl)-gallate (1) along with 12 metabolites have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Jussiaea repens L. (Onagraceae). Their structures were established as trifolin 2''-O-gallate (2), quercetrin (3), guaijaverin (4), reynoutrin (5), juglanin (6), avicularin (7), hyperin (8), trifolin (9), hyperin 2''-O-gallate (10), rutin (11), kaempferol (12) and quercetin (13) on the basis of their chromatographic properties, chemical and spectroscopic evidences. The investigated ethyl acetate extract was found to be non-toxic (LD(50) up to the maximum soluble dose 4 g kg(-1) body wt.) and had significant antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Also some of the isolated flavonoids showed cytotoxic activity against Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells. PMID:17487615

  15. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  16. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  17. Design, synthesis and biological activity of flavonoid derivatives as selective agonists for neuromedin U 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Liang; Li, Ming; Gou, Jiao-Jiao; Ruan, Tian-Yu; Jin, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Ling-Hong; Wu, Liang-Chun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Ying-He; Wen, Ke; Zhao, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Central neuromedin U 2 receptor (NMU2R) plays important roles in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Identification of NMU2R agonists may lead to the development of pharmaceutical agents to treat obesity. Based on the structure of rutin, a typical flavonoid and one of the NMU2R agonists we previously identified from an in-house made natural product library, 30 flavonoid derivatives have been synthesized and screened on a cell-based reporter gene assay. A number of compounds were found to be selective and highly potent to NMU2R. For example, the EC50 value of compound NRA 4 is very close to that of NMU, the endogenous peptide ligand of NMU2R. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that a 3-hydroxyl group in ring C and a 2'-fluoride group in ring B were essential for this class of compounds to be active against NMU2R. PMID:25262941

  18. Application of Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography for the Quantification of Flavonoids in Genista tinctoria Extract

    PubMed Central

    Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was employed to investigate chromatographic behavior of selected flavonoids from their different subgroups differing in polarity. Chromatographic measurements were performed on two different HILIC columns: unmodified silica (Atlantis-HILIC) and zwitterionic sulfoalkylbetaine (SeQuant ZIC-HILIC). Separation parameters such as content and type of organic modifier were studied. On ZIC column retention factors were observed to be inversely proportional to the buffer content in the mobile phase, which is the typical partitioning mechanism. In the case of bare silica column more or less apparent dual retention mechanism was observed, depending on the water component content in the mobile phase. ZIC-HILIC showed better selectivity (in comparison to silica column) with the detection limit of 0.01 mg/L (only for rutin was 0.05 mg/L). Finally, this chromatographic procedure was validated and applied for the determination of some flavonoids in Genista tinctoria L. extract. PMID:27433372

  19. Flavonoids and 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibit the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Sonja; Klinger, Matthias; Solbach, Werner; Laskay, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been suggested to play a pathophysiological role in several autoimmune diseases. Since NET-formation in response to several biological and chemical stimuli is mostly ROS dependent, in theory any substance that inhibits or scavenges ROS could prevent ROS-dependent NET release. Therefore, in the present comprehensive study, several antioxidative substances were assessed for their capacity to inhibit NET formation of primary human neutrophils in vitro. We could show that the flavonoids (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin hydrate, and rutin trihydrate as well as vitamin C and the pharmacological substances N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibited PMA induced ROS production and NET formation. Therefore, a broad spectrum of antioxidative substances that reduce ROS production of primary human neutrophils also inhibits ROS-dependent NET formation. It is tempting to speculate that such antioxidants can have beneficial therapeutic effects in diseases associated with ROS-dependent NET formation. PMID:24381411

  20. Comparative polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Hanganu, Daniela; Olah, Neli Kinga; Benedec, Daniela; Mocan, Andrei; Crisan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Popica, Iulia; Oniga, Ilioara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams. A qualitative and quantitative characterization of the main phenolic compounds from the extracts were carried out using a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant activity towards various radicals generated in different systems was evaluated usingDPPH bleaching method, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and all indicated that G. tinctoria extract was more antioxidant than G. sagittalis extract.That was in good agreement with the total polyphenolic and flavonoidic content.Chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoquercitrin and apigenin were identified in bothspecies. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin and luteolin were found only in G. tinctoria, while quercetin was determined in G. sagittalis. PMID:27005507

  1. Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

  2. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  3. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (p<0.05) on the phenolic content of various aerial parts of buckwheat. In most cases, farming practice significantly (p<0.05) affected the accumulation of phenolics in buckwheat. Organically grown plants usually contained higher amounts of phenolics than those grown under conventional farming conditions. According to a cluster analysis, varieties Panda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics. PMID:27451232

  4. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin. PMID:27592486

  5. Biotransformation of polyphenols in a dynamic multistage gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Sleno, Lekha; Sabally, Kebba; Khairallah, Joelle; Azadi, Behnam; Rodes, Laetitia; Prakash, Satya; Donnelly, Danielle J; Kubow, Stan

    2016-08-01

    A multi-reactor gastrointestinal model was used to digest a mixture of pure polyphenol compounds, including non-flavonoid phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and a flavonoid (rutin) to identify phenolic metabolites and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and compare relative antioxidant capacities following a 24h digestion. Biotransformation of these polyphenols occurred in the colonic compartments generating phenylpropionic, benzoic, phenylacetic and cinnamic acids. Total SCFAs increased in all colonic vessels with a rise in the proportion of propionic to acetic acid. Antioxidant capacity increased significantly in all compartments, but first in the stomach, small intestine and ascending colon. After 24h, the colonic vessels without parent polyphenols, but containing new metabolites, had antioxidant capacities similar to the stomach and small intestine, containing parent compounds. Biotransformation of pure polyphenols resulted in different phenolic metabolite and SCFAs profiles in each colonic segment, with important health implications for these colonic compartments. PMID:26988524

  6. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Palbag, Satadru; Dey, Bijay Kr; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. is popularly known as 'Sarapunkha' in classical Ayurvedic texts. It is a perennial plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. T. purpurea is traditionally used to treat splenomegaly, cirrhosis, cough and cold, abdominal swelling and as an antidote in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of semiglabrin, pongamole, lanceolatins A and B, rutin, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Flavonoids including (+)-tephrorin A and B, (+)-tephrosone, an isoflavone, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin were isolated from the whole plant. Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and insect repellent activity. In the present review, the literature on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. are summarized to August, 2012. PMID:24484589

  7. Adsorption and recognition characteristics of surface molecularly imprinted polymethacrylic acid/silica toward genistein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Baojiao; An, Fuqiang; Xu, Zeqing; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-09-12

    In this paper, on the basis of surface-initiated graft polymerization, a new surface molecular imprinting technique is established by molecular design. And molecularly imprinted polymer MIP-PMAA/SiO2 is successfully prepared with genistein as template. The adsorption and recognition characteristics of MIP-PMAA/SiO2 for genistein are studied in depth by using static method, dynamic method and competitive adsorption experiment. The experimental results show that MIP-PMAA/SiO2 possesses very strong adsorption affinity and specific recognition for genistein. The saturated adsorption capacity could reach to 0.36mmolg(-1). The selectivity coefficients relative to quercetin and rutin are 5.4 and 11.8, respectively. Besides, MIP-PMAA/SiO2 is regenerated easily and exhibits excellent reusability. PMID:25085816

  8. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

  9. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

    PubMed

    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-09-01

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed. PMID:20877208

  10. Comparison of chemiluminescence methods for analysis of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehrman, R.; Amme, M.; Cachoir, C.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of alpha radiolysis influence on the chemistry of geologically disposed spent fuel demands analytical methods for radiolytic product determination at trace levels. Several chemiluminescence methods for the detection of radiolytic oxidants hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are tested. Two of hydrogen peroxide methods use luminol, catalyzed by either μ-peroxidase or hemin, one uses 10-methyl-9-(p-formylphenyl)-acridinium carboxylate trifluoromethanesulfonate and one potassium periodate. All recipes are tested as batch systems in basic conditions. For hydroxyl radical detection luminophores selected are 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide and rutin. Both methods are tested as batch systems. The results are compared and the applicability of the methods for near-field dissolution studies is discussed.

  11. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-03-01

    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively. PMID:25745222

  12. Determination of phenolic compounds in Prunella L. by liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi

    2011-07-15

    Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds. PMID:21498022

  13. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Roots and Fruits of Berberis libanotica.

    PubMed

    El Hosry, Leina; Boyer, Laurent; Garayev, Elnur E; Mabrouki, Fathi; Bun, Sok-Siya; Debrauwer, Laurent; Auezova, Lizette; Cheble, Edmond; Elias, Riad

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen compounds belonging to different chemical classes were characterized in the roots and fruits extracts from Berberis libanotica, using the same HPLC-DAD-MS method. Thirteen were reported, for the first time, from the fruits whereas the roots contained mostly alkaloids of which 3 out of 5 are reported for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of MS data as gallic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), delphinidin (3), oxyacanthine (4), rutin (5), hyperoside (6), berbamine (7), isoquercitrin (8), quercitrin (9), jatrorrhizine (10), palmatine (11), berberine (12), quercetin (13) and luteolin (14). Extracts containing compounds 4 and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against the HT29 cell line with an IC50 of 12.2-26.1 μg/mL. Fruits extracts, due mostly to compounds 1 and 2, showed potent antioxidant activities with an EC50 of 0.0025-0.019 mg/mL. PMID:27319140

  14. [Determination of parasite fauna of chicken in the Van region].

    PubMed

    Orunç, Ozlem; Biçek, Kamile

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parasite fauna of the chicken in Van Province in 2002 and 2003. The material of the present study included endoparasites and ectoparasites determined by rutine parasitological examinations. Direct, flotation and sedimentation techniques for endoparasites were used. The total of endoparasites and ectoparasites were determined as 85% and 76% respectively. The ratios of endoparasites obtained from the chicken were coccidial oocystis 65%, Echinostoma spp. 2%, Davania proglottina 8%, Raillietina spp. 10%, Trichostrongylus tenuis 4%, Dispharynx nasuta 1%, Ascaridia galli 13%, Heterakis gallinarum 15%, Capillaria spp. 30% whereas ratios of ectoparasites were Goniocotes hologaster 32%, Lipeurus heteragraphus 6%, Eomenacanthus stramineus 42%, Menacanthus cornutus 11%, Menopon gallinae 22%. PMID:19598095

  15. Compounds extracted from Phyllantus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.

    PubMed

    Martini, L H; Souza, C R; Marques, P B; Calixto, J B; Yunes, R A; Souza, D O

    2000-02-01

    Glutamate is to be considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter and glutamatergic antagonists present antinoceptive activity. In this study we investigated the effects of the naturally occurring antinociceptive compounds rutin, geraniin and quercetine extracted from Phyllanthus, as well as the diterpene jatrophone, extracted from Jatropha elliptica on the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP [a GTP analogue which binds to extracellular site(s), modulating the glutamatergic transmission] in rat brain membrane. Jatrophone inhibited [3H]glutamate binding and geraniin inhibited [3H]GMP-PNP binding. Quercetine inhibited the binding of both ligands. These results may indicate a neurochemical parameter possibly related to the antinoceptive activity of these natural compounds. PMID:10786704

  16. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group). PMID:24254959

  17. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  18. Effects of single, binary and tertiary combinations with Jatropha gossypifolia and other plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  19. Evaluation of flavonoids and diverse antioxidant activities of Sonchus arvensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sonchus arvensis is used in the treatment of various human aliments as a traditional medicine in Pakistan. In the study its various fractions are characterized for scavenging of diverse free radicals. Results Results of the present study revealed that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radicals (DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide), however its methanolic fraction is more potent than other fractions. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical and total antioxidant activity with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. Phytochmical analysis revealed the presence kaempferol, quercetin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion From the present data it is concluded that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radical, which might be due the presence of polyphenolic constituent. PMID:23107458

  20. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antioxidative compounds from the bark of Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lelono, Raden Arthur Ario; Tachibana, Sanro

    2013-08-15

    Eugenia polyantha bark extracts were found to have potential antioxidative activities. This study is an effort to investigate the antioxidative compounds in E. polyantha. In vitro antioxidatve assay were used as guided tools for the isolation of antioxidative compounds. The methanol-water extracts showed the highest level of free radical-scavenging activity (ED50) = 180 microg mL(-1) and protection from beta-carotene bleaching (8.7 microg mL(-1)). The methanol-water (1:1) extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity and protection against beta carotene bleaching and was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography. The n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate solubles exhibited the highest antioxidative activities, derivatization was conducted to the isolated antioxidative compounds prior to identification. Catechin, gallic acid and rutin were isolated from those solubles as active compounds present in the Eugenia polyantha bark. PMID:24498834

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown

    PubMed Central

    Chies, Claire E.; Branco, Cátia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats. PMID:26784458

  2. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. PMID:27211614

  3. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. PMID:26270637

  4. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health. PMID:26948610

  5. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study. PMID:24932940

  6. Anthocyanins and antioxidant capacities of six Chilean berries by HPLC-HR-ESI-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2015-06-01

    The HPLC profiles of six fruits endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The anthocyanin fingerprints generated for the fruits were compared and the antioxidant capacities measured by the scavenging of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and correlated with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (LP) and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Several anthocyanins were identified, including 3-O-glycosides derivatives of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity. However, the highest LP activity was found for Chilean blueberries (>95%) followed by calafate fruits (91.27%) and luma (83.4%). PMID:25624212

  7. Smooth muscle relaxing flavonoids and terpenoids from Conyza filaginoides.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rojas, A; Acevedo, L; Estrada, S; Calzada, F; Rojas, I; Bye, R; Linares, E

    1997-02-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the smooth muscle relaxing, chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract of Conyza filaginoides (D.C.) Hieron (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of three flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin, and pinostrobin), one sterol (alpha-spinasterol), a sesquiterpenoid (beta-caryophyllene 4,5-alpha-oxide), and two triterpenoids (erythrodiol and 3-beta-tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene). 3-beta-Tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxy-olean-12-ene is a new naturally occurring terpenoid. All the isolated compounds induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of rat ileum. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the extract and active principles tends to support the traditional use of C filaginoides as an antispasmodic agent. PMID:9063094

  8. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  9. Flavonoid composition of Juniperus oblonga Bieb.

    PubMed

    Pisarev, D I; Novikov, O O; Novikova, M Yu; Zhilyakova, E T

    2011-04-01

    Juniperus oblonga Bieb is widely spread in the Caucasus Mountains, particularly in its eastern and southern regions. Diuretic effect of juniper berries is determined by the presence of volatile oils and polyphenol complex, particularly flavonoids. Flavonoids were extracted from raw material with 70% ethanol and then with ethyl acetate. Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction on polyamide yielded 5 compounds, which were identified on the basis of physicochemical constants of parent compounds and products of acid hydrolysis and alkaline degradation of aglycones and on the basis of UV-spectroscopy as apigenin, isoquercitrin, apigenin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and scutellarin-7-glucoside. Quantitative composition of flavonoid in equivalent to rutin concentration in Juniperus oblonga Bieb was 0.910±0.007% (UV-spectrophotometry data). PMID:22235425

  10. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp. PMID:25014916

  11. The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marszałek, Krystian; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

  12. [Analysis of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Monarda didyma L].

    PubMed

    Savickiene, Nijole; Dagilyte, Audrone; Barsteigiene, Zita; Kazlauskas, Saulius; Vaiciūniene, Jone

    2002-01-01

    Monarda didyma L. is a herbaceous perennial with the square stems and opposite leaves characteristic of herbs in the Labiate family. Monarda didyma L. is often used as a domestic medicine, being particularly useful in the treatment of digestive disorders. The leaves and flowering stems are antihelmintic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, rubefacient and stimulant. Monarda didyma L. has twenty-six compounds in the essential oil, of which thymol, with smaller amounts of para-cymene, d-limonene, carvacrol, linalool, and hydrothymoquinone. A new method was used for the determining of the amount of separate flavonols by high-performance liquid chromatography. The flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, luteolin, quercetin) were found in leaves and flowers of beebalm. The quantity of flavonoids was higher in flowers than in leaves of Monarda didyma L. PMID:12532728

  13. A new phenolic compound with antioxidant activity from the branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Zheng, Xi; Wan, Chun-Ping; Cai, Le; Li, Ying; Huang, Lin; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-05-01

    The branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia are used to cure abdominal pain and diarrhoea in Chinese folk medicine. A new phenilic compound, 4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylbenzyl-benzoate ester (1), along with 21 known ones (2-22) were isolated from the branches and leaves of this plant. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed remarkable antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (IC50 = 13.26 ± 0.04 μM, 13.28 ± 0.11 μM, respectively), which were at the same grade as positive control rutin. The caffeoyl group in compounds 2 and 3 was supposed to play an important role in the antioxidant activities. PMID:26119567

  14. Evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effect and phytochemical screening of the hydroethanolic extract of Crataegus aronia from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hallaq, Entisar K; Afifi, Fatma U; Abdalla, Shtaywy S

    2012-01-01

    Chemical screening of the leaves and flowers of Crataegus aronia resulted in the isolation of hyperoside, quercetin, rutin and beta-sitosterol for the first time from this plant. The effects of the hydroethanolic extract of C. aronia (CAHE) on hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. The rats, treated orally for four weeks with 400 mg/kg/day CAHE, exhibited significant decreases in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The results were compared with those obtained after oral administration of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day). Furthermore, 10-week daily co-administration of a high cholesterol diet and CAHE (200 mg/kg/day) prevented the increase in TC and LDL. These observations indicate that CAHE has a hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:22428238

  15. Determination of some polyphenolic compounds from Allium species by HPLC-UV-MS.

    PubMed

    Parvu, Marcel; Toiu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Alina Parvu, Elena

    2010-09-01

    Five Allium species (Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries) Holub, A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum, A. fistulosum L. and A. ursinum L.) were analysed in order to determine the presence of 19 polyphenolic compounds through an HPLC method coupled with UV and mass spectrometry detection. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids indicates the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was found in A. obliquum, A. schoenoprasum and A. fistulosum, rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum, whereas quercitrin was found only in A. fistulosum, so they represent potential taxonomic markers that differentiate the four plants. Luteolin and apigenin were identified before and after hydrolysis only in A. obliquum. The amounts of all polyphenols were higher in hydrolysed samples, suggesting that these substances are present both as unbonded and bonded glycosides and/or esters. Our study showed large differences between the five Allium species, both qualitative and quantitative. PMID:20419559

  16. Assessment of flavonoids contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea procumbens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Launaea procumbens (LP) has been used as a food supplement in Pakistan. In this study methanolic crude extract (LPME) of the whole plant and its different fractions; n-hexane (LPHE); ethyl acetate (LPEE) and chloroform (LPCE) were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolics contents along with multifaceted in vitro scavenging assays. Results Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolics contents were found in all the fractions. Methanol and chloroform fraction exhibited efficient scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide, lipid peroxide and nitric oxide free radicals. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical, β-carotene bleaching restraint and phosphomolybdenum assay with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. High performance chromatography (HPLC) of LPME revealed the presence of vitexin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion These results reveal the presence of bioactive compounds in LPME, which might be contributed towards the various in vitro scavenging. PMID:22616896

  17. Anti-H5N1 virus flavonoids from Capparis sinaica Veill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amany K; Youssef, Ahmed I; Arafa, Abdel Satar; Ahmed, Safwat A

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Capparis sinaica Veill was tested for its in vitro antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 using plaque inhibition assay in Madin-Darby canine kidney. The results indicated that the extract possessed potent antiviral activity (100% inhibition at the concentration of 1 μg/ml). Based on this result, C. sinaica Veill was selected for further study by applying bioactivity-guided fractionation to isolate its antiviral principles. The fractions eluted with EtOAc and 25% MeOH in EtOAc were found to hold the antiviral activity. Further chromatographic separation of the fractions holding the antiviral activity led to the isolation of quercetin (1), isoquercetin (2) and rutin (3) for the first time from this species. The isolates showed reduction in the virus titre by 68.13%, 79.66% and 73.22% inhibition at a concentration of 1 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23651316

  18. Induction of caspase-8 and death receptors by a new dammarane skeleton from the dried fruits of Forsythia koreana.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; El-Desouky, Samy K; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Huefner, Antje; Saf, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A new naturally occurring compound based on the dammarane skeleton, i.e. cabralealactone 3-acetate-24-methyl ether, was isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of Forsythia koreana fruits, along with eight known compounds: cabralealactone 3-acetate, ursolic acid, arctigenin, arctiin, phillyrin, rutin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid. The identification of the isolated compounds was based on their spectral analysis including: HREI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The selected compounds and the aqueous methanolic extract were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human solid tumour cell lines. Cabralealactone 3-acetate-24-methyl ether and ursolic acid were found to be active against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The cytotoxicity was associated with the activation of caspase-8, the induction of the death receptors DR4 and DR5, as well as DNA fragmentation, and was thus due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. PMID:23659170

  19. Engineering a filamentous fungus for L-rhamnose extraction.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Richard, Peter

    2016-03-01

    L-Rhamnose is a high value rare sugar that is used as such or after chemical conversions. It is enriched in several biomass fractions such as the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I and II and in naringin, hesperidin, rutin, quercitrin and ulvan. We engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to not consume L-rhamnose, while it is still able to produce the enzymes for the hydrolysis of L-rhamnose rich biomass. As a result we present a strain that can be used for the extraction of L-rhamnose in a consolidated process. In the process the biomass is hydrolysed to the monomeric sugars which are consumed by the fungus leaving the L-rhamnose. PMID:27033543

  20. Ixora coccinea Linn.: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Kurian, Poruthukaran John

    2012-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. PMID:22231708

  1. Polyphenols, condensed tannins, and other natural products in Onobrychis viciifolia (Sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Marais, J P; Mueller-Harvey, I; Brandt, E V; Ferreira, D

    2000-08-01

    An acetone/water extract of the fodder legume Onobrychis viciifolia afforded arbutin, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, afzelin, the branched quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside), the amino acid L-tryptophan, the inositol (+)-pinitol, and relatively high concentrations of sucrose (ca. 35% of extractable material). Acid-catalyzed cleavage of the condensed tannins with phloroglucinol afforded catechin, epicatechin and gallocatechin as the terminal and extender units, but epigallocatechin was only present in extender units. The condensed tannins in O. viciifolia presumably consist of hetero- and homopolymers containing both procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Comparison of data from the present study and the literature suggests that sainfoin tannins have a highly variable composition with cis:trans ratios ranging from 47:53 to 90:10 and delphinidin:cyanidin ratios from 36:64 to 93:7. The composition of terminal and extender units in sainfoin tannins seems to be cultivar specific. PMID:10956131

  2. Radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Venskutonis, P R; Dvaranauskaite, A; Labokas, J

    2007-02-01

    Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of Lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (AA) by using ABTS(.)(+) decolourisation and DPPH(.) scavenging methods. All extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in DPPH(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in ABTS(.)(+) reaction. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in 1 g of plant extract. Quercetin glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin were identified in the extracts. PMID:17215088

  3. Phenolic profile of quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller) (pulp and peel).

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Domingues, Ana L; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2002-07-31

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out on quince fruit samples from seven different geographical origins in Portugal. For each origin, both pulp and peel were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/MS. The results revealed differences between the phenolic profiles of pulps and peels in all studied cases. The pulps contained mainly caffeoylquinic acids (3-, 4-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and one quercetin glycoside, rutin (in low amount). The peels presented the same caffeoylquinic acids and several flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-galactoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, and several unidentified compounds (probably kaempferol glycoside and quercetin and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). The highest content of phenolics was found in peels. PMID:12137485

  4. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Rajamurugan, R; Selvaganabathy, N; Kumaravel, S; Ramamurthy, Ch; Sujatha, V; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2012-01-01

    Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN) seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract was demonstrated with a wide range of concentration, 10-500 µg mL(-1), and the antioxidant activity increased with the increase in concentration. Total phenol content was found to be 171.73 ± 5.043 gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content 7.45 ± 0.0945 quercetin equivalents. Further quantification and identification of the compounds were done by HPTLC and GC-MS analyses. The predominant phenolic compounds determined by HPTLC were gallic acid, followed by quercetin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. The free radical quenching property of BN leaf extract suggests the presence of bioactive natural compounds. PMID:22103437

  5. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  6. Antioxidant activity of different parts of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks fruit and its correlation to phenolic composition.

    PubMed

    Hatamnia, Ali Asghar; Rostamzad, Arman; Malekzadeh, Parviz; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Abbaspour, Nasser; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Nourollahi, Khoshnood; Mehr, Reza Sheikh Akbari

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks were collected from Ilam province, Iran. The aim of this study was to analyse antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of different parts of P. khinjuk fruit. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was measured using different assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The phenolic composition of P. khinjuk fruit is reported for the first time. Amongst different parts of the fruit analysed in this study, hull extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. We observed a high correlation between different antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Therefore, antioxidant capacity can be related to total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were the phenolic compounds mainly responsible for antioxidant power of the fruit extracts. PMID:26166043

  7. Formation of plasmonic silver nanoparticles by flavonoid reduction: A comparative study and application for determination of these substances.

    PubMed

    Terenteva, E A; Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Zolotov, Yu A

    2015-12-01

    Formation of plasmonic silver nanoparticles by flavonoid reduction was studied. Effects of the nature and the concentration of a flavonoid and a stabilizer, composition of the solution and the interaction time were revealed. It was found that quercetin, dihydroquercetin, rutin and morin produced an intense surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles at 415 nm which was linearly related to the concentration of a flavonoid, while chrysin, naringenin and naringin did not produce any remarkable changes. It was used for the spectrophotometric determination of the former four flavonoids with the detection limits of 0.03; 0.06; 0.09 and 0.1 μg mL(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied for the determination of flavonoids in biologically active food additives. PMID:26125987

  8. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples. PMID:26749805

  9. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals. PMID:25835071

  10. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled. PMID:25952839

  11. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  12. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. PMID:24679794

  13. [Effects of interaction of genotypes with environments on major latently fragrant substances of flue-cured tobacco in Baoshan of Yunnan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Song, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Yang; Cheng, Chang-Xin; Yang, Ying-Ming; Shen, Han

    2014-11-01

    To study the stability of major latently fragrant substances of flue-cured tobacco of different varieties in Baoshan of Yunnan, three tobacco cultivars (K326, Y87 and Y99) in two soil types at three test sites with different altitudes were tested. The contents of major latently fragrant substances were measured and the effects of genotypes, environments and their interactions were analyzed by AMMI model. The results showed that genotypes, environments and their interactions had significant effects on the contents of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorogenic acid. The rutin content was mainly influenced by genotypes while the major latently fragrant substances and their stability were affected significantly by the interactions of genotypes and environments. The contents of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorogenic acid increased remarkably with altitude, and their stabilities were strengthened to different extents. K326 adapted well to middle-lower altitude, while Y87 and Y99 adapted well to middle-higher altitude. PMID:25898620

  14. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Marcelino, Filipa; Valentão, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Leticia; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4'-O-glucoside. At low concentrations olive leaves extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds. PMID:17873849

  15. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product. PMID:26593604

  16. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  17. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin. PMID:25892766

  18. Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis for quality control of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Li, Mengying; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Liu; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-06-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for quality control of the polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel (PPPs). Ten batches of pomegranate collected from different orchards in Shaanxi Lintong of China were used to establish the fingerprint. For the fingerprint analysis, 15 characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of 10 batches of the PPPs. The similarities of the PPPs samples were all more than 0.968, indicating that the samples from different areas of Lintong were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of eight monophenols (including gallic acid, punicalagin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and ellagic acid) in the PPPs was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results demonstrated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantitative analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of the PPPs. PMID:25624199

  19. Photodynamic decontamination of blood for transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Margolis-Nunno, H.; Gottlieb, P.; Lustigman, S.; Horowitz, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Currently transfused cellular components of blood are not available in a sterile form and carry a small risk of transmitting viral and parasite diseases. Using phthalocyanines and red light, lipid enveloped viruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be inactivated in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Under conditions leading to virus sterilization the blood borne parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) could be eliminated to undetectable levels (> 4 log10 kill). RBC damage during treatment could be avoided by increasing the light fluence rate to 80 mW/cm2, and by including the free radical scavenger glutathione and the vitamin E derivative Trolox during light exposure. Similar sterilization of platelet concentrates was achieved with the psoralen derivative AMT and UVA light. Platelet damage due to PUVA treatment was avoided by including the plant flavonoid rutin during irradiation. It is concluded that elimination of the risk of transmitting pathogens during blood transfusion is feasible with photochemical treatments.

  20. Ruta graveolens L. Induces Death of Glioblastoma Cells and Neural Progenitors, but Not of Neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A. B.; Colucci-D’Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens’ effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue’s noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25785932

  1. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet method for Eschweilera nana leaves and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Outuki, Priscila M.; Lazzeri, Nides S.; de Francisco, Lizziane M. B.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.; Cardoso, Mara Lane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eschweilera nana Miers is a tree widely distributed in Cerrado, Brazil. Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe its phytochemical properties and antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects for the first time, as well validate an high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV-Vis) method for the separation and quantification of the main components (hyperoside and rutin) in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. Materials and Methods: Structural identification of compounds in E. nana extract was performed by analysis of spectral data by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and/or ESI/EM. The HPLC-UV-Vis method was validated according International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) parameters. The 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities and the croton oil-induced inflammation for evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Results: Hyperoside, rutin, α-amirin, β-amirin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were identified in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. HPLC-UV-Vis was validated according to ICH parameters. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract and methanol fraction showed significant antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects, as they were able to reduce ear edema induced by croton-oil application. Conclusions: This research showed the first phytochemical study of E. nana extract and their biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:26246741

  2. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  3. Differential Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin Glycosides on Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Ion Currents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-07-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin- 3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of α7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the α7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with α7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was Rutin≥Rham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated α7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the α7 nAChR in a differential manner. PMID:27098860

  4. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  5. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Anwar, Farwa; Shahwar, Durre; Majeed, Abdul; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Danish, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Perveen, Irum; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 μg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 μM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 μg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities. PMID:27087094

  6. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 10 common edible flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Yang, Jiajia; Jiang, Yirong; Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhou, Fei; Mao, Shuqin; Shen, Canxi

    2014-04-01

    The free and bound phenolic compounds in 10 common Chinese edible flowers were investigated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Free factions were more prominent in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than bound fractions. Paeonia suffruticosa and Flos lonicerae showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) 235.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g of dry weight and total flavonoid content 89.38 mg rutin equivalents/g of dry weight. The major phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin. P. suffruticosa had the highest antioxidant capacity in the DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, which were 1028, 2065, 990 μmol Trolox equivalents/g of dry weight, respectively, whereas Rosa chinensis had the highest FRAP value (2645 μmol Fe(2+) equivalents /g of dry weight). The P. suffruticosa soluble phenolics had the highest CAA, with the median effective dose (EC50 ) 26.7 and 153 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g of dry weight in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and no PBS wash protocol, respectively. TPC was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity (R = 0.8443 to 0.9978, P < 0.01), which indicated that phenolics were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of the selected edible flowers. PMID:24621197

  7. Antioxidant Potential, DNA Protection, and HPLC-DAD Analysis of Neglected Medicinal Jurinea dolomiaea Roots

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Naz, Kiran; Khan, Mubarak Ali

    2014-01-01

    Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss., family Compositae, is a medicinally important plant of alpine region. Its tuberous roots are used in various ailments in folk medicine. This study was undertaken to estimate total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) and to determine anti-free radical potential by diverse in vitro antioxidant assays. Crude methanol extract (JDME) was fractionated into n-hexane (JDHE), chloroform (JDCE), ethyl acetate (JDEE), n-butanol (JDBE), and aqueous (JDAE) fractions. The results indicated that JDEE and JDCE constituted the highest amount of TFC (807 ± 7.2 mg rutin equivalent/g sample) and TPC (757 ± 9.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g sample), respectively. Significant correlation of TFC with IC50 values was recorded for •OH (R2 = 0.91), H2O2 (R2 = 0.82), and ABTS (R2 = 0.82) assay. It could be made clear that JDEE was the most potent in antioxidant activity as compared to others, with generally lower IC50 values for DPPH (41.1 ± 1.0 μg/mL), ABTS (46.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL), H2O2 (42.2 ± 0.9 μg/mL), •OH (61.1 ± 1.1 μg/mL), O2− (152 ± 1.1 μg/mL), and antilipid peroxidation (54.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL). HPLC chromatogram of JDEE revealed the presence of catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin. The results indicated the antioxidant activities of J. dolomiaea roots and merit further investigations for their use in oxidative stress related disorders. PMID:24982907

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  9. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  10. Quercetin 7-O-glucoside suppresses nitrite-induced formation of dinitrosocatechins and their quinones in catechin/nitrite systems under stomach simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Morina, Filis; Takahama, Umeo; Yamauchi, Ryo; Hirota, Sachiko; Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foods of plant origin contain flavonoids. In the adzuki bean, (+)-catechin, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q7G) are the major flavonoids. During mastication of foods prepared from the adzuki bean, the flavonoids are mixed with saliva and swallowed into the stomach. Here we investigated the interactions between Q7G and (+)-catechin at pH 2, which may proceed in the stomach after the ingestion of foods prepared from the adzuki bean. Q7G reacted with nitrous acid producing nitric oxide (˙NO) and a glucoside of 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone. (+)-Catechin reacted with nitrous acid producing ˙NO and 6,8-dinitrosocatechin. The production of the dinitrosocatechin was partly suppressed by Q7G, and the suppression resulted in the enhancement of Q7G oxidation. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechin reacted further with nitrous acid generating the o-quinone, and the quinone formation was effectively suppressed by Q7G. In the flavonoids investigated, the suppressive effect decreased in the order Q7G≈quercetin>kaempferol>quercetin 4'-O-glucoside>rutin. Essentially the same results were obtained when (-)-epicatechin was used instead of (+)-catechin. The results indicate that nitrous acid-induced formation of 6,8-dinitrosocatechins and the o-quinones can be suppressed by flavonols in the stomach, and that both a hydroxyl group at C3 and ortho-hydroxyl groups in the B-ring are required for efficient suppression. PMID:25375233

  11. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)

    PubMed Central

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3′H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  12. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium-Titanium Nitride Mixed-Phase Layers for Direct-Plate Liner and Copper Diffusion Barrier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, Adam James

    Current interconnect networks in semiconductor processing utilize a sputtered TaN diffusion barrier, Ta liner, and Cu seed to improve the adhesion, microstructure, and electromigration resistance of electrochemically deposited copper that fills interconnect wires and vias. However, as wire/via widths shrink due to device scaling, it becomes increasingly difficult to have the volume of a wire/via be occupied with ECD Cu which increases line resistance and increases the delay in signal propagation in IC chips. A single layer that could serve the purpose of a Cu diffusion barrier and ECD Cu adhesion promoter could allow ECD Cu to occupy a larger volume of a wire/via, leading to a decrease in line resistance and decrease in signal delay. Previous work has shown RuTaN, RuWCN, and RuCo films can act as Cu diffusion barriers and be directly platable to thickness of 2-3nm. However, other material selections may prove as effective or possibly better. Mixed-phase films of ruthenium titanium nitride grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated for their performance as a Cu diffusion barrier and as a surface for the direct plating of ECD Cu. All Ru was deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) while TiN was deposited by either thermal ALD or PEALD. RuTiN, films with thermal ALD TiN and a Ru:Ti of 20:1 showed barrier performance comparable to PVD TaN at 3-4 nm thickness and 15 nm planar films were directly platable. Follow up work is certainly needed for this material set, yet initial results indicate RuTiN could serve as an effective direct plate liner for Cu interconnects.

  13. [Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan].

    PubMed

    Bakhmulaeva, Z K; Magadova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673.8 mg/kg), calcium (349.0 mg/kg), iron (35.9 mg/kg), silicon (611.3 mg/kg), manganese (0.89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0.31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10.9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151.4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466.8 mg/kg), magnesium (221.6 mg/kg), aluminum (68.5 mg/kg), cobalt (0.120 mg/kg) and copper (1.91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1.5-1.6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium--1.7-1.8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus--2.2-2.5 fold, carotene--4.1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid--4.7-5.5 fold, cobalt and copper--8.6-8.7 fold, zinc and manganese--10.3-22.2 fold. PMID:26841557

  14. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  15. Investigation of the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Hypericum mysorense

    PubMed Central

    Hariharapura, Raghu C.; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Ashok, Godavarthi; Dongre, Santoshkumar H.; Jagani, Hitesh V.; Vijayan, Pottekkad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering top extract showed potent antioxidant activity and also possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid content present in these extracts showed a good correlation. The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alanine amino transferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The tested extracts also showed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels with an increase in SOD and CAT levels. The histopathology of liver did not show any toxicity after the treatment with the extracts. The active extracts were standardized using two marker compounds, hyperoside and rutin, which were isolated from the plant by HPLC. HPLC studies revealed that the maximum concentration of hyperoside and rutin is present in the flowering top extract. PMID

  16. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Das, Abhishek; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls' staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for

  17. Evaluation of matrix effect in determination of some bioflavonoids in food samples by LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Ćirić, Andrija; Prosen, Helena; Jelikić-Stankov, Milena; Đurđević, Predrag

    2012-09-15

    In the present work the LC-MS/MS method with solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of bioflavonoids rutin, quercetin, hesperidin, hesperetin and kaempferol in some food samples (red onion, orange peel and honey) was developed and the matrix effect accompanying this determination was quantified. The matrix effect evaluated using a postextraction addition method was found to be negative in the range -44 to -0.5%, indicating ionization suppression and strongly depended on bioflavonoid concentration. The observed matrix effect was explained taking into account the co-elution of phenolic acids, in terms of their acid-base and hydrophilic properties. The efficacy of extraction expressed as the absolute recoveries of flavonoids were 88-96%, indicating very good efficiency of extraction. The extracts of food samples obtained either by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction were analyzed for bioflavonoid content by the LC-MS/MS method in selected reaction monitoring mode using a triple quadrupole detector and standard addition method, which was found to be the most suitable calibration approach for these samples. The optimized separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column with gradient elution and mobile phase composition A: 2% acetic acid in water and B: acetonitrile. R(s) values were in the range from 1.3 to 3.1, indicating good selectivity of the method. The obtained results (mg/100g fresh weight) for different bioflavonids were for rutin 0.16, for quercetin in the range 0.65-56, for hesperidin 0.016-24, for hesperetin 0.0068-36.4 and for kaempferol 0.14-1.63 and generally show good agreement with published data. Low detection limits (0.014-0.063 μg/mL) were obtained with acceptable recoveries (86-114%). Total time of analysis was less than 40 min, therefore the proposed method represents significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:22967624

  18. Houttuynia cordata Extract Improves Physical Endurance Performance by Regulating Endothelial Production of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ui-Jeong; Maeng, Hyojin; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2015-09-01

    Vascular function is mediated by various regulatory molecules, including endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which regulates the vasodilation of smooth muscle cells. We investigated whether standardized Houttuynia cordata extract (SHCE) could improve physical endurance performance by regulating the endothelial production of NO. For the standardization of Houttuynia cordata (HC) extract, its bioactive components were identified and quantified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility and biological activity were measured by the in vitro digestion model system and free radical scavenging capacity, respectively. The vascular function in the endothelium was assessed by the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A preliminary clinical trial was carried out to assess the physical endurance performance. HC extract was standardized to bioactive components, including chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, with the concentration of 5.53, 6.09, and 16.15 mg from 1 g of dry weight, respectively. Bioaccessibility was 33.17%, 31.67%, and 11.18% for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, respectively. Antioxidant activities of SHCE were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity in 55.81 and 17.23 mg/g of HC extract using ABTS and DPPH scavenging assay, respectively. In human aortic endothelial cells, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS was increased by SHCE in the presence of palmitate. However, the expression of blood pressure-regulating genes was not altered. The level of blood lactate concentration and the heart rate of subjects who drank SHCE were lower than those of subjects who drank plain water. Oxygen uptake from subjects drinking SHCE was slightly higher than that from those who drank plain water. This study demonstrated that SHCE decreased heart rate and blood lactate, increased oxygen uptake, and improved physical performance, presumably due to the increased NO production. PMID:25923355

  19. In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa.

    PubMed

    Yonathan, Mariamawit; Asres, Kaleab; Assefa, Ashenafi; Bucar, Franz

    2006-12-01

    In Ethiopia inflammatory skin diseases are among the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. In the present work, the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa (Forsk.) Kaulf (Adianthaceae), a fern used in many parts of Ethiopia to treat inflammatory skin disorders, were studied using in vivo models of inflammation and pain. The results of the study showed that the fronds Cheilanthes farinosa possess strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. It was further demonstrated that the active ingredients of the fern reside mainly in the methanol fraction from which three compounds viz. the flavonol glycoside rutin, and the natural cinnamic acids, caffeic acid and its quinic acid derivative chlorogenic acid have been isolated. The methanol extract was also shown to potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of acetyl salicylic acid. At the tested concentrations, the methanol extract displayed a better anti-nociceptive activity than that of ASA in both the early and late phases of formalin induced nociception in mice. However, the activity of the extract was more pronounced in the late phase, which is commonly associated with inflammatory pain. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of the compounds isolated from the active fractions pointed out that chlorogenic acid possesses strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities while caffeic acid and rutin were inactive. Moreover, on molar basis chlorogenic acid was proved to be superior in its anti-inflammatory action to acetyl salicylic acid. It was therefore concluded that chlorogenic acid contributes, in full or in part, to the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa. Both the methanolic extract and pure chlorogenic acid failed to display anti-nociceptive activity when tested by the tail-flick test indicating that the plant is not a centrally acting analgesic but

  20. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  1. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25785932

  2. Antifungal activity of five species of Polygala

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Susana; Mendes, Beatriz G.; Missau, Fabiana C.; de Resende, Maria A.; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.

    2011-01-01

    Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala – P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa – were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC) assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 μg/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively) and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 μg/mL). Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values of 60 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. In the antifungal screening, few of the isolated compounds showed good antifungal inhibition. The compound α-spinasterol showed broad activity against the species tested, while rutin had the best activity with the lowest MIC values for the microorganisms tested. These two compounds may be chemically modified by the introduction of a substitute group that would alter several physico-chemical properties of the molecule, such as hydrophobicity, electronic density and steric strain. PMID:24031724

  3. Differential Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin Glycosides on Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Ion Currents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of α7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the α7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with α7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was Rutin≥Rham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated α7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the α7 nAChR in a differential manner. PMID:27098860

  4. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively. PMID:24635720

  5. Antidepressant effect and pharmacological evaluation of standardized extract of flavonoids from Byrsonima crassifolia.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ruiz, M; Zamilpa, A; González-Cortazar, M; Reyes-Chilpa, R; León, E; García, M P; Tortoriello, J; Huerta-Reyes, M

    2011-11-15

    Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of some mental-related diseases; however, its specific neuropharmacological activities remain to be defined. The present study evaluates the anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative effects produced by the extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, and their influence on motor activity in ICR mice. Additionally, we determine the acute toxicity profiles of the Byrsonima crassifolia extracts and the presence of neuroactive constituents. Our results show that the methanolic extract of Byrsonima crassifolia produces a significant (P<0.05) antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test in mice at 500 mg/kg dose. However, it does not possess anxiolytic, sedative, or anticonvulsant properties, and does not cause a reduction of mice locomotion (P>0.05). Although the main compound of the methanolic extract was identified as quercetin 3-O-xyloside (12 mg/kg), our findings suggest that flavonoids, such as rutin (4.4 mg/kg), quercetin (1.4 mg/kg) and hesperidin (0.7 mg/kg), may be involved in the antidepressant effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report on the presence of the flavonoids with neuropharmacological activity rutin and hesperidin in Byrsonima crassifolia. In conclusion, the present results showed that the methanolic extract standardized on flavonoids content of Byrsonima crassifolia possesses potential antidepressant-like effects in the FST in mice, and could be considered as relatively safe toxicologically with no deaths of mice when orally administered at 2000 mg/kg. PMID:21788126

  6. Effects of the flavonoid hesperidin in cerebral cortical progenitors in vitro: indirect action through astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nones, Jader; Spohr, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2012-06-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are integral components of the human diet, universally present as constituents of fruits and vegetables as well as plant-derived foods and beverages such as oil, tea, and red wine. The biological activities of flavonoids cover a very broad spectrum, from anticancer and antibacterial activities to inhibition of bone reabsorption and modulation of inflammatory response. Although emerging evidence has suggested that flavonoids might have an impact on brain pathology and aging, their role as a mediator in interactions between neurons and glial cells has been poorly explored. In the present work, we have performed a screening of flavonoid actions by analyzing the effects of hesperidin, quercetin and rutin on murine cerebral cortex astrocytes and neural progenitors. Treatment of astrocytes with flavonoids did not interfere with cell viability and proliferation. However a culture of neural progenitors with conditioned medium from hesperidin treated-astrocyte (H-CM) yielded produced a 41% and 25% increase in the number of neural progenitors and post-mitotic neurons, respectively. The H-CM effect was mainly due to modulation of neuronal progenitor survival. Pools of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte progenitors were not affected by H-CM (hesperidin), Q-CM (quercetin) and R-CM (rutin). Q-CM and R-CM did not increase neuronal population. These results suggest that H-CM might be composed by a new factor that could modulate neuroglial interactions during central nervous system development and opens the possibility for using flavonoids as new therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22322314

  7. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound. PMID:25108759

  8. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  9. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhishek; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls’ staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for

  10. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile, cytotoxic and anti-kinetoplastidae activity of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson

    2016-09-01

    Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50  value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value  = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value  = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50  value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (< 500 μg/mL). Rutin and caffeic acids may be responsible for the antiprotozoal effect of the extract. Conclusion The ethanol extract of M. officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities. PMID:26864563

  11. The protective effect of Hypericum connatum on stress-induced escape deficit in rat is related to its flavonoid content.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, Simona; Marandino, Aurelio; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Pelliccia, Teresa; Del Rosario Fusco, Maria; Petenatti, Elisa M; Gambarana, Carla; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Context Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), used in moderate depression treatment, is active in experimental tests for antidepressant activity. For H. connatum Lam., a South American species lacking hyperforin, antidepressant effects have not been demonstrated. Objective This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect of H. connatum in rats and identifies the components involved in this activity. Materials and methods First, the effects of acute and 14-d oral administrations of an extract derived from H. connatum aerial parts were studied using the Escape Deficit (ED) test. Next, methanol-extracted flavonoid-enriched fractions B and C and fraction-purified flavonoids (quercetin, rutin and isoquercitrin) were evaluated in the ED test after acute administration. To rule out possible confounding effects of the flavonoids, we examined nociceptive threshold using the tail-flick test and anxious behaviour using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Results Hypericum connatum increased reactivity of unavoidable stress-exposed rats after acute (0.5 and 1 g/kg: ED = 18.6/30 and 19.8/30, respectively) and repeated administration (0.5 g/kg twice daily: ED = 17.8/30). Protective effects were observed for fractions B and C (250 mg/kg: ED = 18.1/30 and 18.8/30, respectively), quercetin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg: ED = 15.3/30, 18.3/30 and 21.6/30, respectively), rutin (5 and 10 mg/kg: ED = 15.4/30 and 13.0/30, respectively) and isoquercitrin (2.5 mg/kg: ED = 19.2/30). The flavonoids did not modify nociceptive threshold or performance in the EPM test. Discussion and conclusion Hypericum connatum showed protective activity in the ED test, a correlate of potential antidepressant-like effects that appeared to be related to the flavonoid components of this species. PMID:26731632

  12. A fast method using a new hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced sorbent in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for quantification of significant bioactive metabolites in wines.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina L; Pereira, Jorge; Wouter, Van G; Giró, Carme; Câmara, José S

    2011-10-30

    This manuscript describes the development and validation of an ultra-fast, efficient, and high throughput analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detection system, for the simultaneous analysis of fifteen bioactive metabolites: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, (-)-catechin, gentisic acid, (-)-epicatechin, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, m-coumaric acid, rutin, trans-resveratrol, myricetin, quercetin, cinnamic acid and kaempferol, in wines. A 50-mm column packed with 1.7-μm particles operating at elevated pressure (UHPLC strategy) was selected to attain ultra-fast analysis and highly efficient separations. In order to reduce the complexity of wine extract and improve the recovery efficiency, a reverse-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using as sorbent a new macroporous copolymer made from a balanced ratio of two monomers, the lipophilic divinylbenzene and the hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis™ HLB), was performed prior to UHPLC-PDA analysis. The calibration curves of bioactive metabolites showed good linearity within the established range. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.006 μg mL(-1) to 0.58 μg mL(-1), and from 0.019 μg mL(-1) to 1.94 μg mL(-1), for gallic and gentisic acids, respectively. The average recoveries ± SD for the three levels of concentration tested (n=9) in red and white wines were, respectively, 89 ± 3% and 90 ± 2%. The repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 10% for all the metabolites assayed. The validated method was then applied to red and white wines from different geographical origins (Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands). The most abundant component in the analysed red wines was (-)-epicatechin followed by (-)-catechin and rutin, whereas in white wines syringic and p-coumaric acids were found the major phenolic metabolites. The method was completely validated

  13. Anti-arthritic Effects of Total Flavonoids from Juniperus sabina on Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Tao; Xu, Fang; You, Shuping; Xu, Fang; Li, Chenyang; Gu, Zhengyi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aims: To confirm the therapeutic effect of total flavonoids from J. sabina (JSTF) on RA-induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Settings and Design: Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were immunized by intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of CFA into the right hind metatarsal footpad. JSTF was administered orally at the dose of 125,250 and 500 mg/kg on 14 days after the induction of adjuvant arthritis. Tripterygium glycoside (20 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight loss, serum cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and histological change were measured. Results: We found that JSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic score (P < 0.05). The overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta were remarkably suppressed in the serum of JSTF (125,500 mg/kg) treated rats (P < 0.05). Histopathological studies also showed a marked decrease of synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints of JSTF-treated animals. Six flavonoids were isolated and from JSTF by various chromatographic methods and identified as follows: Catechin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnoside, and rutin. Conclusions: These results suggest the potential therapeutically effect of JSTF as an anti-arthritis agent toward CFA-induced arthritis in rats, and verified therapeutic applications of J. sabina on RA in folk medicine. SUMMARY Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritisJSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic scoreHistopathological studies showed a marked decrease

  14. Evaluation of phytochemical composition of fresh and dried raw material of introduced Chamerion angustifolium L. using chromatographic, spectrophotometric and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Stankevičius, Mantas; Drevinskas, Tomas; Akuneca, Ieva; Kaškonas, Paulius; Bimbiraitė-Survilienė, Kristina; Maruška, Audrius; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Kornyšova, Olga; Briedis, Vitalis; Ugenskienė, Rasa

    2015-07-01

    Due to the wide spectrum of biological activities, Chamerion angustifolium L. as medicinal plant is used for the production of food supplements. However, it should be kept in mind that quality (biological activity) of the herb depends on its geographic origin, the way of raw material preparation or extraction and chemotype. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the compositions of volatile, non-volatile compounds and antioxidant activities of C. angustifolium grown in Kaunas Botanical Garden after the introduction from different locations in Lithuania. The compositions of fresh and air-dried samples were compared. The profile of volatile compounds was analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS. trans-2-Hexenal (16.0-55.9% of all volatiles) and trans-anethole (2.6-46.2%) were determined only in the dried samples, while cis-3-hexenol (17.5-68.6%) only in fresh samples. Caryophyllenes (α- and β-) were found in all analyzed samples, contributing together from 2.4% to 52.3% of all volatiles according to the origin and preparation (fresh or dried) of a sample. Total amount of phenolic compounds, total content of flavonoids and radical scavenging activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) were determined using spectrophotometric assays. The variation of total phenolic compounds content was dependent on the sample origin, moreover, drying reduced amount of phenolics 1.5-3.5 times. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity was in the range of 238.6-557.1mg/g (expressed in rutin equivalents) in the fresh samples and drastically reduced to 119.9-124.8 mg/g after drying. The qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in the aqueous methanolic extracts of C. angustifolium was performed by means of HPLC with UV detection. Oenothein B and rutin were predominant in the samples; also caffeic and chlorogenic acids, and quercetin were determined. Chemometric methods, namely principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster

  15. Reversed-phase high-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Photodiode Array Detector Validated Simultaneous Quantification of six Bioactive Phenolic Acids in Roscoea purpurea Tubers and their In vitro Cytotoxic Potential against Various Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Dharmesh; Srivastava, Amit; Sood, Anil; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roscoea purpurea or Roscoea procera Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is traditionally used for nutrition and in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (RP-HPLC) photodiode array detector identification of phenolic acids (PA's) was carried out in whole extract of tuber and their cytotoxic potential was estimated along with radical scavenging action. Bioactivity guided fractionation was also done to check the response potential against the same assay. Materials and Methods: Identification and method validation was performed on RP-HPLC column and in vitro assays were used for bioactivity. Results: Protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin, and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774%, 0.064%, 0.265%, 1.125%, 0.128%, and 0.528%, respectively. Validated method for simultaneous determination of PA's was found to be accurate, reproducible, and linearity was observed between peak area response and concentration. Recovery of identified PA's was within the acceptable limit of 97.40–104.05%. Significant pharmacological response was observed in whole extract against in vitro cytotoxic assay, that is, Sulforhodamine B assay, however, fractionation results in decreased action potential. Similar pattern of results were observed in the antioxidant assay, as total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were highest in whole extract and decreases with fractionation. Radical scavenging activity was prominent in chloroform fraction, exhibiting IC50 at 0.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: Study, thus, reveals that R. purpurea exhibit significant efficacy in cytotoxic activity with the potentiality of scavenging free radicals due the presence of PA's as reported through RP-HPLC. SUMMARY Proto-catechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774, 0.064, 0.265, 1.125, 0.128 and 0.528 %Preliminary cytotoxic activity revealed that whole

  16. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the extract-treated groups, whereas MDA was reduced significantly (P< 0.05). Further thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) led us to ascertain the presence of rutin and quercetin in the extract. We were able to isolate and characterize an isolate from the ethanolic extract and characterize it on the basis of chromatographic, melting point, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic studies. The findings suggest that the ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be

  17. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Five Major Bioactive Compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (Cultivars of Sophora japonica L.) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Liang; Li, Long-Yun; He, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Six independent variables; namely; solvent type; particle size; extraction frequency; liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time were examined. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to optimize experimental conditions (liquid-to-solid ratio; microwave power; and extraction time) based on the results of single factor tests to extract the five major components in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Data were also analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction solvent; 100% methanol; particle size; 100 mesh; extraction frequency; 1; liquid-to-solid ratio; 50:1; microwave power; 287 W; and extraction time; 80 s. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of rutin; quercetin; genistein; kaempferol; and isorhamnetin in Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Kinetex C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm; 2.6 μm) at 40 °C within 5 min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile (71:29; v/v). Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The constituents of Flos Sophorae Immaturus were simultaneously identified by EIS-Q-TOF MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. During quantitative analysis; all of the calibration curves showed good linear relationships (R² > 0.999) within the tested ranges; and mean recoveries ranged from 96.0216% to 101.0601%. The precision determined through intra- and inter-day studies showed an RSD% of <2.833%. These results

  18. Use of molybdate as novel complex-forming selector in the analysis of polyhydric phenols by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Polásek, Miroslav; Petriska, Ivan; Pospísilová, Marie; Jahodár, Ludek

    2006-03-15

    Molybdate was examined as a complex-forming additive to the CE background electrolytes (BGE) to affect the selectivity of separation of polyhydric phenols such as flavonoids (apigenin, hyperoside, luteolin, quercetin and rutin) and hydroxyphenylcarboxylic acids (ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acid). Effects of the buffer concentrations and pH and the influence of molybdate concentration on the migration times of the analytes were investigated. In contrast to borate (which is a buffering and complex-forming agent generally used in CE at pH > or =9) molybdate forms more stable complexes with aromatic o-dihydroxy compounds and hence the complex-formation effect is observed at considerably lower pH. Model mixtures of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid were separated with 25 mM morpholinoethanesulfonic acid of pH 5.4 (adjusted with Tris) containing 0.15 mM sodium molybdate as the BGE (25 kV, silica capillary effective length 45 cm x 0.1mm I.D., UV-vis detection at 280 nm). With 25 mM 2-hydroxy-3-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]propanesulphonic acid/Tris of pH* 7.4 containing 2mM sodium molybdate in aqueous 25% (v/v) methanol as the BGE mixtures of all the above mentioned flavonoids, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid could be separated (the same capillary as above, UV-vis detection at 263 nm). The calibration curves (analyte peak area versus concentration) were rectilinear (r>0.998) for approximately 8-35 microg/ml of an analyte (with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol as internal standard). The limit of quantification values ranged between 1.1 mg l(-1) for p-coumaric acid and 2.8 mg l(-1) for quercetin. The CE method was employed for the assay of flavonoids in medicinal plant extracts. The R.S.D. values ranged between 0.9 and 4.7% (n=3) when determining luteolin (0.08%) and apigenin (0.92%) in dry Matricaria recutita flowers and rutin (1.03%) and hyperoside (0.82%) in dry Hypericum perforatum haulm. The recoveries were >96%. PMID

  19. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights

  20. Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions

    PubMed Central

    KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

    2014-01-01

    Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 μg/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

  1. Phenolic compounds characterization and biological activities of Citrus aurantium bloom.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Hendra, Rudi; Oskoueian, Armin; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP). The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to appreciable

  2. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. Results: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this

  3. Docking studies on the interaction of flavonoids with fat mass and obesity associated protein.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Alamri; Al-Numair, Khalid Suliman; Balakrishnan, Aristatile

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is the excessive fat accumulation in human body leading to increases a risk of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and osteoarthritis. Several flavonoids are known to have lipolytic activity influencing lipolysis and adipogenesis in adipose cells. To explore mechanism of the association of flavonoids in obesity and obesity associated protein (FTO), molecular docking studies were done for FTO with flavonoids, with orlistat (antiobesity drug) as a control. Autodock tools were used for docking flavonoids and orlistat with FTO. The results were visualized by PyMol and Discovery studio visualizer. Upon docking simulation, it was observed that flavonoid quercetin showed highest binding affinity (most negative δG), whereas daidzein was least affinity towards FTO. The binding affinity of other flavonoids was in the order of Exemestane >Kaempherol >Letrozole >Rutin. This study concludes that flavonoids primarily, quercetin ameliorates obesity by establishing a physical interaction with FTO. Interactions were also observed between FTO and other flavonoids and were of not greater inhibition compared to quercetin. PMID:26408884

  4. Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory, Anti- lipoxygenase Activity and Characterization of Three Bioactive Compounds in the Most Active Fraction of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.)Wight & Arn. – A Valuable Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Prakash, Lokesh; Subbanarashiman, Balasubramanya; Maniyam, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata was reported to be used for several medicinal purposes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities of L. reticulata. The anti-inflammatory assay was performed by λ-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema test. Pro inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL6, TNF-α) in serum of treated and control organism were analyzed by quantitative ELISA. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Analysis of the most active fraction revealed the presence of one phenolic compound (p-coumaric acid), two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) which also determined quantitatively. The ethyl acetate fraction at 600 mg/Kg significantly inhibited λ-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema by 60.59% and 59.24% respectively. Notable reduction in percentage of writhing (76.25%), induced by acetic acid signifies the potent analgesic activity. Lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α) in serum at the 4th hour of λ-Carrageenan injection indicated the inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 (Cox-2), Nitric oxide (NO) and release of prostaglandin to prevent inflammation. The study also demonstrated the decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration which revealed the lipid peroxidation inhibition potential of the plant. Our finding provides evidence for potent biological activities in tested model which is supported by its characterized bioactive compounds and ethnomedicinal relevance. PMID:26330883

  5. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant. PMID:27041875

  6. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice. PMID:24433073

  7. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Veronica spicata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Dunkić, Valerija; Kosalec, Ivan; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Potocnik, Tanja; Cerenak, Andreja; Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Vitali, Dubravka; Muller, Ivna Dragojevic; Kopricanec, Martina; Bezic, Nada; Srecec, Sinisa; Kremer, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Tea made from Veronica spicata L. (syn. Pseudolysimachion spicatum (L.) Opiz, family Plantaginaceae) herb is used in traditional medicine as expectorant for cough and throat rinsing. To get insight into chemical compounds of V. spicata, the essential oil content (analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), the content of macroelements and trace elements (analysed by ICP-AES), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. The main compounds of the essential oil were phytol (21.13%), heptacosane (10.22%) and pentacosane (8.91%). The most abundant investigated macroelement was K (8261 mg/kg) while Fe was the most represented element (32.49 mg/kg) among investigated micronutrients. Ten phenolic compounds (chrysin, rutin, quercitrin, quercitrin, and cichoric, ferulic, protocatehuic, rosmarinic, syringic and tannic acid) were identified and quantified. Additionally, V. spicata extract demonstrated notable radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The bacterial and fungal strains used in study were found to be susceptible toward methanolic and ethyl-acetate extracts with MIC values between 1.25 and 5.00 mg/mL using microdilution method. Aquose extracts were found to be antimicrobial inactive. PMID:26028041

  8. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

    2013-01-01

    Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

  9. Inhibition of benzodiazepine binding in vitro by amentoflavone, a constituent of various species of Hypericum.

    PubMed

    Baureithel, K H; Büter, K B; Engesser, A; Burkard, W; Schaffner, W

    1997-06-01

    Flower extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum hirsutum, Hypericum patulum and Hypericum olympicum efficiently inhibited binding of [3H]flumazenil to rat brain benzodiazepine binding sites of the GABAA-receptor in vitro with IC50 values of 6.83, 6.97, 13.2 and 6.14 micrograms/ml, respectively. Single constituents of the extracts like hypericin, the flavones quercetin and luteolin, the glycosylated flavonoides rutin, hyperoside and quercitrin and the biflavone 13, II8-biapigenin did not inhibit binding up to concentrations of 1 microM. In contrast, amentoflavone revealed an IC50 = 14.9 +/- 1.9 nM on benzodiazepine binding in vitro. Comparative HPLC analyses of hypericin and amentoflavone in extracts of different Hypericum species revealed a possible correlation between the amentoflavone concentration and the inhibition of flumazenil binding. For hypericin no such correlation was observed. Our experimental data demonstrate that amentoflavone, in contrast to hypericin, presents a very active compound with regard to the inhibition of [3H]-flumazenil binding in vitro and thus might be involved in the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts. PMID:9204773

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)

    PubMed Central

    Simon Gonzalez Schumacher, Nayara; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Baú Betim Cazarin, Cinthia; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Molina Meletti, Laura Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  11. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    PubMed

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. PMID:26154585

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction. PMID:26401387

  13. Distribution of phenolic antioxidants in whole and milled fractions of quinoa and their inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, P; Bomzan, Dikki Pedenla; Sathyendra Rao, B V; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2016-05-15

    Whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to their antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Compositional analysis by HPLC-DAD showed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in quinoa is not entirely localised in the outer layers of the kernel. Milling of whole grain quinoa resulted in about 30% loss of total phenolic content in milled grain. Ferulic and vanillic acids were the principal phenolic acids and rutin and quercetin were predominant flavonoids detected in whole grain and milled fractions. Quinoa milled fractions exhibited numerous antioxidant activities. Despite having relatively lower phenolic contents, dehulled and milled grain fractions showed significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) higher metal chelating activity than other fractions. Furthermore, extracts of bran and hull fractions displayed strong inhibition towards α-amylase [IC50, 108.68 μg/ml (bran) and 148.23 μg/ml (hulls)] and α-glucosidase [IC50, 62.1 μg/ml (bran) and 68.14 μg/ml (hulls)] activities. Thus, whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions may serve as functional food ingredients in gluten-free foods for promoting health. PMID:26775979

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant potential and HPLC based identification of phenolics in Polygonum amplexicaule extract and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Batool, Salma; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Akram, Abida; Naqvi, Sm Saqlan; Haq, Ihsanul; Mirza, Bushra; Ahmad, M Sheeraz

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest for the plant-based medicines in pharmaceutical industry. Plant derived Antioxidants have gained huge importance regarding their medicinal value. The present study was designed to establish pharmaceutical value of Polygonum amplexicaule for their antioxidant activity using shoot, leaf and rhizome crude methanolic extract along with their n-butanolic, ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. DPPH assay was used to assess antioxidants, which shows the maximum activity by crude methanolic extract of leaves (CMEL) having IC(50) 1.03 μg/ml where all other fractions showed IC(50) in a range of 1.03-58.2 μg/mL. The DNA plasmid protection assay showed that 10 ppm and 100 ppm concentrations of crude methanolic extracts (rhizome and leaf), aqueous fractions (shoot and leaf extract), n-butanolic fractions (shoot and leaf extract) and ethanolic fraction (rhizome extract) have DNA protection properties. TLC and HPLC based Identification of different antioxidants present in shoot, leaf and rhizome crude extracts and their fractions showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, caffeic acid, rutin, myricetin and kaempferol. This study suggested that this plant have high content of antioxidants, which needs to be investigated further for their medicinal and/cosmaceutical applications. PMID:25730800

  15. Home-Processed Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Products: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Bioaccessibility

    PubMed Central

    Guldiken, Burcu; Toydemir, Gamze; Nur Memis, Kubra; Okur, Sena; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of home-processing on the antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of red beetroot bioactives were investigated. For this purpose, fresh red beetroot and six different home-processed red beetroot products—including boiled, oven-dried, pickled, pureed, juice-processed, and jam-processed—were analyzed and compared for their total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents, total antioxidant capacities (TAC), and individual anthocyanin contents. In addition, bioaccessibility of red beetroot antioxidants was determined using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method. Dried, pureed, and fresh red beetroot samples had the highest TP, TF, and TAC values, which were 347 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, 289 ± 53 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g, 3889 ± 982 mg trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g, respectively. The in vitro digestion method revealed the highest recovery for TP (16%) and TAC (1.3%) in jam. This study provides comparative data to evaluate the effects of various home-processing techniques on antioxidant potential of red beetroot products. PMID:27258265

  16. Seasonal variation and gender pattern of phenolic and flavonoid contents in Pistacia chinensis Bunge inflorescences and leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Yang, Minglei; Gao, Junlan; Jin, Shan; Wu, Zhengyan; Wu, Lifang; Zhang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Pistacia chinensis Bunge (P. chinensis) is a deciduous and dioecious perennial arbor of the family Anacardiaceae that flowers from March to April and bears fruit from September to October. There are three rapidly growing stages in the annual growth process of P. chinensis. However, the knowledge of the secondary metabolites related to P. chinensis gender and growth season remains scant. In this study, HPLC was used to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the content of the catechin hydrate, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol contents in male and female tree inflorescences and leaves. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also detected using a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the contents of these compounds fluctuated with seasons and they reached the highest levels in nascent leaves. The fluctuations of these compounds followed different pathways of evolution, by increasing or decreasing in male and female trees throughout the whole growth process because they had their own biological functions. Moreover, the extracts exhibited DPPH radical scavenging bioactivity and showed no significant cytotoxicity towards 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Together, these results demonstrated that P. chinensis has great potential as an antioxidant medicine, and the best harvest time is in the spring. PMID:26717010

  17. The effect of Leonurus cardiaca herb extract and some of its flavonoids on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Kopustinskiene, Dalia M; Jakstas, Valdas; Majiene, Daiva; Baniene, Rasa; Kuršvietiene, Lolita; Masteikova, Ruta; Savickas, Arunas; Toleikis, Adolfas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-05-01

    Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities, and is used as a complementary remedy to improve heart function and blood circulation. Since cardiovascular diseases are often associated with an alteration of mitochondria, the main producers of ATP in cardiac muscle cells, the aim of our work was to determine bioactive constituents present in motherwort aerial parts extract in ethanol and investigate their effects on the functions of cardiac mitochondria. Quantitative determination of polyphenols in L. cardiaca herb extract was performed by HPLC. Mitochondrial respiration rates were evaluated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Mitochondrial ROS generation was determined fluorimetrically with Amplex Red and horseradish peroxidase. The results showed that constituents (chlorogenic acid, orientin, quercetin, hyperoside, and rutin) of L. cardiaca herb extract uncouple (by 20-90 %) mitochondrial oxidation from phosphorylation, partially inhibit (by ~ 40 %) the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cases of pyruvate and malate as well as succinate oxidation, and effectively attenuate the generation of free radicals in mitochondria. Since partial uncoupling of mitochondria, respiratory inhibition, and decreased ROS production are proposed as possible mechanisms of cardioprotection, our results imply that L. cardiaca herb extract could be a useful remedy to protect cardiac muscles from the effects of pathogenic processes. PMID:24841965

  18. Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Based on Copper(II) Reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Zang, Shuang; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed for measuring the antioxidant capacity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy based on the loss of electron spin resonance signal after Cu(2+) is reduced to Cu(+) with antioxidant. Cu(+) was removed by precipitation in the presence of SCN(-). The remaining Cu(2+) was coordinated with diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into n-butanol and determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Eight standards widely used in antioxidant capacity determination, including Trolox, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were investigated. The standard curves for determining the eight standards were plotted, and results showed that the linear regression correlation coefficients were all high enough (r > 0.99). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values for the antioxidant standards were calculated, and a good correlation (r > 0.94) between the values obtained by the present method and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity method was observed. The present method was applied to the analysis of real fruit samples and the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits. PMID:26927869

  19. Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonol Glycosides in Ginkgo Leaves and ShuXueNing Injections by a Single Marker.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Cao, Bang-Jing; Xu, Xi-Ke; Shan, Lei; Su, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and their preparations is essential to evaluate their quality. However, the scarcity and high cost of chemical reference standards are common obstacles for quantitative analysis, especially for determining multicomponents. In this study, an effective and sensitive qualitative method to identify flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves (Ginkgo Folium), and their preparations have been developed. Meanwhile, a simple, convenient and reproducible method for the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single marker (QAMS) has been established to simultaneously determine the major flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves and their preparations. Among the 15 favonol glycosides that were found, 7 major flavonol glycosides with high contents were simultaneously determined by the QAMS and traditional external standard method (TES). Rutin was selected as the single marker, and the quantitative analysis was performed on a TSK gel ODS-100V C18 column using a gradient system of acetonitrile and water, with a variable wavelength detector (265 nm) within 50 min. The method validation was conducted, and the linearity was excellent (r(2) > 0.9993) with accuracy and precision within the required limits. The F-test (P> 0.05) indicated that the QAMS and TES method have no statistically significant difference. PMID:27068933

  20. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality control parameters for fruit, bark and leaf of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Fiaz; Us Saqib, Qazi Najam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) fruit, bark and leaves are used for various conditions of ailments in traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. Aims: This study is designed to lay down the various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards which will be helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of this medicinal plant. Materials and Methods: Various methods including macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical methods were applied to determine the diagnostic features for the identification and standardization of intact and powdered drug of Z. armatum leaf, fruit, and bark. Results: The shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics were determined for the intact drug and powdered materials of leaf, bark and fruit of Z. armatum. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid and rutin. Conclusion: The data generated from this study would be of help in the authentication of various parts of Z. armatum, an important constituent of various herbal drug formulations. The qualitative and quantitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down pharmacopoeial standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described here along with phytochemical, physicochemical studies, which will help in authentication and quality control. PMID:26120229

  1. Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, and the Anti-Oxidative Potential and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibitory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Carissa opaca Roots and Its Fractions in Different Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Dildar; Fatima, Khaizran; Saeed, Ramsha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the anti-oxidative potential of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions in solvents of different polarities. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents of methanolic extract were 211.95 ± 0.78 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 8.35 ± 0.21 μg/mL rutin equivalents (RE), respectively. Ethyl acetate contained the highest amounts of both (TFC, 11.8 ± 0.28 RE; TPC, 342.80 ± 0.42 GAE) followed by chloroform fraction (TFC, 7.50 ± 0.14 RE; TPC, 275.85 ± 0.50 GAE). Extract and fractions displayed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity. EC50 values of methanolic extract was 0.88 mg/mL, while that of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions were 0.58, 0.38, 0.29, 0.36 and 5.83 mg/mL, respectively, ethyl acetate fraction being most potent. The ethyl acetate fraction also showed the highest activity in terms of reducing power, phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays. All the fractions showed fairly good lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, which remained almost constant over three days. Based on the results it can be concluded that roots of Carissa opaca contains phytochemicals with exploitable antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential. PMID:26785233

  2. Particle-stabilizing effects of flavonoids at the oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zijun; Murray, Brent S; Yusoff, Anida; Morgan, Michael R A; Povey, Malcolm J W; Day, Andrea J

    2011-03-23

    It has been shown that some common food flavonoids can act as excellent stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions through their adsorption as water-insoluble particles to the surface of the oil droplets, i.e., Pickering emulsions are formed. Flavonoids covering a wide range of octanol-water partition coefficients (P) were screened for emulsification behavior by low shear mixing of flavonoid+n-tetradecane in a vortex mixer. Most flavonoids with very high or very low P values were not good emulsifiers, although there were exceptions, such as tiliroside, which is very insoluble in water. When a high shear jet homogenizer was used with 20 vol% oil in the presence of 1 mM tiliroside, rutin, or naringin, much finer emulsions were produced: the average droplet sizes (d32) were 16, 6, and 5 μm, respectively. These results may be highly significant with respect to the delivery of such insoluble compounds to the gut, as well as their digestion and absorption. PMID:21329397

  3. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  4. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:26535456

  5. Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the amaranthaceae.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yizhong; Sun, Mei; Corke, Harold

    2003-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of betalain pigments (seven pure compounds and four combined fractions) from plants of the family Amaranthaceae was evaluated using the modified DPPH(*) (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. All tested betalains exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Their EC(50) values ranged from 3.4 to 8.4 microM. Gomphrenin type betacyanins (mean = 3.7 microM) and betaxanthins (mean = 4.2 microM) demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity, 3-4-fold stronger than ascorbic acid (13.9 microM) and also stronger than rutin (6.1 microM) and catechin (7.2 microM). Antioxidant activity of the tested betalains decreased in the following order: simple gomphrenins > acylated gomphrenins > dopamine-betaxanthin > (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin > 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin > betanin/isobetanin > celosianins > iresinins > amaranthine/isoamaranthine. This study also investigated and discussed the relationship between the chemical structure and the activity of the betalains. The free radical scavenging activity of the betalains usually increased with the numbers of hydroxyl/imino groups and, moreover, depended on the position of hydroxyl groups and glycosylation of aglycones in the betalain molecules. PMID:12670172

  6. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    PubMed

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation. PMID:27098519

  7. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin. PMID:24455713

  8. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038

  9. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds. PMID:26783705

  10. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  11. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  12. Heteropterys cotinifolia: a neuropharmacological and phytochemical approach with possible taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Álvarez-Chimal, Rafael; Luna-Manzanares, José Ángel; León-Velasco, María Esther; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Campos-Lara, María Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Heteropterys cotinifolia (Malpighiaceae) has been used in traditional Mexican medicine mainly for the treatment of nervous disorders. However, the specific neuropharmacological activities responsible for this use remain to be defined. The present study evaluates the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects produced by the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia and the influence of such effects on motor activity in ICR mice. Our results show that the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia produces a dose-dependent antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test in mice at doses from 31 to 310 mg/kg, with no reduction of mice locomotion. However, no anxiolytic properties were observed. Our findings suggest that the main extract compounds identified as chlorogenic acid and rutin may be involved in the antidepressant effects. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report of pharmacological and phytochemical data of Heteropterys cotinifolia. The presence of flavonoids in the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia may also provide further data to characterize taxonomically this species in order to be distinguished from others species closely related and belonging to the same genus. PMID:24453918

  13. Ultrafiltration coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for screening lipase binders from different extracts of Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic lipase plays essential roles in the digestion, transport, and processing of dietary lipids in humans. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase leading to the decrease of lipid absorption may be used for treating obesity. In the present study, a new approach of ultrafiltration coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established for rapidly detecting lipase binders from different extracts of medicinal plants. Rutin, a model inhibitor of lipase, was selected to optimize the screening conditions, including ion strength, temperature, pH, and incubation time. Meanwhile, the specificity of the approach was investigated by using denatured lipase and inactive compound emodin. The optimal screening conditions were as follows: ion strength 75 mM, temperature 37 °C, pH 7.4, and incubation time 10 min. Furthermore, linearity, accuracy, precision, and matrix effect of the approach were well validated. Finally, lipase binders were screened from different extracts of Dendrobium officinale by applying the established approach and were subsequently subjected to traditional lipase inhibitory assay. Eleven lipase inhibitors were identified, eight of which, namely naringenine, vicenin II, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, isoquercetrin, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, vitexin 2″-O-glucoside, and vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside, were reported for the first time. In addition, docking experiments were performed to determine the preferred binding sites of these new lipase inhibitors. PMID:26018630

  14. Experimental nonenzymatic glycosylation of vitreous collagens occurs by two pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, J S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the process of nonenzymatic glycosolation of vitreous collagen in vitro to determine the contributions of the classic Maillard pathway and the oxidative pathway, as well as to evaluate possible inhibitors of both pathways. METHODS: Bovine vitreous collagen was extracted and then incubated with hexoses in vitro. The amount of advanced glycosylation end (AGE) products was measured by fluorometry under varying conditions in the presence and absence of glycosolation inhibitors. Oxygen consumption studies and electron spin resonance spectroscopy with and without free-radical inhibitors were performed to differentiate oxidative from nonoxidative glycosolation. RESULTS: Vitreous collagen undergoes nonenzymatic glycosolation in the presence of glucose or galactose in vitro. Oxygen consumption data show that oxygen is consumed in glucose and galactose solutions. Oxygen consumption is decreased by known free-radical inhibitors and rutin but not aminoguanidine. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of a carbon-centered radical, and known free-radical inhibitors decreased the carbon-centered signal. CONCLUSIONS: Nonenzymatic glycosolation of vitreous collagen can occur not only by the classic nonoxidative pathway, but also by a second oxidative pathway that is susceptible to a number of inhibitors. PMID:8981718

  15. Flavonoid analyses and antimicrobial activity of various parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit.

    PubMed

    Hendra, Rudi; Ahmad, Syahida; Sukari, Aspollah; Shukor, M Yunus; Oskoueian, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) is commonly known as 'Crown of God', 'Mahkota Dewa', and 'Pau'. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive, diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93-2.17 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds. PMID:21747685

  16. Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of flavonoids extracted from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) pericarp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Bao; Wang, Jinshui; Liu, Yang; Yu, Limei; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-02-01

    The litchi pericarp extract was subjected to partition by hexane, ethyl acetate and water. Epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B2 and proanthocyanidin B4 were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate fraction by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The immunomodulatory activities of epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B2, proanthocyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction were examined using proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The results showed all these samples had much higher stimulatory effects on splenocyte proliferation than that of the reference, rutin. Epicatechin and the ethyl acetate fraction showed a significantly (P<0.05) stimulatory effect when the concentration was up to 12.5 micro g/ml. Proanthocyanidin B2 and proanthocyanidin B4 exhibited little lower stimulatory effects than epicatechin and the ethyl acetate fraction. The anti-breast cancer activities of epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B2, proanthocyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction were also evaluated. Epicatechin and proanthocyanidin B2 had lower cytotoxicities to human breast cancer cell MCF-7 and human embryolic lung fibroblast than paclitaxel. PMID:17178382

  17. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, Osman Tuncay; Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Temel, Hamdi; Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. PMID:26437391

  18. Hydrophilic antioxidants from Andean tomato landraces assessed by their bioactivities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Di Paola Naranjo, Romina D; Otaiza, Santiago; Saragusti, Alejandra C; Baroni, Veronica; Carranza, Andrea Del V; Peralta, Iris E; Valle, Estela M; Carrari, Fernando; Asis, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Potential nutraceutical properties of hydrophilic antioxidants in fruits of tomato landraces collected in Andean valleys were characterised. Antioxidant metabolites were measured by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in mature fruits and their biological activities were assessed by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro antioxidant capacities were established by TEAC and FRAP methods. For in vivo biological activities we used a procedure based on Caenorhabditis elegans subjected to thermal stress. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a rapid screening system to evaluate tomato antioxidant capacity. All tomato accessions displayed significant differences regarding metabolic composition, biological activity and antioxidant capacity. Metabolite composition was associated with geographical origin and fruit size. Antioxidant activities showed significant association with phenolic compounds, such as caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid-O-hexosides and rutin. Combination of in vitro and in vivo methods applied here allowed evaluation of the variability in nutraceutical properties of tomato landraces, which could be applied to other fruits or food products. PMID:27041310

  19. TLC Profiles of Selected Cirsium Species with Chemometrics in Construction of Their Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Hawrył, Anna; Ziobro, Agata; Świeboda, Ryszard; Hawrył, Mirosław; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The dried aerial parts of 12 plants of Cirsium species were extracted with the Soxhlet apparatus using dichloromethane and methanol as solvents. Next, the extracts were separated by TLC methods to obtain the fingerprint chromatograms. The analysis was performed on silica gel or RP-18 layers as stationary phases using the following eluents: ethyl acetate/formic acid/acetic acid/water (12/1.5/1.5/4; v/v) for silica gel, and 5% (v/v) aqueous solution of formic acid/methanol (70/30; v/v) for the first development and the same system in the proportion of 50/50 (v/v) for the second development for RP-18. The double development was applied in the case of RP-18 plates. The analysis was performed for all Cirsium methanolic extracts and five selected standards (naringin, apigenin, rutin, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid). The results were analyzed using chemometrics. The comparison of individual Cirsium species and the identification of unknown species were performed using the similarity indices (Pearson's correlation coefficient, determination coefficient and congruence coefficient), distance indices (Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Chebyshev's distance) and Multi-Scale Structural SIMilarity. Based on chemometric analysis, the first extract of the widely grown species is identified as Cirsium arvense and the second one as Cirsium rivulare. PMID:27130878

  20. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  1. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  2. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. PMID:25976817

  3. Determination of natural phenols in olive fruits by chitosan assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Qing; Li, Qin; Chang, Yan-Xu; An, Mingrui; Yang, Rui; Tan, Zhijing; Hao, Jie; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Shuai-Shuai

    2016-07-22

    A simple, efficient and low-cost method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) microextraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed for the determination of seven main natural phenols (gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, methyl gallate, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucoside, rutin, ellagic acid and oleuropein) and other eleven compounds in olive fruits. The experimental conditions for the MSPD extraction, including the type of adsorbent, the amount of dispersing sorbent, the grinding time, and the type of elution solvent were investigated and optimized. The optimized parameters were determined to be that middle-molecular-weight chitosan was used as adsorbent, the amount of middle-molecular-weight chitosan was selected to be 25mg, the grinding time was chosen to be 60s, and methanol: water (6:4, v:v) was used as elution solvent. Compared with reported methods, the proposed method was more simple, rapid, and efficient. Moreover, this method required less extraction time and less amount of sample and solvent. The method showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9909) for the seven analytes, with the limits of detection in the range of 69.6-358.4ng/g. And recoveries were above 80.06%. The methodology was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of seven phenolic compounds in olive fruits(Canarii fructus). PMID:27318506

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2 = 0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products. PMID:25110715

  5. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  6. Effects of Tapinanthus globiferus and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides extracts on human leukocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Adeniran, Adekunle; Abolaji, Amos Olalekan; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at investigating the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effect of Tapinanthus globiferus and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides to human leukocytes. In addition, the reductive potential and the chemical composition of the two plant extracts were also determined. Materials and Methods: Human leukocytes were obtained from healthy volunteer donors. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of T. globiferus and Z. zanthoxyloides were assessed using the comet assay and trypan blue exclusion, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by the reducing power assay. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector was used to characterize and quantify the constituents of these plants. Results: T. globiferus (10-150 µg/mL) was neither genotoxic nor cytotoxic at the concentrations tested, suggesting that it can be consumed safely at relatively high concentrations. However, Z. zanthoxyloides showed cytoxicity and genotoxicity to human leukocytes at the highest concentration tested (150 µg/mL). In addition, the total reducing power of T. globiferus was found higher than Z. zanthoxyloides in potassium ferricyanide reduction. Both plants extract contained flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and caffeic). Conclusion: The results obtained support the fact that some caution should be paid regarding the dosage and the frequency of use of Z. zanthoxyloides extract. PMID:26401368

  7. Inhibitory effects of herbal extracts on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and structure-inhibitory potency relationship of isoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which restricts the absorption of xenobiotics, may increase the systemic availability of its substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of herbal extracts and their constituents on BCRP-mediated transport. The inhibitory effects of 9 herbal extracts and 23 isoflavonoids, including soybean-derived isoflavones, on BCRP-mediated methotrexate (MTX) transport were evaluated using BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles. The structure-inhibitory potency relationship was investigated by multiple factor analysis. Extracts of soybean, Gymnema sylvestre, black cohosh and passion flower and rutin strongly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport of MTX at 1 mg/ml, while inhibition by chlorella, milk thistle and Siberian ginseng extracts was weak. Among the 23 isoflavonoids examined, all of which inhibited BCRP-mediated transport, coumestrol showed the most potent inhibition (IC(50)=63 nM). The inhibitory potencies of 6 isoflavonoid glucosides were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of the corresponding aglycones. The addition of a 5-hydroxyl or 6-methoxyl moiety tended to potentiate the inhibition. The inhibitory potency of daidzein was decreased 100-fold by 7-glucuronidation, but was virtually unaffected by 4'-sulfation. Thus, some herbal and dietary supplements and isoflavonoids may increase the systemic availability of BCRP substrates when concomitantly given orally. PMID:20460823

  8. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L)

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Sunday O.; Asekun, Olayinka T.; Familoni, Oluwole B.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L), a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively) showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL) for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity. PMID:26784871

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  10. Triggered Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Fluorescence for Selective Triplex DNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Yuehua; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Xiaoshun; Shao, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The triplex DNA has received much interest due to its various applications in gene regulation, molecular switch, and sensor development. However, realizing a highly selective recognition using a fluorescence probe specific only for the triplex topology is still a great challenge. Herein, we found that relative to the structural analogues of natural robinetin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, morin, rutin, baicalin, luteolin, naringenin, genistein, chrysin, galangin, isorhamnetin, and several synthetic flavonoids, fisetin (FIS) is the brightest emitter when targeting the triplex DNA in contrast to binding with ss-DNA, ds-DNA (with or without an abasic site), i-motif, and DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes. Only the triplex association triggers the FIS green fluorescence that is relaxed from the tautomer favorable for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). FIS can stabilize the triplex structure and primarily interact with the two terminals of the triplex via a 2:1 binding mode. This work demonstrates the potential of FIS as a DNA structure-selective switch-on ESIPT probe when evolving the triplex-forming oligonucleotides and developing the novel triplex-based sensors and switches. PMID:26556582

  11. Dietary supplementation with fermented legumes modulate hyperglycemia and acetylcholinesterase activities in Streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the hypoglycemic and anticholinesterase activities of some fermented legumes (bambara groundnut and locust bean) in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35mg/kg b.w.) and were fed diets containing fermented legumes (10% inclusion) for 14 days. The effect of the diets on blood glucose, pancreatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied. Significant (P<0.05) increase in blood glucose, pancreatic MDA, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities with concomitant decrease in pancreatic GPx and GSH contents were observed in diabetic rats. However, this trend was reversed in rats fed fermented legumes supplemented diets for 14 days. The HPLC-DAD finger printing revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol as the dominant phenolic compounds of the fermented legumes. However, possible contributing role of some bioactive peptides could not be ruled out. Hence, the hypoglycemic and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of the fermented legume condiments could be attributed to their constituent phytochemicals. PMID:26349771

  12. Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

    2011-08-01

    Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

  13. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  14. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC(50) value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC(50) values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH(-) radical generated from Fe(2+)-ascorbate-EDTA-H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  15. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  16. Evaluation of Photoprotective Potential and Percutaneous Penetration by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Extract.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Milena K; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Baesso, Mauro L; Nogueira, Ana C; Bento, Antonio C; Bortoluzzi, Bruno B; Serra, Lara Z; Cortez, Diogenes A G

    2015-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a plant rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant properties and can provide new opportunities for treatment and prevention of diseases mediated by ultraviolet radiation like photoaging and skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoprotective potential and ex vivo percutaneous penetration of the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves. The extract was tested for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching test. The sun protection factor was also evaluated. The ex vivo skin permeation of the emulsion and gel formulations were assayed. Fractionation of the extract resulted in gallic acid, ethyl gallate and a mixture of flavonoids, suggesting derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. The phenolic content of the extract was 384.64 ± 2.60 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The antioxidant activity was superior to butylated hydroxytoluene, in DPPH method, and ascorbic acid and rutin, in β-carotene bleaching assay. The extract showed UV absorption with photoprotector potential in the UVB region. The photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements confirmed absorption in the UV region and topical application of the formulations caused no histological changes in the rats' skin. These results suggest that the crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves may be a promising natural sunscreen product. PMID:25580770

  17. A new "functional" pasta containing tartary buckwheat sprouts as an ingredient improves the oxidative status and normalizes some blood pressure parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Merendino, Nicolò; Molinari, Romina; Costantini, Lara; Mazzucato, Andrea; Pucci, Anna; Bonafaccia, Francesco; Esti, Marco; Ceccantoni, Brunella; Papeschi, Cristiano; Bonafaccia, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that some foods, particularly those rich in (poly)phenols, may reduce cardiovascular risk and metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Buckwheat sprouts have been suggested as a new raw material for the production of functional foods due to their high content of healthy compounds such as rutin and quercetin. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the biological hypotensive and antioxidant responses of pasta containing tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBSP) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, dry tartary buckwheat sprouts were milled to obtain a powder that was used in the production of pasta containing 30% dry buckwheat sprouts and 70% durum wheat semolina. Afterwards, we analyzed the in vitro TBSP features compared with the control (durum wheat flour pasta, DWFP), and the in vivo effects of TBSP on SHR and their normotensive counterpart, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY rats). The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were higher in TBSP compared to DWFP. The results showed that SHR fed TBSP exhibited higher plasma levels of the endogenous vasodilators bradykinin (BK) and nitric oxide (NO), a lower level of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1), and an improved antioxidant capacity. These data suggest that TBSP may help reduce hypertension and oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:24658587

  18. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in rice using solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-07-01

    An analytical method based on an optimized solid-phase extraction procedure and followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with diode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxy-benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and cinnamic acids), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, and rutin), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and flavanones (naringenin and hesperidin) in rice flour (Oryza sativa L.). Chromatographic separation was carried out on a PerfectSil Target ODS-3 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column at temperature 25°C using a mobile phase, consisting of 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid in water, methanol, and acetonitrile at a flow rate 1 mL min(-1) , under gradient elution conditions. Application of optimum extraction conditions, elaborated on both Lichrolut C(18) and Oasis HLB cartridges, have led to extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from rice flour with mean recoveries 84.3-113.0%. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. Repeatability (n = 5) and inter-day precision (n = 4) revealed relative standard deviation (RSD) <13%. The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in pigmented (red and black rice) and non-pigmented rice (brown rice) samples. PMID:22761138

  19. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yikun; Tang, Zhuxing; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2007-10-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrcochemical detection (ED) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of seven active ingredients in the stems and roots of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation, including (+)-catechin, rutin, gentisic acid, vallinic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. The effects of working potential, pH, and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage, and injection time on CE-ED are systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the seven analytes could be completely separated within 23 min in a borax running buffer (pH 8.7). A good linear relationship is obtained over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) ranging from 5x10(-8) g/mL to 3x10(-7) g/mL for the analytes. The proposed method is successfully used in the analysis of real samples after a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results are satisfactory. PMID:17988450

  20. Polyphenols in Barringtonia racemosa and their protection against oxidation of LDL, serum and haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Ismail, Amin; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2014-03-01

    The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots (leaves and stems) were explored. Two methods, freeze drying and air drying, for preparation of the shoots, were also compared. Freeze drying was better as air drying caused 5-41% reduction of polyphenols. Three phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified, using UHPLC. The descending order of polyphenols in the leaves and stems was gallic acid>ellagic acid>quercetin>protocatechuic acid>rutin>kaempferol. In vitro antioxidant analyses were performed using biological samples. In the LDL oxidation assay, B. racemosa leaf extract (IC50=73.0μg/ml) was better than stem extract (IC50=226μg/ml) at inhibiting the formation of TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides. Similar trends were observed for serum and haemoglobin oxidation. B. racemosa leaf extract was better than its stem extract in delaying the time required to oxidise haemoglobin to methaemoglobin. The high polyphenolic content of B. racemosa shoots could have contributed towards their antioxidative effects. PMID:24176317

  1. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  2. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components. PMID:24681774

  3. Phytochemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Duguetia furfuracea A. St.-Hill

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550

  4. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn’t result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  5. Differential effects of in vitro peroxidation on peripheral- and central-type benzodiazepine receptors. Protection by diverse antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Courtiere, A; Molard, F; Reybaud, J

    1995-11-27

    The influence of various concentrations of ferrous iron and ascorbate on in vitro peroxidation and drug binding of diverse membrane preparations (cerebral cortex and liver) was studied. Peroxidation was not simply dose-related to ascorbate and ferrous iron, but a complex relationship between iron and ascorbate when added in association was established. Under our conditions 0.01 mM Fe2+ and 0.5 mM ascorbate was the most peroxidative combination for cerebral and liver membranes. Under the same conditions, cerebral membranes were more peroxidated than liver membranes. Considering the consequences of drug binding, peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) of liver were more affected by peroxidative events than central-type benzodiazepine receptors (CBRs) of the cerebral cortex. The degree of binding disturbance was generally inversely correlated to the degree of peroxidation and this was more significant for liver PBRs than for cerebral CBRs. The liver membrane model was retained for testing in vitro protection by diverse putative antioxidants. Under our conditions desferrioxamine, ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA), trolox, and rutin were good protective antioxidants, whereas phenyl-butyl-nitrone (PBN) and tocopherol were not effective. PMID:8615860

  6. Regulation of the phenolic profile of berries can increase their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Jozef; Kochanová, Radka; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Chlebo, Peter; Hanácková, Eva; Slamka, Pavol

    2009-03-11

    The changes of the antioxidant activities (AOA), antiradical activities (ARA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic acids, and hydroxycinnamic acids in black currant and black chokeberry, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG), were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and selected flavonol contents was analyzed by RP-HPLC. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in black chokeberry, 1.71-fold after treatment with KF(1) and 1.74-fold after treatment with CCHG. In black currant IP was elevated after CCHG application only in lower dose (CCHG(1) 63.36% vs control 53.23%). In black chokeberry the total phenolics content was elevated 1.49-fold after KF(1) application and 1.31-fold after CCHG(2) application. The regulators had the lower effect on the phenolic accumulation in black currant. There was a strong relationship between the total phenolics in the both crops and anthocyanins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and hydroxycinnamic acids contents, respectively. Both regulators significantly changed the ratio of conjugated (rutin) to free (quercetin) flavonol mainly in black chokeberry. The antioxidant activities compared using LDL in vitro oxidation assay were increased more expressively after treatment with KF(2) in both crops. PMID:19209908

  7. [Phytochemical investigation of Juniper rufescens leaves and fruits].

    PubMed

    Dzharullaeva, S Sh

    2009-03-01

    Seven species of juniper grow in Azerbaijan. The examination of leaves and fruits of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in Azerbaijan was conducted. It was found that Juniperus oxycedrus L is widespread in Azerbaijan. The biologically active substances of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves have been studied. It was found that the main biologically active substances in leaves are flavonoids -1,61% and lipids -57,8%; in fruits - ethereal oil 1,2%. The flavonoid composites include luteolin, kaempferol, quercetine, izoquercitrin, rutin. They also possess the diuretic and anti-inflammation effects. Ethereal oil of fruits consist of 20 components, prevailing are alpha-beta-pinen, alpha-fellandren, alpha-terpineol and it also possesses high antimicrobial and antibacterial effect. Lipoid fraction includes tokoferols, karotinoids, xlorofils and lipoid acids: linol, linolen, olein, stearin and palmithin. There are also macroelements K,Ca, Mg,Na,and mikroelements Si, Fe, Al. It was found that the period of maximum accumulation of flavonoids in leaves and ethereal oil in fruit is in Autumn in the period of fruit maturation and ripening. Juniperus oxycedrus L is a good material for new antiseptic remedy. Flavonoids from the leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect; fungicide, antimicrobial and antibacterial characteristics. PMID:19359735

  8. Quality control of Gardeniae Fructus by HPLC-PDA fingerprint coupled with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fangzhou; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yan; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The ripe fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis have been used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat diseases for a long history. Lines of evidence demonstrate that multiple active constituents are responsible for the therapeutic effects of this herbal medicine. However, effective methods for quality control of this herbal medicine are still lacking. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis was performed on a SinoChrom ODS-BP C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) at 30°C with mobile phase of aqueous solution with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. On the basis of the chromatographic data from 32 batches samples, the HPLC fingerprint pattern containing 27 common peaks was obtained. Among these common peaks, seven peaks were identified by the electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as geniposidic acid, genipin-1-β-gentiobioside, chlorogenic acid, geniposide, rutin, crocin-1 and crocin-2 and the contents of these seven compounds were simultaneously determined. Finally, chemometric methods including hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were successfully applied to differentiate the samples from six producing regions. In sum, the data, as described in this study, offer valuable information for the quality control and proper use of Gardeniae Fructus. PMID:26071608

  9. [Chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shi; Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx and their anti-complementary activity on the basis of preliminary studies. Target isolation guided by anti-complementary activity test, compounds in the chloroform and n-butanol fractions were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified by various spectroscopic data including ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. The compounds were evaluated for anti-complementary activity in vitro. Eleven compounds were isolated from the chloroform and n-butanol soluble fractions and identified as stigmasterol (1), stigmas-9 (11) -en-3-ol (2), glaucocalyxin D (3), kamebakaurin (4), maslinic acid (5), corosolic acid (6), minheryins I (7), diosmetin (8), caffeic acid ethylene ester (9), caffeic acid (10) and vitexin (11). Isoquercetrin, rutin, quercetin, 3-methylquercetin, luteolin, 7-methylluteolin, and apigenin which were isolated from the preliminary studies together with compounds 9 and 10 showed inhibition of the complement system by the classical pathway. Compounds 2, 4, 6-9 and 11 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Caffeic acid (10) showed the strongest activity in vitro with a CH50 value of 0.041 g x L(-1). PMID:23672041

  10. Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 μg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

  11. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) extract in relation to the geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Roberta Da Silva; Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; Sarmento, Merielen Da Silva; Richter, Marc François; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andres; Martinez, Marcela María; Ferraz, Alexandre De Barros Falcão; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-10-01

    Malpighia glabra L, popularly known as acerola, is considered a functional fruit and therefore is taken to prevent disease or as adjuvant to treatment strategies, since the fruit is an undeniable source of vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids. Acerola is a natural source of vitamin C, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Its chemical composition is affected by genetic uniformity of the orchards and environmental factors. Considering the extensive growth of the culture of acerola in Brazil as well as its widespread use, this study evaluates the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of acerola in relation to geographical origin using the comet assay in mice blood cells in vitro. No acerola samples showed potential to induce DNA damage, independently of origin. Also, for antigenotoxicity activity, only the acerola sample from São Paulo reduced DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (by about 56%). The sample from Ceará showed good antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, in agreement with its higher rutin, quercetin, and vitamin C levels. Additional studies with other treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the impact of the complex mixture of acerola on genomic stability. PMID:23180597

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-01-01

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors. PMID:24199953

  13. Antioxidant and anxiolytic activities of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. berries.

    PubMed

    Popovic-Milenkovic, Marija T; Tomovic, Marina T; Brankovic, Snezana R; Ljujic, Biljana T; Jankovic, Slobodan M

    2014-01-01

    Hawthorn has been present for a long time in traditional medicine as antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, antimicrobial agent. Hawthorn can be used for the cure of stress, nervousness but there is no published paper about actions of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. fruits. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging and anxiolytic activity of C. nigra fruits. DPPH (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to measure antioxidant activity. BHT, BHA, PG, quercetin and rutin were used as standards. The total amount of phenolic compounds, procyanidins, and flavonoids in the extracts, was determined spectrophotometrically. Results were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid, cyanidin chloride and quercetin equivalents, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used for identification and quantification of phenolic composition. The anxiety effect, expressed as the difference in time spent in the open and closed arms, was measured and compared between groups. Phenolic compound content of Crataegus nigra fruits was 72.7 mg/g. Yield of total flavonoid aglycones was 0.115 mg/g. Procyanidins were 5.6 mg/g. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extracts showed linear concentration dependency, IC50 value were 27.33 microg/mL. Anxiolytic effect was observed. Species Crataegus nigra fruits hydroalcoholic extract showed antioxidant and anxiolytic activity. PMID:25272648

  14. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of polyphenols and secoiridoids in california-style black ripe olives and dry salt-cured olives.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-03-11

    The chemical composition of finished table olive products is influenced by the olive variety and the processing method used to debitter or cure table olives. Herein, a rapid ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, was developed for the quantitation of 12 predominant phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in olive fruit, including hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, verbascoside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and o-coumaric acids), oleuropein aglycone, and ligstroside aglycone. Levels of these compounds were measured in fresh and California-style black ripe processed Manzanilla olives and two dry salt-cured olive varieties (Mission from California and Throuba Thassos from Greece). Results indicate that the variety and debittering processing method have strong impact on the profile of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in table olives. The dry salt-cured olives contained higher amounts of most compounds studied, especially oleuropein (1459.5 ± 100.1 μg/g), whereas California-style black ripe olives had a significant reduction or loss of these bioactive compounds (e.g., oleuropein level at 36.7 ± 3.1 μg/g). PMID:25668132

  15. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Min-Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Byung Kok; Kim, Kwang Sik; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Suk Man; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:23905018

  16. Reactivity of food phenols with iron and copper ions: binding, dioxygen activation and oxidation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Loonis, Michèle; Mihai, Simona; El Hajji, Hakima; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the affinity of common dietary phenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin) for iron and copper ions was quantitatively investigated in neutral phosphate buffer as well as the reactivity of the complexes toward dioxygen. Contrasting behaviors were observed: because of the competing phosphate ions, Fe(III) binding is much slower than Fe(II) binding, which is rapidly followed by autoxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III). With both ions, O2 consumption and H2O2 production are modest and the phenolic ligands are only slowly oxidized. By contrast, metal-phenol binding is fast with both Cu(I) and Cu(II). With Cu(I), O2 consumption and H2O2 production are very significant and the phenolic ligands are rapidly oxidized into a complex mixture of oligomers. The corresponding mechanism with Cu(II) is hampered by the preliminary rate-determining step of Cu(II) reduction by the phenols. The consequences of these findings for the stability and antioxidant activity of plant phenols are discussed. PMID:24700074

  17. Stability of polyphenols and carotenoids in strawberry and peach yoghurt throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as on the antioxidant activity in strawberry and peach enriched yoghurt. The radical scavenging capacity of strawberry and peach yoghurt was 480 and 550% higher, respectively, at the level of the intestine than in fruit yoghurt not subjected to digestion. In strawberry the amount of bio-accessible anthocyanins increased during gastric digestion and the transition to the intestinal compartment produced a decrease in all the analyzed classes of polyphenols, being more pronounced in pelargonidin-3-glucoside (65%) and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (58%). In peach the (+)-catechin content strongly decreased (80%), and neochlorogenic, chlorogenic acid, rutin and the carotenoid zeaxanthin decreased at lower levels, between 32-45%, while β-carotene was rather stable under gastric conditions (increased by 12%) during intestinal digestion. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that fruit yoghurt is an important source of bio-accessible polyphenols and carotenoids and that despite some losses induced by digestion conditions, it still releases relevant amounts at the level of the intestine to be absorbed and to promote health benefits. PMID:25882006

  18. Quality control of processed Crataegi Fructus and its medicinal parts by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fangzhou; Li, Lin; Chen, Yan; Lu, Tuling; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2015-08-01

    Crataegi Fructus, an edible food, has been used as a traditional medicine to treat diseases for many years. There is substantial evidence that multiple constituents are responsible for the beneficial effects of Crataegi Fructus. To effectively control the quality of this herbal medicine, we developed an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry protocol to simultaneously quantify ten compounds (chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, l-epicatechin, glucosylvitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin) in Crataegi Fructus. Multiple-reaction monitoring was used for the quantification in the negative mode for 8 min. This proposed method is simple, reliable, sensitive, and specific. Further, the quantification parameters, including linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were optimized. The quality of the processed samples of Crataegi Fructus was evaluated using this method. Additionally, the method was successfully used to distinguish the medicinal components, including peel, kernel, and flesh. The data described in this study offer valuable information for the quality control and proper use of Crataegi Fructus. PMID:26009877

  19. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23771061

  20. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  1. Bacteria as source of diglycosidase activity: Actinoplanes missouriensis produces 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase active on flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Neher, Bárbara D; Mazzaferro, Laura S; Kotik, Michael; Oyhenart, Jorge; Halada, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Breccia, Javier D

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria represent an underexplored source of diglycosidases. Twenty-five bacterial strains from the genera Actinoplanes, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Microbacterium, and Streptomyces were selected for their ability to grow in diglycosylated flavonoids-based media. The strains Actinoplanes missouriensis and Actinoplanes liguriae exhibited hesperidin deglycosylation activity (6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase activity, EC 3.2.1.168), which was 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding monoglycosidase activities. The diglycosidase production was confirmed in A. missouriensis by zymographic assays and NMR analysis of the released disaccharide, rutinose. The gene encoding the 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase was identified in the genome sequence of A. missouriensis 431(T) (GenBank accession number BAL86042.1) and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein hydrolyzed hesperidin and hesperidin methylchalcone, but not rutin, which indicates its specificity for 7-O-rutinosylated flavonoids. The protein was classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) in contrast to the known eukaryotic diglycosidases, which belong to GH1 and GH5. These findings demonstrate that organisms other than plants and filamentous fungi can contribute to an expansion of the diglycosidase toolbox. PMID:26549237

  2. Evaluation of synergistic antioxidant potential of complex mixtures using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

    PubMed

    Parker, Tory L; Miller, Samantha A; Myers, Lauren E; Miguez, Fernando E; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2010-01-13

    Previous research has demonstrated that certain combinations of compounds result in a decrease in toxic or pro-oxidative effects, previously noted when compounds were administered singly. Thus, there is a need to study many complex interactions further. Two in vitro techniques [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] were used in this study to assess pro- and antioxidant capacity and synergistic potential of various compounds. Rutin, p-coumaric acid, abscisic acid, ascorbic acid, and a sugar solution were evaluated individually at various concentrations and in all 26 possible combinations at concentrations found in certain foods (honey or papaya), both before and after simulated digestion. EPR results indicated sugar-containing combinations provided significantly higher antioxidant capacity; those combinations containing sugars and ascorbic acid demonstrated synergistic potential. The ORAC assay suggested additive effects, with some combinations having synergistic potential, although fewer combinations were significantly synergistic after digestion. Finally, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and urate were evaluated at serum-achievable levels. EPR analysis did not demonstrate additive or synergistic potential, although ORAC analysis did, principally in combinations containing ascorbic acid. PMID:19957934

  3. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. PMID:26041214

  4. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  5. Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf

    PubMed Central

    John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  6. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-08-15

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  7. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  8. Comparison of Fruits of Forsythia suspensa at Two Different Maturation Stages by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinping; Zhang, Fusheng; Li, Zhenyu; Qin, Xuemei; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Forsythiae Fructus (FF), the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa, has been widely used as a heat-clearing and detoxifying herbal medicine in China. Green FF (GF) and ripe FF (RF) are fruits of Forsythia suspensa at different maturity stages collected about a month apart. FF undergoes a complex series of physical and biochemical changes during fruit ripening. However, the clinical uses of GF and RF have not been distinguished to date. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of GF and RF, NMR-based metabolomics coupled with HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods were adopted in this study. Furthermore, the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of 50% methanol extracts of GF and RF were also evaluated. A total of 27 metabolites were identified based on NMR data, and eight of them were found to be different between the GF and RF groups. The GF group contained higher levels of forsythoside A, forsythoside C, cornoside, rutin, phillyrin and gallic acid and lower levels of rengyol and β-glucose compared with the RF group. The antioxidant activity of GF was higher than that of RF, but no significant difference was observed between the antibacterial activities of GF and RF. Given our results showing their distinct chemical compositions, we propose that NMR-based metabolic profiling can be used to discriminate between GF and RF. Differences in the chemical and biological activities of GF and RF, as well as their clinical efficacies in traditional Chinese medicine should be systematically investigated in future studies. PMID:26035103

  9. Nanocrystals of medium soluble actives--novel concept for improved dermal delivery and production strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-08-15

    After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration. Caffeine was used as model compound with relevance to market products, and a particular process was developed for the production of caffeine nanocrystals to overcome the supersaturation related effect of crystal growth and fiber formation - typical with medium soluble compounds. It is based on low energy milling (pearl milling) in combination with low dielectric constant dispersion media (water-ethanol or ethanol-propylene glycol mixtures) and optimal stabilizers. Most successful was Carbopol(®) 981 (e.g. 20% caffeine in ethanol-propylene glycol 3:7 with 2% Carbopol, w/w). Nanocrystals with varied sizes can now be produced in a controlled process e.g. 660 nm (optimal for hair follicle accumulation) to 250 nm (optimal for fast dissolution). The short term test proved stability over 2 months of the present formulation being sufficient to perform in vivo testing of the novel concept. PMID:24813782

  10. Protective effects of tartary buckwheat flavonoids on high TMAO diet-induced vascular dysfunction and liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yan; Yuan, Li; Yang, Xingbin

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the liver and vascular changes in high trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) diet-fed mice, and the possible vasoprotective and hepatoprotective effects of purified tartary buckwheat flavonoid fraction (TBF). HPLC analysis revealed that the content of rutin and quercetin presented in TBF was 53.6% and 37.2%, respectively, accounting for 90.8% of TBF. Mice fed 1.5% TMAO in drinking water for 8 weeks significantly displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p < 0.01). The administration of TBF at 400 and 800 mg per kg bw significantly elevated plasma NO and eNOS concentrations, and serum HDL-C and PGI2 levels, and lowered serum TC, TG, LDL-C, ET-1 and TX-A2 levels of TMAO-fed mice. TBF also reduced serum AST and ALT activities, and hepatic NEFA and MDA levels, and increased the hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities in TMAO-fed mice, which were consistent with the observations of the histological alterations of the liver. This report firstly showed that dietary TMAO might cause liver damage and TBF prevented TMAO-induced vascular dysfunction and hepatic injury. PMID:26267818

  11. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  12. In vitro Anti-oxidant Activity and HPLC-DAD System Based Phenolic Content Analysis of Codiaeum variegatum Found in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of two varieties of Codiaeum variegatum leaves (spiral (CP) and royal like (BP)) extracts. Methods: The different antioxidant assays, including DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total antioxidant activity, protection of lipid peroxidation and RBC membrane stabilization activity, were studied. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the royal like (BP) leaves extract. Results: Codiaeum variegatum extracts showed effective DPPH free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activity. However, reducing power of ferric ion was not significant compared to the standard antioxidant activity. In addition, Codiaeum variegatum extracts exhibited protection against lipid peroxidation. The total antioxidant activity was increased dose dependently when compared with standard drug ascorbic acid. (-)-Epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, rutin hydrate and ellagic acid were identified in the extract. Among the phenolic compounds, ellagic acid was abundantly present in the extract. Conclusion: Our investigation suggests that Codiaeum variegatum leaves contain high amount of phenolic compounds which may responsible for its biological activities in folkloric medicine. PMID:25671186

  13. Characterization of Arginine Kinase in the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite and Its Role in the Larval Settlement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Yan, Guo-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Wong, Yue-Him; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Energy metabolism is a key process in larval settlement of barnacles, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ambiguous. Arginine kinase (AK) mainly participates in energy metabolism in invertebrates. So far, its roles in barnacles have not been studied. In the present study, we raised an antibody against AK from Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin to characterize the roles of AK in the larval settlement process. Among the developmental stages, AK was highly expressed during the cypris stage. Along with the aging process in cyprids, the level of AK decreased. The immunostaining results showed that AK was localized to muscular tissues in cyprids, including antennules, antennular muscles, and thoracic limbs. The larval settlement rate decreased and larval movement was inhibited in response to treatments with high concentrations of AK inhibitors (rutin and quercetin). These results demonstrated that AK was involved in the larval settlement of A. amphitrite through mediating energy supply in muscle tissues. Moreover, further analysis indicated that both the p38 MAPK and NO/cGMP pathways positively mediated the expression of AK in cyprids. PMID:27245369

  14. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  15. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves Phenolic Fraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Bin; Kim, Do-Hyung; Je, Jae-Young

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from lotus leaves was prepared and its bioactive components, antioxidant and cytoprotective effects were investigated. EAF showed high total phenolic content and flavonoid content and contained rutin (11,331.3±4.5 mg/100 g EAF), catechin (10,853.8±5.8 mg/100 g EAF), sinapic acid (1,961.3±5.6 mg/100 g EAF), chlorogenic acid (631.9±2.3 mg/100 g EAF), syringic acid (512.3±2.5 mg/100 g EAF), and quercetin (415.0±2.1 mg/100 g EAF). EAF exerted the IC50 of 4.46 μg/mL and 5.35 μg/mL toward DPPH and ABTS cation radicals, respectively, and showed strong reducing power, which was better than that of ascorbic acid, a positive control. Additionally, EAF protected hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage indicated by the conversion of supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA to the open circular form and inhibited lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in a linoleic acid emulsion. In cultured hepatocytes, EAF exerted a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, depletion of glutathione under oxidative stress was remarkably restored by treatment with EAF. The results suggest that EAF have great potential to be used against oxidative stress-induced health conditions. PMID:25866746

  16. Nelumbo nucifera leaves protect hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant enzymes and HO-1/Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Je, Jae-Young; Lee, Da-Bin

    2015-06-01

    Naturally occurring phenolic compounds are widely found in plants. Here, the phenolic composition and hepatoprotective effect of the butanolic extract (BE) from Nelumbo nucifera leaves against H2O2-induced hepatic damage in cultured hepatocytes were investigated. BE showed high total phenol and flavonoid contents, and major phenolic compounds are quercetin, catechin, ferulic acid, rutin, and protocatechuic acid by HPLC analysis. BE effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radicals (IC50 values of 5.21 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and 6.22 μg mL(-1) for ABTS(+)) and showed strong reducing power. Pretreatment of BE prior to 650 μM H2O2 exposure markedly increased cell viability and suppressed H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and AAPH-induced cell membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, BE up-regulated intracellular glutathione levels under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of BE was directly correlated with the increased expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) by 0.62-fold, catalase (CAT) by 0.42-fold, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by 2.4-fold. Pretreatment of BE also increased the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8.1-fold indicating that increased SOD-1, CAT, and HO-1 expressions are Nrf2-mediated. PMID:25962859

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Boukhary, Rima; Ghoneim, Asser I.; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  18. Pharmacologically active ellagitannins from Terminalia myriocarpa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S A; El-Toumy, Sayed A A; Moharram, Fatma A; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Ahmed, Amany A E

    2002-06-01

    A new ellagitannin, methyl (S)-flavogallonate (14) along with fourteen known compounds, gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, 2,3-di-O-[( S)-4,5,6,4',5',6'-hexahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyldicarbonyl]-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (4), vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, iso-orientin, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, rutin, neosaponarin, ellagic acid, flavogallonic acid (13), and (alpha/beta)-punicalagin (15) have been isolated from the leaves of Terminalia myriocarpa Heurck. Protective effect of the major and structurally related compounds 4, 13, 15 and the new compound 14 against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity has been evaluated and compared, using adult male rats weighing 200-250 g. Serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lipid peroxide and nitric oxide production were significantly increased by administration of CCl 4 to rats and then reduced significantly only by treatment with compounds 4, 14 and 15 in a dose-dependent manner. Comparison of the protective properties of these compounds showed that compound 14 is more potent than compound 15 than 4 and that compound 13 has a non-significant effect at the used two dose levels. PMID:12094296

  19. Crystal structure, DFT and HF calculations and radical scavenging activities of (E)-4,6-dibromo-3-methoxy-2-[(3-methoxyphenylimino)methyl]phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaşalvar, Can; Soylu, Mustafa Serkan; Güder, Aytaç; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Apaydın, Gökhan; Dilek, Nefise

    In this study, (E)-4,6-dibromo-3-methoxy-2-[(3-methoxyphenylimino)methyl]phenol has been synthesized and characterized by using X-ray technique and FT-IR experimentally and using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and HF/6-31G(d,p) methods theoretically. The intermolecular and intramolecular interactions of the title compound have been determined according to X-ray results. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies of the title compound in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional B3LYP and HF method with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set and calculated bond parameters and vibrational frequencies values show good agreement with experimental values. Theoretical and experimental results show that tautomeric form of the structure is phenol-imine form. Besides HOMO-LUMO energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential map were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. It is worthy note of that, the free radical scavenging activities of the title compound were assessed using DPPHrad , DMPDrad +, and ABTSrad + assays. The obtained results show that the title compound has effective DPPHrad (SC50 2.61 ± 0.09 μg/mL), DMPDrad + (SC50 2.82 ± 0.14 μg/mL), and ABTSrad + (SC50 4.91 ± 0.18 μg/mL) radical scavenging activities when compared with standard antioxidants (BHA, rutin, and trolox).

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds using a macrocyclic Ni-(II) complex-catalysed Briggs-Rauscher reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengshuo; Hu, Gang; Chen, Yangyang

    2016-04-15

    This paper reports a method for evaluating antioxidant capacity based on the inhibitory effects of a macrocyclic Ni(II) complex-catalysed Briggs-Rauscher reaction. The macrocyclic Ni(II) complex NiL(ClO4)2, in which L is 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene, is a porphyrin-like compound, the structure of which can be found in certain enzymes. The experiments indicated that three natural compounds could temporarily quench the oscillations for a period of time prior to regeneration of oscillations. The inhibition time was related to the compound type and concentration; thus, procedures for evaluating the antioxidant activities of polyphenolic compounds were successfully established. Three polyphenolic compounds were tested to evaluate their antioxidant activities: protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and procyanidin. Of these three naturally occurring compounds, procyanidin was found to be the most efficient antioxidant. We have also discussed the reaction of the antioxidant with the hydroperoxyl radical (HOO) present in the oscillating system. PMID:26617044

  1. Effects of Selected Dietary Secondary Metabolites on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Caused by Iron(II) Autoxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Kubicova, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized as an integral part of cellular signaling. Elevated ROS concentrations are associated with aging, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Anti-aging properties have been attributed especially to antioxidant phenolic plant metabolites that represent food additives in our diet. Consequently, this study explores the effects of flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), several phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acid), and the alkaloid caffeine on iron(II) autoxidation and ROS production in comparison to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. The iron(II) autoxidation assay was carried out in pH 6.0 (plant apoplast and inflamed human tissue) and 7.4 (cell cytoplasm and human blood plasma). The obtained results accentuate phenolic acids as the more specific antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox. Flavonoid redox chemistry depends more on the chemical milieu, specifically on pH. In vivo, the presence of iron cannot be ruled out and “wrongly” or “poorly” complexed iron has been pointed out as causative agent of various age-related diseases. PMID:25470272

  2. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-01-01

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine. PMID:26729080

  3. The impact of polyphenols on Bifidobacterium growth.

    PubMed

    Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Juś, Krzysztof; Jasnowska-Małecka, Joanna; Kluczyńska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are a common group of plant based bioactive compounds, that can affect human health because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as free-radical scavenging activity. An increasing interest is observed in the interaction between polyphenols and microbiota occurring in food and the human gut. The aim of the work presented here, was to evaluate the effect of some polyphenolic compounds on the growth of two strains of Bifidobacterium: B. adolescentis and B. bifidum. The influence of some flavonoids: naringinin, hesperidin, rutin, quercetin as well as phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic and sinapic was determined by a 96-well microtiter plate assay. In the experiments the effect of three different concentrations of polyphenols: 2, 20 and 100 µg/ml on the growth of Bifidobacterium strains was investigated. All tested compounds influenced the growth of the examined bacteria. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects were observed in comparison to the positive control. The strongest impact on the growth of bifidobacteria was observed during the first hours of incubation. The constant inhibitory effect was observed for hesperidin and quercetin addition and was dose-dependent. B. bifidum showed a stronger dependence on phenolic acids content in the medium than B. adolescentis during the first hours of incubation. PMID:26619254

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property. PMID:26084988

  5. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract.

    PubMed

    Baiceanu, Elisabeta; Vlase, Laurian; Baiceanu, Andrei; Nanes, Madalina; Rusu, Dan; Crisan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia abrotanum L. ("southernwood") belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant. PMID:26083039

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Oprean, Radu; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers. PMID:26287157

  7. Assessment of wild mint from Tunceli as source of bioactive compounds, and its antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, S

    2015-01-01

    The types of wild mint (Mentha spicata L.) were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) in order to find out their vitamin, mineral, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 77.7±0.242 to 52.34±0.351 mg of GAEs/g of dry mint. The highest radical effect of scavenging was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 6.17±0.245 mg/mL. The highest reducing power and metal chelating were observed in the mint from Cicekli parting of the ways 6.5 km Demirkapı. Among the various macronutrients which were estimated in the plant samples, potassium was presented in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Although rutin and resveratrol were not determined in any samples, kaempferol and catechin levels were found out in almost all samples. The concentrations of vitamin A ranged between 42,14±5.70 and 13.61±3.00 (mg/kg dry weight). These results show that plants of mint are quite rich in phenolic compounds, and these have been appeared to have antioxidant activity, which agrees with this work, since the extract showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity and mint may be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors. PMID:26718431

  8. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-03-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments. PMID:24619732

  9. Antioxidant potential of indigenous cyanobacterial strains in relation with their phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Saadia; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant activities of eight indigenous cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Oscillatoria, Chroococcidiopsis, Leptolyngbya, Calothrix, Nostoc and Phormidium were studied in relation with their phenolic and flavonoid contents, ranging 3.9-12.6 mg GAE g(-1) and 1.7-3.44 mg RE g(-1). The highest activities were shown by Leptolyngbya sp. SI-SM (EC50 = 63.45 and 67.49 μg mL(-1)) and Calothrix sp. SI-SV (EC50 = 65.79 and 69.38 μg mL(-1)) calculated with ABTS and DPPH assays. Significant negative correlations were seen between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activities in terms of EC50 values. Furthermore, HPLC detected 15 phenolic compounds with total concentrations ranging from 277.3 to 829.7 μg g(-1). The prevalent compounds in most of the strains were rutin, tannic acid, orcinol, phloroglucinol and protocatechuic acid. Cyanobacterial strains showed high potential as a good source of phenolic compounds with potent antioxidative potential which could be beneficial for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26150139

  10. The possible presence of natural β-D-glucosidase inhibitors in jujube leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngje; Lim, Seokwon; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Choi, Young Jin

    2016-03-01

    Isoquercitrin is a phenolic compound well-known for having greater health benefits than quercitin, its aglycone derivative, and other related glycosides. However, isoquercitrin is rarely found in nature. Here, we optimized the conditions for the enzymatic transformation of isoquercitrin from rutin that was extracted from jujube leaf using the hesperidinase, enzyme complex containing β-D-glucosidase and α-L-rhamnosidase. The maximum productivity (2.57±0.16mg/mL) was experimentally found under the following conditions: 47.3°C, 52.16h, and pH 5.31, which agreed well with the predicted value (2.65mg/mL). However, the achievement of this maximum yield was due to the absence of β-D-glucosidase activity. Further investigations using a β-D-glucosidase assay and reaction measurements under various conditions revealed that the β-D-glucosidase activity was not blocked by denaturation or known inhibitory factors. Currently, there are no recognized β-D-glucosidase inhibitors present in the jujube leaf; however, our observations strongly suggest that an unidentified β-D-glucosidase inhibitor exists in jujube leaf extract. PMID:26471546

  11. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Luo, Ziwen; Wang, Dongmei; He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol crude extracts (ECE) and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g), while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g) was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF). Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g); acetone fraction (AF) contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g), while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP), whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration. PMID:25147836

  12. Light gazpachos contain higher phytochemical levels than conventional gazpachos.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2013-08-01

    Light gazpachos in comparison with conventional alternatives are interesting because of their low percentage of fat and high content of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. An hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to identify those metabolites that have the greatest impact on the overall metabolic profile in light gazpachos as compared to conventional alternatives. Individual polyphenols were quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data obtained revealed that light gazpachos displayed a higher significant phytochemical content than conventionally produced alternatives. The compounds found in significantly higher (p < 0.05) amounts in light versus conventional gazpachos were: caffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeic and caffeic acid hexosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic and ferulic acid hexosides, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin, rutin and quercetin. Light gazpachos may play a crucial role in terms of health benefits (lower fat and higher bioactive compound intake). Higher consumption levels of phenolic compounds, which are greater in light products, along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity. PMID:23729418

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic components from "hierba santa," a traditional medicine in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Marii; Otsuka, Mayumi; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Mikio; Shiota, Tetsuo; Satake, Motoyoshi; Okuyama, Emi

    2009-04-01

    "Hierba santa," a Peruvian herbal medicine, is used to alleviate many symptoms, including headache, hemorrhoids, fever, and rheumatism. Several Cestrum species are said to be the origin of hierba santa. Three lots of hierba santa: Cestrum auriculatum (herb 1 and herb 2) and C. hediundinum (herb 3), which were purchased from Peruvian markets at Cuzco (Andes area) and Equitos (Amazon area), respectively, were examined for their pharmacological activities and active components. Herbs 1-3 showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the in vivo writhing inhibition test in mouse and inhibited prostaglandin E(1)-, E(2)-, or ACh-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum in the Magnus method. Activity-based separation of each extract yielded cestrumines A and B, cestrusides A and B, a mixture of (+)- and (-)-pinoresinol glucosides, nicotiflorin, rutin, sinapoyl glucose, ursolic acid, beta-sitosteryl glucoside, and 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenyl-beta-D: -glucopyranoside. Among them, cestrumine A and cestrusides A and B are new compounds. All three lots of hierba santa do not contain exactly the same active components. PMID:19067116

  14. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arti R; Vijayakumar, M; Mathela, Chandra S; Rao, Chandana V

    2009-09-01

    The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as beta-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNA nicking and in vivo antioxidant properties. MOEF shows concentration dependent protection of oxidative DNA damage induced by HO() and also found to inhibit the toxicity produced by CCl(4) administration as seen from the decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Among the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were restored to almost normal levels compared to CCl(4) intoxicated rats. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ellagic and ferulic acid) and flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and rutin). Thus, it may be concluded that the MOEF possess high phenolic content and potent antioxidant properties, which may be mediated through direct trapping of the free radicals and also through metal chelation. PMID:19520138

  15. Antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, S; Wink, M; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Natural antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of many age-related diseases and promotion of health. Among natural antioxidants from plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants and chelating agents. Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (Moringaceae) is a small desert tree distributed from tropical Africa to east India. Moringa tree is also growing in south-east of Iran. The antioxidant activity of M. peregrina methanolic leaf extract on 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals was determined in in vitro experiments. It exhibited the scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals with IC(50) of 8.06 ± 0.29 μg/ml and 47.93 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, total phenolic content of the leaf extract was determined and using (1)HNMR, mass and spectroscopic methods, the structure of the isolated flavonoid glycoside, rutin, as one of the compounds responsible for reported antioxidant activities was identified. PMID:23181088

  16. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HPLC analysis of phenolics revealed that chlorogenic and gallic acids were the predominant phenolic acids present in the raw leaf flour, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic acids were the major phenolic acids in the pre-treated leaf flour. Flavonoids such as catechin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin were present in both MLFs and the prepared snack. Overall sensory quality indicated that the snacks had acceptable textural attributes and improved nutritional profile at the 20 % level of substitution. It is possible to develop a ready-to-eat convenience food product with good functional and nutritional properties using pre-treated moringa leaf. PMID:26787984

  17. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

  18. Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

  19. Identification of polyphenolic compounds in the flesh of Argan (Morocco) fruits.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ricarte, Irvila; Erben, Gerhard; Klika, Karel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2015-07-15

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI) along with fragmentation patterns generated by nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI-MS-MS) and NMR techniques were utilized for the identification of phenolic compounds in Argan fruits. A total of 15.4 g/kg was determined represented by catechins (39%), flavonoids (28%), procyanidins (26%), free phenolic acids (6%) and phenolic acid glycosides (1%). Twenty-one phenolic compounds were identified for the first time in Argan fruits namely III. epicatechin-(4β→8)-catechin dimer (procyanidin B1), IV. p-coumaric acid glycoside, VI. epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin dimer (procyanidin B2), VIII. caffeic acid glycoside, XIX. epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin trimer (procyanidin C1), X. p-hydroxybenzaldehyde XI. ferulic acid glycoside, XII. vanillic acid, XIII. sinapic acid glycoside, XVI. p-coumaric acid, XVII. ferulic acid, XVIII. sinapic acid, XIX. rutin pentoside, XX. quercetin glycopentoside, XXI. 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-imino-di-benzoic acid, XXV. quercetin-3-O-rhamnogalactoside, XXVII. quercetin glycohydroxybenzoate, XXVIII. quercetin glycocaffeate, XXIX. quercetin glycosinapate, XXX. quercetin glycoferulate and XXXI. quercetin glycocoumarate. PMID:25722154

  20. Chromatographic fingerprint and the simultaneous determination of five bioactive components of geranium carolinianum L. water extract by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Yue; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Xin; Guan, Yue; Xu, Min; Liu, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2-101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations. PMID:22272101