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Sample records for rutt hints kalle

  1. Hints.

    PubMed

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    1995-07-01

    The systematic use of hints in the learning-from-examples paradigm is the subject of this review. Hints are the properties of the target function that are known to use independently of the training examples. The use of hints is tantamount to combining rules and data in learning, and is compatible with different learning models, optimization techniques, and regularization techniques. The hints are represented to the learning process by virtual examples, and the training examples of the target function are treated on equal footing with the rest of the hints. A balance is achieved between the information provided by the different hints through the choice of objective functions and learning schedules. The Adaptive Minimization algorithm achieves this balance by relating the performance on each hint to the overall performance. The application of hints in forecasting the very noisy foreign-exchange markets is illustrated. On the theoretical side, the information value of hints is contrasted to the complexity value and related to the VC dimension. PMID:7584883

  2. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  3. Hint, hint: theory of mind performance in schizotypal individuals.

    PubMed

    Pflum, Madeline Johnson; Gooding, Diane Carol; White, Hannah Jean

    2013-05-01

    Studying Theory of Mind (ToM) performance in nonclinical populations may assist our understanding of underlying cognitive processes and contributing factors. ToM was assessed in three groups of psychometrically identified schizotypes, namely, individuals elevated on scales assessing positive schizotypy, those elevated on scales assessing negative schizotypy, and those elevated on both positive and negative schizotypy scales, using two hinting tasks. Individuals characterized by positive schizotypy showed poorer ToM performance compared with controls. The results suggest that individuals with elevated positive schizotypy scores experience more difficulty inferring the meaning of others' mental states (i.e., intentions) via indirect speech, such as hints. The negative schizotypy group did not differ from the nonschizotypy group in ToM performance. These findings are considered in terms of cognitive processing styles and implications for possible intervention. They also provide support for the inclusion of multiple groups of schizotypal individuals when assessing social cognition. PMID:23588225

  4. The antiallergic mechanisms of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt (K-ALL) in an allergic rhinitis model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-A; Kim, Myong-Jo; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-01-01

    The antiallergic effects of traditional medicines have long been studied. Traditional Korean medicine, Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, has been used for the treatment of allergic diseases in Korea. K-ALL, composed of Citrus sunki and bamboo salt, is a newly prepared prescription for allergic patients. To develop the new antiallergic agent, we examined the effects of K-ALL through in vivo and in vitro models. K-ALL and naringin (an active compound of K-ALL) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. This inhibitory effect of K-ALL on histamine release was higher than effects from other known histamine inhibitors such as bamboo salt, Citrus sunki or disodium cromoglycate. K-ALL significantly inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by the compound 48/80 and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by the IgE. K-ALL also inhibited production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 on HMC-1 cells (a human mast cell line). In the ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis animal model, rub scores, histamine, IgE, inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell counts were all reduced by the oral or nasal administration of K-ALL (pre and posttreatment). These results indicate the great potential of K-ALL as an active immune modulator for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:24131540

  5. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  6. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  7. Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for You Health Hints: Use Caution with Pain Relievers. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Pin it Email Print PDF version (447KB) (NAPS) -- Pain relievers, when used correctly, are safe and effective. Millions ...

  8. Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tarique, K F; Devi, S; Abdul Rehman, S A; Gourinath, S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily bind nucleotides and use the histidine triad motif to carry out dinucleotidyl hydrolase, nucleotidyltransferase and phosphoramidite hydrolase activities. Five different branches of this superfamily are known to exist. Defects in these proteins in humans are linked to many diseases such as ataxia, diseases of RNA metabolism and cell-cycle regulation, and various types of cancer. The histidine triad nucleotide protein (HINT) is nearly identical to proteins that have been classified as protein kinase C-interacting proteins (PKCIs), which also have the ability to bind and inhibit protein kinase C. The structure of HINT, which exists as a homodimer, is highly conserved from humans to bacteria and shares homology with the product of fragile histidine triad protein (FHit), a tumour suppressor gene of this superfamily. Here, the structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori (HpHINT) in complex with AMP is reported at a resolution of 3 Å. The final model has R and Rfree values of 26 and 28%, respectively, with good electron density. Structural comparison with previously reported homologues and phylogenetic analysis shows H. pylori HINT to be the smallest among them, and suggests that it branched out separately during the course of evolution. Overall, this structure has contributed to a better understanding of this protein across the animal kingdom. PMID:26750483

  9. Astrophysical hints of axion-like particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncadelli, M.; Galanti, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing three astrophysical hints of the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs), we describe in more detail a new similar hint involving flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Detection of FSRQs above about 20GeV pose a challenge to very-high-energy (VHE) astrophysics, because at those energies the ultraviolet emission from their broad line region should prevent photons produced by the central engine to leave the source. Although a few astrophysical explanations have been put forward, they are totally ad hoc. We show that a natural explanation instead arises within the conventional models of FSRQs provided that photon-ALP oscillations occur inside the source. Our analysis takes the FSRQ PKR 1222+206 as an example, and it looks tantalizing that basically the same choice of the free model parameters adopted in this case is consistent with those that provide the other three hints of the existence of ALPs.

  10. Study Surfaces Helpful Hints for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational R&D Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT Far West Laboratory researchers involved in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study contend that increasing Academic Learning Time promotes basic skills achievement among elementary school children. During the course of the six-year study, researchers identified numerous "helpful hints" for producing…

  11. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  12. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  13. User's guide for the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) RUT-S and RUT-T data sets: October 31, 1978 to November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Heath, D. F.; Klenk, K. F.; Oslik, N.; Lee, K. D.; Park, H.; Bhartia, P. K.; Gordon, D.

    1983-01-01

    Raw data from the Solar Backscattered Ultrviolet/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) Nimbus 7 operation are available on computer tape. These data are contained on two separate sets of RUTs (Raw Units Tapes) for SBUV and TOMS, labelled RUT-S and RUT-T respectively. The RUT-S and RUT-T tapes contain uncalibrated radiance and irradiance data, housekeeping data, wavelength and electronic calibration data, instrument field-of-view location and solar ephemeris information. These tapes also contain colocated cloud, terrain pressure and snow/ice thickness data, each derived from an independent source. The "RUT User's Guide" describes the SBUV and TOMS experiments, the instrument calibration and performance, operating schedules, and data coverage, and provides an assessment of RUT-S and -T data quality. It also provides detailed information on the data available on the computer tapes.

  14. Quantum speed problem: Theoretical hints for control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisboa, Alexandre Coutinho; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2016-06-01

    The transition time between states plays an important role in designing quantum devices as they are very sensitive to environmental influences. Decoherence phenomenon is responsible for possible destructions of the entanglement that is a fundamental requirement to implement quantum information processing systems. If the time between states is minimized, the decoherence effects can be reduced, thus, it is advantageous to the designer to develop expressions for time performance measures. Quantum speed limit (QSL) problem has been studied from the theoretical point of view, providing general results. Considering the implementation of quantum control systems, as the decoherence phenomenon is unavoidable, it is important to apply these general results to particular cases, developing expressions and performance measures, to assist control engineering designers. Here, a minimum time performance measure is defined for quantum control problems, for time-independent or time-dependent Hamiltonians, and applied to some practical examples, providing hints that may be useful for researchers pursuing optimization strategies for quantum control systems.

  15. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  16. Altered specificity of Hint-W123Q supports a role for Hint inhibition by ASW in avian sex determination.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kristen P; Seidle, Heather; Wright, Nathan; Sperry, Jeffrey B; Bieganowski, Pawel; Howitz, Konrad; Wright, Dennis L; Brenner, Charles

    2004-12-15

    Hint is a universally conserved, dimeric AMP-lysine hydrolase encoded on the avian Z chromosome. Tandemly repeated on the female-specific W chromosome, Asw encodes a potentially sex-determining, dominant-negative Hint dimerization partner whose substrate-interacting residues were specifically altered in evolution. To test the hypothesis that Gln127 of Asw is responsible for depression and/or alteration of Hint enzyme activity, a corresponding mutant was created in the chicken Hint homodimer, and a novel substrate was developed that links reversal of AMP-lysine modification to aminomethylcoumarin release. Strikingly, the Hint-W123Q substitution reduced k(cat)/K(m) for AMP-lysine hydrolysis 17-fold, while it increased specificity for AMP-para-nitroaniline hydrolysis by 160-fold. The resulting 2,700-fold switch in enzyme specificity suggests that Gln127 could be the dominant component of Asw dominant negativity in avian feminization. PMID:15507519

  17. Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.

    PubMed

    Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR. PMID:24968173

  18. Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159189.html Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex French finding adds ... A new report from France suggests that the Zika virus can be transmitted through oral sex. Zika ...

  19. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women ... July 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead ...

  20. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapies Fact Sheets NCI Dictionaries NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Eating Hints: Before, During, and After ...

  1. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women had ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead to ...

  2. 110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Photocopy of plate opposite page 19 in Owen, Hints. CAMPANILE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Photocopy of frontispiece in Owen, Hints. MAIN ENTRANCE, NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Photocopy of plate opposite page 104 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Photocopy of plate opposite page 43 in Owen, Hints. CENTRAL SOUTHERN TOWER, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION; FROM THE SOUTH-WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Photocopy of illustration on page 109 in Owen, Hints. SOUTHERN GATEWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Photocopy of plate opposite page 75 in Owen, Hints. WEST WING, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: FROM THE NORTH-EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Photocopy of plate opposite pge 99 in Owen, Hints. GOTHIC DESIGN FOR SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopy of plate opposite page 108 in Owen, Hints. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FROM THE SOUTH WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Report Hints Zika Can Spread Through Oral Sex French finding adds to growing evidence that sexual ... the Zika virus can be transmitted through oral sex. Zika is typically spread through the bite of ...

  11. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  12. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Emergency "Go-Kits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) encourages schools to consider emergency management in the context of its four phases: mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The preparedness phase…

  13. Hints on the use of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Drach, R. S.; Mobley, R. L.; Phillips, T. J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the Hints interactive displays that assist a user of the PCMDI Visualization and Computation System (VCS). These Hints describe the purpose of the VCS panels and provide basic instructions on their use.

  14. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of) these excesses can be accommodated.

  15. Hint1 knockout results in a compromised activation of protein kinase C gamma in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhenfei; Wang, Jia Bei

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role of the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) could be potentially involved in the Hint1-implicated pathogenesis since PKCγ was identified as a Hint1 interacting protein. Recently, a debate was brought forward from the understanding how Hint1 affects the expression and activity of PKCγ in the brain. In the present study, we use Hint1 knockout mice and biochemical analysis to define the effect of Hint1 on protein PKCγ. Our data reveal that Hint1-deficiency in mouse brains led to increased protein levels of PKCγ in the cortex and hippocampus, the striatum and thalamus and amygdala. Without stimulation, PKCγ protein in Hint1-deficient brain displayed a basal activity that was reflected by control-leveled phosphorylations of PKCγ T514 and T674 at its kinase domain. Upon psycho-stimulation, both sites of PKCγ T514 and T674 were activated in these brain structures via phosphorylation; however, the phosphorylation level at the site of PKCγ T674 apparently attenuated in Hint1-deficient mice compared to wild-type control. Thus, we conclude that Hint1 deficiency leads to an increased protein level of PKCγ in the brain and a compromised activation response of PKCγ upon stimulation. These findings suggest an inhibitory role of Hint1 on the protein PKCγ in the brain and an impaired PKCγ-mediated phosphorylation signal in Hint1-deficient neuron. PMID:26133792

  16. Legacy limits and hints of New Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrin, Arnaud; /Marseille, CPPM

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews results of beyond-the-standard model searches at the Tevatron presented in a plenary talk at the Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP) in Grenoble. Here I present a selection of results from the CDF and D0 experiments that were shown at the conference during the parallel sessions. Much more is available and can be found at the experiment's web pages. This proceeding essentially focuses on searches in the dilepton, diboson, and t{bar t} final states. Throughout the paper, hints of new physics observed at the Tevatron are also briefly discussed.

  17. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Sulfamide and Sulfamate Nucleotidomimetic Inhibitors of hHint1.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachit; Strom, Alexander; Zhou, Andrew; Maize, Kimberly M; Finzel, Barry C; Wagner, Carston R

    2016-08-11

    Hint1 has recently emerged to be an important target of interest due to its involvement in the regulation of a broad range of CNS functions including opioid signaling, tolerance, neuropathic pain, and nicotine dependence. A series of inhibitors were rationally designed, synthesized, and tested for their inhibitory activity against hHint1 using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The studies resulted in the development of the first small-molecule inhibitors of hHint1 with submicromolar binding affinities. A combination of thermodynamic and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies provides an insight into the biomolecular recognition of ligands by hHint1. These novel inhibitors have potential utility as molecular probes to better understand the role and function of hHint1 in the CNS. PMID:27563403

  19. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  20. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  1. Hints of Period Change for OGLE-TR-113b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Elliot, J. L.; Seager, S.; Osip, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present six new transits of the hot Jupiter OGLE-TR-113b observed with MagIC on the Magellan Telescopes between January 2007 and May 2009. We update the system parameters and revise the planetary radius, where the error is dominated by stellar radius uncertainties. The new transit midtimes reveal no transit timing variations from a constant ephemeris over two years, which places an upper limit of 1-2 Earth masses on any perturber in a 1:2 or 2:1 mean-motion resonance with OGLE-TR-113b. Combining the new transit epochs with five epochs published between 2002 and 2006, we find hints that the orbital period of the planet may not be constant, with the best fit indicating the period is decreasing by 60±15 milliseconds per year. If real, this change in period could result from either a long-period (more than 8 years) timing variation due to an external perturber, or more intriguingly from the orbital decay of the planet. The detection of a changing period is still tentative and must be checked with additional observations. If a period decay is confirmed, OGLE-TR-113b will be the first planet observed to be falling onto its star. This would enable direct tests of tidal stability and dynamical models of close-in planets and place observational constraints on the value of stellar tidal energy dissipation factors. This work was supported in part by NASA Origins grant NNX07AN63G and Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01210.01-A/HF-51233.01 awarded by the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  2. HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-hui; Liu, Peng; Ma, Rui; Chu, Zheng; Liu, You-ping; Wang, Jia-bei; Ma, Xian-cang; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2015-10-21

    Social isolation (SI) rearing has been demonstrated to induce behavioral abnormalities like anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits which are relevant to core symptoms in patients with some certain neuropsychiatric disorders. But the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed HINT1 has close relation with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. In this present study, the SI rearing mice exhibited depression-like and aggressive behavior. Besides, HINT1 protein levels decreased in PFC but increased in HIP. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that HINT1 is involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by social isolation and exerts distinct roles in different encephalic regions. PMID:26300541

  3. HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners in Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Hegemann, Johannes H; Henrich, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Background HinT proteins are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belong to the superfamily of HIT proteins, which are characterized by an histidine-triad sequence motif. While the eukaryotic variants hydrolyze AMP derivates and modulate transcription, the function of prokaryotic HinT proteins is less clearly defined. In Mycoplasma hominis, HinT is concomitantly expressed with the proteins P60 and P80, two domains of a surface exposed membrane complex, and in addition interacts with the P80 moiety. Results An cluster of hitABL genes, similar to that of M. hominis was found in M. pulmonis, M. mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, M. mobile and Mesoplasma florum. RT-PCR analyses provided evidence that the P80, P60 and HinT homologues of M. pulmonis were polycistronically organized, suggesting a genetic and physical interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes in these species. While the hit loci of M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium encoded, in addition to HinT, a protein with several transmembrane segments, the hit locus of Ureaplasma parvum encoded a pore-forming protein, UU270, a P60 homologue, UU271, HinT, UU272, and a membrane protein of unknown function, UU273. Although a full-length mRNA spanning the four genes was not detected, amplification of all intergenic regions from the center of UU270 to the end of UU273 by RT-PCR may be indicative of a common, but unstable mRNA. In Chlamydiaceae the hit gene is flanked upstream by a gene predicted to encode a metal dependent hydrolase and downstream by a gene putatively encoding a protein with ARM-repeats, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. In RT-PCR analyses of C. pneumoniae, regions comprising only two genes, Cp265/Cp266 and Cp266/Cp267 were able to be amplified. In contrast to this in vivo interaction analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro immune co-precipitation revealed an interaction between Cp267, which contains the ARM repeats, Cp265, the predicted hydrolase

  4. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    during bulge sequences deposition. One or - more likely - multiple layers of sulfates below the shallower levels of Arabia Terra surface need, in our opinion, to be hypothesized in order to explain all these contrasting observations. Indeed impact cratering on such an evaporate bearing layered target might have provided the ideal conditions of faulting, interconnectivity of evaporatic beds and lithostatic load release to allow diapirs ascent, In turn diapirism could have been responsible for central bulging as testified by outward dipping strata on stratified bulges, broad un-stratified bulges and folding (see Jackson and Vendeville, 1994 for typical salt tectonics). The depth of the fluid source calculated with a fractal method (Pozzobon et al., 2013) using the position of the small widespread mounds within Firsoff and Crommelin craters can give a hint of the average depth of the evaportic horizons (~4 km). As further developments we plan to test and quantify our model to take into account geological evidences, possible kinematics, rheology and stratigraphic constrains. References: Andrews-Hanna, J.C., and Lewis, K.W., 2011, Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, p. E02007, doi: 10.1029/2010JE003709. Franchi, F., Rossi, A. P., Pondrelli, M., Cavalazzi, B. (2014) Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars. Planet Space Sci., in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.013, Jackson M.P.A. & Vendeville B.C. (1994) - Regional extension as a geologic trigger for diapirism, GSA Bulletin, 106: 57-73, Pondrelli, M., Rossi, A. P., Ori, G.G., van Gasselt, S., Praeg, D., and Ceramicola, S., 2011, Mud volcanoes in the geologic record of Mars: The case of Firsoff crater: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 304, p. 511-519, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.02.027., Pozzobon R. et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #1797270.

  5. Characterization of the Effect of the Mitochondrial Protein Hint2 on Intracellular Ca2+ dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Collado-Hilly, Mauricette; Martin, Juliette; Prigent, Sylvie; Dufour, Jean-François; Combettes, Laurent; Dupont, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Hint2, one of the five members of the superfamily of the histidine triad AMP-lysine hydrolase proteins, is expressed in mitochondria of various cell types. In human adrenocarcinoma cells, Hint2 modulates Ca2+ handling by mitochondria. As Hint2 is highly expressed in hepatocytes, we investigated if this protein affects Ca2+ dynamics in this cell type. We found that in hepatocytes isolated from Hint2−/− mice, the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 1 μM noradrenaline was 150% higher than in the wild-type. Using spectrophotometry, we analyzed the rates of Ca2+ pumping in suspensions of mitochondria prepared from hepatocytes of either wild-type or Hint2−/− mice; we found that Hint2 accelerates Ca2+ pumping into mitochondria. We then resorted to computational modeling to elucidate the possible molecular target of Hint2 that could explain both observations. On the basis of a detailed model for mitochondrial metabolism proposed in another study, we identified the respiratory chain as the most probable target of Hint2. We then used the model to predict that the absence of Hint2 leads to a premature opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to repetitive additions of Ca2+ in suspensions of mitochondria. This prediction was then confirmed experimentally. PMID:24010670

  6. Clinical-HINTS: integrated intelligent ICU patient monitoring and information management system.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, D; Carson, E R; Collinson, P O

    1997-01-01

    Clinical-HINTS (Health Intelligence System) is a horizontally integrated decision support system (DSS) designed to meet the requirements for intelligent real-time clinical information management in critical care medical environments and to lay the foundation for the development of the next generation of intelligent medical instrumentation. The system presented was developed to refine and complement the information yielded by clinical laboratory investigations, thereby benefiting the management of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient. More specifically, Clinical-HINTS was developed to provide computer-based assistance with the acquisition, organisation and display, storage and retrieval, communication and generation of real-time patient-specific clinical information in an ICU. Clinical-HINTS is an object-oriented system developed in C+2 to run under Microsoft Windows as an embryo intelligent agent. Current generic reasoning skills include perception and reactive cognition of patient status but exclude therapeutic action. The system monitors the patient by communicating with the available sources of data and uses generic reasoning skills to generate intelligent alarms, or HINTS, on various levels of interpretation of an observed dysfunction, even in the presence of complex disorders. The system's communication and information management capabilities are used to acquire physiological data, and to store them along with their interpretations and any interventions for the dynamic recognition of interrelated pathophysiological states or clinical events. PMID:10179800

  7. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  8. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management:…

  9. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  10. Semantic Elaboration through Integration: Hints Both Facilitate and Inform the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Varga, Nicole L.; King, Jessica E.; Nolen, Ayla M.; White, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic knowledge can be extended in a variety of ways, including self-generation of new facts through integration of separate yet related episodes. We sought to promote integration and self-generation by providing "hints" to help 6-year-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-year-olds (Experiment 2) see the relevance of separate episodes to one…

  11. Enhancement of Student Learning through the Use of a Hinting Computer E-Learning System and Comparison with Human Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.; Munoz-Organero, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in a Computer Architecture Laboratory course classroom session, in which students were divided into two groups for interaction both with a hinting e-learning system and with human teachers generating hints. The results show that there were high learning gains for both groups, demonstrating the…

  12. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  13. A Time Series Analysis of Cancer-Related Information Seeking: Hints From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological changes, such as the growth of the Internet, have made cancer information widely available. However, it remains unknown whether changes in access have resulted in concomitant changes in information seeking behavior. Previous work explored the cancer information seeking behaviors of the general population using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This article aims to reproduce, replicate, and extend that existing analysis using the original dataset and five additional iterations of HINTS (2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014). This approach builds on the earlier work by quantifying the magnitude of change in information seeking behaviors. Bivariate comparison of the 2003 and 2014 data revealed very similar results; however, the multivariate model including all years of data indicated differences between the original and extended models: individuals age 65 and older were no longer less likely to seek cancer information than the 18-35 reference population, and Hispanics were also no longer less likely to be cancer information seekers. The results of our analysis indicate an overall shift in cancer information seeking behaviors and also illuminate the impact of increased Internet usage over the past decade, suggesting specific demographic groups that may benefit from cancer information seeking encouragement. PMID:27565190

  14. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient’s age. Grade 2–3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2–3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  15. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Martínez, Carlos; Zalazar, Guillermo; Moro, Marcela; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Luis, Leonel; Gordon, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI). Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture. When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38), 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia) had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate. PMID:27551274

  16. Hospital Hints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... have to spend the night in the hospital. Learning more about what to expect and about people ...

  17. Crystallographic studies of the complex of human HINT1 protein with a non-hydrolyzable analog of Ap4A.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Kaczmarek, Renata; Sęda, Aleksandra; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Baraniak, Janina; Nawrot, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch in the histidine triad proteins superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes, and it has been found in many species. Here, we report the first structure (at a 2.34Å resolution) of a complex of human HINT1 with a non-hydrolyzable analog of an Ap4A dinucleotide, containing bis-phosphorothioated glycerol mimicking a polyphosphate chain, obtained from a primitive monoclinic space group P21 crystal. In addition, the apo form of hHINT1 at the space group P21 refined to 1.92Å is reported for comparative studies. PMID:26905466

  18. The boy who would be queen: hints and closets on children's television.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Although American television programs targeted at children and adolescents posit universal heterosexuality and never openly allude to LGBT persons, a content analysis of 102 episodes of 25 contemporary children's programs revealed many examples of resistance to the heteronormative ideology: intimate same-sex friendships; inclusive statements or stage business; scenes that hint at the existence of same-sex desire; gender-transgressive or otherwise gay-stereotyped characters; and jokes and references that require a knowledge of gay culture. The impact of this resistance on viewers is analyzed through fan fiction and artwork, and potential explanations are examined. PMID:19657933

  19. Hints from Run 1 and prospects from Run 2 at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Catrin

    2016-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has allowed the ATLAS experiment to collect a large amount of proton-proton collision data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies throughout Run 1. This dataset was used to discover a Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties at a mass of about 125 GeV. Furthermore, an impressive number of searches for deviations from the Standard Model expectations have been carried out. To date, no evidence for new physics beyond the SM has been found. However, a few hints in form of 2-3 σ deviations have been observed. After an 18-month shutdown, in which the ATLAS detector has undergone various upgrades, the LHC has again started to deliver collision data at an increased centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, providing a much improved sensitivity for various searches, in particular for high mass particles. Some representative hints at the LHC Run 1 are presented, a brief overview of ATLAS upgrades and prospects for SUSY searches with early Run 2 data are given.

  20. Performance of bilingual speakers on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Deborah; Dempsey, James J

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the performance of bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The participants were divided into an early bilingual (EB) group and a late bilingual (LB) group based on age of second-language acquisition. All participants acquired Spanish as their first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Care was taken to ensure that all participants demonstrated at least a "good competence level" for self-rated speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills in both English and Spanish. Results revealed superior performance on the Spanish HINT versus the English HINT in both quiet and in noise for both groups of participants. Significant differences in performance were noted for the EB versus the LB participants. A number of possible explanations for superior performance in L1 are provided, and implications for educating students in their L2 are discussed. PMID:18637406

  1. HINT1 peptide/Hsp70 complex induces NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in a model of autoimmune demyelination.

    PubMed

    Galazka, Grazyna; Jurewicz, Anna; Domowicz, Malgorzata; Cannella, Barbara; Raine, Cedric S; Selmaj, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) interact with the immune system and have been shown to contribute to immunoregulation. As efficient chaperones, Hsps bind many peptides and these complexes have many yet-to-be-clarified functions. We have shown that Hsp70 is complexed within the mouse CNS with peptide CLAFHDISPQAPTHFLVIPK derived from histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70). Only this complex, in contrast to other peptides complexed with Hsp70, was able to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms dependent on NK cells. Pretreatment of proteolipid protein peptide ₁₃₉₋₁₅₁(PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁) sensitized SJL/J mice with HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 prevented the development of EAE, suppressed PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocked secretion of IL-17. HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation of NK cells depended on synergistic activation of two NK-cell receptors, CD94 and NKG2D. NK cells with depleted CD94 or with blocked NKG2D did not inhibit PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced spleen cell (SC) proliferation. The HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 complex enhanced surface expression of the NKG2D ligand-H60. Downstream signaling of CD94 and NKG2D converged at the adaptor proteins DAP10 and DAP12, and in response to HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation, expression of DAP10 and DAP12 was significantly increased in NK cells. Thus, we have shown that the HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 complex affects NK-cell function by enhancing NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in the EAE model of autoimmune demyelination. PMID:25092109

  2. Phase transitions in hydrophobe/phospholipid mixtures: hints at connections between pheromones and anaesthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Geppi, Marco; Macchi, Sara; Ninham, Barry W; Fratini, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Moira; Baglioni, Piero; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2016-06-01

    The phase behavior of a mixture of a typical insect pheromone (olean) and a phospholipid (DOPC)/water dispersion is extensively explored through SAXS, NMR and DSC experiments. The results mimic those obtained with anaesthetics in phospholipid/water systems. They also mimic the behavior and microstructure of ternary mixtures of a membrane mimetic, bilayer-forming double chained surfactants, oils and water. Taken together with recent models for conduction of the nervous impulse, all hint at lipid involvement and the underlying unity in mechanisms of pheromone, anaesthetic and hydrophobic drugs, where a local phase change in the lipid membrane architecture may be at least partly involved in the transmission of the signal. PMID:27210443

  3. A megaxion at 750 GeV as a first hint of low scale string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Luis E.; Martín-Lozano, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Low scale string models naturally have axion-like pseudoscalars which couple directly to gluons and photons (but not W 's) at tree level. We show how they typically get tree level masses in the presence of closed string fluxes , consistent with the axion discrete gauge symmetry, in a way akin of the axion monodromy of string inflation and relaxion models. We discuss the possibility that the hints for a resonance at 750 GeV recently reported at ATLAS and CMS could correspond to such a heavy axion state ( megaxion). Adjusting the production rate and branching ratios suggest the string scale to be of order M s ≃ 7-104 TeV, depending on the compactification geometry. If this interpretation was correct, one extra Z' gauge boson could be produced before reaching the string threshold at LHC and future colliders.

  4. Technical hints and potential pitfalls in modified radical neck dissection for thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leyre; Sancho, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Modified radical neck dissection (MRND) is often performed in conjunction with total thyroidectomy for the management of thyroid cancer. Prevention of postoperative sequelae after MRND is closely dependent on the avoidance of technical mistakes that may lead to significant complications and long-term morbidity. A thorough technical discussion with emphasis on potential pitfalls is made of the most relevant steps of MRND using the extrafascial approach: fascial dissection, approach to the accessory nerve, posterior limits, upper internal jugular vein (IJV), transverse cervical vessels, thoracic duct and compartment V dissection. Some anatomical hints are emphasized to help the novice surgeon to develop a refined surgical technique, the key to an uneventful postoperative course. PMID:25083480

  5. What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

  6. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  7. The ON:OFF switch, σ1R-HINT1 protein, controls GPCR-NMDA receptor cross-regulation: Implications in neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Cortés-Montero, Elsa; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Garzón-Niño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) and sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) coordinate the activity of certain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with that of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To determine the role of HINT1-σ1R in the plasticity of GPCR-NMDAR interactions, substances acting at MOR, cannabinoid CB1 receptor, NMDAR and σ1R were injected into mice, and their effects were evaluated through in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. It was observed that HINT1 protein binds to GPCRs and NMDAR NR1 subunits in a calcium-independent manner, whereas σ1R binding to these proteins increases in the presence of calcium. In this scenario, σ1R agonists keep HINT1 at the GPCR and stimulate GPCR-NMDAR interaction, whereas σ1R antagonists transfer HINT1 to NR1 subunits and disengage both receptors. This regulation is lost in σ1R−/− mice, where HINT1 proteins mostly associate with NMDARs, and GPCRs are physically and functionally disconnected from NMDARs. In HINT1−/− mice, ischemia produces low NMDAR-mediated brain damage, suggesting that several different GPCRs enhance glutamate excitotoxicity via HINT1-σ1R. Thus, several GPCRs associate with NMDARs by a dynamic process under the physiological control of HINT1 proteins and σ1Rs. The NMDAR-HINT1-σ1R complex deserves attention because it offers new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26461475

  8. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage. PMID:26444396

  9. ALMA HINTS AT THE PRESENCE OF TWO COMPANIONS IN THE DISK AROUND HD 100546

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Juhász, Attila; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Dent, William R. F.; Birnstiel, T.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, T. J.; Sandell, Göran

    2014-08-10

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390 ± 20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230 ± 20 AU in radius), suggesting radial drift of the millimeter-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and micrometer-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75 ± 3 AU centered at 190 ± 3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is investigated. The companion at 10 AU facilitates the accumulation of millimeter-sized grains within a compact ring, ≈20-30 AU, by ≈10 Myr. The injection of a protoplanet at 1 Myr hastens the ring formation (≈1.2 Myr) and also triggers the development of an outer ring (≈100-200 AU). These observations provide additional evidence for the presence of a close-in companion and hint at dynamical clearing by a protoplanet in the outer disk.

  10. Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    Astronomers have found the first evidence of a magnetic field in a jet of material ejected from a young star, a discovery that points toward future breakthroughs in understanding the nature of all types of cosmic jets and of the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Throughout the Universe, jets of subatomic particles are ejected by three phenomena: the supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, smaller black holes or neutron stars consuming material from companion stars, and young stars still in the process of gathering mass from their surroundings. Previously, magnetic fields were detected in the jets of the first two, but until now, magnetic fields had not been confirmed in the jets from young stars. "Our discovery gives a strong hint that all three types of jets originate through a common process," said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia Spanish National Research Council (IAA-CSIC) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a young star some 5,500 light-years from Earth, called IRAS 18162-2048. This star, possibly as massive as 10 Suns, is ejecting a jet 17 light-years long. Observing this object for 12 hours with the VLA, the scientists found that radio waves from the jet have a characteristic indicating they arose when fast-moving electrons interacted with magnetic fields. This characteristic, called polarization, gives a preferential alignment to the electric and magnetic fields of the radio waves. "We see for the first time that a jet from a young star shares this common characteristic with the other types of cosmic jets," said Luis Rodriguez, of UNAM. The discovery, the astronomers say, may allow them to gain an improved understanding of the physics of the jets as well as of the role magnetic fields play in forming new stars. The jets from young stars, unlike the other types, emit radiation

  11. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae. PMID:25976113

  12. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  13. The intracellular domain of teneurin-1 induces the activity of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) by binding to transcriptional repressor HINT1.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Jonas; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Thiry, Stéphane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2015-03-27

    Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB. PMID:25648896

  14. The Intracellular Domain of Teneurin-1 Induces the Activity of Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) by Binding to Transcriptional Repressor HINT1

    PubMed Central

    Schöler, Jonas; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Thiry, Stéphane; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB. PMID:25648896

  15. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Schools. Frequently Asked Questions and FY 2006 NIMS Compliance Activities for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a comprehensive system that improves tribal and local emergency response operations through the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the application of standardized…

  16. Hint, Fhit and GalT: Function, Structure, Evolution and Mechanism of Three Branches of the Histidine Triad Superfamily of Nucleotide Hydrolases and Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    HIT (histidine triad)1 proteins, named for a motif related to the sequence HφHφHφφ, (φ a hydrophobic amino acid) are a superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases and transferases, which act on the α-phosphate of ribonucleotides, and contain a ∼30 kDa domain that is typically either a homodimer of ∼15 kDa polypeptides with two active-sites or an internally, imperfectly repeated polypeptide that retains a single HIT active site. On the basis of sequence, substrate specificity, structure, evolution and mechanism, HIT proteins can be classified into the Hint branch, which consists of adenosine 5′-monophosphoramide hydrolases, the Fhit branch, which consists of diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolases, and the GalT branch, which consists of specific nucleoside monophosphate transferases including galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, diadenosine tetraphosphate phosphorylase, and adenylylsulfate:phosphate adenylytransferase. At least one human representative of each branch is lost in human diseases. Aprataxin, a Hint branch hydrolase, is mutated in ataxia-oculomotor apraxia syndrome. Fhit is lost early in development of many epithelially derived tumors. GalT is deficient in galactosemia. Additionally, ASW is an avian Hint family member that has evolved to have unusual gene expression properties and the complete loss of its nucleotide binding-site. The potential roles of ASW and Hint in avian sexual development are discussed in an accompanying manuscript. Here we review what is known about biological activities of HIT proteins, the structural and biochemical bases for their functions, and propose a new enzyme mechanism for Hint and Fhit that may account for the differences between HIT hydrolases and transferases. PMID:12119013

  17. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  18. Earnings in e-learning: knowledge, CME credits or both? Hints from analysis of attendance dynamics and users' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, M Cristina; Rognoni, Carla; Finozzi, Enrico; Landro, Mauro; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Marcello; Giorgi, Ines

    2010-01-01

    Many papers report and convey positive opinion about the use of e-learning in the healthcare sector. The issue is how to exploit at best such a powerful instrument. Starting from data regarding the usage of a CME e-learning course, attendance dynamics and users' behaviour have been inspected with the aim of getting some hints about how to improve the development and the delivery of e-learning courses for CME, and to promote knowledge acquisition at best. The different paths followed by 7811 users have been modeled, from enrolment to conclusion/drop-out, then the behaviour in terms of effort, elapsed time, achieved result have been analyzed. The obtained results point out: good acceptance (retention rate 83%) of a not basic educational model and effectiveness (success rate 79%). At the same time the inspection of behaviour has shown that there is a good margin of possible improvement in terms of knowledge acquisition. Conclusions provide a list of issues to keep in mind during system development, in order to provide CME e-learning meeting both credit and knowledge acquisition goals. PMID:20841752

  19. Modulation masking release using the Brazilian-Portuguese HINT: Psychometric functions and the effect of speech time compression

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Griz, Silvana; Pacífico, Fernando A.; Advíncula, Karina P.; Menezes, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Brazilian-Portuguese Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) was used to investigate the benefit to speech recognition of listening in a fluctuating background. The goal was to determine whether modulation masking release varied as a function of the speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold was manipulated using the novel approach of adjusting the time-compression of the speech. Design Experiment 1 measured performance-intensity functions in both a steady speech-shaped noise masker and a 10-Hz square-wave modulated masker. Experiment 2 measured speech-to-masker ratios at threshold as a function of time-compression of the speech (0, 33, and 50%) in both maskers. Study Sample Participants were normal-hearing adults who were native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (Experiment 1: N = 10; Experiment 2: N = 30). Results The slope of the performance-intensity function was shallower in the modulated masker than in the steady masker for both words and sentences. Thresholds increased with increasing time-compression in both maskers, but more markedly in the modulated masker, resulting in reduced modulation masking release with increasing time-compression. Conclusions Speech-to-masker ratio at threshold varies with time-compression of speech. The results are relevant to the issue of whether degree of masker modulation benefit depends on speech-to-masker ratio at threshold. PMID:25630394

  20. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  1. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers. PMID:25218499

  2. Enhanced models for stellar Doppler noise reveal hints of a 13-year activity cycle of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of Doppler noise models on the statistical robustness of the exoplanetary radial velocity fits. We show that the traditional model of the Doppler noise with an additive jitter can generate large non-linearity effects, decreasing the reliability of the fit, especially in the cases when a correlated Doppler noise is involved. We introduce a regularization of the additive noise model that can gracefully eliminate its singularities together with the associated non-linearity effects. We apply this approach to Doppler time series data of several exoplanetary systems. It demonstrates that our new regularized noise model yields orbital fits that have either increased or at least the same statistical robustness, in comparison with the simple additive jitter. Various statistical uncertainties in the parametric estimations are often reduced, while planet detection significance is often increased. Concerning the 55 Cnc five-planet system, we show that its Doppler data contain significant correlated (`red') noise. Its correlation time-scale is in the range from days to months, and its magnitude is much larger than the effect of the planetary N-body perturbations in the radial velocity (these perturbations thus appear undetectable). Characteristics of the red noise depend on the spectrograph/observatory, and also show a cyclic time variation in phase with the public Ca II H&K and photometry measurements. We interpret this modulation as a hint of the long-term activity cycle of 55 Cnc, similar to the solar 11-yr cycle. We estimate the 55 Cnc activity period by 12.6± ^{2.5}_{1.0} yr, with the nearest minimum presumably expected in 2014 or 2015.

  3. Overcoming students' misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-12-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures and homework sessions, and it consisted of three phases: individual working, hinting, and peer discussion. To probe students’ conceptual understanding before, during, and after the intervention, use was made of a diagnostic test related to the multiphased process of an ideal gas [D. E. Meltzer, Am. J. Phys. 72, 1432 (2004)AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.1789161]. The students’ conceptions were monitored by analyzing the explanations they provided and by recording the peer discussions of five voluntary pairs. The intervention helped students to realize the flaws in their explanations and increased the proportion of their scientific explanations, the increase being statistically significant in five tasks out of seven. When the same themes were addressed in a post-test, it was shown that the level of accurate explanations remained almost constant after the intervention, and hence it could be deduced that the impact had not been short-lived. In comparison with earlier studies conducted with the same material, our intervention produced a better learning outcome, the difference being 15-20 percentage points. In addition, the number of misconceptions on the part of the students was smaller in our study, although with individual exceptions. Hence, we conclude that the intervention was successful and that similar interventions could also be designed and implemented in other areas of physics.

  4. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay. PMID:26967409

  5. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B →D τ ν and B →D*τ ν of approximately 3.8 σ . There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3 σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ →μ ν ν is 1.8 σ (2.4 σ ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h →μ τ . Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ →μ ν ν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral C P -even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R (D ) and R (D*) can be easily explained by additional t -c -Higgs couplings. Combining these t -c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t →H c can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h →μ τ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ →μ γ decay.

  6. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  7. Healthy household hints.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P

    1999-01-01

    Ten commonly found items that can help keep your home clean are listed. Baking soda and vinegar are effective in cleaning drains. Certain plants, including English ivy and the spider plant, filter carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide out of the air. In addition, specific brand-name products, such as Bon Ami and "Simple Green", are also good alternative cleansers. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366863

  8. Quantitative Analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 Protein Over-Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Andrew J.; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R.; Patel, Hitenedra R. H.; Masters, John R. W.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer. PMID:24386364

  9. Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007

  10. Observations of Infalling and Rotational Motions on a 1000 AU Scale around 17 Class 0 and 0/I Protostars: Hints of Disk Growth and Magnetic Braking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C18O (2-1) and 12CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C18O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ~600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C18O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ~1 to ~530 km s-1 pc-1. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M ⊙ to >1 M ⊙. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10-4 km s-1 pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk formation.

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF INFALLING AND ROTATIONAL MOTIONS ON A 1000 AU SCALE AROUND 17 CLASS 0 AND 0/I PROTOSTARS: HINTS OF DISK GROWTH AND MAGNETIC BRAKING?

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-02-01

    We perform imaging and analyses of SMA 1.3 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O (2-1) and {sup 12}CO (2-1) line data of 17 Class 0 and 0/I protostars to study their gas kinematics on a 1000 AU scale. Continuum and C{sup 18}O (2-1) emission are detected toward all the sample sources and show central primary components with sizes of ∼600-1500 AU associated with protostars. The velocity gradients in C{sup 18}O (2-1) have wide ranges of orientations from parallel to perpendicular to the outflows, with magnitudes from ∼1 to ∼530 km s{sup –1} pc{sup –1}. We construct a simple kinematic model to reproduce the observed velocity gradients, estimate the infalling and rotational velocities, and infer the disk radii and the protostellar masses. The inferred disk radii range from <5 AU to >500 AU with estimated protostellar masses from <0.1 M {sub ☉} to >1 M {sub ☉}. Our results hint that both large and small disks are possibly present around Class 0 protostars, which could be a sign of disk growth at the Class 0 stage. In addition, the directions of the overall velocity gradients in 7 out of the 17 sources are close to perpendicular to their outflow axes (Δθ > 65°), which is a signature of significant rotational motions. From our model fitting, the specific angular momenta in these sources are estimated to be >2 × 10{sup –4} km s{sup –1} pc, suggesting that magnetic braking is unlikely efficient on a 1000 AU scale in these Class 0 and 0/I sources. In a sub-sample with observed magnetic field orientations, we find no source with large specific angular momenta together with closely aligned magnetic field and outflow axes. This possibly hints that the magnetic field, if originally aligned with the rotational axis, can play a role in removing angular momentum from infalling material at the Class 0 stage. We discuss our results in comparison with theoretical models of collapsing dense cores with and without magnetic fields in the context of disk

  12. Structure and energy level alignment at the dye-electrode interface in p-type DSSCs: new hints on the role of anchoring modes from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Ana B; Pavone, Michele

    2015-05-14

    p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent the complementary photocathodes to the well-studied n-type DSSCs (Grätzel cells), but their low performances have hindered the development of convenient tandem solar cells based on cost-effective n- and p-type DSSCs. Because of their low efficiencies, experimental investigations highlighted the role of hole-electron transport processes at the dye-electrode interface. However, the effects of the dye anchoring groups on interfacial electronic features are still unclear. We report here a first principles study of a benchmark p-type DSSC model, namely the widely used Coumarin-based dye C343 adsorbed on the p-NiO surface. Together with the original carboxylic acid, we test the alternative phosphonic acid as the anchoring group. We investigate binding energies, structural features and electronic energy level alignments: our results highlight that these properties are highly sensitive to the binding modes. In particular, both the chemical nature of the anchoring group and the binding mode strongly affect the thermodynamic driving force for the dye-electrode hole injection process. From analysis of the electronic densities, we find that favorable driving forces are correlated with small values of the interfacial electrostatic dipole that is formed upon dye adsorption. From our results, we derive new hints for improving open circuit potential and the hole injection process in p-type DSSCs based on NiO electrodes. PMID:25892559

  13. Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for U.S. Women Aged 25–64: Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Richard P.; Gaffey, Allison; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although it is widely accepted that Papanicolaou (Pap) screening can reduce cervical cancer mortality, many women still do not maintain regular cervical cancer screenings. Objective To describe the prevalence of cervical cancer screening and the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cancer-related knowledge factors associated with adherence to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cervical cancer screening guidelines among women in the United States. Methods Data for women aged 25–64 were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Women were considered adherent to screening guidelines if they had two consecutive, on-schedule screenings and planned to have another within the next 3 years. The sample comprised 2070 women. Results Ninety-eight percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, 90% reported having had a recent Pap smear (within 3 years), and 84% were adherent to USPSTF screening guidelines. Maintaining regular cervical cancer screening was significantly associated with having health insurance, normal body mass index (BMI), smoking status (nonsmoker), mood (absence of a mood disturbance), and being knowledgeable about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Conclusions Based on the observation that women who were current smokers, obese, or experiencing a substantial degree of psychological distress were significantly less likely to adhere to recommended screening guidelines, we suggest that healthcare providers pay particular attention to the screening needs of these more vulnerable women. PMID:19951209

  14. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS IN ORBITAL/SUPERORBITAL PHASE SPACE AND HINTS OF SUPERORBITAL VARIABILITY IN THE HARD X-RAYS OF LS I +61°303

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu

    2014-04-10

    We present an INTEGRAL spectral analysis in the orbital/superorbital phase space of LS I +61°303. A hard X-ray spectrum with no cutoff is observed at all orbital/superorbital phases. The hard X-ray index is found to be uncorrelated with the radio index (non-simultaneously) measured at the same orbital and superorbital phases. In particular, the absence of an X-ray spectrum softening during periods of negative radio index does not favor a simple interpretation of the radio index variations in terms of a microquasar's changes of state. We uncover hints of superorbital variability in the hard X-ray flux, in phase with the superorbital modulation in soft X-rays. An orbital phase drift of the radio peak flux and index along the superorbital period is observed in the radio data. We explore its influence on a previously reported double-peak structure of a radio orbital light curve, and present it as a plausible explanation.

  15. Dual activity of certain HIT-proteins: A. thaliana Hint4 and C. elegans DcpS act on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as hydrolases (forming AMP) and as phosphorylases (forming ADP).

    PubMed

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Wojdyła, Anna Maria; Zimny, Jarosław; Wypijewska, Anna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Bieganowski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Histidine triad (HIT)-family proteins interact with different mono- and dinucleotides and catalyze their hydrolysis. During a study of the substrate specificity of seven HIT-family proteins, we have shown that each can act as a sulfohydrolase, catalyzing the liberation of AMP from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS or SO(4)-pA). However, in the presence of orthophosphate, Arabidopsis thaliana Hint4 and Caenorhabditis elegans DcpS also behaved as APS phosphorylases, forming ADP. Low pH promoted the phosphorolytic and high pH the hydrolytic activities. These proteins, and in particular Hint4, also catalyzed hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of some other adenylyl-derivatives but at lower rates than those for APS cleavage. A mechanism for these activities is proposed and the possible role of some HIT-proteins in APS metabolism is discussed. PMID:19896942

  16. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  17. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  18. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  19. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  20. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał E-mail: kamionka@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10{sup 13} GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models.

  1. Lasers and Physics: A Pretty Good Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schawlow, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    The monochromaticity, directionality, and intensity of laser light make possible spectroscopic investigations of previously unimagined precision. Several of these investigations and their applications are discussed. (Author/JN)

  2. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-01

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle ηW Z may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea.

  3. Hints of a Fundamental Misconception in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Timothy F.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    To explore the frequency and range of student ideas regarding the Big Bang, nearly 1,000 students from middle school, secondary school, and college were surveyed and asked if they had heard of the Big Bang and, if so, to describe it. In analyzing their responses, we uncovered an unexpected result that more than half of the students who stated that they had heard of the Big Bang also provided responses that suggest they believe that the Big Bang was a phenomenon that organized pre-existing matter. To further examine this result, a second group of college students was asked specifically to describe what existed or occurred before, during, and after the Big Bang. Nearly 70% gave responses clearly stating that matter existed prior to the Big Bang. These results are interpreted as strongly suggesting that most students are answering these questions by employing an internally consistent element of knowledge or reasoning (often referred to as a phenomenological primitive, or p-prim), consistent with the idea that "you can't make something from nothing." These results inform the debate about the extent to which college students have pre-existing notions that are poised to interfere with instructional efforts about contemporary physics and astronomy topics.

  4. Many (and Many More) Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains 10 teaching tips about such topics/ideas as low-impact nature trails, sand, overhead transparency use, the cause of "trash," rainbows, the solar system, controlling variables, time keeping, science discovery centers, and animal characteristics. (TW)

  5. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  6. Hints for Teaching Success in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    This book offers support for middle school teachers and suggestions on how they can help their students be more successful, both in the classroom and in life. Thirteen chapters cover being a teacher, the classroom, students and the challenges they face, communication, teaching, testing, working with parents, staff relations and job stress, public…

  7. Scalar Hint from the Diboson Excess?

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Hashimoto, Michio

    2015-10-23

    In view of the recent diboson resonant excesses reported by both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we suggest that a new weak singlet pseudoscalar particle η(WZ) may decay into two weak bosons while being produced in gluon fusion at the LHC. The couplings to the gauge bosons can arise from a Wess-Zumino-Witten anomaly term and thus we study an effective model based on the anomaly term as a well motivated phenomenological model. In models where the pseudoscalar particle arises as a composite state, the coefficients of the anomalous couplings can be related to the fermion components of the underlying dynamics. We provide an example to test the feasibility of the idea. PMID:26551102

  8. Inflammatory stress and idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity: hints from animal models.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaomin; Luyendyk, James P; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) present a serious human health problem. They are major contributors to hospitalization and mortality throughout the world (Lazarou et al., 1998; Pirmohamed et al., 2004). A small fraction (less than 5%) of ADRs can be classified as "idiosyncratic." Idiosyncratic ADRs (IADRs) are caused by drugs with diverse pharmacological effects and occur at various times during drug therapy. Although IADRs affect a number of organs, liver toxicity occurs frequently and is the primary focus of this review. Because of the inconsistency of clinical data and the lack of experimental animal models, how IADRs arise is largely undefined. Generation of toxic drug metabolites and induction of specific immunity are frequently cited as causes of IADRs, but definitive evidence supporting either mechanism is lacking for most drugs. Among the more recent hypotheses for causation of IADRs is that inflammatory stress induced by exogenous or endogenous inflammagens is a susceptibility factor. In this review, we give a brief overview of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We discuss the inflammatory stress hypothesis and use as examples two drugs that have caused IADRs in human patients: ranitidine and diclofenac. The review focuses on experimental animal models that support the inflammatory stress hypothesis and on the mechanisms of hepatotoxic response in these models. The need for design of epidemiological studies and the potential for implementation of inflammation interaction studies in preclinical toxicity screening are also discussed briefly. PMID:19805476

  9. Hints for Leptonic C P Violation or New Physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, David V.; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic C P violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac C P phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if C P in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic C P violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios.

  10. SGML: The Reason Why and the First Published Hint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Charles F.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the first published paper on need for Standard Generalized Markup Language, "An Online System for Integrated Text Processing," presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, in October 15, 1970. Details the history of an online integrated text processing system…

  11. Choosing, Creating and Using Story Problems: Some Helpful Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this article Anne Roche describes some of the different types of story problems defined in the Cognitively Guided Instruction professional development program. Teachers will find the table reproduced on page 32 to be very helpful in designing word problems. Roche then gives some suggestions for improving the way division stories are used in the…

  12. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  13. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics. PMID:27071300

  14. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  15. Extended write combining using a write continuation hint flag

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-06-04

    A computing apparatus for reducing the amount of processing in a network computing system which includes a network system device of a receiving node for receiving electronic messages comprising data. The electronic messages are transmitted from a sending node. The network system device determines when more data of a specific electronic message is being transmitted. A memory device stores the electronic message data and communicating with the network system device. A memory subsystem communicates with the memory device. The memory subsystem stores a portion of the electronic message when more data of the specific message will be received, and the buffer combines the portion with later received data and moves the data to the memory device for accessible storage.

  16. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  17. Inflammatory Stress and Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity: Hints from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaomin; Luyendyk, James P.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) present a serious human health problem. They are major contributors to hospitalization and mortality throughout the world (Lazarou et al., 1998; Pirmohamed et al., 2004). A small fraction (less than 5%) of ADRs can be classified as “idiosyncratic.” Idiosyncratic ADRs (IADRs) are caused by drugs with diverse pharmacological effects and occur at various times during drug therapy. Although IADRs affect a number of organs, liver toxicity occurs frequently and is the primary focus of this review. Because of the inconsistency of clinical data and the lack of experimental animal models, how IADRs arise is largely undefined. Generation of toxic drug metabolites and induction of specific immunity are frequently cited as causes of IADRs, but definitive evidence supporting either mechanism is lacking for most drugs. Among the more recent hypotheses for causation of IADRs is that inflammatory stress induced by exogenous or endogenous inflammagens is a susceptibility factor. In this review, we give a brief overview of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We discuss the inflammatory stress hypothesis and use as examples two drugs that have caused IADRs in human patients: ranitidine and diclofenac. The review focuses on experimental animal models that support the inflammatory stress hypothesis and on the mechanisms of hepatotoxic response in these models. The need for design of epidemiological studies and the potential for implementation of inflammation interaction studies in preclinical toxicity screening are also discussed briefly. PMID:19805476

  18. Hints to the diagnosis of uromodulin kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Onoe, Tamehito; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizushima, Ichiro; Ito, Kiyoaki; Kawakami, Takahiro; Daimon, Shoichiro; Muramoto, Hiroaki; Konoshita, Tadashi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Uromodulin kidney disease (UKD) is an inherited kidney disease caused by a uromodulin (UMOD) gene mutation. The UMOD gene encodes the Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), which is the most abundant protein in healthy human urine. Because of its rarity, the incidence of UKD has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the frequency of UKD among patients who underwent renal biopsy. Methods Immunostaining for THP was performed for patients <50 years of age with renal insufficiency and hyperuricemia without overt urinalysis abnormality from renal biopsy databases. Serum and urinary THP concentrations were evaluated in available individuals. Results Fifteen patients were selected for immunostaining from a total of 3787 patients. In three independent patients, abnormal THP accumulation in renal tubular cells was observed. A novel missense A247P UMOD mutation was detected in two of the three patients, including one having a typical family history of familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. Serum and urinary THP concentrations of all available patients with UMOD A247P mutation were significantly lower than those of controls. Conclusions In the present study, UKD was detected in <1 in 1000 subjects who underwent renal biopsies. However, in subjects meeting all of the above criteria, abnormal THP accumulation was detected in 20% (3/15), suggesting that renal biopsy with immunostaining for THP is a good tool for diagnosing UKD. Also, low serum THP concentration detected in the present subjects might be a good diagnostic marker or important in understanding the pathogenesis of UKD. PMID:26798464

  19. DO SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS SERVE SIGNALING FUNCTIONS? (HINT: YES).

    PubMed

    Tiokhin, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals. In this paper, I develop the hypothesis that symptoms of illness serve signaling functions, and provide a comprehensive review of relevant evidence from diverse disciplines. I also develop novel empirical predictions generated by this hypothesis and discuss its implications for public health. Signaling provides an ultimate explanation for otherwise opaque aspects of symptom expression, such as why symptoms fluctuate in social contexts, and can exist without underlying pathology, and why individuals deliberately generate symptoms of illness. This analysis suggests that signaling theory is a major organizing framework for understanding symptom etiology. PMID:27405223

  20. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  1. Ace Your Accounting Classes: 12 Hints to Maximize Your Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, W. David

    2008-01-01

    Many students experience difficulties when they try to get good grades in their accounting classes, and they are searching for answers. There is no single answer. Getting a good grade in an accounting class results from a process. If you know and understand the process--and can apply it--then your chances are much improved for getting a good…

  2. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  3. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  4. Hints for Leptonic CP Violation or New Physics?

    PubMed

    Forero, David V; Huber, Patrick

    2016-07-15

    One of the major open questions in the neutrino sector is the issue of leptonic CP violation. Current global oscillation data show a mild preference for a large, potentially maximal value for the Dirac CP phase in the neutrino mixing matrix. In this Letter, we point out that new physics in the form of neutral-current-like nonstandard interactions with real couplings would likely yield a similar conclusion even if CP in the neutrino sector were conserved. Therefore, the claim for a discovery of leptonic CP violation will require a robust ability to test new physics scenarios. PMID:27472108

  5. Use these practical hints to solve/prevent production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, F.W

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents ideas and rules of thumb for improving efficiency and minimizing headaches while operating production facilities. It focuses on ways in which operating can be improved at the wellhead and down in the wellbore.

  6. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  7. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life.

    PubMed

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-18

    Last week at the International Astronomical Union 24th General Assembly, astronomers announced nine newly discovered planets orbiting other stars. The roster of extrasolar planets, now nearing 50, suggests that stars are fecund breeding grounds for worlds but that young planets must battle hordes of rivals for a handful of stable orbits. PMID:17833397

  8. Hint of Lyme, an uncommon cause of syncope.

    PubMed

    Manek, Megha; Kulkarni, Abhishek; Viera, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old Caucasian male patient presented after a single episode of syncope. His heart rate was 40 beats per minute. ECG showed new onset complete heart block. A temporary pacer was placed. He had a macular rash on the body from past 2 weeks and was diagnosed with contact dermatitis. Erythema migrans was considered as differential for rash. Lyme titre was ordered and found to be positive. After antibiotic therapy and observation on telemetry, his heart block resolved. He was subsequently discharged and a follow-up ECG revealed persistent normal sinus rhythm. PMID:24604793

  9. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, M. M.; Zarrouk, O.; Francisco, R.; Costa, J. M.; Santos, T.; Regalado, A. P.; Rodrigues, M. L.; Lopes, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. Scope How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with ‘isohydric’ behaviour in contrast to ‘anysohydric’ behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed. PMID:20299345

  10. Hyperon Puzzle: Hints from Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars.

  11. Hyperon puzzle: hints from quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Lonardoni, Diego; Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The onset of hyperons in the core of neutron stars and the consequent softening of the equation of state have been questioned for a long time. Controversial theoretical predictions and recent astrophysical observations of neutron stars are the grounds for the so-called hyperon puzzle. We calculate the equation of state and the neutron star mass-radius relation of an infinite systems of neutrons and Λ particles by using the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. We find that the three-body hyperon-nucleon interaction plays a fundamental role in the softening of the equation of state and for the consequent reduction of the predicted maximum mass. We have considered two different models of three-body force that successfully describe the binding energy of medium mass hypernuclei. Our results indicate that they give dramatically different results on the maximum mass of neutron stars, not necessarily incompatible with the recent observation of very massive neutron stars. We conclude that stronger constraints on the hyperon-neutron force are necessary in order to properly assess the role of hyperons in neutron stars. PMID:25793808

  12. Automatic Hint Generation for Logic Proof Tutoring Using Historical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tiffany; Stamper, John

    2010-01-01

    In building intelligent tutoring systems, it is critical to be able to understand and diagnose student responses in interactive problem solving. However, building this understanding into a computer-based intelligent tutor is a time-intensive process usually conducted by subject experts. Much of this time is spent in building production rules that…

  13. Teach with Leach: Hints for Teachers of MBI Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ethel

    Briefly described are approximately 110 activities appropriate for use with minimally brain injured children. Examples of activities are sorting beans, tracing pictures from coloring books, making a 'catch and pitch' mitt out of an empty bleach bottle, and using the Viewmaster to encourage interest in geography. Also included are directions for…

  14. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  15. Prediction horizon effects on stochastic modelling hints for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Drossu, R.; Obradovic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between stochastic models and neural network (NN) approaches to time series modelling. Experiments on a complex real life prediction problem (entertainment video traffic) indicate that prior knowledge can be obtained through stochastic analysis both with respect to an appropriate NN architecture as well as to an appropriate sampling rate, in the case of a prediction horizon larger than one. An improvement of the obtained NN predictor is also proposed through a bias removal post-processing, resulting in much better performance than the best stochastic model.

  16. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries together with a growth of the South Atlantic Anomaly has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. The precise age model and the accurate calibration of intensities on absolute scale allow to calculate the duration and the rate of change of the field during the well documented excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake. The rate of decay of the field intensity during these excursions is is virtually similar to that observed over the last few centuries and much higher than that observed for other low intensity periods of the same duration but not associated to any polarity change. Although these records do not provide undisputable information on future evolution of the field, we find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  17. Another hint for a changing stratospheric circulation after 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boenisch, H.; Engel, A.; Hoor, P.

    2009-04-01

    Aircraft data were used to study interannual changes of extratropical lower stratospheric tracer-tracer correlations. The focus is on the time periods before and after 2001 between which a remarkable step-like decrease of stratospheric water vapour has occurred (Randel et al., 2006). This feature associated with a cooling of temperatures near the tropical tropopause, and a decrease in tropical ozone at about the same time has been linked by Randel et al. (2006) to an increased stratospheric upwelling circulation in the tropics (the so-called Brewer-Dobson circulation) caused by enhanced wave driving after 2000 (Dhomse et al., 2006). Analysis of the extratropical tracer-tracer correlations shows different slopes before and after 2000. These changes could be explained by an enhanced horizontal tracer transport from the tropical lower stratosphere into the extratropics, taking into account that mean age of air has remained constant over the last 3 decades in the midlatitude stratosphere above 30 hPa (Engel et al., 2009). We will present a comparison of in-situ measured tracer-tracer correlations in the extratropical lower stratosphere before and after 2001 and discuss implications for a changing stratospheric circulation. References: Dhomse, S., Weber, M., and Burrows, J.: The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 471-480, 2008. Engel, A., T. Möbius, H. Bönisch, U. Schmidt, R. Heinz, I. Levin, E. Atlas, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, S. Sugawara, F. Moore, D. Hurst, J. Elkins, S. Schauffler, A. Andrews, and K. Boering (2009), Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30 years, Nature Geosci., 2, 28-31. Randel, W. J., F. Wu, H. Vömel, G. E. Nedoluha, and P. Forster (2006), Decreases in stratospheric water vapor after 2001: Links to changes in the tropical tropopause and the Brewer-Dobson circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12312, doi:10.1029/2005JD006744.

  18. First hints of large scale structures in the ultrahigh energy sky?

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoco, A.; Miele, G.; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The result of the recent publication [1] of a broad maximum around 25 degrees in the two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions has been intriguingly interpreted as the first imprint of the large scale structures (LSS) of baryonic matter in the near universe. We analyze this suggestion in light of the clustering properties expected from the PSCz astronomical catalogue of LSS. The chance probability of the signal is consistent within 2 {sigma} with the predictions based on the catalogue. No evidence for a significant cross-correlation of the observed events with known overdensities in the LSS is found, which may be due to the role of the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, and is however consistent with the limited statistics. The larger statistics to be collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory is needed to answer definitely the question.

  19. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  20. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  1. Impact of simulated microgravity on human bone stem cells: New hints for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Maier, Jeanette A M; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-04-22

    Bone loss is a well known early event in astronauts and represents one of the major obstacle to space exploration. While an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity has been described, less is known about the behavior of bone mesenchymal stem cells in microgravity. We simulated microgravity using the Random Positioning Machine and found that mesenchymal stem cells respond to gravitational unloading by upregulating HSP60, HSP70, cyclooxygenase 2 and superoxyde dismutase 2. Such an adaptive response might be involved in inducing the overexpression of some osteogenic transcripts, even though the threshold to induce the formation of bone crystal is not achieved. Indeed, only the addition of an osteogenic cocktail activates the full differentiation process both in simulated microgravity and under static 1G-conditions. We conclude that simulated microgravity alone reprograms bone mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteogenic phenotype which results in complete differentiation only after exposure to a specific stimulus. PMID:27005819

  2. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights. PMID:26652722

  3. Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri

    PubMed Central

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Morant, Pierre-Emmanuel; Corellou, Florence; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intringuing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks. PMID:21085637

  4. Hints about Dark, Light-Bending Matter in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    New infrared observations of a gravitational lens About 20 cases of gravitationally lensed (GL) quasars are known. This special physical effect, also known as a cosmic mirage, occurs when the rays of light of a distant quasar on their way to us pass near a massive object, for instance a galaxy. As a result, two or more images of the same quasar will be seen near each other. This phenomenon is described in more detail in the Appendix. A new study by a group of three European astronomers, headed by Frederic Courbin ( Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium, and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France) [1], has led to the discovery of the object responsible for the double images of a remote quasar in the gravitational lens HE 1104-1805 . The investigation is based on infrared observations at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile and the `lensing system' turns out to be a distant, massive galaxy. Nevertheless, the geometry of the object is unusual and an additional gravitational lens of `dark' (invisible) matter may possibly be involved. This gravitational lens is also particularly well suited for future cosmological studies that aim at the determination of the Hubble constant and the expansion rate of the Universe. A new and detailed study of gravitational lenses It is rare among the relatively few, confirmed cases of gravitational lensing in the distant Universe, that the distribution of matter in the lensing system is well known. However, it is exactly this information that is needed to derive cosmological parameters by means of photometric monitoring of the brightness of the individual images in a gravitational lens [2]. The three astronomers have therefore undertaken a detailed study of some previously known gravitational lenses (or good candidate objects) with the primary aim to detect and map the associated lensing matter (refered to as the gravitational deflector or lensing object ). This is observationally quite difficult and time-consuming since the huge masses responsible for the gravitational bending of light are almost always located at very large distances from us. Thus they are quite faint and can only be observed with large telescopes and state-of-the-art equipment. Moreover, the faint images of lensing objects are located between the much brighter quasar images they lens. This makes the discovery of a lensing object and the recording of its image a most challenging task. The advantage of infrared observations The image of a remote galaxy is usually very faint at visible wavelengths, but it is brighter in the infra-red part of the spectrum. This is because the wavelength of maximum intensity in the spectrum of a rapidly receding, distant galaxy (a composite of the spectra of the stars of which it consists) is redshifted from the visual into the infrared region of the spectrum. For instance, galaxies with redshifts around z = 1 [3] are best observed in the J -band near the near-infrared wavelength of 1.25 microns (about twice that of red light), while the images of galaxies with even higher redshifts and velocities are better recorded in the 2.2 micron K -band. The present search for gravitational deflectors is therefore conducted in the infrared spectral region, using the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope and the IR detector IRAC 2b . Such a survey has the further advantage of revealing, if present, additional lensed images of the quasars, that may be heavily obscured by intervening dust, for example by the dust contained in the lensing galaxy. A new and powerful image combination/deconvolution algorithm These investigations have always been difficult because of the small angular separations in such lensed objects, of the order of one arcsecond, or even less in many cases. This corresponds to the image-smearing (seeing) effects introduced by atmospheric turbulence under common ground-based observing conditions. Detailed observations of such objects are therefore normally best made from space-based observatories, like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, an alternative method of obtaining high-resolution images is to combine numerous exposures of the same object in an optimised way; this allows to `eliminate' most of the image degradation caused by atmospheric effects. New and powerful software for this procedure has recently been developed at the Astrophysical Institute in Liege, cf. http://vela.astro.ulg.ac.be/imaproc. The new algorithm allows to treat (`deconvolve') simultaneously a large number of exposures - especially in the infrared - and yields high-resolution, combined images of the celestial objects on which precise brightness and positional measurements can be performed. Detection of the lensing galaxy in HE 1104-1805 During the present programme, the astronomers recently observed HE 1104-1805 , a gravitational lens with a doubly imaged quasar with a redshift of z = 2.316 that was discovered in 1993 at the La Silla Observatory. Observations in 1995, made in the I -waveband (0.9 micron) under poor seeing conditions, showed a very faint feature between the quasar images but the observations did not allow to ascertain the nature of this object. Caption to ESO PR Photo 21/97 [JPEG, 55k] New infrared images were obtained during the night of April 14-15, 1997. They were then processed with the new software and the resulting, detailed images with high-angular resolution, 0.27 arcsec, now show very clearly the lensing object, a remote, elliptical galaxy, between the quasar images. The image displayed in ESO Press Photo 21/97 was obtained in the near-infrared J-band, where the lensing galaxy in HE 1104-1805 is quite faint, but still well visible and measurable after `deconvolution'. The observed, infrared colour, i.e. the difference in brightness of its image in the J- and K-bands (the (J-K) index ), is compatible with that of a high-redshift elliptical galaxy, at a distance corresponding to a redshift somewhere between z = 1 and z = 1.8. The brightest of the two quasar images (`A'; the upper one in ESO PR Photo 21/97) shows absorption lines in its spectrum which have been redshifted at z = 1.66. Since the lensing galaxy is situated at a small angular distance from this component, it is quite likely that these spectral lines are produced by this galaxy. Thus, the gravitational deflector in HE 1104-1805 is most probably an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 1.66. This corresponds to a recession velocity of about 200,000 km/sec and a distance that, depending on the adopted Hubble relation, is of the order of 6,000 - 9,000 million light-years. Since this galaxy is comparatively bright in the infrared, this may be checked in the near future by taking an infrared spectrum, for example with the future IR instrument of the ESO New Technology Telescope, SOFI, cf. ESO Press Photo 17/97. Continued studies of HE 1104-1805 This gravitational lens is known to show brightness variations with time. It is therefore a good candidate for continued photometric monitoring which may possibly yield a new and independent determination of the Hubble constant [2], as this was recently done for another gravitational lens, PG 1115+080 [4]. If the lensing galaxy is actually located at redshift z = 1.66, then the time delay expected for brightness variations of the two lensed quasar images is of the order of 3 to 4 years, depending on the model. This should be easily measurable. A `Dark Lens' in HE 1104-1805? The observed geometry of HE 1104-1805 is somewhat surprising, since current lens models predict that the position of the deflector, as seen in the sky, is closer to the fainter quasar image than to the brighter one; here the contrary is the case. This would suggest that the distribution of the lensing matter is more complex than that of a single elliptical galaxy. In addition, the brightness of the lensing galaxy in the K-band is somewhat too high for a normal one. This may indicate the presence of a more massive object, for example a cluster of galaxies. This may not be the case, though, since the present, very deep observations would have allowed the detection of any normal cluster of galaxies between us and the quasar whose light is being split by the lens. An interesting question is therefore: do we `see' the effects of a lens of dark matter in HE 1104-1805? Only future observations, for instance with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , will tell. Where to find additional information More details about the image deconvolution techniques used for this investigation is available at the WWW pages of the Liege group. Information about another gravitational-lens related discovery by astronomers at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Liege have been reported in ESO Press Release 04/96 (9 February 1996). Notes: [1] The group consists of Frederic Courbin (Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium, and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France) and Pierre Magain (Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium) and Chris Lidman (ESO). [2] The careful observation of similar, but time-shifted brightness variations of the individual images of a quasar in a gravitational lens may sometimes lead to a determination of the distance to the lensing object (normally a distant galaxy). This is because the measured time delay of such variations (from some months to several years), from the known speed of light, will provide a direct indication of the difference in the length of the two light paths, expressed in kilometres. If moreover the overall distribution of the matter that causes the lensing effect is known (from observations of the shape of the lens) and thus the relative geometry of the lensing system and the light paths, it is then possible to estimate the absolute size of the system. When this is compared with its angular size (as seen in the sky on direct images), the true distance to the lensing object can be found. Dividing this distance with the measured recession velocity (along the line-of-sight), finally gives an independent value of the expansion rate of the Universe, the famous Hubble constant . [3] In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy or quasar gives a direct estimate of the apparent recession velocity as caused by the universal expansion. Since the expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. A redshift of z = 1 corresponds to a recession velocity of 180,000 km/sec; z = 2 to 214,300 km/sec, z = 3 to 233,300 km/sec, and z = 4 to 245,500 km/sec; the non-proportionality is a relativistic effect. [4] Detailed information about PG 1115+080 may be found in the scientific papers by Schechter et al. (1997, ApJ, 475, L85) and Courbin et al. (1997, SISSA preprint astro-ph/9705093, A&A Letters, in press). Appendix: What is a gravitational lens? The physical principle behind a gravitational lens (also known as a cosmic mirage ) has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are also curved (in the same way as a `straight line' on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by the theory. The effect was obviously due to the gravitational attraction of the stellar photons when they passed near the Sun on their way to us. This was a direct confirmation of a new phenomenon and represented a milestone in physics. In the 1930's, astronomer Fritz Zwicky (1898 - 1974), of Swiss nationality and working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, realised that the same effect may also happen far out in space where galaxies and large galaxy clusters may be sufficiently compact and massive to bend the light from even more distant objects. However, it was only five decades later, in 1979, that his ideas were observationally confirmed when the first example of a cosmic mirage was discovered. In this connection, it is of particular interest, that this gravitational lensing effect may not only result in double or multiple images of the same object, but also that the intensities of these images increase significantly, just as it is the case with an ordinary optical lens. Distant galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc. may thereby act as natural telescopes which allow us to observe objects that would otherwise have been too faint to be detected with currently available astronomical telescopes. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  5. "Spring break" of Dissolved Organic Matter above the Arctic Circle: New Hints on Source and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teisserenc, R.; Myers-Pigg, A.; Louchouarn, P.; Gandois, L.; Tananaev, N.; Le Dantec, T.; Gascoin, S.; Probst, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean, on a volume basis, receives the largest input of terrestrial organic matter of all ocean basins. These inputs come from the most important stock of soil organic carbon (OC) on Earth, estimated around 1700 Pg OC, which is well preserved in permafrost (from patchy to continuous). Arctic watersheds are experiencing unprecedented climate warming, and future warming is projected to be stronger at high latitudes. As a result, we can expect an increase in active layer depth and a decrease of permafrost extent in the near future. These shifts will affect the riverine contributions of terrestrial organic matter to the coastal and oceanic carbon pools. Until recently, few data existed about dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes in Siberian rivers, particularly during the spring freshet. Further, there is still a dearth of information about the source and degradation state of this DOC in Arctic rivers through their hydrographs. To address this issue, we intensively sampled two spring flood periods in a small Canadian river (Great Whale river) and the largest Arctic river (Yenisei) at their outlet in order to get information on the source and state ("freshness") of mobilized DOC during these active flood periods. Combining geographical information data (GIS) and biogeochemical analysis (elemental, isotopic and molecular) we were able to discern dynamic ecosystem linkages. DOC concentration increased 4-9 fold in each river from low flow to peak flow. Molecular characteristics of this DOC are extremely variable during the flood event, ranging from old, altered DOC to fresh, labile DOC. We observed a partition of this quality between DOC and POC, with fresher DOC coming mostly from the leaching of softwoods during peak flow. Snow cover is variable along the period with snow-free area of the watershed imparting the greatest influence on DOC composition within the river. These results confirm that DOC dynamics during the spring flood are complex and much different than during low flow conditions. As export of DOC in this period can reach up to 80% of annual DOC export, measurements acquired during this study will bring crucial information on not only watershed-aquatic system linkages, but also on global carbon cycling.

  6. Hints of a Rotating Spiral Structure in the Innermost Regions around IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules toward the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08 {M}⊙ . Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in structures similar to those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ˜1.1 × 10-4 {M}⊙ . In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species.

  7. Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous, anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of the universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential does not increase faster than the quadratic power for large-field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in the early universe, contrary to the case of general relativity.

  8. Geoepidemiological hints about Streptococcus pyogenes strains in relationship with acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Fastiggi, Michele; Fumagalli, Monica; Andreozzi, Laura; Rigante, Donato

    2015-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains are lately classified on the basis of sequence variations in the emm gene encoding the M protein, but despite the high number of distinct emm genotypes, the spectrum of phenotypes varying from invasive suppurative to non-suppurative GAS-related disorders has still to be defined. The relationship of GAS types with the uprising of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a multisystemic disease caused by misdirected anti-GAS response in predisposed people, is also obscure. Studies published over the last 15 years were retrieved from PubMed using the keywords: "Streptococcus pyogenes" or "group A Streptococcus" and "acute rheumatic fever": the prevalence of peculiar emm types across different countries of the world is highly variable, depending on research designs, year of observation, country involved, patients' age, and gender. Most studies revealed that a relatively small number of specific emm/M protein types can be considered "rheumatogenic", as potentially characterized by the possibility of inducing ARF, with remarkable differences between developing and developed countries. The association between emm types and post-streptococcal manifestations is challenging, however surveillance of disease-causing variants in a specific community with high rate of ARF should be reinforced with the final goal of developing a potential primary prophylaxis against GAS infections. PMID:25772310

  9. “Don Juan-Fracture” as a Hint to Aortic Isthmus Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Suksompong, Sirilak; von Bormann, Benno

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of thoracic aortic rupture after blunt trauma in a 23-year-old male patient. The initial investigation found no external injury or bleeding, only a slightly widened mediastinum and a broken left calcaneus. Abdominal lavage was negative, biochemistry was normal, and breathing and oxygenation were not compromised. When changing his position during diagnostics, the patient all of a sudden developed cardiac arrest and typical signs of hypovolemic shock. An immediate sternotomy was done without any further diagnostics on suspicion of aortic isthmus injury. A circular avulsion at the ligamentum arteriosum was found as assumed and repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient left the hospital for rehabilitation after 12 days in adequate health status. Biodynamics of blunt trauma after high-speed frontal impact and the relationship between calcaneus fracture, called “Don-Juan fracture,” and aortic rupture at the site of ligamentum arteriosum are discussed. PMID:25478249

  10. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda. PMID:27117711

  11. Bird Flight: Hints to Be Obtained from It for Use in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan,

    1923-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.

  12. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctor Join eNewsletter Log in Login to your account Don't have an account yet? Register now! ... Forgot your password? Forgot your username? Create an account Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required. Name * ...

  13. Hints for families of gamma-ray bursts improving the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Vincenzo F.; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2013-09-01

    As soon as their extragalactic origins were established, the hope to make gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) standardizeable candles to probe the very high-z universe has opened the search for scaling relations between redshift-independent observable quantities and distance-dependent ones. Although some remarkable success has been achieved, the empirical correlations thus found are still affected by a significant intrinsic scatter which downgrades the precision in the inferred GRB Hubble diagram. We investigate here whether this scatter may come from fitting together objects belonging to intrinsically different classes. To this end, we rely on a cladistics analysis to partition GRBs in homogenous families according to their rest-frame properties. Although the poor statistics prevent us from drawing a definitive answer, we find that both the intrinsic scatter and the coefficients of the Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-L correlations significantly change depending on which sub-sample is fitted. It turns out that the fit to the full sample leads to a scaling relation which approximately follows the diagonal of the region delimited by the fits to each homogenous class. We therefore argue that a preliminary identification of the class a GRB belongs to is necessary in order to select the right scaling relation to be used in order to not bias the distance determination and hence the Hubble diagram.

  14. RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF 47 TUCANAE AND {omega} CENTAURI: HINTS FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-03-10

    We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) and {omega} Centauri ({omega} Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5{sigma} detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3{sigma} upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} for {omega} Cen and 47 Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters.

  15. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous environments persisted in the near-subsurface for hundreds of millions of years and might exist even today. Studies of Mars-analog environments must better understand subsurface nonphotosynthetic ecosystems and their biosignatures in mafic and ultramafic terranes. Studies must determine minimum needs for water activity and energy and also establish survival limits when conditions that support active metabolism and propagation become progressively less frequent over time.

  16. Advice and Hints in Training the Mentally Handicapped to Drive Electric Wheelchairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birath, Gunnar

    The booklet is intended to help train people with mild mental retardation to drive electric wheelchairs. The systematic training incorporates features of adequate time, stress upon generalization, and a relaxed and secure environment. Lessons are presented on the following skill areas: preparation, starting and stopping, driving straight ahead,…

  17. Deep Onshore Crustal Structure of Chicxulub Impact Crater Hinted From Mt Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzate, J. A.; Campos-Enríquez, J. O.

    This detailed MT study provides information about the deep continental structure of the Chicxulub impact crater (Yucatan, Mexico). In particular MT images of the elec- trical resistivity distribution along three radial profiles confirm the presence of shallow high resistive material at the crater center. Over this resitive high the MT soundings are featured by a sharper rise in resistivity related to the basement. This uplifted base- ment material coincides with the central structural high inferred in previous gravity, magnetic and MT studies. The top to the uplifted material is about 5 km in agreement with a recent seismic study. Its diameter is about 40 km and according to our images the basement material has been uplifted from a depth of about 10 km. The cenotes ring mark the rim of a deep basin featured by low resistivities. These low resistivities are interpreted as due to the fluids filling and interconecting the fractures of this portion.

  18. Hints of the existence of axionlike particles from the gamma-ray spectra of cosmological sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M. A.; Prada, F.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Dominguez, A.

    2009-06-15

    Axionlike particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the extragalactic background light intensity at 3.6 {mu}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC, and VERITAS.

  19. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  20. The function of copulatory plugs in Caenorhabditis remanei: hints for female benefits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mating plugs that males place onto the female genital tract are generally assumed to prevent remating with other males. Mating plugs are usually explained as a consequence of male-male competition in multiply mating species. Here, we investigated whether mating plugs also have collateral effects on female fitness. These effects are negative when plugging reduces female mating rate below an optimum. However, plugging may also be positive when plugging prevents excessive forced mating and keeps mating rate closer to a females' optimum. Here, we studied these consequences in the gonochoristic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. We employed a new CO2-sedation technique to interrupt matings before or after the production of a plug. We then measured mating rate, attractiveness and offspring number. Results The presence of a mating plug did not affect mating rate or attractiveness to roving males. Instead, females with mating plugs produced more offspring than females without copulatory plugs. Conclusions Our experiment suggests that plugging might have evolved under male-male competition but represents a poor protection against competing males in our experiment. Even if plugging does not reduce mating rate, our results indicate that females may benefit from being plugged in a different sense than remating prevention. PMID:21044286

  1. Hints on the Broad Line Region Structure of Quasars at High and Low Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Zamfir, Sebastian; Negrete, C. A.; Dultzin, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    Quasars show a considerable spectroscopic diversity. However, the variety of quasar spectra at low redshifts is non-random: a principal component analysis applied to large samples customarily identifies two main eigenvectors. In this contribution we show that the range of quasar optical spectral properties observed at low-z\\ and associated with the first eigenvector is preserved up to z ≈ 2 in a sample of high luminosity quasars. We also describe two major luminosity effects.

  2. Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes. Change nursing positions. If possible, position any cracked or tender part of your breast at the ... Also, if you smoke, nursing is another good reason to try to quit. Smoking can cause you ...

  3. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  4. Hints for an extension of the early exercise premium formula for American options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermin, Hans-Peter; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Perelló, Josep

    2005-09-01

    There exists a non-closed formula for the American put option price and non-trivial computations are required to solve it. Strong efforts have been made to propose efficient numerical techniques but few have strong mathematical reasoning to ascertain why they work well. We present an extension of the American put price aiming to catch weaknesses of the numerical methods based on their non-fulfillment of the smooth pasting condition.

  5. Hints of Correlation between Broad-line and Radio Variations for 3C 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Wang, J. M.; Li, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τob = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ~5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  6. Perceptual Strategies of Pigeons to Detect a Rotational Centre—A Hint for Star Compass Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  7. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  8. Altered motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients: a hint at crossmodal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Langguth, Berthold; Eichhammer, Peter; Zowe, Marc; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jacob, Peter; Binder, Harald; Sand, Philipp; Hajak, Göran

    2005-06-01

    Idiopathic tinnitus is a frequent and often debilitating auditory phantom perception of largely unknown pathological conditions. In electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies, affected subjects have shown excessive spontaneous activity in the central auditory system. To further investigate the underlying central nervous component, we assessed motor cortex excitability in 19 patients with chronic tinnitus by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When results were compared with data from 19 healthy controls matched for age and sex, we found significantly enhanced intracortical facilitation in tinnitus patients. These findings parallel excitability changes after limb amputation and experimental deafferentation. Our results give further support to crossmodal interactions involving neuroplastic changes in some forms of tinnitus and may help to better understand mechanisms of maladaptive cortical reorganisation involved in phantom perceptions. PMID:15862911

  9. Some Biological Hints on the Control of Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

    This review paper explores the possibilities of the control of heat and mass transfer associated with drought tolerance and freeze tolerance. The accumulation of some metabolites, such as proline and trehalose, are effective for drought tolerance. The special microstructures on the surfaces of some plants and insects in deserts are effective for collecting moisture in the air. Methods of preserving crops will be improved by the mimetic of the drought tolerance. Calcium ions and a protein are effective for the retrieval of damaged cell membrane due to ice formation. Ice crystal growth is inhibited by some substances such as antifreeze proteins. The cryopreservation of foods and organs will be improved by the mimetic of the freeze tolerance.

  10. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  11. Insights into the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes: a hint for novel immunospecific therapies.

    PubMed

    Casares, S; Brumeanu, T D

    2001-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an organ-specific autoimmune disease whose incidence is increasing worldwide. At present, there is no effective therapy to prevent or cure this disease. The genetic background (MHC and non-MHC genes) and environmental factors (pathogens, drugs, and diet) are critical for the initiation of the autoimmune response against the pancreatic beta-cells. Recognition of the pancreatic autoantigens by T cells in a predetermined environment of antigen-presenting cells, costimulation, and cytokines is crucial for the selective activation of diabetogenic or protective/regulatory T cells. Once the autoimmune process is triggered, epitope spreading and sustaining the autoimmune responses by continuous antigen stimulation leads to expansion of effector cells, which launch the attack on the beta-cells. Despite of some controversy, most of the studies in humans and animal models suggest that CD4 (Th1) T cells are directly involved in the autoimmune attack by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by Th2 cells is protective against the disease. Therapy with peptides derived from major target antigens, such as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 or proinsulin, can prevent the disease in animal models by rising protective Th2 cells. Herein, we review the recent progress in the immunopathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes and insights into the development of new diagnostic tools and antigen-specific immunomodulators, such as MHC-peptide chimeras. PMID:11899083

  12. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  13. New continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and a hint of ``the'' elementary particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmelt, H.

    1988-06-01

    First a Stern-Gerlach type experiment on a beam of electrons similar to Brillouin's 1927 proposal is discussed and shown to be feasible contrary to claims in the literature. Then the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect for an individual electron in classical oscillatory motion along the axis of a Penning trap is introduced. The analogy is developed between the classic Stern-Gerlach effect and the continuous one, in which a magnetic bottle replaces the constant field gradient and the place of the glass plate collecting the silver atoms is taken by a meter measuring the frequency of the axial oscillation. Quantum jumps observed with this apparatus in 1977 are exhibited, demonstrating the requirement of a finite time for collapse of the wave function, and the work has been recognized as an early quantum-non-demolition experiment. A plot of measured g-factors vs normalized radius for triton, proton, and electron suggests a new, 104× smaller value for the electron radius, when our electron g-value determined by magnetic resonance and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used. The plot further suggests a progression of ever smaller and heavier fermions until “the” elementary particle, the “cosmon”, is reached. It was formed, when in a random quantum jump the metastable vacuum dissociated into a lone “cosmon/anticosmon” pair, whose subsequent rapid breakup initiated the Big Bang.

  14. Hints of a rotating spiral structure in the innermost regions around IRC +10216

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J.L.; Zúñiga, J.; Requena, A.; Bastida, A.; Kalugina, Y.; Lique, F.; Guélin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is allowing us to study the innermost regions of the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars with un-precedented precision and sensitivity. Key processes in the ejection of matter and dust from these objects occur in their inner zones. In this work, we present sub-arcsecond interferometric maps of transitions of metal-bearing molecules towards the prototypical C-rich evolved star IRC +10216. While Al-bearing molecules seem to be present as a roughly spherical shell, the molecular emission from the salts NaCl and KCl presents an elongation in the inner regions, with a central minimum. In order to accurately analyze the emission from the NaCl rotational lines, we present new calculations of the collisional rates for this molecule based on new spectroscopic constants. The most plausible interpretation for the spatial distribution of the salts is a spiral with a NaCl mass of 0.08M☉. Alternatively, a torus of gas and dust would result in similar structures as those observed. From the torus scenario we derive a mass of ~ 1.1 × 10−4M☉. In both cases, the spiral and the torus, the NaCl structure presents an inner minimum of 27 AU. In the case of the torus, the outer radius is 73 AU. The kinematics of both the spiral and the torus suggests that they are slowly expanding and rotating. Alternative explanations for the presence of the elongation are explored. The presence of these features only in KCl and NaCl might be a result of their comparatively high dipole moment with respect to the Al-bearing species. PMID:26997665

  15. Hints on the nature of dark matter from the properties of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhalden, Donnino; Diemand, Juerg; Schneider, Aurel; Macciò, Andrea V.; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: aurel.schneider@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: diemand@physik.uzh.ch

    2013-03-01

    The nature of dark matter is still unknown and one of the most fundamental scientific mysteries. Although successfully describing large scales, the standard cold dark matter model (CDM) exhibits possible shortcomings on galactic and sub-galactic scales. It is exactly at these highly non-linear scales where strong astrophysical constraints can be set on the nature of the dark matter particle. While observations of the Lyman-α forest probe the matter power spectrum in the mildly non-linear regime, satellite galaxies of the Milky Way provide an excellent laboratory as a test of the underlying cosmology on much smaller scales. Here we present results from a set of high resolution simulations of a Milky Way sized dark matter halo in eight distinct cosmologies: CDM, warm dark matter (WDM) with a particle mass of 2 keV and six different cold plus warm dark matter (C+WDM) models, varying the fraction, f{sub wdm}, and the mass, m{sub wdm}, of the warm component. We used three different observational tests based on Milky Way satellite observations: the total satellite abundance, their radial distribution and their mass profile. We show that the requirement of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints sets very strong limits on the nature of dark matter. This shows the power of a multi-dimensional small scale approach in ruling out models which would be still allowed by large scale observations.

  16. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  17. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  18. Light hydrocarbons in hydrothermal and magmatic fumaroles: hints of catalytic and thermal reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Martini, Marino; Mangani, Filippo

    1995-02-01

    Volcanic gaseous mixtures emitted from active volcanoes frequently show variable amounts of saturated (alkanes), unsaturated (alkenes) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons. Three major patterns of distributions can be recognized, apparently related to the chemical-physical environment of formation of the gas exhalations: alkane-rich, low-temperature gas emissions from recently active volcanic areas; aromatic-rich hydrothermal manifestations; and alkene-rich, ‘magmatic’ fumaroles on active volcanoes. Thermodynamic data, together with theoretical and practical findings from the petroleum industry, point to two main types of reactions occurring in these volcanic environments: cracking and reforming. Cracking processes, mainly caused by thermal effects, occur when hydrocarbon-bearing hydrothermal fluids enter and mix with a hot and dry, rapidly rising magmatic gas phase. The most probable products are light alkenes with carbon numbers decreasing with increasing reaction temperatures. The presence of aromatic species in hydrothermal fluids can be linked to reforming processes, catalysed by several possible agents, such as smectites and zeolites, generally present in the hydrothermally altered volcanic terranes, and facilitated by long residence times in a hydrothermal envelope.

  19. Bathymetric and Seismic-Reflection Profiles Hint at the Origins of Medicine Lake, CA (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Barth, G. A.; Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J.; Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Phillips, R. L.; Starratt, S. W.; Barron, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Bathymetric and acoustic surveys (in 1999), combined with vibracore sampling of lake-bottom sediments (in 2000) reveal much about the latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of Medicine Lake, a 2 km x 1 km, closed-basin lake at the top of Medicine Lake volcano, 40 km SW of Tulelake, CA. Forty high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles show a prominent reflector interpreted as the volcanic landform (primarily lavas) that would have existed prior to lake formation. A total of 1560 travel-time picks for this reflector reveal the topography of the lake basement. A representative seismic velocity through the sedimentary lake fill is estimated to be 2200 +/- 200m/s based on quantitative analysis of diffraction hyperbolae observed in this single-channel data set. Converting travel-time picks with this interval velocity, volcanic "bedrock" lies between ~ 5 and 85 m below the lake surface (currently 2036 masl) and 1 to 60 m beneath the lake floor. The topography of the horizon is a linear trough with a 70° trend, slightly askew of the 100° trend of the lake itself. The trough is filled partially with 30 x 106 m3 of material, about 2 times that of the lake volume itself. Over 90% of this lake-basin fill is presumed to be locally derived glacial till and landslide deposits; it is very poorly bedded, and contain numerous slumps. It is thickest at the middle of the trough, adjacent to a prominent landslide and crudely defined glacial cirques and fill deposits off of Medicine Mountain, to the south. The top 1-2 m of lake-fill is Holocene sediments, consisting primarily of organic diatomaceous debris interlayered with thin beds of tephra from Medicine Lake volcano, Mazama and (likely) Mt. Shasta. The lake-bottom bathymetry (water-sediment interface) shows a circular hole at the east end of the lake. The hole appears to be part of the larger trough, but has not yet been filled with sediment/landslide deposits. There is no evidence for creation of the hole through venting or explosive excavation. We speculate that the trough (and hole) result from non-coalescence of adjacent, steep-sided lava flows. The lake is bordered primarily by two late Pleistocene lavas, the ~ 90 ka Lake Basalt and the slightly older andesite of the south rim. To the east of Medicine Lake, these two lavas are separated by a 10- to 20- m-wide valley that appears to have served as an outlet for Medicine Lake during periods where the lake level was 5-10 m higher. A possible explanation for the origin of this valley and the trough within Medicine Lake is that these areas were filled with glacial ice at the time of eruption of the Lake Basalt. The ice would have prevented the Lake Basalt from directly contacting the older andesite. The ice has been absent during the Holocene and the resulting basin has filled with till, landslide deposits, tephra, diatomaceous sediments and Medicine Lake itself.

  20. How to Get on the 6 O'Clock News, amd Other Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions from college public relations directors on promoting expert faculty members in the media include: knowing the needs and formats of various media, campus reporters, op-ed articles, a weekly tip sheet for reporters containing story ideas and faculty contacts for them, a media directory, and sending alumni publications to the media. (MSE)

  1. Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 μM) and high (100 μM) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition. PMID:24074147

  2. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, C. O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.

    2015-03-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s-1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King & Ritter. The decay time-scales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 h. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: (1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of `normal' X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; (2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; (3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an LX of 1034-1035 erg s-1 for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accretion flow in a propeller effect, permitting a small portion of the flow to accrete on to the neutron star's surface. We thus predict that (quasi-) persistent VFXBs may also be transitional millisecond pulsars, turning on as millisecond radio pulsars when their LX drops below 1032 erg s-1.

  3. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    PubMed

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Helduser, Sascha; Mouritsen, Henrik; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy. PMID:25807499

  4. Estimating Dynamical Systems: Derivative Estimation Hints from Sir Ronald A. Fisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Pascal R.

    2010-01-01

    The fitting of dynamical systems to psychological data offers the promise of addressing new and innovative questions about how people change over time. One method of fitting dynamical systems is to estimate the derivatives of a time series and then examine the relationships between derivatives using a differential equation model. One common…

  5. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: a hint for structural control on the rupture process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, R.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Zhao, D.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; Cocco, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, due to the exceptional amount of data and the unexpected rupture features characterizing this event, represents a great opportunity for the scientific community to better understand the physical processes underlying the genesis of mega-thrust earthquakes and try to provide future guidelines useful for mitigate the tsunami risk. Actually, this event has been extensively studied by using an unprecedented collection of high-quality geophysical data. In particular, different source models have been published by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data with a resulting general agreement about the main features of the rupture process (a patch of nearly 50 meters of slip located around and up-dip from the hypocenter), while the slip pattern at shallow depths near the trench exhibits some variability among these models, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. However, these features, particularly the very concentrated rupture area (with respect to the magnitude 9) and the very high slip in a zone typically considered aseismic, due to their unexpected nature are still under investigation. Here we use a 3-D structural model to account for the effects of both the geometrical variations of the plate interface and the elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere, within a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area. We infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. We find a pattern of slip mainly extending up-dip from the hypocenter and reaching the trench, with maximum slip of about 52 meters. We observe that the resulting rupture image of the Tohoku event exhibits a striking correlation with the distribution of lateral heterogeneities in seismic wave velocities around the plate interface. We then speculate on the causes of a possible structural control on the rupture propagation and arrest, which might have relevant implications in terms of earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment in this region.

  6. IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Serpico, Pasquale Dario E-mail: neutrino.skk@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.

  7. Hints at the Onset of Strong Interactions in the Higgs Sector of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesselmann, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop corrections to a couple of processes which involve the Higgs boson, H, and longitudinally polarized gauge bosons, W_sp{L} {+/-}, Z_{L}, as a perturbation series in the quartic Higgs coupling lambda. In particular, we study the two-body scattering of the channels W_sp{L} {+}W_sp{L}{-}, Z_ {L}Z_{L}, HH and HZ _{L}, and examine the fermionic decay H to f| f. Both processes display a breakdown of the perturbation series in lambda, indicating the onset of strong interactions. The results are used to obtain upper limits on the mass M _{H} of a weakly interacting Higgs boson. The 2 to 2 processes involving W_sp{L}{+/-}, Z _{L}, H are calculated in the high -energy heavy-Higgs limit sqrt{s} gg M_{H} gg M_{W} using the equivalence theorem. Introducing the running Higgs coupling lambda_ {s}(s, M_{H}), the two -loop amplitudes are re-written as to satisfy the renormalization group equation. Using an Argand diagram analysis, we find that the perturbative eigen-amplitudes are approximately unitary for lambda_{s} _sp{~}{<} 2.3. For larger values, the perturbation series is not converging towards its unitary value. Assuming that the Standard Model is the correct theory to describe longitudinal gauge boson scattering up to energies of 5 TeV (10 ^{16} GeV), the bound lambda_{s} _sp{ ~}{<} 2.3 translates into an upper bound M_{H} _sp{~}{<} 380 (155) GeV for a weakly interacting Higgs boson. For larger M_{H}, the scattering amplitudes need to be unitarized in a phenomenological manner. We inspect the K-matrix and the Pade-resummation methods for unitarizing the two-loop amplitudes, and conclude that the Pade method is preferable. The decay H to f| f is calculated to two loops in lambda , again using the equivalence theorem. To one-loop we include the Yukawa couplings and show explicitly the validity of the equivalence-theorem approximation for the process H to t| t. We find that our result reproduces the full electroweak result reported by other authors to better than 97% for M_{H} >= 500 GeV. Neglecting the Yukawa couplings, we carry out a consistent two-loop calculation of the O( lambda^2) corrections. We find that the two-loop correction is in magnitude larger than the one-loop correction for M_{H} > 375 GeV, indicating the breakdown of the perturbation series in lambda. The derivation of this result is independent of any assumptions about the energy up to which the Standard Model is supposed to be valid, a completely new feature in the context of perturbative limits on the Higgs mass.

  8. Improving HIV coreceptor usage prediction in the clinic using hints from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Due to the high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug-resistant-variants emerge frequently. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for new ways to attack the virus. One new class of anti-HIV drugs is the class of coreceptor antagonists that block cell entry by occupying a coreceptor on CD4 cells. This type of drug just has an effect on the subset of HIVs that use the inhibited coreceptor. A good prediction of whether the viral population inside a patient is susceptible to the treatment is hence very important for therapy decisions and pre-requisite to administering the respective drug. The first prediction models were based on data from Sanger sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV. Recently, a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was introduced that predicts labels for each read separately and decides on the patient label through a percentage threshold for the resistant viral minority. Results: We model the prediction problem on the patient level taking the information of all reads from NGS data jointly into account. This enables us to improve prediction performance for NGS data, but we can also use the trained model to improve predictions based on Sanger sequencing data. Therefore, also laboratories without NGS capabilities can benefit from the improvements. Furthermore, we show which amino acids at which position are important for prediction success, giving clues on how the interaction mechanism between the V3 loop and the particular coreceptors might be influenced. Availability: A webserver is available at http://coreceptor.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de. Contact: nico.pfeifer@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:22962486

  9. A hint of Poincaré dodecahedral topology in the WMAP first year sky map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, B. F.; Lew, B.; Cechowska, M.; Marecki, A.; Bajtlik, S.

    2004-09-01

    It has recently been suggested by Luminet et al. (\\cite{LumNat03}) that the WMAP data are better matched by a geometry in which the topology is that of a Poincaré dodecahedral model and the curvature is ``slightly'' spherical, rather than by an (effectively) infinite flat model. A general back-to-back matched circles analysis by Cornish et al. (\\cite{CSSK03}) for angular radii in the range 25-90 °, using a correlation statistic for signal detection, failed to support this. In this paper, a matched circles analysis specifically designed to detect dodecahedral patterns of matched circles is performed over angular radii in the range 1-40\\ddeg on the one-year WMAP data. Signal detection is attempted via a correlation statistic and an rms difference statistic. Extreme value distributions of these statistics are calculated for one orientation of the 36\\ddeg ``screw motion'' (Clifford translation) when matching circles, for the opposite screw motion, and for a zero (unphysical) rotation. The most correlated circles appear for circle radii of \\alpha =11 ± 1 \\ddeg, for the left-handed screw motion, but not for the right-handed one, nor for the zero rotation. The favoured six dodecahedral face centres in galactic coordinates are (\\lII,\\bII) ≈ (252\\ddeg,+65\\ddeg), (51\\ddeg,+51\\ddeg), (144\\ddeg,+38\\ddeg), (207\\ddeg,+10\\ddeg), (271\\ddeg,+3\\ddeg), (332\\ddeg,+25\\ddeg) and their opposites. The six pairs of circles independently each favour a circle angular radius of 11 ± 1\\ddeg. The temperature fluctuations along the matched circles are plotted and are clearly highly correlated. Whether or not these six circle pairs centred on dodecahedral faces match via a 36\\ddeg rotation only due to unexpected statistical properties of the WMAP ILC map, or whether they match due to global geometry, it is clear that the WMAP ILC map has some unusual statistical properties which mimic a potentially interesting cosmological signal.

  10. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  11. Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad Hβ line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the Hβ line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of τ{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ∼5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  12. On (Not) Representing Sex in Preschool and Kindergarten: A Psychoanalytic Reflection on Orders and Hints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Colette A.

    2007-01-01

    In this conceptual piece I use two pedagogical texts or moments--a preschool/kindergarten diagram representing body parts, and an adult dance class--to explore gaps in curricula and practice with respect to the treatment of young children's sexual curiosity. Looking first at social constructs of children's sexuality and sexual curiosity, and at…

  13. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  14. 76 FR 22714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval.......

  15. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic influence, and very modest shared environmental influence. No gender differences were evident. There were significant genetic influences common to IQ and parental expectations of educational attainment, parenting and engagement in school, school grades and engagement in school, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment and school grades, and IQ and school grades. A possible interpretation of the common genetic influences involving parenting is that parents use their own experience with school in shaping the ways in which they parent their offspring. PMID:19081831

  16. Enhanced recovery for colorectal surgery: Practical hints, results and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Elmussareh, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are now achieving worldwide diffusion in both university and district hospitals with special interest in colorectal surgery. The optimization of the patient’s preoperative clinical conditions, the careful intraoperative administration of fluids and drugs and the postoperative encouragement to resume the normal physiological functions as early as possible has produced results in a large amounts of studies. These approaches successfully challenged long-standing and well-established perioperative managements and finally achieved the status of gold standard treatments for the perioperative management of uncomplicated colorectal surgery. Even more important, it seems that the clinical improvement of the patient’s clinical management through ERAS protocols is now reaching his best outcomes (length of stay of 4-6 d after the operation) and therefore any further measures add little to the results already established (i.e., the adjunct of laparoscopic surgery to ERAS). Still dedicated meetings and courses around the world are exploring new aspects including the improvement the preoperative nutrition status to provide the energy necessary to face the surgical stress, the preoperative individuation of special requirements that could be properly addressed before the date of surgery and therefore would reduce the number of unnecessary days spent in hospital once fully recovered (i.e., rehabilitation, social discharges), and finally the development of an important web of out-of-hours direct access in order to individuate alarm symptoms in those patients at risk of complications that could prompt an early readmission. PMID:23293732

  17. How Intelligence and Education Contribute to Substance Use: Hints from the Minnesota Twin Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In old and even middle age, there are associations between physical health and both intelligence and education. This may occur because intelligence and/or education exert effects on lifestyle choices that, in turn, affect later health. Substance use is one aspect of lifestyle choice in young adulthood that could play such a role. The effects of…

  18. Teaching Pre- and Semi-Literate Laotian and Cambodian Adolescents To Read: Helpful Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Charles R.; And Others

    The handbook details techniques and approaches for teaching adolescent Laotian and Cambodian refugees, aged 10-17, to read. It evolved from a workshop for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in which 17 such students participated. The book begins by looking at reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game, then proceeds to classroom…

  19. Here's How! Practical Hints for Establishing Library Services in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Sherry Des Enfants

    This guide contains suggestions for those seeking to establish library services for homeless children, help for computerizing a homeless shelter, and a discussion of the problems and rewards of establishing library services in a shelter. Steps to establishing services include: (1) clarifying the purpose of the effort; (2) doing the homework to…

  20. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody representation (=coupling between perception and production). PMID:23783267

  1. The 1998 earthquake sequence south of Long Valley Caldera, California: Hints of magmatic involvement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Dollar, R.S.; Johnson, P.

    2000-01-01

    A significant episode of seismic and geodetic unrest took place at Long Valley Caldera, California, beginning in the summer of 1997. Activity through late May of 1998 was concentrated in and around the south moat and the south margin of the resurgent dome. The Sierran Nevada block (SNB) region to the south/southeast remained relatively quiet until a M 5.1 event occurred there on 9 June 1998 (UT). A second M 5.1 event followed on 15 July (UT); both events were followed by appreciable aftershock sequences. An additional, distinct burst of activity began on 1 August 1998. The number of events in the August sequence (over the first week or two) was similar to the aftershock sequence of the 15 July 1998 M 5.1 event, but the later sequence was not associated with any events larger than M 4.3. All of the summer 1998 SNB activity was considered tectonic rather than magmatic; in general the SNB is considered an unlikely location for future eruptions. However, the August sequence-an 'aftershock sequence without a mainshock'-is suggestive of a strain event larger than the cumulative seismotectonic strain release. Moreover, a careful examination of waveforms from the August sequence reveals a small handful of events whose spectral signature is strikingly harmonic. We investigate the waveforms of these events using spectral, autocorrelation, and empirical Green's function techniques and conclude that they were most likely associated with a fluid-controlled source. Our observations suggest that there may have been some degree of magma or magma-derived fluid involvement in the 1998 SNB sequence.

  2. Hints for the existence of hexaquark states in the baryon-antibaryon sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Buccella, Franco; Tramontano, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    The discovery of some baryon-antibaryon resonances has led us to consider 3q 3q¯ systems as possible candidates. We predict their spectrum in the framework of a constituent model, where the chromomagnetic interaction plays the main role. The relevant parameters are fixed by the present knowledge of tetraquarks. The emerging scenario complies well with experiment; besides the description of the baryon-antibaryon resonances, we find evidence for new tetraquark states, namely, the a0(Y) in the hidden strangeness sector and the Y(4140) and X(4350) in the cscs¯ sector. A detailed account of the spectra and the decay channels is provided for future comparisons with data.

  3. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. II. How to Trigger Radio AGNs? Hints from their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Chapman, Scott; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-01

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ~25 deg2 and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (Mu - Mr ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  4. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPIC STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF NEARBY DISKS: HINTS OF STELLAR MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoachim, Peter; Roskar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-20

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks.

  5. Building Models to Predict Hint-or-Attempt Actions of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente; Adjei, Seth; Colombo, Tyler; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research in educational data mining is geared towards predicting student performance. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing, Performance Factors Analysis, and the different variations of these have been introduced and have had some success at predicting student knowledge. It is worth noting, however, that very little has been done to…

  6. Mobile Students' Appraisals of Keys to a Successful Stay Abroad Experience: Hints from the IEREST Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Jan; Vassilicos, Basil; Borghetti, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better support for students in higher education throughout a mobility experience, it is important to understand their point of view regarding stay abroad. This paper analyzes the responses of pre-departure, while-abroad, and upon-return students of different academic backgrounds (N = 990) to an open question that asked them to…

  7. The Million Dollar Letter: Some Hints on How to Write One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marshall

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests ways of writing a truly effective cover letter, an extremely important document in the search for a job. First, features gleaned from 13 model letters in technical writing textbooks yield figures on the number of words, sentences, and paragraphs per letter, plus the average number of words per sentence and paragraph,…

  8. Magic, Nostalgia and a Hint of Greatness in the Workaday World of the Building Types Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles W.; Oliver, Richard B.

    1977-01-01

    The Architectural Record's Building Types Studies, now forty years old, exist as a compendium of raw material for an esthetic, stylistic, sociopolitical, and technological evaluation of contemporary U.S. architecture as it actually was built. (Author/MLF)

  9. Are You a Gut Responder? Hints on Coping with an Irritable Bowel

    MedlinePlus

    ... contend with. These can interfere with work or school and social functions both in obvious and subtle ... by: Barry Blackwell, MD, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI. Manage Your Health The Digestive System ...

  10. Hint of lepton flavour non-universality in B meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy; Nardecchia, Marco; Renner, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently presented their result on R K = ℬ( B + → K + μ + μ -) / ℬ( B + → K + e + e -) for the dilepton invariant mass bin m {/ℓℓ 2} = 1 - 6 GeV2 ( ℓ = μ, e). The measurement shows an intriguing 2 .6 σ deviation from the Standard Model (SM) prediction. In view of this, we study model independent New Physics (NP) explanations of R K consistent with other measurements involving b → sℓ + ℓ - transition, relaxing the assumption of lepton universality. We perform a Bayesian statistical fit to the NP Wilson Coefficients and compare the Bayes Factors of the different hypotheses in order to quantify their goodness-of-fit. We show that the data slightly favours NP in the muon sector over NP in the electron sector.

  11. Thermoelectric Properties of Tl-Doped SnSe: A Hint of Phononic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucek, V.; Plechacek, T.; Janicek, P.; Ruleova, P.; Benes, L.; Navratil, J.; Drasar, C.

    2016-06-01

    Polycrystalline samples with composition Sn1- x Tl x Se (for x = 0 to 0.04) have been synthesized from elements of 5 N purity at elevated temperatures. The phase purity of the products was verified by x-ray diffraction analysis. Samples for measurement of transport properties were prepared by hot pressing. The samples were then characterized by measurement of electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity over the temperature range from 300 K to 725 K. All samples demonstrated p-type conductivity. Tl markedly enhanced the carrier concentration. We discuss the influence of Tl substitution on the free carrier concentration and thermoelectric performance. Investigation of the thermoelectric properties showed an order-of-magnitude improvement, with ZT reaching 0.6 at 725 K. We discuss the distinctive nature of the thermal conductivity of SnSe.

  12. Digging for answers, smelling a hint of success and tasting triumph

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    The C12 ‘earthy’ odorant geosmin is derived from the C15 metabolite farnesyl diphosphate. Metabolic transformation now seems to be catalyzed by a bifunctional protein having two operatively independent sesquiterpene synthase domains. The domains are catalytically linked through the passive diffusion of a C15 alcohol product of the N-terminal catalytic domain to the C-terminal catalytic domain for the final steps of geosmin formation. PMID:17948014

  13. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints: powders, capsules, tablets, suppositories, and sticks, part 1.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    No matter the profession, professionals should never stop learning. This is especially true and important in the profession of compounding pharmacy. Compounding pharmacists are continuously faced with the challenge of finding new and inventive ways to assist patients with their individual and specific drug requirements. As compounding pharmacists learn, be it through formal continuing education or experience, they should be willing to share their knowledge with other compounders. In our goal of providing compounding pharmacists with additional knowledge to improve their skills in the art and practice of compounding, this article, which provides tips and hits on compounding with powders, capsules, tablets, suppositories, and sticks, represents the first in a series of articles to assist compounding pharmacists in the preparation of compounded medications. PMID:24881340

  14. Implementation of a Surgical Safety Checklist: Interventions to Optimize the Process and Hints to Increase Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Mosbacher, Nina; Karina, Leitgeb; Kober, Brigitte; Jantscher, Lydia; Berghold, Andrea; Pregartner, Gudrun; Brunner, Gernot; Kamolz, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background A surgical safety checklist (SSC) was implemented and routinely evaluated within our hospital. The purpose of this study was to analyze compliance, knowledge of and satisfaction with the SSC to determine further improvements. Methods The implementation of the SSC was observed in a pilot unit. After roll-out into each operating theater, compliance with the SSC was routinely measured. To assess subjective and objective knowledge, as well as satisfaction with the SSC implementation, an online survey (N = 891) was performed. Results During two test runs in a piloting unit, 305 operations were observed, 175 in test run 1 and 130 in test run 2. The SSC was used in 77.1% of all operations in test run 1 and in 99.2% in test run 2. Within used SSCs, completion rates were 36.3% in test run 1 and 1.6% in test run 2. After roll-out, three unannounced audits took place and showed that the SSC was used in 95.3%, 91.9% and 89.9%. Within used SSCs, completion rates decreased from 81.7% to 60.6% and 53.2%. In 2014, 164 (18.4%) operating team members responded to the online survey, 160 of which were included in the analysis. 146 (91.3%) consultants and nursing staff reported to use the SSC regularly in daily routine. Conclusion These data show that the implementation of new tools such as the adapted WHO SSC needs constant supervision and instruction until it becomes self-evident and accepted. Further efforts, consisting mainly of hands-on leadership and training are necessary. PMID:25658317

  15. AMS-02 positron excess: New bounds on dark matter models and hint for primary electron spectrum hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; He, Hao-Ning; Dong, Tie-Kuang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Chang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The data collected by ATIC, CREAM and PAMELA all display remarkable cosmic ray nuclei spectrum hardening above the magnetic rigidity ∼240 GV. One natural speculation is that the primary electron spectrum also gets hardened (possibly at ∼80 GV) and the hardening partly accounts for the electron/positron total spectrum excess discovered by ATIC, HESS and Fermi-LAT. If it is the case, the increasing behavior of the subsequent positron-to-electron ratio will get flattened and the spectrum hardening should be taken into account in the joint fit of the electron/positron data otherwise the inferred parameters will be biased. Our joint fits of the latest AMS-02 positron fraction data together with the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT electron/positron spectrum data suggest that the primary electron spectrum hardening is needed in most though not all modelings. The bounds on dark matter models have also been investigated. In the presence of spectrum hardening of primary electrons, the amount of dark-matter-originated electron/positron pairs needed in the modeling is smaller. Even with such a modification, the annihilation channel χχ→μ+μ- has been tightly constrained by the Fermi-LAT Galactic diffuse emission data. The decay channel χ→μ+μ- is found to be viable.

  16. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Ashley, R. P.; Bento, J. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Caceres, C.; Chote, P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.; Vučković, M.; Wilson, R. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yr, with secondaries of spectral type K2 - M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yr, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with the so-called Applegate mechanism, which proposes that magnetic cycles in the secondary stars can drive variability in the binary orbits. We also present new eclipse times of NN Ser, which are still compatible with the previously published circumbinary planetary system model, although only with the addition of a quadratic term to the ephemeris. Finally, we conclude that we are limited by the relatively short observational baseline for many of the binaries in the eclipse timing programme, and therefore cannot yet draw robust conclusions about the cause of orbital period variations in evolved, white dwarf binaries.

  17. A Hint of Whiteness: History Textbooks and Social Construction of Race in the Wake of the Sixties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    As historians and publishers scrambled to revise American history textbooks in the wake of the 1960s, textbooks increasingly strove to include the experiences of African Americans and avoid dangerous racial stereotypes. After the Civil Rights movement and decades before scathing criticism of textbooks for their inability to address racism in…

  18. Similarities Between Cometary, Meteoritic, and Laboratory Analog Dust: Hints from the Attribution of the 10-micrometer Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Mennella, V.; Bussoletti, E.; Merluzzi, P.; Rotundi, A.; Palumbo, P.; di Marino, C.

    1993-07-01

    It is well known that the infrared emission of many comets is characterized by a broad feature at 10 micrometers, that has been attributed to a Si-O stretching resonance in amorphous and/or hydrated silicate grains. In the case of comets Halley [1,2], Bradfield [3] and Levy [4] two spectral components have been observed: the wide peak centered at 9.8 micrometers and a sharp feature at 11.3 micrometers. This last band has been interpreted with crystalline olivine silicatic grains [1,2,5]. However, recently, it has been pointed out [6] that the laboratory data frequently used in the fits refer to grains embedded in a matrix, which should produce a significant shift of the peak position, according to Mie computations. We have performed laboratory experiments on various silicatic samples with the perspective of determining their optical properties, to study experimentally the influence of matrix effects, and to use the final spectra to perform comparisons with observations. The samples are four terrestrial materials, olivine forsterite, jadeite pyroxene, andesite feldspar and impactite glass, and two meteoritic samples, chondrite (Zacatecas, Mexico) and pallasite (Atacama, Chile). Fine powders of the bulk materials were obtained by grinding calibrated mass amounts of the various samples in an agata mill. The morphological characterization of the samples was performed by means of S.E.M. (scanning electron microscopy) technique. EDX analysis was also performed to determine elemental composition. IR transmission spectra were obtained by using a double beam spectrophotometer that covers the spectral range 2.5-50 micrometers. The standard pellet technique was used by embedding dust samples in KBr or CsI matrices. For comparison, measurements were also performed by depositing small amounts of dust onto KBr windows. In this last case, dust-matrix interaction should be practically absent as grains are simply sitting onto the matrix. The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis have allowed us to evidence the following main results. Matrix effects do not appear as relevant as suggested by computations performed by the Mie theory. In particular, the peak shift observed for crystalline olivine is from 11.3 micrometers in CsI (n(sub)o = 1.7) to 11.2 micrometers in vacuum (n(sun)o = 1.0). On the other hand, jadeite and andesite grains present main peaks around 10 micrometers, in contrast to cometary spectra. We can, therefore, conclude that crystalline olivine grains are good candidates to simulate the cometary 11.3 micrometer sharp feature, even when matrix effects are accounted for. The impactite sample presents a main broad band around 9.2 micrometers, due to its mainly amorphous composition. This band could resemble the broad 10 micron cometary band; however, its profile is rather broader than that observed for cometary dust. Concerning the meteoritic samples, both chondrite and pallasite show a well defined main peak at 11.3-11.4 micrometers, comparable to cometary spectra. Again, chondrite band profile is too broad. On the contrary, pallasite appears to be a good candidate to reproduce observations. This result appears reasonable if one considers that the sample is formed by small olivine crystals embedded in a iron matrix. In conclusion, the comparison between the spectra of olivine-rich meteoritic grains and cometary dust could suggest either a common origin of the two classes of materials or, at least, a similarity in the processes experienced by them during past evolution. This result appears very relevant because it could imply that the systematic study in the laboratory of meteoritic materials can provide information about the past history of comets. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by ASI, CNR, and MURST 40% and 60%. References: [1] Bregman J. D. et al. (1987) Astron. Astrophys., 187, 616. [2] Campins H. and Ryan E. V. (1989) Ap. J., 341, 1059. [3] Hanner M. S. et al. (1990) Ap. J., 348, 312. [4] Lynch D. K. et al. (1990) 22nd annual meeting of the division for planetary sciences, Charlottesville, Virgin

  19. Spiral-shells and nascent bipolar outflow in CIT 6: hints for an eccentric-orbit binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2016-07-01

    We present the essential results pointed out in a recently published paper, Kim et al. 2015, Astrophys. J., 814, 61. The carbon star CIT 6 reveals evidences for a binary in a high-resolution CO line emission map of its circumstellar envelope taken with the Submillimeter Array. The morphology of the outflow described by the spiral-shell pattern, bipolar (or possibly multipolar) outflow, one-sided interarm gaps, and double spiral feature point to a plausible scenario that CIT 6 is a binary system in an eccentric orbit with the mass losing star evolving from the AGB.

  20. Allometric Scaling of Patrolling Rate and Nest Volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster Termites: Hints on the Settlement of Inquilines

    PubMed Central

    DeSouza, Og; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Florencio, Daniela Faria; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Marins, Alessandra; Costa, Diogo Andrade; Rodrigues, Vinicius Barros; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional traits of organisms are known to be related to the size of individuals and to the size of their colonies when they belong to one. Among such traits, propensity to inquilinism in termites is known to relate positively to colony size. Larger termitaria hold larger diversity of facultative inquilines than smaller nests, whereas obligate inquilines seem unable to settle in nests smaller than a threshold volume. Respective underlying mechanisms, however, remain hypothetical. Here we test one of such hypotheses, namely, that nest defence correlates negatively to nest volume in Constrictotermes cyphergaster termites (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). As a surrogate to defence, we used ‘patrolling rate’, i.e., the number of termite individuals attending per unit time an experimentally damaged spot on the outer wall of their termitaria. We found that patrolling rate decayed allometrically with increasing nest size. Conspicuously higher patrolling rates occurred in smaller nests, while conspicuously lower rates occurred in larger nests presenting volumes in the vicinity of the threshold value for the establishment of inquilinism. This could be proven adaptive for the host and guest. At younger nest age, host colonies are smaller and presumably more vulnerable and unstable. Enhanced defence rates may, hence, prevent eventual risks to hosts from inquilinism at the same time that it prevents inquilines to settle in a still unstable nest. Conversely, when colonies grow and maturate enough to stand threats, they would invest in priorities other than active defence, opening an opportunity for inquilines to settle in nests which are more suitable or less risky. Under this two-fold process, cohabitation between host and inquiline could readily stabilize. PMID:26808197

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Proticity Inclined Conformational Modulation in a Highly Fluorescent Bichromophoric Naphthalimide Derivative: Hint Directed from RICT Perspective.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritika; Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Kumar, Himank; Jadhao, Manojkumar; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2016-02-25

    The present study embodies design, in silico DNA interaction, synthesis of benzothiazole containing naphthalimide derivative, 2-(6-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-1H-benzo[de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione (CBIQD) along with its systematic photophysics, solvatochromic behavior, and solvation dynamics using an experimental and theoretical spectroscopic approach. Steady-state dual emission and biexponential fluorescence decay reveals the formation of two different excited species. Ground- and excited-state optimized geometry and the potential-energy curve obtained from DFT and TD-DFT calculation ascertained the existence of nonplanar and planar conformation. When the solvent polarity is changed from nonpolar to protic polar, the feebly emissive emission band highly intensifies probably due to the reversal of n, π*-π, π* emissive state along with consequent modulation of their energy gap that is induced by H-bonding. Excluding nonpolar solvents, in all other solvents, the Stokes shift correlates linearly with orientation polarizability, whereas in water, the story remains intriguing. With photoexcitation, intermolecular H-bonding stimulates the pyramidalization tendency of imide "N" with subsequent conformational change of GS nonplanar geometry to a coplanar one through acceptor rehybridization generating a rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer (RICT) state that caused a dramatic fluorescence upsurge. This allosteric modulation is promoted by excited-state H-bonding dynamics especially in strong H-bond donor water. A close interplay between preferential solvation and the proximity effect is evident in the emission behavior in a benzene (Bn)-ethanol (EtOH) binary mixture. Molecular docking analysis delineates considerable noncovalent sandwiched π-π stacking interactions of CBIQD with the pyrimidine rings as well as with imidazole rings of dG 6 and dG 2 base pairs of B-DNA double helix, which probably suffices the design strategy adopted. Overall, a strategic design to synthesize a highly fluorescent and potential bioactive agent is executed to revolutionize the fluorophore field due its enormous progressive importance in biochemical applications. PMID:26816264

  2. Total n cross section from 50 to 400 MeV/c and hint for a narrow n state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazzi, F.

    1999-08-01

    The measurement of the n total cross section in the momentum range 50-400 MeV/c has been performed in the OBELIX experiment at the LEAR machine at CERN. The results are reported for the first time together with a preliminary analysis in terms of scattering length and scattering volume approximation: from this analysis the contributions of the S and P wave to the n interaction in the full range have been evaluated as well as the isospin dependence of the total cross section in the range 200-400 MeV/c. The most striking result is the strong indication in the data of a narrow n state near the p threshold.

  3. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of cal

  4. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one. PMID:24667833

  5. Information-seeking in cancer survivors: application of the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to HINTS 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Hartoonian, Narineh; Ormseth, Sarah R; Hanson, Eric R; Bantum, Erin O; Owen, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    Despite health care providers' best efforts, many cancer survivors have unmet informational and support needs. As a result, cancer survivors often have to meet these needs themselves, and how they approach this process is poorly understood. The authors aimed to validate and extend the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to examine information-seeking behaviors across a variety of channels of information delivery and to explore the impact of health-related factors on levels of information seeking. The data of 459 cancer survivors were drawn from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among health-related factors, information-carrier factors, and information-seeking behavior. Results confirmed direct effects of direct experience, salience, and information-carrier characteristics on information-carrier utility. However, the direct impact of demographics and beliefs on information-carrier utility was not confirmed, nor were the effects of information-carrier factors on information-seeking behavior. Contrary to expectations, salience had direct effect on information-seeking behavior and on information-carrier characteristics. These results show that understanding antecedents of information seeking will inform the development and implementation of systems of care that will help providers better meet cancer survivors' needs. PMID:24742287

  6. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  7. Seismic Q estimates in Umbria Marche (Central Italy): hints for the retrieval of a new attenuation law for seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    In the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper, we separately estimate intrinsic and scattering Q-1 parameters, using the classical multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) approach in the assumption of a half-space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi-1 and Qs-1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the energy transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different peak ground acceleration decay with distance relationships, using the well-known and well proven Boore's method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.

  8. Helpful Hints in Teaching Adult Basic Education for the Mid-Alabama Adult and Vocational Education Demonstration and Training Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, James E.; Sparks, Peggy F.

    Designed for use with "A Curriculum Guide for the Mid-Alabama Adult and Vocational Education Demonstration Center," this booklet contains material intended for graduate students and administrators who are engaged in the preparation, teaching, and/or who are conducting research in Adult Basic Education. The document is divided into three sections.…

  9. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Prada, F.; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS.

  10. How Large Are Returns to Schooling? Hint: Money Isn't Everything. NBER Working Paper No. 15339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the many avenues by which schooling affects lifetime well-being. Experiences and skills acquired in school reverberate throughout life, not just through higher earnings. Schooling also affects the degree one enjoys work and the likelihood of being unemployed. It leads individuals to make better decisions about health, marriage,…

  11. Changes in motor cortex excitability associated with temporal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in tinnitus: hints for cross-modal plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor cortex excitability was found to be changed after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex highlighting the occurrence of cross-modal plasticity in non-invasive brain stimulation. Here, we investigated the effects of temporal low-frequency rTMS on motor cortex plasticity in a large sample of tinnitus patients. In 116 patients with chronic tinnitus different parameters of cortical excitability were assessed before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions. Patients received one of three different protocols all including 1 Hz rTMS over the left temporal cortex. Treatment response was defined as improvement by at least five points in the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). Results After rTMS treatment RMT was decreased by about 1% of stimulator output near-significantly in the whole group of patients. SICI was associated with significant changes with respect to treatment response. The group of treatment responders showed a decrease of SICI over the course of treatment, the group of non-responders the reverse pattern. Conclusions Minor RMT changes during rTMS treatment do not necessarily suggest the need for systematic re-examination of the RMT for safety and efficacy issues. Treatment response to rTMS was shown to be related to changes in SICI that might reflect modulation of GABAergic mechanisms directly or indirectly related to rTMS treatment effects. PMID:24898574

  12. Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, schools should collaborate closely with police, fire…

  13. Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A key component of comprehensive school and school district emergency management plans is an exercise program that includes the five types of exercises: (1) orientation seminars; (2) drills; (3) tabletop exercises; and (4) functional exercises. Functional exercises are excellent tools for testing the extent to which an existing emergency…

  14. Phenotypic and molecular diversity of Meyerozyma guilliermondii strains isolated from food and other environmental niches, hints for an incipient speciation.

    PubMed

    Corte, Laura; di Cagno, Raffaella; Groenewald, Marizeth; Roscini, Luca; Colabella, Claudia; Gobbetti, Marco; Cardinali, Gianluigi

    2015-06-01

    Meyerozyma guilliermondii is a yeast species widely isolated from several natural environments and from fruit; in medical microbiology it is known as the teleomorph of the opportunistic pathogen Candida guilliermondii, which causes about 2% of the human blood infections. This yeast is also promising in a variety of biotechnological applications as vitamins production and post-harvest control. The question if isolates from different sources are physiologically and genetically similar, or if the various environments induced significant differences, is crucial for the understanding of this species structure and to select strains appropriate for each application. This question was addressed using LSU and ITS sequencing for taxonomic assignment, i-SSR (GACA4) for the molecular characterization and FTIR for the metabolomic fingerprint. All data showed that fruit and environmental isolates cluster separately with a general good agreement between metabolomics and molecular analysis. An additional RAPD analysis was able to discriminate strains according to the isolation position within the pineapple fruit. Although all strains are members of the M. guilliermondii species according to the current standards, the distribution of large variability detected suggests that some specialization occurred in the niches inhabited by this yeast and that food related strains can be differentiated from the medical isolates. PMID:25791010

  15. Seismicity patterns of earthquake swarms in the West-Bohemia/Vogtland as a hint to their triggering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Hainzl, S.; Horalek, J.; Michalek, J.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of West-Bohemia/Vogtland seismicity is clustered both in time and space. The time occurrence is manifested in a variety of forms including both swarms with fast and with slow energy release that last from hours to months and also solitary events. The lateral distribution of seismicity is limited to a small number of focal zones, which have been periodically reactivated during the past 18 years of instrumental observations. We don't observe an apparent migration of seismic activity. Instead, the activity has been switching between the focal zones with its largest part residing in the area of Nový Kostel, which dominates with 85% of energy release. Analysis of the activity in the period 1991-2007 has revealed that the interevent times of the seismic activity measured between events in separated focal zones show increased occurrence for time intervals below 8 hours. This fast switching of activity among focal zones with mutual distances above 10 km shows that the seismicity is correlated in a broader area and points to a common triggering force acting in the whole region of West-Bohemia/Vogtland. This force could be stress changes due to earth tides, barometric pressure disturbances, or an abrupt change of the crustal fluid pore pressure. It would trigger the activity in the focal zones which are close to failure. Depending on the local stress and mechanical conditions in each zone, the activity could either cease or an earthquake swarm could be initiated. To disclose the forces governing the already running swarm activity we investigated the space-time relations between consecutive earthquakes of the 2000 swarm. The swarm lasted four months and consisted of more that 8000 M=3.3 strike-slip microearthquakes, which were located along a fault plane at depths 6.5-10.5 km and showed a common rake angle of 30°. We found that the relative positions of consecutive event pairs showed maximum occurrence in the slip-parallel directions. Comparison with the complete Coulomb stress change upon the fault plane due to a typical rupture showed that the observed elongation of the space-time distribution of the relative positions can be explained by a common effect of both static and dynamic stress changes, which act on different distance and timescale. The relatively small magnitudes of the Coulomb stress changes upon the fault plane in the order of 10 kPa, which are supposed to trigger the swarm events, support the idea that high pressurized crustal fluids increase the pore pressure and bring the fault close to its critical state. This is in accordance with the results of our model of the 2000 swarm which took into account both the fluid diffusion and stress triggering. The model consisted of a planar brittle patch placed in a 3-D elastic half-space divided into the number of cells with variable strength. The individual cells rupture when the Coulomb failure criterion including both shear stress and pore pressure is fulfilled. The initial tectonic loading of the patch is presumed subcritical until the pore pressure of diffused fluids brings it into a critical state. Then the earthquake activity is governed by the stress changes due to the co-seismic and post-seismic slip, so that mutual triggering between ruptured cells occurs. It turns out that once the pressurized crustal fluids bring a fault from a subcritical steady-state into a critical state, the self-organization prevails in governing the swarm activity. This is in accordance with the possible effect of a regionally scaled force bringing one or multiple focal zones to the critical state and trigger seismicity. The recent M=3.7 swarm from October 2008 occurred at the identical fault plane as the 2000 swarm and showed a similar areal extent of the ruptured area. The overall migration of activity with first events at the bottom of the activated fault patch and the last events in the northward tail at its top indicates similar triggering scenario. However, the step-wise monotonous event migration in the first swarm period differs significantly from the complex migrat

  16. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic “oversplitting”. The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe. PMID:25628863

  17. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active analogs with additional features), and a few "conservative" queries not allowing any growth. These (typically bioactive amine transporter ligands) form the specific application domain of "pro-candidate" biased Tversky scores at α < 0.5. PMID:23731338

  18. Physical activity in young adults: a signal detection analysis of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen; Campbell, Marci K

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults are insufficiently active to achieve the health benefits of regular physical activity. Using signal detection analysis of data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors examined distinct subgroups of 18-39 year-old adults who vary in their likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. We randomly split the sample and conducted signal detection analysis on the exploratory half to identify subgroups and interactions among sociodemographic and health communication variables that predicted engaging in less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity (low physical activity). We compared rates of low physical activity among subgroups with similarly defined subgroups in the validation sample. Overall, 62% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations. Among 8 subgroups identified, low physical activity rates ranged from 31% to 90%. Predictors of low physical activity were general health, body mass index (BMI), perceived cancer risk, health-related Internet use, and trust in information sources. The least active subgroup (90% low physical activity) included young adults in poor to good health with a BMI of 30.8 or more (obese). The most active subgroup (31% low physical activity) comprised those in very good to excellent health, who used a website to help with diet, weight, or physical activity, and had little to no trust in health information on television. Findings suggest potential intervention communication channels and can inform targeted physical activity interventions for young adults. PMID:25375396

  19. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species

    PubMed Central

    Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Brunetti, Riccardo; Caicci, Federico; Gasparini, Fabio; Griggio, Francesca; Sato, Atsuko; Stach, Thomas; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Gissi, Carmela; Manni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names. PMID:25955391

  20. Estimation of Directed Effective Connectivity from fMRI Functional Connectivity Hints at Asymmetries of Cortical Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Matthieu; Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Ritter, Petra; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. This phenomenon is governed by an interplay between the internal neural dynamics of cortical areas and their connectivity. Uncovering this complex relationship has raised much interest, both for theory and the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., fMRI recordings) using dynamical models. Here we focus on the so-called inverse problem: the inference of network parameters in a cortical model to reproduce empirically observed activity. Although it has received a lot of interest, recovering directed connectivity for large networks has been rather unsuccessful so far. The present study specifically addresses this point for a noise-diffusion network model. We develop a Lyapunov optimization that iteratively tunes the network connectivity in order to reproduce second-order moments of the node activity, or functional connectivity. We show theoretically and numerically that the use of covariances with both zero and non-zero time shifts is the key to infer directed connectivity. The first main theoretical finding is that an accurate estimation of the underlying network connectivity requires that the time shift for covariances is matched with the time constant of the dynamical system. In addition to the network connectivity, we also adjust the intrinsic noise received by each network node. The framework is applied to experimental fMRI data recorded for subjects at rest. Diffusion-weighted MRI data provide an estimate of anatomical connections, which is incorporated to constrain the cortical model. The empirical covariance structure is reproduced faithfully, especially its temporal component (i.e., time-shifted covariances) in addition to the spatial component that is usually the focus of studies. We find that the cortical interactions, referred to as effective connectivity, in the tuned model are not reciprocal. In particular, hubs are either receptors or feeders: they do not exhibit both strong incoming and outgoing connections. Our results sets a quantitative ground to explore the propagation of activity in the cortex. PMID:26982185

  1. MULTI-FREQUENCY, MULTI-EPOCH STUDY OF Mrk 501: HINTS FOR A TWO-COMPONENT NATURE OF THE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Prabhu, T. P.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Britto, R. J.; Saha, L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the detection of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from Mrk 501, its broadband emission of radiation was mostly and quite effectively modeled using the one zone emission scenario. However, broadband spectral and flux variability studies enabled by the multi-wavelength campaigns carried out during the recent years have revealed the rather complex behavior of Mrk 501. The observed emission from Mrk 501 could be due to a complex superposition of multiple emission zones. Moreover, new evidence of detection of very hard intrinsic γ-ray spectra obtained from Fermi-LAT observations has challenged the theories about the origin of VHE γ-rays. Our studies based on Fermi-LAT data indicate the existence of two separate components in the spectrum, one for low-energy γ-rays and the other for high-energy γ-rays. Using multi-waveband data from several ground- and space-based instruments, in addition to HAGAR data, the spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is obtained for various flux states observed during 2011. In the present work, this observed broadband spectral energy distribution is reproduced with a leptonic, multi-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model.

  2. Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex.

    PubMed

    Kreuzinger, Angelina J; Fiedler, Konrad; Letsch, Harald; Grill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA sequence data often leads to the recognition of cryptic species within putatively well-known taxa. The opposite case, detecting less diversity than originally described, has, however, far more rarely been documented. Maniola jurtina, the Meadow Brown butterfly, occurs all over Europe, whereas all other six species in the genus Maniola are restricted to the Mediterranean area. Among them, three are island endemics on Sardinia, Cyprus, and Chios, respectively. Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically, and hybridization seems to occur occasionally. To clarify species boundaries and diversification history of the genus, we reconstructed the phylogeography and phylogeny of all seven species within Maniola analyzing 138 individuals from across its range using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. Examination of variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA surprisingly revealed a case of taxonomic "oversplitting". The topology of the recovered phylogenetic tree is not consistent with accepted taxonomy, but rather reveals haplotype clades that are incongruent with nominal species boundaries: instead of seven species, we recognized only two major, yet incompletely segregated, lineages. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Maniola originated in Africa. We suggest that one lineage dispersed over the Strait of Gibraltar and the Iberian Peninsula to the west of Europe, while the other lineage spreads eastward through Asia Minor and over the Bosporus to Eastern Europe. PMID:25628863

  3. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Ashley, R. P.; Bento, J. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Caceres, C.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.; Wilson, R. W.

    2016-05-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yrs, with secondaries of spectral type K2 - M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yrs, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with the so-called Applegate mechanism, which proposes that magnetic cycles in the secondary stars can drive variability in the binary orbits. We also present new eclipse times of NN Ser, which are still compatible with the previously published circumbinary planetary system model, although only with the addition of a quadratic term to the ephemeris. Finally, we conclude that we are limited by the relatively short observational baseline for many of the binaries in the eclipse timing programme, and therefore cannot yet draw robust conclusions about the cause of orbital period variations in evolved, white dwarf binaries.

  4. Estimation of Directed Effective Connectivity from fMRI Functional Connectivity Hints at Asymmetries of Cortical Connectome.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Matthieu; Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Ritter, Petra; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. This phenomenon is governed by an interplay between the internal neural dynamics of cortical areas and their connectivity. Uncovering this complex relationship has raised much interest, both for theory and the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., fMRI recordings) using dynamical models. Here we focus on the so-called inverse problem: the inference of network parameters in a cortical model to reproduce empirically observed activity. Although it has received a lot of interest, recovering directed connectivity for large networks has been rather unsuccessful so far. The present study specifically addresses this point for a noise-diffusion network model. We develop a Lyapunov optimization that iteratively tunes the network connectivity in order to reproduce second-order moments of the node activity, or functional connectivity. We show theoretically and numerically that the use of covariances with both zero and non-zero time shifts is the key to infer directed connectivity. The first main theoretical finding is that an accurate estimation of the underlying network connectivity requires that the time shift for covariances is matched with the time constant of the dynamical system. In addition to the network connectivity, we also adjust the intrinsic noise received by each network node. The framework is applied to experimental fMRI data recorded for subjects at rest. Diffusion-weighted MRI data provide an estimate of anatomical connections, which is incorporated to constrain the cortical model. The empirical covariance structure is reproduced faithfully, especially its temporal component (i.e., time-shifted covariances) in addition to the spatial component that is usually the focus of studies. We find that the cortical interactions, referred to as effective connectivity, in the tuned model are not reciprocal. In particular, hubs are either receptors or feeders: they do not exhibit both strong incoming and outgoing connections. Our results sets a quantitative ground to explore the propagation of activity in the cortex. PMID:26982185

  5. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated to identify and pre-select those pearls containing ACC. Infrared absorption spectra were measured using a Ge ATR objective on 100-200 ?m thin sections and polished pearl sections. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy gives the opportunity to measure the infrared absorption in a reflectance mode directly without necessity to apply Kramers-Kronig transformation. The spectral range available is 650-5000 cm-1when using a Ge ATR crystal with the MCT detector at the ANKA-IR microscope and allowed the detection of the ?4 in-plane bending band (around 750 cm-1 in vaterite and 710 cm-1 in aragonite), the ?1 symmetric stretching bands (1070-7085 cm-1 for vaterite4 and 1082-1084 cm-1 in aragonite5), the ?2 out-of-plane bending vibration of the CO3 groups (855 cm-1 for vaterite and 857-877 cm-1 in aragonite) and the ?3 asymmetric stretching (1420-1490 cm-1 in vaterite and 1480 cm-1 in aragonite) respectively (Sato and Masuda, 1969; Yamoto et al., 1974).Water was detected by the presence of the O-H stretching at around 3500 cm-1. Proteins and sugars included in the biogenic carbonates were recognized through the N-H and C-H bands, for example 1717-1575 cm-1 for aspartic acid, 1712-1558 cm-1 for glutamic acid, 1500 to 2000 cm-1 amide I and II (Dauphin et al., 2006). References WEHRMEISTER U., JACOB D.E., SOLDATI A.L., HÄGER T. & HOFMEISTER W. 2007. Vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls from China and Japan. The Journal of Gemmology; 31: 269-276. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., WEHRMEISTER U.& HOFMEISTER W. 2008. Structural characterization and chemical composition of aragonite and vaterite in freshwater cultured pearls. Mineralogical Magazine 72: 577-590. JACOB, D.E., SOLDATI, A.L., WIRTH, R., HUTH, J., WEHRMEISTER, U. & HOFMEISTER, W. 2008. Nanostructure, composition and mechanisms of bivalve shell growth. Geochimica et Coscmochimica Acta 72: 5401-5415. SATO M. & MATSUDA S. 1969. Structure of vaterite and infrared spectra. Z. Kistalography 129: 405-410. YAMAMOTO A, SHIRO Y & MURATA H. 1974 Optically-active vibrations and elastic constants of calcite and aragonite. Bulletin Chemical Society Japan, 47:265-273. DAUPHIN Y. 2006. Structure and composition of steptal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Zoology 109: 95-95.

  6. Insights into the structure activity relationship of mPGES-1 inhibitors: Hints for better inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Aparoy, Polamarasetty

    2016-07-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a membrane protein which plays crucial role in arachidonic acid metabolism, in the catalysis of PGH2 to PGE2. It is a potential drug target involved in variety of human cancers and inflammatory disorders. In the present study we made an attempt to identify crucial amino acid residues involved in the effective binding of its inhibitors at the active site. Molecular docking and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were performed. In the present study 127 inhibitors having significant variability in parent scaffold were considered. The results clearly indicated that in the GSH and PGH2 binding site Arg70, Arg73, Asn74, Glu77, His113, Tyr117, Arg126, Ser127, Tyr130, Thr131 and Ala138 consistently form crucial interactions with inhibitors of different classes/scaffolds. These findings are consistent with that of existing reports on the active site residues pivotal at mPGES-1 active site. Further analysis suggested that out of all important amino acid residues identified; Arg73, Asn74, His113, Tyr117, Arg126, Ser127, Tyr130, Thr131 and Ala138 play a crucial role in hydrogen and π-π interactions. The identified amino acid residues can act as target sites for the design and development of drug candidates against mPGES-1. PMID:27012893

  7. Hints of an axion-like particle mixing in the GeV gamma-ray blazar data?

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2013-11-01

    Axion-Like Particles (ALPs), if exist in nature, are expected to mix with photons in the presence of an external magnetic field. The energy range of photons which undergo strong mixing with ALPs depends on the ALP mass, on its coupling with photons as well as on the external magnetic field and particle density configurations. Recent observations of blazars by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in the 0.1–300 GeV energy range show a break in their spectra in the 1–10 GeV range. We have modeled this spectral feature for the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 during its November 2010 outburst, assuming that a significant fraction of the gamma rays convert to ALPs in the large scale jet of this blazar. Using theoretically motivated models for the magnetic field and particle density configurations in the kiloparsec scale jet, outside the broad-line region, we find an ALP mass m{sub a} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −7} eV and coupling g{sub aγ} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1} after performing an illustrative statistical analysis of spectral data in four different epochs of emission. The precise values of m{sub a} and g{sub aγ} depend weakly on the assumed particle density configuration and are consistent with the current experimental bounds on these quantities. We apply this method and ALP parameters found from fitting 3C454.3 data to another flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS1222+216 (4C+21.35) data up to 400 GeV, as a consistency check, and found good fit. We find that the ALP-photon mixing effect on the GeV spectra may not be washed out for any reasonable estimate of the magnetic field in the intergalactic media.

  8. Hint for association of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype in SPINK5 gene with atopic dermatitis in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Eugene; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sook; Shin, Eun-Soon; Cho, Eun-Young; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2010-12-01

    Clinical studies, including twin studies, support the concept that the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) may be mediated through skin-specific genes, rather than simply through systemic immune or atopy risk genes. The SPINK5 gene is expressed on epithelial surfaces and may provide protection against other allergenic serine proteases. Mutations in the SPINK5 gene result in Netherton syndrome, a disorder characterised by AD, ichthyosis, and elevated serum IgE levels. We genotyped 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the SPINK5 gene for 1090 case-control samples (631 patients with AD and 459 normal controls) and analysed the SNPs and haplotypes in this gene and also searched for gene-gene interactions between SPINK5 and the DEFB1 gene that we previously reported. Six SNPs [rs17718511 (P = 0.026), rs17860502 (P = 0.024), KN0001820 (P = 0.045), rs60978485 (P = 0.007), rs17718737 (P = 0.02), and rs1422985 (P = 0.038)] and the haplotype TAA (rs60978485, rs6892205, rs2303064; P = 0.023) in the SPINK5 gene showed significant different allelic or genotypic distributions between the AD group and the control group. We also found that four SNPs [rs17718511 (P = 0.033), rs17860502 (P = 0.031), rs60978485 (P = 0.005), rs17718737 (P = 0.023)] and the haplotype TAA (P = 0.02) in the SPINK5 gene showed associations with the susceptibility of the allergic type of AD (ADe). In addition to this finding, we speculate that the SNPs from DEFB1 and SPINK5 affect the individual susceptibility to development of ADe in an additive manner. This study provides evidence for a significant interaction between allergens and the SPINK5 gene that may contribute to ADe susceptibility. PMID:21087323

  9. A Novel Topology of Proline-rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2): HINTS FOR AN INTRACELLULAR FUNCTION AT THE SYNAPSE.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pia; Sterlini, Bruno; Castroflorio, Enrico; Marte, Antonella; Onofri, Franco; Valtorta, Flavia; Maragliano, Luca; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function. Using a combination of different experimental approaches, including live immunolabeling, immunogold electron microscopy, surface biotinylation and computational modeling, we demonstrate a novel topology for this protein. PRRT2 is a type II transmembrane protein in which only the second hydrophobic segment spans the plasma membrane, whereas the first one is associated with the internal surface of the membrane and forms a helix-loop-helix structure without crossing it. Most importantly, the large proline-rich N-terminal domain is not exposed to the extracellular space but is localized intracellularly, and only the short C terminus is extracellular (N cyt/C exo topology). Accordingly, we show that PRRT2 interacts with the Src homology 3 domain-bearing protein Intersectin 1, an intracellular protein involved in synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings will contribute to the clarification of the role of PRRT2 at the synapse and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms on the basis of PRRT2-related neurological disorders. PMID:26797119

  10. When can Empirical Green Functions be computed from Noise Cross-Correlations? Hints from different Geographical and Tectonic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of PSD at different frequency bands have been computed. The influence of the spatial and seasonal variation is evaluated by analysis of the one-day length cross-correlations, stacked with a 30-day moving window and with an overlap of 30 days. To inspect the effects of frequency content variations, 30-day cross-correlograms have also been computed at different frequency bands. This work is supported by project QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012) and a contribution to project AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010).