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Sample records for ryanodine receptor subtype

  1. Spaceflight regulates ryanodine receptor subtype 1 in portal vein myocytes in the opposite way of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Macrez, Nathalie; Morel, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Gravity has a structural role for living systems. Tissue development, architecture, and organization are modified when the gravity vector is changed. In particular, microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume and thus pressure in the astronaut body, abolishing an upright blood pressure gradient, inducing orthostatic hypotension. The present study was designed to investigate whether isolated vascular smooth muscle cells are directly sensitive to altered gravitational forces and, second, whether sustained blood pressure changes act on the same molecular target. Exposure to microgravity during 8 days in the International Space Station induced the decrease of ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression in primary cultured myocytes from rat hepatic portal vein. Identical results were found in portal vein from mice exposed to microgravity during an 8-day shuttle spaceflight. To evaluate the functional consequences of this physiological adaptation, we have compared evoked calcium signals obtained in myocytes from hindlimb unloaded rats, in which the shift of blood pressure mimics the one produced by the microgravity, with those obtained in myocytes from rats injected with antisense oligonucleotide directed against ryanodine receptor subtype 1. In both conditions, calcium signals implicating calcium-induced calcium release were significantly decreased. In contrast, in spontaneous hypertensive rat, an increase in ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression was observed as well as the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. Taken together, our results shown that myocytes were directly sensitive to gravity level and that they adapt their calcium signaling pathways to pressure by the regulation of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 expression. PMID:22096120

  2. Expression and function of ryanodine receptors in nonexcitable cells.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D L; Cheek, T R; Berridge, M J; De Smedt, H; Parys, J B; Missiaen, L; Bootman, M D

    1996-03-15

    We have used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of ryanodine receptors in several excitable and nonexcitable cell types. Consistent with previous reports, we detected ryanodine receptor expression in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. In addition, we detected ryanodine receptor expression in various other excitable cells including PC 12 and A7r5 cells. Several muscle cell lines (BC3H1, C2C12, L6, and Sol8) weakly expressed ryanodine receptor when undifferentiated but strongly expressed type 1 and type 3 ryanodine receptor isoforms when differentiated into a muscle phenotype. Only 2 (HeLa and LLC-PK1 cells) out of 11 nonexcitable cell types examined expressed ryanodine receptors. Expression of ryanodine receptors at the protein level in these cells was confirmed using [3H]ryanodine binding. We also investigated the function of ryanodine receptors in Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells using single-cell Fura-2 imaging. Neither caffeine nor ryanodine caused a detectable elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in single HeLa cells. However, ryanodine caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of Ca 2+ signals evoked by repetitive stimulation with ATP. These studies show that ryanodine receptors are expressed in some nonexcitable cell types and furthermore suggest that the ryanodine receptors may be involved in a subtle regulation of intracellular Ca2+ responses. PMID:8626432

  3. Ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors are differentially distributed and expressed in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Wen, J; Bidasee, K R; Besch, H R; Wojcikiewicz, R J; Lee, B; Rubin, R P

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the cellular distribution of the ryanodine receptor/channel (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) subtypes in parotid acini. Using fluorescently labelled 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid glycyl-ryanodine (BODIPYtrade mark-ryanodine) and confocal microscopy, RyRs were localized primarily to the perinuclear region (basal pole) of the acinar cell. Ryanodine, Ruthenium Red, cAMP and cADP ribose (cADPR) competed with BODIPY-ryanodine, resulting in a reduction in the fluorescence signal. However, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] did not alter the binding of BODIPY-ryanodine. Using receptor-subtype-specific antisera, InsP3Rs (types I, II and III) were located predominantly in the apical pole of the parotid cell. The presence of these three subtypes was confirmed using reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Binding studies using a parotid cell-membrane fraction identified and characterized RyRs and InsP3Rs in terms of binding affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and confirmed that cADPR displaces ryanodine from its binding sites. Ruthenium Red and 8-Br-cADP-ribose blocked Ca2+ release in permeabilized acinar cells in response to cADPR and cAMP or forskolin, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was unaffected. The localization of the RyRs and InsP3Rs in discrete regions endow broad areas of the parotid cell with ligand-activated Ca2+ channels. The consequences of the dual activation of the RyRs and InsP3Rs by physiologically relevant stimuli such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are considered in relation to Ca2+ signalling in the parotid gland. PMID:10333498

  4. Ryanodine receptors are uncoupled from contraction in rat vena cava.

    PubMed

    Tykocki, N R; Thompson, J M; Jackson, W F; Watts, S W

    2013-02-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) are Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane, and are important effectors of SR Ca(2+) release and smooth muscle excitation-contraction coupling. While the relationship between RyR activation and contraction is well characterized in arteries, little is known about the role of RyR in excitation-contraction coupling in veins. We hypothesized that RyR are present and directly coupled to contraction in rat aorta (RA) and vena cava (RVC). RA and RVC expressed mRNA for all 3 RyR subtypes, and immunofluorescence showed RyR protein was present in RA and RVC smooth muscle cells. RA and RVC rings contracted when Ca(2+) was re-introduced after stores depletion with thapsigargin (1μM), indicating both tissues contained intracellular Ca(2+) stores. To assess RyR function, contraction was then measured in RA and RVC exposed to the RyR activator caffeine (20mM). In RA, caffeine caused contraction that was attenuated by the RyR antagonists ryanodine (10μM) and tetracaine (100μM). However, caffeine (20mM) did not contract RVC. We next measured contraction and intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)) simultaneously in RA and RVC exposed to caffeine. While caffeine increased Ca(2+)(i) and contracted RA, it had no significant effect on Ca(2+)(i) or contraction in RVC. These data suggest that ryanodine receptors, while present in both RA and RVC, are inactive and uncoupled from Ca(2+) release and contraction in RVC. PMID:23177664

  5. Catecholamime Interactions with the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipp, Robert Carl

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ ion channel found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), an intracellular membranous Ca2+ storage system. It is well known that a destabilization of RyR2 can lead to a Ca2+ flux out of the SR, which results in an overload of intracellular Ca2+; this can also lead to arrhythmias and heart failure. The catecholamines play a large role in the regulation of RyR2; stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor on the cell membrane can lead to a hyperphosphorylation of RyR2, making it more leaky to Ca2+. We have previously shown that strong electron donors will inhibit RyR2. It is hypothesized that the catecholamines, sharing a similar structure with other proven inhibitors of RyR2, will also inhibit RyR2. Here we confirm this hypothesis and show for the first time that the catecholamines, isoproterenol and epinephrine, act as strong electron donors and inhibit RyR2 activity at the single channel level. This data suggests that the catecholamines can influence RyR2 activity at two levels. This offers promising insight into the potential development of a new class of drugs to treat heart failure and arrhythmia; ones that can both prevent the hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 by blocking the beta-adrenergic receptor, but can also directly inhibit the release of Ca2+ from RyR2.

  6. Structure of a mammalian ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zalk, Ran; Clarke, Oliver B.; des Georges, Amédée; Grassucci, Robert A.; Reiken, Steven; Mancia, Filippo; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Frank, Joachim; Marks, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) mediate rapid release of calcium (Ca2+) from intracellular stores into the cytosol, which is essential for numerous cellular functions including excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. Lack of sufficient structural detail has impeded understanding of RyR gating and regulation. Here, we report the closed-state structure of the 2.3 MDa complex of the rabbit skeletal muscle type 1 RyR (RyR1), solved by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy at an overall resolution of 4.8 Å. We fitted a polyalanine-level model to all 3939 ordered residues in each protomer, defining the transmembrane pore in unprecedented detail and placing all cytosolic domains as tertiary folds. The cytosolic assembly is built on an extended α-solenoid scaffold connecting key regulatory domains to the pore. The RyR1 pore architecture places it in the six-transmembrane (6TM) ion channel superfamily. A unique domain inserted between the second and third transmembrane helices interacts intimately with paired EF-hands originating from the α-solenoid scaffold, suggesting a mechanism for channel gating by Ca2+. PMID:25470061

  7. Arrhythmogenic mechanisms in ryanodine receptor channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ting; Valdivia, Carmen R; Gurrola, Georgina B; Hernández, Jonathan J; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the calcium release channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that provide the majority of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) necessary to induce contraction of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. In their intracellular environment, RyR channels are regulated by a variety of cytosolic and luminal factors so that their output signal (Ca(2+)) induces finely-graded cell contraction without igniting cellular processes that may lead to aberrant electrical activity (ventricular arrhythmias) or cellular remodeling. The importance of RyR dysfunction has been recently highlighted with the demonstration that point mutations in RYR2, the gene encoding for the cardiac isoform of the RyR (RyR2), are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an arrhythmogenic syndrome characterized by the development of adrenergically-mediated ventricular tachycardia in individuals with an apparently normal heart. Here we summarize the state of the field in regards to the main arrhythmogenic mechanisms triggered by RyR2 channels harboring mutations linked to CPVT. Most CPVT mutations characterized to date endow RyR2 channels with a gain of function, resulting in hyperactive channels that release Ca(2+) spontaneously, especially during diastole. The spontaneous Ca(2+) release is extruded by the electrogenic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, which depolarizes the external membrane (delayed afterdepolarization or DAD) and may trigger untimely action potentials. However, a rare set of CPVT mutations yield RyR2 channels that are intrinsically hypo-active and hypo-responsive to stimuli, and it is unclear whether these channels release Ca(2+) spontaneously during diastole. We discuss novel cellular mechanisms that appear more suitable to explain ventricular arrhythmias due to RyR2 loss-of-function mutations. PMID:25480325

  8. Functional ryanodine receptors in the membranes of neurohypophysial secretory granules

    PubMed Central

    McNally, James M.; Custer, Edward E.; Ortiz-Miranda, Sonia; Woodbury, Dixon J.; Kraner, Susan D.; Salzberg, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Highly localized Ca2+ release events have been characterized in several neuronal preparations. In mouse neurohypophysial terminals (NHTs), such events, called Ca2+ syntillas, appear to emanate from a ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pool. Traditional sources of intracellular Ca2+ appear to be lacking in NHTs. Thus, we have tested the hypothesis that large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), which contain a substantial amount of calcium, represent the source of these syntillas. Here, using fluorescence immunolabeling and immunogold-labeled electron micrographs of NHTs, we show that type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are localized specifically to LDCVs. Furthermore, a large conductance nonspecific cation channel, which was identified previously in the vesicle membrane and has biophysical properties similar to that of an RyR, is pharmacologically affected in a manner characteristic of an RyR: it is activated in the presence of the RyR agonist ryanodine (at low concentrations) and blocked by the RyR antagonist ruthenium red. Additionally, neuropeptide release experiments show that these same RyR agonists and antagonists modulate Ca2+-elicited neuropeptide release from permeabilized NHTs. Furthermore, amperometric recording of spontaneous release events from artificial transmitter-loaded terminals corroborated these ryanodine effects. Collectively, our findings suggest that RyR-dependent syntillas could represent mobilization of Ca2+ from vesicular stores. Such localized vesicular Ca2+ release events at the precise location of exocytosis could provide a Ca2+ amplification mechanism capable of modulating neuropeptide release physiologically. PMID:24863930

  9. Spatial localization of ryanodine receptors in human cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Vallmitjana, A; Nolla, C; Herraiz-Martínez, A; Hove-Madsen, L; Benítez, R

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel image processing method to determine the location of ryanodine receptors in cardiac cells. A semi-automatic manual validation by an expert has been used in order to establish the performance of the segmentation method. The approach provides high accuracy under different experimental conditions and it is robust to common sources of noise including experimental, molecular and biological fluctuations. PMID:26737732

  10. Inhibitory ryanodine prevents ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca²⁺ release without affecting endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ content in primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Adasme, Tatiana; Paula-Lima, Andrea; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-02-27

    Ryanodine is a cell permeant plant alkaloid that binds selectively and with high affinity to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Sub-micromolar ryanodine concentrations activate RyR channels while micromolar concentrations are inhibitory. Several reports indicate that neuronal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory require RyR-mediated Ca(2+)-release, which is essential for muscle contraction. The use of micromolar (inhibitory) ryanodine represents a common strategy to suppress RyR activity in neuronal cells: however, micromolar ryanodine promotes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) depletion in muscle cells. Information is lacking in this regard in neuronal cells; hence, we examined here if addition of inhibitory ryanodine elicited Ca(2+) release in primary hippocampal neurons, and if prolonged incubation of primary hippocampal cultures with inhibitory ryanodine affected neuronal ER calcium content. Our results indicate that inhibitory ryanodine does not cause Ca(2+) release from the ER in primary hippocampal neurons, even though ryanodine diffusion should produce initially low intracellular concentrations, within the RyR activation range. Moreover, neurons treated for 1 h with inhibitory ryanodine had comparable Ca(2+) levels as control neurons. These combined findings imply that prolonged incubation with inhibitory ryanodine, which effectively abolishes RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release, preserves ER Ca(2+) levels and thus constitutes a sound strategy to suppress neuronal RyR function. PMID:25623539

  11. A procedure for purification of the ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, M.J.; Diaz-Munoz, M.; Hamilton, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple and reproducible method for purifying large quantities of ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle membranes. The procedure involves the use of ion exchange chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation to purify the protein which has been identified as the calcium release protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Addition of micromolar quantities of unlabeled ryanodine prior to solubilization and throughout the isolation procedure appears to stabilize the tetrameric structure of the ryanodine receptor. The purified receptor, consisting predominantly of a 400K polypeptide on SDS-PAGE, binds ({sup 3}H)ryanodine with a binding affinity similar to that in membranes. Overall recovery of ryanodine binding activity was 21% of the initial activity with a 30-fold purification of the receptor.

  12. Ryanodine receptors contribute to the induction of ischemic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Maruyama, Emi; Miyamoto, Osamu; Okabe, Naohiko; Himi, Naoyuki; Feng, Lu; Narita, Kazuhiko; Keep, Richard F; Yamamoto, Tohru; Nakamura, Takehiro

    2016-04-01

    Ischemic tolerance (IT) is induced by a variety of insults to the brain (e.g., nonfatal ischemia, heat and hypoxia) and it provides a strong neuroprotective effect. Although the mechanisms are still not fully elucidated, Ca(2+) is regarded as a key mediator of IT. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are responsible for the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. In brain, neuronal RyRs are thought to play a role in various neuropathological conditions, including ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of RyRs in IT. Pretreatment with a RyR antagonist, dantrolene (25mg/kg, i.p), blocked IT in a gerbil global ischemia model, while a RyR agonist, caffeine (100mg/kg, i.p), stimulated the production of IT. In vitro, using rat hippocampal cells, short-term oxygen/glucose deprivation induced preconditioning and RyR antagonists, dantrolene (50 and 100μM) and ryanodine (100 and 200μM) prevented it. RyR protein and mRNA levels were transiently decreased after induction of IT. These results suggest that RyRs are involved in the induction of ischemic tolerance. PMID:26930163

  13. Identification of a critical region in the Drosophila ryanodine receptor that confers sensitivity to diamide insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Gutteridge, Steven; Benner, Eric A; Wu, Lihong; Rhoades, Daniel F; Sacher, Matthew D; Rivera, Michel A; Desaeger, Johan; Cordova, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Anthranilic diamides, which include the new commercial insecticide, chlorantraniliprole, are an exciting new class of chemistry that target insect ryanodine receptors. These receptors regulate release of stored intracellular calcium and play a critical role in muscle contraction. As with insects, nematodes express ryanodine receptors and are sensitive to the plant alkaloid, ryanodine. However the plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is insensitive to anthranilic diamides. Expression of a full-length Drosophila melanogaster ryanodine receptor in an insect cell line confers sensitivity to the receptor agents, caffeine and ryanodine along with nanomolar sensitivity to anthranilic diamides. Replacement of a 46 amino acid segment in a highly divergent region of the Drosophila C-terminus with that from Meloidogyne results in a functional RyR which lack sensitivity to diamide insecticides. These findings indicate that this region is critical to diamide sensitivity in insect ryanodine receptors. Furthermore, this region may contribute to our understanding of the differential selectivity diamides exhibit for insect over mammalian ryanodine receptors. PMID:23806522

  14. Structural and functional characterization of the purified cardiac ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel complex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K; Lai, F A; Liu, Q Y; Rousseau, E; Erickson, H P; Meissner, G

    1989-01-15

    Using density gradient centrifugation and [3H]ryanodine as a specific marker, the ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel complex from Chaps-solubilized canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been purified in the form of an approximately 30 S complex, comprised of Mr approximately 400,000 polypeptides. Purification resulted in a specific activity of approximately 450 pmol bound ryanodine/mg of protein, a 60-70% recovery of ryanodine binding activity, and retention of the high affinity ryanodine binding site (KD = 3 nM). Negative stain electron microscopy revealed a 4-fold symmetric, four-leaf clover structure, which could fill a box approximately 30 x 30 nm and was thus morphologically similar to the SR-transverse-tubule, junctionally associated foot structure. The structural, sedimentation, and ryanodine binding data strongly suggest there is one high affinity ryanodine binding site/30 S complex, comprised of four Mr approximately 400,000 subunits. Upon reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers, the purified complex exhibited a Ca2+ conductance (70 pS in 50 mM Ca2+) similar to that of the native cardiac Ca2+ release channel (75 pS). The reconstituted complex was also found to conduct Na+ (550 pS in 500 mM Na+) and often to display complex Na+ subconducting states. The purified channel could be activated by micromolar Ca2+ or millimolar ATP, inhibited by millimolar Mg2+ or micromolar ruthenium red, and modified to a long-lived open subconducting state by ryanodine. The sedimentation, subunit composition, morphological, and ryanodine binding characteristics of the purified cardiac ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel complex were similar to those previously described for the purified ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel complex from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. PMID:2463249

  15. Biochemical evidence for a complex involving dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor in triad junctions of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Marty, I; Robert, M; Villaz, M; De Jongh, K; Lai, Y; Catterall, W A; Ronjat, M

    1994-01-01

    Membrane vesicles enriched in both ryanodine receptor and dihydropyridine receptor were obtained from rabbit skeletal muscle and solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Analysis of the sedimentation behavior of the solubilized proteins showed the existence of a population of alpha 1 subunits of the dihydropyridine receptor which cosedimented with the ryanodine receptor. Solubilized proteins were immunoprecipitated with antibodies directed against either the ryanodine receptor or the alpha 1, alpha 2, or beta subunits of the dihydropyridine receptor. Immunoprecipitated proteins were identified by Western blot analysis and by specific labeling with [3H]ryanodine or [3H]PN200-110. Immunoprecipitation of the solubilized proteins with antibodies directed against the dihydropyridine receptor led to the coimmunoprecipitation of the ryanodine receptor. Conversely, immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against the ryanodine receptor led to an immune complex containing both receptors, but these antibodies were unable to precipitate purified dihydropyridine receptor. These results demonstrate that ryanodine receptor and dihydropyridine receptor are present in the triad membrane preparation in a complex which may play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. Images PMID:8134386

  16. Coupled gating between cardiac calcium release channels (ryanodine receptors).

    PubMed

    Marx, S O; Gaburjakova, J; Gaburjakova, M; Henrikson, C; Ondrias, K; Marks, A R

    2001-06-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in heart muscle requires the activation of Ca(2+)-release channels/type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) by Ca(2+) influx. RyR2s are arranged on the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane in closely packed arrays such that their large cytoplasmic domains contact one another. We now show that multiple RyR2s can be isolated under conditions such that they remain physically coupled to one another. When these coupled channels are examined in planar lipid bilayers, multiple channels exhibit simultaneous gating, termed "coupled gating." Removal of the regulatory subunit, the FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6), functionally but not physically uncouples multiple RyR2 channels. Coupled gating between RyR2 channels may be an important regulatory mechanism in excitation-contraction coupling as well as in other signaling pathways involving intracellular Ca(2+) release. PMID:11397781

  17. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  18. Leaky ryanodine receptors contribute to diaphragmatic weakness during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Matecki, Stefan; Dridi, Haikel; Jung, Boris; Saint, Nathalie; Reiken, Steven R; Scheuermann, Valérie; Mrozek, Ségolène; Santulli, Gaetano; Umanskaya, Alisa; Petrof, Basil J; Jaber, Samir; Marks, Andrew R; Lacampagne, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) refers to the diaphragm muscle weakness that occurs following prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation (MV). The presence of VIDD impedes recovery from respiratory failure. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms accounting for VIDD are still not fully understood. Here, we show in human subjects and a mouse model of VIDD that MV is associated with rapid remodeling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the diaphragm. The RyR1 macromolecular complex was oxidized, S-nitrosylated, Ser-2844 phosphorylated, and depleted of the stabilizing subunit calstabin1, following MV. These posttranslational modifications of RyR1 were mediated by both oxidative stress mediated by MV and stimulation of adrenergic signaling resulting from the anesthesia. We demonstrate in the murine model that such abnormal resting SR Ca(2+) leak resulted in reduced contractile function and muscle fiber atrophy for longer duration of MV. Treatment with β-adrenergic antagonists or with S107, a small molecule drug that stabilizes the RyR1-calstabin1 interaction, prevented VIDD. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is common in MV patients and is a major cause of failure to wean patients from ventilator support. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge of RyR1 alterations as a proximal mechanism underlying VIDD (i.e., loss of function, muscle atrophy) and identifies RyR1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27457930

  19. Architecture and conformational switch mechanism of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Rouslan G; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction is initiated by the release of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of myocytes through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). RyRs are homotetrameric channels with a molecular mass of more than 2.2 megadaltons that are regulated by several factors, including ions, small molecules and proteins. Numerous mutations in RyRs have been associated with human diseases. The molecular mechanism underlying the complex regulation of RyRs is poorly understood. Using electron cryomicroscopy, here we determine the architecture of rabbit RyR1 at a resolution of 6.1 Å. We show that the cytoplasmic moiety of RyR1 contains two large α-solenoid domains and several smaller domains, with folds suggestive of participation in protein-protein interactions. The transmembrane domain represents a chimaera of voltage-gated sodium and pH-activated ion channels. We identify the calcium-binding EF-hand domain and show that it functions as a conformational switch allosterically gating the channel. PMID:25470059

  20. Ryanodine receptor physiology and its role in disease.

    PubMed

    Lanner, Johanna T

    2012-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) is the major intracellular Ca(2+) release channel localized in the plasma membrane of the endoplasmatic/sarcoplasmatic reticulum. RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release is crucial for every heart beat and skeletal muscle contraction and also important in learning and memory. Given the important role RyR has in physiological functions it is not surprising that dysregulation and impaired RyR channel function contributes to severe pathologies e.g. cardiac arrhythmias and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the RyR channels are associated with a number of human disorders e.g. malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). RyRs are modulated directly and indirectly by various ions, small molecules and proteins and RyR structure and function are expected to be defined within this macromolecular set of interactions. This article discusses the physiological function of RyR and examines its role in disorders and diseases. PMID:22453944

  1. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release.

    PubMed

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D; Stewart, Alan J; Pitt, Samantha J

    2015-07-10

    Aberrant Zn(2+) homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn(2+) modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca(2+) dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn(2+) is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn(2+) concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca(2+). At concentrations of free Zn(2+) >1 nm, Zn(2+) is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca(2+) is removed. Zn(2+) is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca(2+). Millimolar levels of free Zn(2+) were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn(2+) modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca(2+) waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn(2+) elicit Ca(2+) release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca(2+). This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn(2+) in shaping Ca(2+) dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating. PMID:26041778

  2. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D.; Stewart, Alan J.; Pitt, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Zn2+ homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn2+ modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca2+ dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn2+ is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn2+ concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca2+. At concentrations of free Zn2+ >1 nm, Zn2+ is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca2+ is removed. Zn2+ is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca2+. Millimolar levels of free Zn2+ were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn2+ modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn2+ elicit Ca2+ release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca2+. This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn2+ in shaping Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating. PMID:26041778

  3. Drosophila Ryanodine Receptors Mediate General Anesthesia by Halothane

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuying; Sandstrom, David J.; Smith, Harold E.; High, Brigit; Marsh, Jon W.; Nash, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although in vitro studies have identified numerous possible targets, the molecules that mediate the in vivo effects of volatile anesthetics remain largely unknown. The mammalian ryanodine receptor (Ryr) is a known halothane target, and we hypothesized that it has a central role in anesthesia. Methods Gene function of the Drosophila Ryr (dRyr) was manipulated in the whole body or in specific tissues using a collection of mutants and transgenes, and responses to halothane were measured with a reactive climbing assay. Cellular responses to halothane were studied using Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp electrophysiology. Results Halothane potency strongly correlates with dRyr gene copy number, and missense mutations in regions known to be functionally important in mammalian Ryrs gene cause dominant hypersensitivity. Tissue-specific manipulation of dRyr shows that expression in neurons and glia, but not muscle, mediates halothane sensitivity. In cultured cells, halothane-induced Ca2+ efflux is strictly dRyr-dependent, suggesting a close interaction between halothane and dRyr. Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology of Drosophila central neurons reveal halothane-induced Ca2+ flux that is altered in dRyr mutants and correlates with strong hyperpolarization. Conclusions In Drosophila, neurally-expressed dRyr mediates a substantial proportion of halothane's anesthetic effects in vivo, is potently activated by halothane in vitro, and activates an inhibitory conductance. Our results provide support for Ryr as an important mediator of immobilization by volatile anesthetics. PMID:23254148

  4. Fluorescent probes for insect ryanodine receptors: candidate anthranilic diamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Guo, Lei; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Kechang; Liu, Ruiquan; Liang, Pei; Casida, John E; Liu, Shangzhong

    2014-01-01

    Diamide insecticides with high efficacy against pests and good environmental safety are broadly applied in crop protection. They act at a poorly-defined site in the very complex ryanodine (Ry) receptor (RyR) potentially accessible to a fluorescent probe. Two N-propynyl analogs of the major anthranilic diamide insecticides chlorantraniliprole (Chlo) and cyantraniliprole (Cyan) were accordingly synthesized and converted into two fluorescent ligands by click reaction coupling with 3-azido-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one. The new diamide analogs and fluorescent ligands were shown to be nearly as potent as Chlo and Cyan in inhibition of [3H]Chlo binding and stimulation of [3H]Ry binding in house fly thoracic muscle RyR. Although the newly synthesized compounds had only moderate activity in insect larvicidal activity assays, their high in vitro potency in a validated insect RyR binding assay encourages further development of fluorescent probes for insect RyRs. PMID:24699151

  5. Insect Ryanodine Receptor: Distinct But Coupled Insecticide Binding Sites for [N-C3H3]Chlorantraniliprole, Flubendiamide, and [3H]Ryanodine

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, André K.; Qi, Suzhen; Sarpong, Richmond; Casida, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiolabeled anthranilic diamide insecticide [N-C3H3]chlorantraniliprole was synthesized at high specific activity and compared with phthalic diamide insecticide flubendiamide and [3H]ryanodine in radioligand binding studies with house fly muscle membranes to provide the first direct evidence with a native insect ryanodine receptor that the major anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides bind at different allosterically coupled sites, i.e. there are three distinct Ca2+-release channel targets for insecticide action. PMID:22856329

  6. Marked Sexual Dimorphism in the Role of the Ryanodine Receptor in a Model of Pain Chronification in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Khomula, Eugen V; Araldi, Dionéia; Levine, Jon D

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesic priming, an estrogen dependent model of the transition to chronic pain, produced by agonists at receptors that activate protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), occurs in male but not in female rats. However, activation of second messengers downstream of PKCε, such as the ryanodine receptor, induces priming in both sexes. Since estrogen regulates intracellular calcium, we investigated the interaction between estrogen and ryanodine in the susceptibility to develop priming in females. The lowest dose of ryanodine able to induce priming in females (1 pg) is 1/100,000(th) that needed in males (100 ng), an effect dependent on the activation of ryanodine receptors. Treatment of female rats with antisense to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not beta (ERβ), mRNA, prevented the induction of priming by low dose ryanodine, and the ERα agonist, PPT, induced ryanodine receptor-dependent priming. In vitro application of ryanodine in low concentration (2 nM) to small DRG neurons cultured from females, significantly potentiated calcium release via ryanodine receptors induced by caffeine. This effect was only observed in IB4+ neurons, cultured in the presence of β-estradiol or PPT. Our results demonstrate a profound regulatory role of ERα in ryanodine receptor-dependent transition to chronic pain. PMID:27499186

  7. Marked Sexual Dimorphism in the Role of the Ryanodine Receptor in a Model of Pain Chronification in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Khomula, Eugen V.; Araldi, Dionéia; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesic priming, an estrogen dependent model of the transition to chronic pain, produced by agonists at receptors that activate protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), occurs in male but not in female rats. However, activation of second messengers downstream of PKCε, such as the ryanodine receptor, induces priming in both sexes. Since estrogen regulates intracellular calcium, we investigated the interaction between estrogen and ryanodine in the susceptibility to develop priming in females. The lowest dose of ryanodine able to induce priming in females (1 pg) is 1/100,000th that needed in males (100 ng), an effect dependent on the activation of ryanodine receptors. Treatment of female rats with antisense to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not beta (ERβ), mRNA, prevented the induction of priming by low dose ryanodine, and the ERα agonist, PPT, induced ryanodine receptor-dependent priming. In vitro application of ryanodine in low concentration (2 nM) to small DRG neurons cultured from females, significantly potentiated calcium release via ryanodine receptors induced by caffeine. This effect was only observed in IB4+ neurons, cultured in the presence of β-estradiol or PPT. Our results demonstrate a profound regulatory role of ERα in ryanodine receptor-dependent transition to chronic pain. PMID:27499186

  8. Modulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Channels by Alkaline Earth Cations

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Porta, Maura; Copello, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. To better characterize Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M2+: Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M2+ binding to high affinity activating sites at the cytosolic channel surface, specific for Ca2+ or Sr2+. This activation was interfered by Mg2+ and Ba2+ acting at low affinity M2+-unspecific binding sites. When testing the effects of luminal M2+ as current carriers, all M2+ increased maximal RyR2 open probability (compared to Cs+), suggesting the existence of low affinity activating M2+-unspecific sites at the luminal surface. Responses to M2+ vary from channel to channel (heterogeneity). However, with luminal Ba2+or Mg2+, RyR2 were less sensitive to cytosolic Ca2+ and caffeine-mediated activation, openings were shorter and voltage-dependence was more marked (compared to RyR2 with luminal Ca2+or Sr2+). Kinetics of RyR2 with mixtures of luminal Ba2+/Ca2+ and additive action of luminal plus cytosolic Ba2+ or Mg2+ suggest luminal M2+ differentially act on luminal sites rather than accessing cytosolic sites through the pore. This suggests the presence of additional luminal activating Ca2+/Sr2+-specific sites, which stabilize high Po mode (less voltage-dependent) and increase RyR2 sensitivity to cytosolic Ca2+ activation. In summary, RyR2 luminal and cytosolic surfaces have at least two sets of M2+ binding sites (specific for Ca2+ and unspecific for Ca2+/Mg2+) that dynamically modulate channel activity and gating status, depending on SR voltage. PMID:22039534

  9. Cardiomyocyte ryanodine receptor degradation by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pedrozo, Zully; Torrealba, Natalia; Fernández, Carolina; Gatica, Damian; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Sanchez, Gina; Gillette, Thomas G.; Hill, Joseph A.; Donoso, Paulina; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Time for primary review: 15 days Aims Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins bearing the sequence KFERQ. These proteins are targeted by chaperones and delivered to lysosomes where they are translocated into the lysosomal lumen and degraded via the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). Mutations in LAMP2 that inhibit autophagy result in Danon disease characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) plays a key role in cardiomyocyte excitation–contraction and its dysfunction can lead to cardiac failure. Whether RyR2 is degraded by CMA is unknown. Methods and results To induce CMA, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with geldanamycin (GA) to promote protein degradation through this pathway. GA increased LAMP-2A levels together with its redistribution and colocalization with Hsc70 in the perinuclear region, changes indicative of CMA activation. The inhibition of lysosomes but not proteasomes prevented the loss of RyR2. The recovery of RyR2 content after incubation with GA by siRNA targeting LAMP-2A suggests that RyR2 is degraded via CMA. In silico analysis also revealed that the RyR2 sequence harbours six KFERQ motifs which are required for the recognition Hsc70 and its degradation via CMA. Our data suggest that presenilins are involved in RyR2 degradation by CMA. Conclusion These findings are consistent with a model in which oxidative damage of the RyR2 targets it for turnover by presenilins and CMA, which could lead to removal of damaged or leaky RyR2 channels. PMID:23404999

  10. Presence and functional significance of presynaptic ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Ron; Pattarini, Roberto; Geiger, Jonathan D

    2003-04-01

    Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) mediated by sarcoplasmic reticulum resident ryanodine receptors (RyRs) has been well described in cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle. In brain, RyRs are localised primarily to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and have been demonstrated in postsynaptic entities, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes where they regulate intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), membrane potential and the activity of a variety of second messenger systems. Recently, the contribution of presynaptic RyRs and CICR to functions of central and peripheral presynaptic terminals, including neurotransmitter release, has received increased attention. However, there is no general agreement that RyRs are localised to presynaptic terminals, nor is it clear that RyRs regulate a large enough pool of intracellular Ca(2+) to be physiologically significant. Here, we review direct and indirect evidence that on balance favours the notion that ER and RyRs are found in presynaptic terminals and are physiologically significant. In so doing, it became obvious that some of the controversy originates from issues related to (i) the ability to demonstrate conclusively the physical presence of ER and RyRs, (ii) whether the biophysical properties of RyRs are such that they can contribute physiologically to regulation of presynaptic [Ca(2+)](i), (iii) how ER Ca(2+) load and feedback gain of CICR contributes to the ability to detect functionally relevant RyRs, (iv) the distance that Ca(2+) diffuses from plasma membranes to RyRs to trigger CICR and from RyRs to the Active Zone to enhance vesicle release, and (v) the experimental conditions used. The recognition that ER Ca(2+) stores are able to modulate local Ca(2+) levels and neurotransmitter release in presynaptic terminals will aid in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms controlling neuronal function. PMID:12880633

  11. Ryanodine receptor dysfunction and triggered activity in the heart.

    PubMed

    Katra, Rodolphe P; Oya, Toshiyuki; Hoeker, Gregory S; Laurita, Kenneth R

    2007-05-01

    Arrhythmogenesis has been increasingly linked to cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction. However, the mechanistic relationship between abnormal RyR function and arrhythmogenesis in the heart is not clear. We hypothesize that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity will be caused by spontaneous calcium release (SCR) events that depend on transmural heterogeneities of calcium handling. We performed high-resolution optical mapping of intracellular calcium and transmembrane potential in the canine left ventricular wedge preparation (n = 28). Rapid pacing was used to initiate triggered activity under normal and abnormal RyR conditions induced by FKBP12.6 dissociation and beta-adrenergic stimulation (20-150 microM rapamycin, 0.2 microM isoproterenol). Under abnormal RyR conditions, almost all preparations experienced SCRs and triggered activity, in contrast to control, rapamycin, or isoproterenol conditions alone. Furthermore, under abnormal RyR conditions, complex arrhythmias (monomorphic and polymorphic tachycardia) were commonly observed. After washout of rapamycin and isoproterenol, no triggered activity was observed. Surprisingly, triggered activity and SCRs occurred preferentially near the epicardium but not the endocardium (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the occurrence of triggered activity and SCR events could not be explained by cytoplasmic calcium levels, but rather by fast calcium reuptake kinetics. These data suggest that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity is caused by multiple SCR events that depend on the faster calcium reuptake kinetics near the epicardium. Furthermore, multiple regions of SCR may be a mechanism for multifocal arrhythmias associated with RyR dysfunction. PMID:17189349

  12. Modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor channels by alkaline earth cations.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L; Porta, Maura; Copello, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is modulated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). To better characterize Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding sites involved in RyR2 regulation, the effects of cytosolic and luminal earth alkaline divalent cations (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+)) were studied on RyR2 from pig ventricle reconstituted in bilayers. RyR2 were activated by M(2+) binding to high affinity activating sites at the cytosolic channel surface, specific for Ca(2+) or Sr(2+). This activation was interfered by Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) acting at low affinity M(2+)-unspecific binding sites. When testing the effects of luminal M(2+) as current carriers, all M(2+) increased maximal RyR2 open probability (compared to Cs(+)), suggesting the existence of low affinity activating M(2+)-unspecific sites at the luminal surface. Responses to M(2+) vary from channel to channel (heterogeneity). However, with luminal Ba(2+)or Mg(2+), RyR2 were less sensitive to cytosolic Ca(2+) and caffeine-mediated activation, openings were shorter and voltage-dependence was more marked (compared to RyR2 with luminal Ca(2+)or Sr(2+)). Kinetics of RyR2 with mixtures of luminal Ba(2+)/Ca(2+) and additive action of luminal plus cytosolic Ba(2+) or Mg(2+) suggest luminal M(2+) differentially act on luminal sites rather than accessing cytosolic sites through the pore. This suggests the presence of additional luminal activating Ca(2+)/Sr(2+)-specific sites, which stabilize high P(o) mode (less voltage-dependent) and increase RyR2 sensitivity to cytosolic Ca(2+) activation. In summary, RyR2 luminal and cytosolic surfaces have at least two sets of M(2+) binding sites (specific for Ca(2+) and unspecific for Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) that dynamically modulate channel activity and gating status, depending on SR voltage. PMID:22039534

  13. Physiological differences between the alpha and beta ryanodine receptors of fish skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J; Valdivia, H H; Block, B A

    1995-01-01

    Two isoforms of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor or RYR) are expressed together in the skeletal muscles of most vertebrates. We have studied physiological properties of the two isoforms (alpha and beta) by comparing SR preparations from specialized fish muscles that express the alpha isoform alone to preparations from muscles containing both alpha and beta. Regulation of channel activity was assessed through [3H]ryanodine binding and reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers. Distinct differences were observed in the calcium-activation and -inactivation properties of the two isoforms. The fish alpha isoform, expressed alone in extraocular muscles, closely resembled the rabbit skeletal muscle RYR. Maximum [3H]ryanodine binding and maximum open probability (Po) of the alpha RYR were achieved from 1 to 10 microM free Ca2+. Millimolar Ca2+ reduced [3H]ryanodine binding and Po close to zero. The beta isoform more closely resembled the fish cardiac RYR in Ca2+ activation of [3H]ryanodine binding. The most prominent difference of the beta and cardiac isoforms from the alpha isoform was the lack of inactivation of [3H]ryanodine binding and Po by millimolar free Ca2+. Differences in activation of [3H]ryanodine binding by adenine nucleotides and inhibition by Mg2+ suggest that the beta and cardiac RYRs are not identical, however. [3H]ryanodine binding by the alpha RYR was selectively inhibited by 100 microM tetracaine, whereas cardiac and beta RYRs were much less affected. Tetracaine can thus be used to separate the properties of the alpha and beta RYRs in preparations in which both are present. The distinct physiological properties of the alpha and beta RYRs that are present together in most vertebrate muscles support models of EC coupling incorporating both directly coupled and Ca(2+)-coupled channels within a single triad junction. PMID:7696500

  14. Highly cooperative and hysteretic response of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor to changes in proton concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J; Zhao, J

    1994-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are key molecules in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. They form the pore of the calcium release channel, which is regulated by Ca and ATP. Multiple proton titration sites are involved in controlling the different open states of the channel, as indicated by the following: i) the channel had a biphasic response to changes in proton concentrations around neutral pH; ii) the activities of the channel were inhibited by acidic pHs in a highly cooperative manner; and iii) the channel exhibited pronounced hysteresis to changes in pH. Four distinct conductance states can be identified in the single ryanodine-activated calcium release channel. The distribution of the multiple conductance states depends on the level of [Ca], ATP, and pH in the recording solution. The data are consistent with the multimeric structure of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:7948677

  15. Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, Martin; Suko, Josef; Gscheidlinger, Regina; Drobny, Helmut; Zidar, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Calcium is a universal second messenger. The temporal and spatial information that is encoded in Ca(2+)-transients drives processes as diverse as neurotransmitter secretion, axonal outgrowth, immune responses and muscle contraction. Ca(2+)-release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores can be triggered by diffusible second messengers like Ins P (3), cyclic ADP-ribose or nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). A target has not yet been identified for the latter messenger. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of NAADP trigger Ca(2+)-release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was due to a direct action on the Ca(2+)-release channel/ryanodine receptor type-1, since in single channel recordings, NAADP increased the open probability of the purified channel protein. The effects of NAADP on Ca(2+)-release and open probability of the ryanodine receptor occurred over a similar concentration range (EC(50) approximately 30 nM) and were specific because (i) they were blocked by Ruthenium Red and ryanodine, (ii) the precursor of NAADP, NADP, was ineffective at equimolar concentrations, (iii) NAADP did not affect the conductance and reversal potential of the ryanodine receptor. Finally, we also detected an ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme was not only capable of synthesizing cyclic GDP-ribose but also NAADP, with an activity of 0.25 nmol/mg/min. Thus, we conclude that NAADP is generated in the vicinity of type 1 ryanodine receptor and leads to activation of this ion channel. PMID:12102654

  16. Rectification of muscle and nerve deficits in paralyzed ryanodine receptor type 1 mutant embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. Gartz; Niswander, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion and respiration require motor axon connectivity and activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Through a forward genetic screen for muscle weakness, we recently reported an allele of ryanodine receptor type 1 (Ryr1AG). Here we reveal a role for functional RyR1 during acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation and embryonic synaptic transmission. Ryr1AG homozygous embryos are non-motile. Motor axons extend past AChR clusters and enlarged AChR clusters are found under fasciculated nerves. Using physiological and pharmacological methods, we show that contractility can be resumed through the masking of a potassium leak, and evoked vesicular release can be resumed via bypassing the defect in RyR1 induced calcium release. Moreover, we show the involvement of ryanodine receptors in presynaptic release at the NMJ. This data provides evidence of a role for RyR1 on both the pre- and postsynaptic sides of the NMJ. PMID:26025922

  17. Ryanodine receptors are involved in nuclear calcium oscillation in primary pancreatic {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ji; Chen, Zheng; Yin, Wenxuan; Miao, Lin; Zhou, Zhansong; Ji, Guangju

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that RyRs are expressed on the nuclear envelope in single primary pancreatic {beta}-cells and isolated nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the pattern of glucose-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the nucleus and cytosol was similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results demonstrate that ryanodine-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} stores exist and have function in the pancreatic {beta}-cell nucleus. -- Abstract: Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are mainly located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and play an important role in regulating glucose-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in pancreatic {beta}-cells. However, subcellular locations and functions of RyRs on other cell organelles such as nuclear envelope are not well understood. In order to investigate the role of RyRs in nuclear Ca{sup 2+} oscillation we designed and conducted experiments in intact primary pancreatic {beta}-cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of RYRs on the nuclear envelope. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the function of RYRs on the nuclear envelope. We found that RyRs are expressed on the nuclear envelope in single primary pancreatic {beta}-cells and isolated nuclei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies indicated that application of glucose to the cells co-incubated with Ca{sup 2+} indicator Fluo-4 AM and cell-permeable nuclear indicator Hoechst 33342 resulted in nuclear Ca{sup 2+} oscillation. The pattern of glucose-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the nucleus and cytosol was similar. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} oscillation amplitude by ryanodine was much greater in the nucleus though both the cytosol and the nucleus Ca{sup 2+} amplitude decreased by ryanodine. Our results suggest that functional ryanodine receptors not only exist in endoplasmic reticulum but are also expressed in nuclear envelope of pancreatic {beta}-cells.

  18. Caveolin-3 is adjacent to a group of extradyadic ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Scriven, David R L; Klimek, Agnieszka; Asghari, Parisa; Bellve, Karl; Moore, Edwin D W

    2005-09-01

    Caveolae are present in almost all cells and concentrate a wide variety of signaling molecules, receptors, transporters, and ion pumps. We have investigated the distribution of the ryanodine receptor, the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, the predominant Na(+) channel isoform rH1, and the L-type calcium channel, Ca(v)1.2, relative to the muscle-specific caveolin isoform, caveolin-3, in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Three-dimensional immunofluorescence images were deconvolved and analyzed. Caveolin-3 colocalizes with all of these molecules at the surface of the cell, but there is no significant colocalization between caveolin-3 and either the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger or the Na(+) channel in the cell interior. The distribution of the surface colocalization indicates that the caveolae that colocalize with each molecule form distinct populations. This organization indicates that there are multiple populations of caveolae separable by location and occupants. In the interior of the cell, caveolin-3 shows a marked colocalization with a population of ryanodine receptors that are separate from those within the dyad. Because of their location, the signaling molecules contained within these caveolae may have preferred access to the neighboring nondyadic ryanodine receptors. PMID:15980179

  19. Up-regulation of ryanodine receptor expression increases the calcium-induced calcium release and spontaneous calcium signals in cerebral arteries from hindlimb unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Luc; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Prevot, Anne; Macrez, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume. Consequently, astronauts' body pressure is modified so that the upright blood pressure gradient is abolished, thereby inducing a modification in cerebral blood pressure. This effect is mimicked in the hindlimb unloaded rat model. After a duration of 8 days of unloading, Ca2+ signals activated by depolarization and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate intracellular release were increased in cerebral arteries. In the presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin, the depolarization-induced Ca2+ signals remained increased in hindlimb suspended animals, indicating that Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism were both increased. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves and localized Ca2+ events were also investigated. Increases in both amplitude and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ waves were measured in hindlimb suspension conditions. After pharmacological segregation of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ sparklets, their kinetic parameters were characterized. Hindlimb suspension induced an increase in the frequencies of both Ca2+ localized events, suggesting an increase of excitability. Labeling with bodipy compounds suggested that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptor expressions were increased. Finally, the expression of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 (RyR1) was increased in hindlimb unloading conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that RyR1 expression and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activity are the focal points of the regulation of Ca2+ signals activated by vasoconstriction in rat cerebral arteries with an increase of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. PMID:24233561

  20. Evidence for the transport of glutathione through ryanodine receptor channel type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Bánhegyi, Gábor; Csala, Miklós; Nagy, Gábor; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Fulceri, Rosella; Benedetti, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the role of RyR1 (ryanodine receptor calcium channel type 1) in glutathione (GSH) transport through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane of skeletal muscles. Lanthanum chloride, a prototypic blocker of cation channels, inhibited the influx and efflux of GSH in SR vesicles. Using a rapid-filtration-based assay and lanthanum chloride as a transport blocker, an uptake of radiolabelled GSH into SR vesicles was observed. Pretreatment of SR vesicles with the RyR1 antagonists Ruthenium Red and ryanodine as well as with lanthanum chloride blocked the GSH uptake. An SR-like GSH uptake appeared in microsomes obtained from an HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cell line after transfection of RyR1. These observations strongly suggest that RyR1 mediates GSH transport through the SR membranes of skeletal muscles. PMID:14519101

  1. CCDI: a new ligand that modulates mammalian type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Shao, Chun Hong; Padanilam, Christina; Ezell, Edward; Singh, Jaipaul; Kutty, Shelby; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are Ca2+-release channels on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum that modulate a wide array of physiological functions. Three RyR isoforms are present in cells: RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. To date, there are no reports on ligands that modulate RyR in an isoform-selective manner. Such ligands are not only valuable research tools, but could serve as intermediates for development of therapeutics. Experimental approach Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were allowed to react in carbon tetrachloride for 24 h at low temperatures and pressures. The chemical structures of the two products isolated were elucidated using NMR spectrometry, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. [3H]-ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer and time-lapsed confocal imaging were used to determine their effects on RyR isoforms. Key results The major product, 2-cyclohexyl-3-cyclohexylimino-2, 3, dihydro–pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-1-one (CCDI) dose-dependently potentiated Ca2+-dependent binding of [3H]-ryanodine to RyR1, with no significant effects on [3H]-ryanodine binding to RyR2 or RyR3. CCDI also reversibly increased the open probability (Po) of RyR1 with minimal effects on RyR2 and RyR3. CCDI induced Ca2+ transients in C2C12 skeletal myotubes, but not in rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was blocked by pretreating cells with ryanodine. The minor product 2-cyclohexyl-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dione had no effect on either [3H]-ryanodine binding or Po of RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. Conclusions and implications A new ligand that preferentially modulates RyR1 was identified. In addition to being an important research tool, the pharmacophore of this small molecule could serve as a template for the synthesis of other isoform-selective modulators of RyRs. PMID:24819467

  2. Carbonylation Induces Heterogeneity in Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Function in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chun Hong; Tian, Chengju; Ouyang, Shouqiang; Moore, Caronda J.; Alomar, Fadhel; Nemet, Ina; D'Souza, Alicia; Nagai, Ryoji; Kutty, Shelby; Rozanski, George J.; Ramanadham, Sasanka; Singh, Jaipaul

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure and arrhythmias occur at 3 to 5 times higher rates among individuals with diabetes mellitus, compared with age-matched, healthy individuals. Studies attribute these defects in part to alterations in the function of cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s), the principal Ca2+-release channels on the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To date, mechanisms underlying RyR2 dysregulation in diabetes remain poorly defined. A rat model of type 1 diabetes, in combination with echocardiography, in vivo and ex vivo hemodynamic studies, confocal microscopy, Western blotting, mass spectrometry, site-directed mutagenesis, and [3H]ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer, and transfection assays, was used to determine whether post-translational modification by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) represented a contributing cause. After 8 weeks of diabetes, spontaneous Ca2+ release in ventricular myocytes increased ∼5-fold. Evoked Ca2+ release from the SR was nonuniform (dyssynchronous). Total RyR2 protein levels remained unchanged, but the ability to bind the Ca2+-dependent ligand [3H]ryanodine was significantly reduced. Western blotting and mass spectrometry revealed RCS adducts on select basic residues. Mutation of residues to delineate the physiochemical impact of carbonylation yielded channels with enhanced or reduced cytoplasmic Ca2+ responsiveness. The prototype RCS methylglyoxal increased and then decreased the RyR2 open probability. Methylglyoxal also increased spontaneous Ca2+ release and induced Ca2+ waves in healthy myocytes. Treatment of diabetic rats with RCS scavengers normalized spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ release from the SR, reduced carbonylation of RyR2s, and increased binding of [3H]ryanodine to RyR2s. From these data, we conclude that post-translational modification by RCS contributes to the heterogeneity in RyR2 activity that is seen in experimental diabetes. PMID:22648972

  3. The role of ryanodine receptor type 3 in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Supnet, Charlene; Sun, Suya; Zhang, Hua; Good, Levi; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) signaling is reported to play an important role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. The role of ER Ca2+ release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyanRs), has been extensively studied in AD models and RyanR expression and activity are upregulated in the brains of various familial AD (FAD) models. The objective of this study was to utilize a genetic approach to evaluate the importance of RyanR type 3 (RyanR3) in the context of AD pathology. PMID:24476841

  4. FKBP12.6 binding of ryanodine receptors carrying mutations associated with arrhythmogenic cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Spyros; Thomas, N Lowri; Jamaluddin, Wan W; Lai, F Anthony

    2009-04-15

    In the present paper we show that distinct human RyR2 (ryanodine receptor type 2) inherited mutations expressed in mammalian cells exhibit either unaltered or increased FKBP12.6 (12.6 kDa FK506-binding protein) binding compared with the wild-type. Oxidizing conditions result in decreased FKBP12.6 binding, but to the same extent as for the wild-type. Our findings suggest that FKBP12.6 regulation of RyR2 is unlikely to be the primary defect in inherited arrhythmogenic cardiac disease. PMID:19226252

  5. A rare genetic variant of the ryanodine receptor in a suspected malignant hyperthermia susceptible patient.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Emily Jane; Wilkerson, Carlos; Kraeva, Natalia; Rosenberg, Henry; Kennedy, Tara

    2016-09-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) remains a diagnostic challenge. This case report describes the anesthetic management of a suspected intraoperative MH episode and the subsequent, genetic sequence analysis of 3 genes associated with MH. The results of the molecular genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for a rare variant, c.12553G>A (p.Ala4185Thr), in the RYR1 gene encoding the ryanodine receptor. Although the RYR1 gene has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of MH, (1) this particular variant has only been reported in one other case of MH; (2) the role for diagnostic genetic testing in the diagnosis of MH will be examined. PMID:27555149

  6. Disease mutations in the ryanodine receptor N-terminal region couple to a mobile intersubunit interface

    PubMed Central

    Kimlicka, Lynn; Lau, Kelvin; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are large channels that release Ca2+ from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Hundreds of RyR mutations can cause cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders, yet detailed mechanisms explaining their effects have been lacking. Here we compare pseudo-atomic models and propose that channel opening coincides with widening of a cytoplasmic vestibule formed by the N-terminal region, thus altering an interface targeted by 20 disease mutations. We solve crystal structures of several disease mutants that affect intrasubunit domain–domain interfaces. Mutations affecting intrasubunit ionic pairs alter relative domain orientations, and thus couple to surrounding interfaces. Buried disease mutations cause structural changes that also connect to the intersubunit contact area. These results suggest that the intersubunit contact region between N-terminal domains is a prime target for disease mutations, direct or indirect, and we present a model whereby ryanodine receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are activated by altering domain arrangements in the N-terminal region. PMID:23422674

  7. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Adasme, Tatiana; Haeger, Paola; Paula-Lima, Andrea C; Espinoza, Italo; Casas-Alarcón, M Mercedes; Carrasco, M Angélica; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) amplify activity-dependent calcium influx via calcium-induced calcium release. Calcium signals trigger postsynaptic pathways in hippocampal neurons that underlie synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes. Along with calcium signals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key signaling molecule for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Upon binding to specific TrkB receptors, BDNF initiates complex signaling pathways that modify synaptic structure and function. Here, we show that BDNF-induced remodeling of hippocampal dendritic spines required functional RyR. Additionally, incubation with BDNF enhanced the expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ, an atypical protein kinase C isoform with key roles in hippocampal memory consolidation. Consistent with their increased RyR protein content, BDNF-treated neurons generated larger RyR-mediated calcium signals than controls. Selective inhibition of RyR-mediated calcium release with inhibitory ryanodine concentrations prevented the PKMζ, RyR2, and RyR3 protein content enhancement induced by BDNF. Intrahippocampal injection of BDNF or training rats in a spatial memory task enhanced PKMζ, RyR2, RyR3, and BDNF hippocampal protein content, while injection of ryanodine at concentrations that stimulate RyR-mediated calcium release improved spatial memory learning and enhanced memory consolidation. We propose that RyR-generated calcium signals are key features of the complex neuronal plasticity processes induced by BDNF, which include increased expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ and the spine remodeling required for spatial memory formation. PMID:21282625

  8. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Adasme, Tatiana; Haeger, Paola; Paula-Lima, Andrea C.; Espinoza, Italo; Casas-Alarcón, M. Mercedes; Carrasco, M. Angélica; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) amplify activity-dependent calcium influx via calcium-induced calcium release. Calcium signals trigger postsynaptic pathways in hippocampal neurons that underlie synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes. Along with calcium signals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key signaling molecule for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Upon binding to specific TrkB receptors, BDNF initiates complex signaling pathways that modify synaptic structure and function. Here, we show that BDNF-induced remodeling of hippocampal dendritic spines required functional RyR. Additionally, incubation with BDNF enhanced the expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ, an atypical protein kinase C isoform with key roles in hippocampal memory consolidation. Consistent with their increased RyR protein content, BDNF-treated neurons generated larger RyR-mediated calcium signals than controls. Selective inhibition of RyR-mediated calcium release with inhibitory ryanodine concentrations prevented the PKMζ, RyR2, and RyR3 protein content enhancement induced by BDNF. Intrahippocampal injection of BDNF or training rats in a spatial memory task enhanced PKMζ, RyR2, RyR3, and BDNF hippocampal protein content, while injection of ryanodine at concentrations that stimulate RyR-mediated calcium release improved spatial memory learning and enhanced memory consolidation. We propose that RyR-generated calcium signals are key features of the complex neuronal plasticity processes induced by BDNF, which include increased expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ and the spine remodeling required for spatial memory formation. PMID:21282625

  9. Heterogeneous function of ryanodine receptors, but not IP3 receptors, in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B.

    2011-01-01

    The roles played by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in vascular smooth muscle in the microcirculation remain unclear. Therefore, the function of both RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and downstream arterioles were assessed using confocal imaging and pressure myography. Feed artery vascular smooth muscle displayed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves, which were inhibited by the RyR antagonists ryanodine (10 μM) or tetracaine (100 μM). Despite the inhibition of sparks and waves, ryanodine or tetracaine increased global intracellular Ca2+ and constricted the arteries. The blockade of IP3Rs with xestospongin D (5 μM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM) or the inhibition of phospholipase C using U-73122 (10 μM) also attenuated Ca2+ waves without affecting Ca2+ sparks. Importantly, the IP3Rs and phospholipase C antagonists decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and dilated the arteries. In contrast, cremaster arterioles displayed only Ca2+ waves: Ca2+ sparks were not observed, and neither ryanodine (10–50 μM) nor tetracaine (100 μM) affected either Ca2+ signals or arteriolar tone despite the presence of functional RyRs as assessed by responses to the RyR agonist caffeine (10 mM). As in feed arteries, arteriolar Ca2+ waves were attenuated by xestospongin D (5 μM), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM), and U-73122 (10 μM), accompanied by decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and vasodilation. These findings highlight the contrasting roles played by RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in feed arteries and demonstrate important differences in the function of RyRs between feed arteries and downstream arterioles. PMID:21357503

  10. S100A1 and Calmodulin Compete for the Same Binding Site on Ryanodine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nathan T.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Varney, Kristen M.; Zimmer, Danna B.; Schneider, Martin F.; Weber, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In heart and skeletal muscle an S100 protein family member, S100A1, binds to the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and promotes Ca2+ release. Using competition binding assays, we further characterized this system in skeletal muscle and showed that Ca2+-S100A1 competes with Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) for the same binding site on RyR1. In addition, the NMR structure was determined for Ca2+-S100A1 bound to a peptide derived from this CaM/S100A1 binding domain, a region conserved in RyR1 and RyR2 and termed RyRP12 (residues 3616-3627 in human RyR1). Examination of the S100A1-RyRP12 complex revealed residues of the helical RyRP12 peptide (Lys-3616, Trp-3620, Lys-3622, Leu-3623, Leu-3624, and Lys-3626) that are involved in favorable hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with Ca2+-S100A1. These same residues were shown previously to be important for RyR1 binding to Ca2+-CaM. A model for regulating muscle contraction is presented in which Ca2+-S100A1 and Ca2+-CaM compete directly for the same binding site on the ryanodine receptor. PMID:18650434

  11. Ca(2+) microdomains, NAADP and type 1 ryanodine receptor in cell activation.

    PubMed

    Guse, Andreas H; Wolf, Insa M A

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger that belongs to the superfamily of regulatory adenine nucleotides. Though NAADP has been known since 20years, several aspects of its metabolism and molecular mode of action are still under discussion. Though the importance of the type 1 ryanodine receptor was discovered and published already in 2002 Hohenegger et al. (2002 Oct 15) , recent data re-emphasize these original findings in pancreatic acinar cells and in T-lymphocytes. Here we review recent developments in NAADP formation and metabolism, putative target Ca(2+) channels for NAADP with special emphasis on the type 1 ryanodine receptor, and NAADP binding proteins. The latter are basis for a unifying hypothesis for NAADP action. Finally, the role of NAADP in T cell Ca(2+) signaling and activation is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate . Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26804481

  12. Structure-function relationships of peptides forming the calcin family of ryanodine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2016-05-01

    Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure-function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin > urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca(2+)]-[(3)H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca(2+) release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca(2+) release and deplete Ca(2+) load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency. PMID:27114612

  13. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes. PMID:25998124

  14. The mitochondrial ryanodine receptor in rat heart: a pharmaco-kinetic profile.

    PubMed

    Altschafl, Beth A; Beutner, Gisela; Sharma, Virendra K; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2007-07-01

    A protein discovered within inner mitochondrial membranes (IMM), designated as the mitochondrial ryanodine receptor (mRyR), has been recognized recently as a modulator of Ca(2+) fluxes in mitochondria. The present study provides fundamental pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of this mRyR. Rat cardiac IMM fused to lipid bilayers revealed the presence of a mitochondrial channel with gating characteristics similar to those of classical sarcoplasmic reticulum RyR (SR-RyR), but a variety of other mitochondrial channels obstructed clean recordings. Mitochondrial vesicles were thus solubilized and subjected to sucrose sedimentation to obtain mRyR-enriched fractions. Reconstitution of sucrose-purified fractions into lipid bilayers yielded Cs(+)-conducting, Ca(2+)-sensitive, large conductance (500-800 pS) channels with signature properties of SR-RyRs. Cytosolic Ca(2+) increased the bursting frequency and mean open time of the channel. Micromolar concentrations of ryanodine induced the appearance of subconductance states or inhibited channel activity altogether, while Imperatoxin A (IpTx(a)), a specific activator of RyRs, reversibly induced the appearance of distinct subconductance states. Remarkably, the cardiac mRyR displayed a Ca(2+) dependence of [(3)H]ryanodine binding curve similar to skeletal RyR (RyR1), not cardiac RyR (RyR2). Overall, the mRyR displayed elemental attributes that are present in single channel lipid bilayer recordings of SR-RyRs, although some exquisite differences were also noted. These results therefore provide the first direct evidence that a unique RyR occurs in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:17499575

  15. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Katja; Mänttäri, Satu; Järvilehto, Matti

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA. PMID:17576431

  16. Selecting Ions by Size in a Calcium Channel: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Dirk; Xu, Le; Meissner, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Many calcium channels can distinguish between ions of the same charge but different size. For example, when cations are in direct competition with each other, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium channel preferentially conducts smaller cations such as Li+ and Na+ over larger ones such as K+ and Cs+. Here, we analyze the physical basis for this preference using a previously established model of RyR permeation and selectivity. Like other calcium channels, RyR has four aspartate residues in its GGGIGDE selectivity filter. These aspartates have their terminal carboxyl group in the pore lumen, which take up much of the available space for permeating ions. We find that small ions are preferred by RyR because they can fit into this crowded environment more easily. PMID:25418295

  17. Reactive oxygen species-mediated neurodegeneration is independent of the ryanodine receptor in Caernorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lyndsay EA; Williams, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant impacts on human health caused by neurodegeneration, our understanding of the degeneration process is incomplete. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as a genetic model organism well suited for identification of conserved cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways of neurodegeneration. Studies in the worm have identified factors that contribute to neurodegeneration, including excitotoxicity and stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of the gene unc-68, which encodes the ryanodine receptor, abolishes excitotoxic cell death, indicating a role for calcium (Ca2+) signaling in neurodegeneration. We tested the requirement for unc-68 in ROS-mediated neurodegeneration using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed. Upon illumination of KillerRed expressing animals to produce ROS, we observed similar levels of degeneration in wild-type and unc-68 mutant strains. Our results indicate that ROS-mediated cell death is independent of unc-68 and suggest multiple molecular pathways of neurodegeneration.

  18. Heterogeneous function of ryanodine receptors, but not IP3 receptors, in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and arterioles.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Erika B; Jackson, William F

    2011-05-01

    The roles played by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) in vascular smooth muscle in the microcirculation remain unclear. Therefore, the function of both RyRs and IP₃Rs in Ca(²+) signals and myogenic tone in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and downstream arterioles were assessed using confocal imaging and pressure myography. Feed artery vascular smooth muscle displayed Ca(²+) sparks and Ca(²+) waves, which were inhibited by the RyR antagonists ryanodine (10 μM) or tetracaine (100 μM). Despite the inhibition of sparks and waves, ryanodine or tetracaine increased global intracellular Ca(²+) and constricted the arteries. The blockade of IP₃Rs with xestospongin D (5 μM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM) or the inhibition of phospholipase C using U-73122 (10 μM) also attenuated Ca(2+) waves without affecting Ca(²+) sparks. Importantly, the IP₃Rs and phospholipase C antagonists decreased global intracellular Ca(2+) and dilated the arteries. In contrast, cremaster arterioles displayed only Ca(²+) waves: Ca(²+) sparks were not observed, and neither ryanodine (10-50 μM) nor tetracaine (100 μM) affected either Ca(²+) signals or arteriolar tone despite the presence of functional RyRs as assessed by responses to the RyR agonist caffeine (10 mM). As in feed arteries, arteriolar Ca(²+) waves were attenuated by xestospongin D (5 μM), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM), and U-73122 (10 μM), accompanied by decreased global intracellular Ca(²+) and vasodilation. These findings highlight the contrasting roles played by RyRs and IP₃Rs in Ca(²+) signals and myogenic tone in feed arteries and demonstrate important differences in the function of RyRs between feed arteries and downstream arterioles. PMID:21357503

  19. Novel Anthranilic Diamide Scaffolds Containing N-Substituted Phenylpyrazole as Potential Ryanodine Receptor Activators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Hua, Xue-Wen; Wu, Chang-Chun; Wei, Wei; Wan, Ying-Ying; Cheng, Dan-Dan; Xiong, Li-Xia; Yang, Na; Song, Hai-Bin; Li, Zheng-Ming

    2016-05-11

    To discover potent insecticides targeting ryanodine receptors (RyRs), a series of novel anthranilic diamides analogues (12a-12u) containing N-substituted phenylpyrazole were designed and synthesized. These compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS, and the structure of compound 12u was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Their insecticidal activities indicated that these compounds displayed moderate to excellent activities. In particular, 12i showed 100 and 37% larvicidal activities against oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) at 0.25 and 0.05 mg L(-1), equivalent to that of chlorantraniliprole (100%, 0.25 mg L(-1); and 33%, 0.05 mg L(-1)). The activity of 12i against diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) was 95% at 0.05 mg L(-1), whereas the control was 100% at 0.05 mg L(-1). The calcium-imaging technique experiment results showed that the effects of 12i on the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in neurons were concentration-dependent. After the central neurons of Helicoverpa armigera were dyed by loading with fluo-5N and treated with 12i, the free calcium released in endoplasmic reticulum indicated the target of compound 12i is RyRs or IP3Rs. The activation of RyRs by natural ryanodine completely blocked the calcium release induced by 12i, which indicated that RyRs in the central neurons of H. armigera third-instar larvae is the possible target of compound 12i. PMID:27109555

  20. Functional calcium release channel formed by the carboxyl-terminal portion of ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M B; Zhao, J; Takeshima, H; Ma, J

    1997-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is one of the key proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in skeletal muscle, where it functions as a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. RyR consists of a single polypeptide of approximately 560 kDa normally arranged in a homotetrameric structure, which contains a carboxyl (C)-terminal transmembrane domain and a large amino (N)-terminal cytoplasmic domain. To test whether the carboxyl-terminal portion of RyR is sufficient to form a Ca2+ release channel, we expressed the full-length (RyR-wt) and C-terminal (RyR-C, approximately 130 kDa) RyR proteins in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, and measured their Ca2+ release channel functions in planar lipid bilayer membranes. The single-channel properties of RyR-wt were found to be similar to those of RyR from skeletal muscle SR. The RyR-C protein forms a cation-selective channel that shares some of the channel properties with RyR-wt, including activation by cytoplasmic Ca2+ and regulation by ryanodine. Unlike RyR-wt, which exhibits a linear current-voltage relationship and inactivates at millimolar Ca2+, the channels formed by RyR-C display significant inward rectification and fail to close at high cytoplasmic Ca2+. Our results show that the C-terminal portion of RyR contains structures sufficient to form a functional Ca2+ release channel, but the N-terminal portion of RyR also affects the ion-conduction and calcium-dependent regulation of the Ca2+ release channel. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9284301

  1. Antibody probe study of Ca2+ channel regulation by interdomain interaction within the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Parness, Jerome; Ikemoto, Noriaki

    2004-01-01

    N-terminal and central domains of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), where many reported malignant hyperthermia (MH) mutations are localized, represent putative channel regulatory domains. Recent domain peptide (DP) probe studies led us to the hypothesis that these domains interact to stabilize the closed state of channel (zipping), while weakening of domain-domain interactions (unzipping) by mutation de-stabilizes the channel, making it leaky to Ca2+ or sensitive to the agonists of RyR1. As shown previously, DP1 (N-terminal domain peptide) and DP4 (central domain peptide) produced MH-like channel activation/sensitization effects, presumably by peptide binding to sites critical to stabilizing domain-domain interactions and resultant loss of conformational constraints. Here we report that polyclonal anti-DP1 and anti-DP4 antibodies also produce MH-like channel activation and sensitization effects as evidenced by about 4-fold enhancement of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1 and by a significant left-shift of the concentration-dependence of activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release by polylysine. Fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrate that the accessibility of a DP4-directed, conformationally sensitive fluorescence probe linked to the RyR1 N-terminal domain is increased in the presence of domain-specific antibodies, consistent with the view that these antibodies produce unzipping of interacting domains that are of hindered accessibility to the surrounding aqueous environment. Our results suggest that domain-specific antibody binding induces a conformational change resulting in channel activation, and are consistent with the hypothesis that interacting N-terminal and central domains are intimately involved in the regulation of RyR1 channel function. PMID:15027895

  2. Single-channel properties of the recombinant skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor).

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S R; Leong, P; Imredy, J P; Bartlett, C; Zhang, L; MacLennan, D H

    1997-01-01

    We report transient expression of a full-length cDNA encoding the Ca2+ release channel of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (ryanodine receptor) in HEK-293 cells. The single-channel properties of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate-solubilized and sucrose gradient-purified recombinant Ca2+ release channels were investigated by using single-channel recordings in planar lipid bilayers. The recombinant Ca2+ release channel exhibited a K+ conductance of 780 pS when symmetrical 250 mM KCl was used as the conducting ion and a Ca2+ conductance of 116 pS in 50 mM luminal Ca2+. Opening events of the recombinant channels were brief, with an open time constant of approximately 0.22 ms. The recombinant Ca2+ release channel was more permeable to Ca2+ than to K+, with a pCa2+/pK+ ratio of 6.8. The response of the recombinant Ca2+ release channel to various concentrations of Ca2+ was biphasic, with the channel being activated by micromolar Ca2+ and inhibited by millimolar Ca2+. The recombinant channels were activated by ATP and caffeine, inhibited by Mg2+ and ruthenium red, and modified by ryanodine. Most recombinant channels were asymmetrically blocked, conducting current unidirectionally from the luminal to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. These data demonstrate that the properties of recombinant Ca2+ release channel expressed in HEK-293 cells are very similar, if not identical, to those of the native channel. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9336186

  3. The human cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel: identification, primary structure and topological analysis.

    PubMed

    Tunwell, R E; Wickenden, C; Bertrand, B M; Shevchenko, V I; Walsh, M B; Allen, P D; Lai, F A

    1996-09-01

    Rapid Ca2+ efflux from intracellular stores during cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling is mediated by the ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel, a large homotetrameric complex present in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We report here the identification, primary structure and topological analysis of the ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel from human cardiac muscle (hRyR-2). Consistent with sedimentation and immunoblotting studies on the hRyR-2 protein, sequence analysis of ten overlapping cDNA clones reveals an open reading frame of 14901 nucleotides encoding a protein of 4967 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 564 569 Da for hRyR-2. In-frame insertions corresponding to eight and ten amino acid residues were found in two of the ten cDNAs isolated, suggesting that novel, alternatively spliced transcripts of the hRyR-2 gene might exist. Six hydrophobic stretches, which are present within the hRyR-2 C-terminal 500 amino acids and are conserved in all RyR sequences, may be involved in forming the transmembrane domain that constitutes the Ca(2+)-conducting pathway, in agreement with competitive ELISA studies with a RyR-2-specific antibody. Sequence alignment of hRyR-2 with other RyR isoforms indicates a high level of overall identity within the RyR family, with the exception of two important regions that exhibit substantial variability. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the RyR-2 isoform diverged from a single ancestral gene before the RyR-1 and RyR-3 isoforms to form a distinct branch of the RyR family tree. PMID:8809036

  4. Identification of angiotensin II receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, A.T.; Herblin, W.F.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L.; )

    1989-11-30

    We have demonstrated the existence of two distinct subtypes of the angiotensin II receptor in the rat adrenal gland using radioligand binding and tissue section autoradiography. The identification of the subtypes was made possible by the discovery of two structurally dissimilar, nonpeptide compounds, DuP 753 and EXP655, that show reciprocal selectivity for the two subtypes. In the rat adrenal cortex, DuP 753 inhibited 80% of the total AII binding with an IC50 value on the sensitive sites of 2 x 10(-8) M, while EXP655 displaced only 20%. In the rat adrenal medulla, EXP655 gave 90% inhibition of AII binding with an IC50 value of 3.0 x 10(-8) M, while DuP 753 was essentially inactive. The combination of the two compounds completely inhibited AII binding in both tissues.

  5. Complex formation between calsequestrin and the ryanodine receptor in fast- and slow-twitch rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murray, B E; Ohlendieck, K

    1998-06-16

    Linkage between the high-capacity Ca2+-binding protein calsequestrin and the ryanodine receptor is proposed to be essential for proper Ca2+-release during skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. However, no direct biochemical evidence exists showing a connection between these high-molecular-mass complexes in native skeletal muscle membranes. Here, using immunoblot analysis of chemically crosslinked membrane vesicles enriched in triad junctions, we have demonstrated that a very close neighborhood relationship exists between calsequestrin and the ryanodine receptor in both main fiber types. Hence, the luminal Ca2+-reservoir complex appears to be directly coupled to the membrane Ca2+-release complex and oligomerization seems to be of functional importance. PMID:9662440

  6. Minding the Calcium Store: Ryanodine Receptor Activation as a Convergent Mechanism of PCB Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pessah, Isaac N.; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Lein, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposures remain a significant public health concern since results from epidemiological studies indicate PCB burden is associated with immune system dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and impairment of the developing nervous system. Of these various adverse health effects, developmental neurotoxicity has emerged as a particularly vulnerable endpoint in PCB toxicity. Arguably the most pervasive biological effects of PCBs could be mediated by their ability to alter the spatial and temporal fidelity of Ca2+ signals through one or more receptor mediated processes. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the structure and function of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in muscle and nerve cells and how PCBs and related non-coplanar structures alter these functions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which non-coplanar PCBs and related structures alter local and global Ca2+ signaling properties and the possible short and long-term consequences of these perturbations on neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration are reviewed. PMID:19931307

  7. Amphibian ryanodine receptor isoforms are related to those of mammalian skeletal or cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Lai, F A; Liu, Q Y; Xu, L; el-Hashem, A; Kramarcy, N R; Sealock, R; Meissner, G

    1992-08-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ release channels of frog skeletal muscle have been purified as 30S protein complexes comprised of two high molecular weight polypeptides. The upper and lower bands of the frog doublet comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacylamide gels with the mammalian skeletal and cardiac RyR polypeptides, respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that a polyclonal antiserum to the rat skeletal RyR preferentially cross-reacted with the upper band, whereas monoclonal antibodies to the canine cardiac RyR preferentially cross-reacted with the lower band of the frog receptor doublet. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated the presence of two homooligomer 30S RyR complexes comprised of either the lower or upper polypeptide band of the frog doublet, and immunocytochemical staining revealed their colocalization in frog gastrocnemius muscle. After planar lipid bilayer reconstitution of the 30S frog RyR, single-channel currents were observed that exhibited a Na+ and Ca2+ conductance and pharmacological characteristics similar to those of the mammalian skeletal and cardiac Ca2+ release channels. These results suggest that amphibian skeletal muscle expresses two distinct RyR isoforms that share epitopes in common with the mammalian skeletal or cardiac RyR. PMID:1325114

  8. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. PMID:27262216

  9. IL-6/STAT3 signaling in mice with dysfunctional type-2 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tai-Qin; Willis, Monte S; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice with genetically modified cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2ADA/ADA mice) are impaired in regulation by calmodulin, develop severe cardiac hypertrophy and die about 2 weeks after birth. We hypothesized that the interleukin 6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway has a role in the development of the Ryr2ADA/ADA cardiac hypertrophy phenotype, and determined cardiac function and protein levels of IL-6, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, and downstream targets c-Fos and c-Myc in wild-type and RyR2ADA/ADA mice, mice with a disrupted IL-6 gene, and mice treated with STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859. IL-6 protein levels were increased at postnatal day 1 but not day 10, whereas pSTAT3-Tyr705/STAT3 ratio and c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels increased in hearts of 10-day but not 1-day old Ryr2ADA/ADA mice compared with wild type. Both STAT3 and pSTAT3-Tyr705 accumulated in the nuclear fraction of 10-day old Ryr2ADA/ADA mice compared with wild type. Ryr2ADA /ADA /IL-6−/− mice lived 1.5 times longer, had decreased heart to body weight ratio, and reduced c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels. The STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859 prolonged life span by 1.3-fold, decreased heart to body weight ratio, increased cardiac performance, and decreased pSTAT-Tyr705/STAT3 ratio and IL-6, c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels of Ryr2ADA /ADA mice. The results suggest that upregulation of IL-6 and STAT3 signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and early death of mice with a dysfunctional ryanodine receptor. They further suggest that STAT3 inhibitors may be clinically useful agents in patients with altered Ca2+ handling in the heart. PMID:27217982

  10. Posttranslational modifications of cardiac ryanodine receptors: Ca2+ signaling and EC-coupling

    PubMed Central

    Niggli, Ernst; Ullrich, Nina D.; Gutierrez, D.; Kyrychenko, Sergii; Poláková, Eva; Shirokova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    In cardiac muscle, a number of posttranslational protein modifications can alter the function of the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), also known as the ryanodine receptor (RyR). During every heartbeat RyRs are activated by the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism and contribute a large fraction of the Ca2+ required for contraction. Some of the posttranslational modifications of the RyR are known to affect its gating and Ca2+ sensitivity. Presently, research in a number of laboratories is focussed on RyR phosphorylation, both by PKA and CaMKII, or on RyR modifications caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS / RNS). Both classes of posttranslational modifications are thought to play important roles in the physiological regulation of channel activity, but are also known to provoke abnormal alterations during various diseases. Only recently it was realized that several types of posttranslational modifications are tightly connected and form synergistic (or antagonistic) feed-back loops resulting in additive and potentially detrimental downstream effects. This review summarizes recent findings on such posttranslational modifications, attempts to bridge molecular with cellular findings, and opens a perspective for future work trying to understand the ramifications of crosstalk in these multiple signaling pathways. Clarifying these complex interactions will be important in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, since this may form the foundation for the implementation of multi-pronged treatment regimes in the future. PMID:22960642

  11. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  12. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel

    PubMed Central

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M.; Gaspar, John A.; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F.; Ardestani, Mostafa A.; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1’s potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca2+ signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca2+ signaling during muscle organ development. PMID:26831464

  13. A Model of the Putative Pore Region of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Welch, William; Rheault, Shana; West, Duncan J.; Williams, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Using the bacterial K+ channel KcsA as a template, we constructed models of the pore region of the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel (RyR2) monomer and tetramer. Physicochemical characteristics of the RyR2 model monomer were compared with the template, including homology, predicted secondary structure, surface area, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic potential. Values were comparable with those of KcsA. Monomers of the RyR2 model were minimized and assembled into a tetramer that was, in turn, minimized. The assembled tetramer adopts a structure equivalent to that of KcsA with a central pore. Characteristics of the RyR2 model tetramer were compared with the KcsA template, including average empirical energy, strain energy, solvation free energy, solvent accessibility, and hydrophobic, polar, acid, and base moments. Again, values for the model and template were comparable. The pores of KcsA and RyR2 have a common motif with a hydrophobic channel that becomes polar at both entrances. Quantitative comparisons indicate that the assembled structure provides a plausible model for the pore of RyR2. Movement of Ca2+, K+, and tetraethylammonium (TEA+) through the model RyR2 pore were simulated with explicit solvation. These simulations suggest that the model RyR2 pore is permeable to Ca2+ and K+ with rates of translocation greater for K+. In contrast, simulations indicate that tetraethylammonium blocks movement of metal cations. PMID:15454434

  14. Structure of the rabbit ryanodine receptor RyR1 at near-atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Xie, Tian; Peng, Wei; Yin, Changcheng; Li, Xueming; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Shi, Yigong; Yan, Nieng

    2014-01-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are high-conductance intracellular Ca2+ channels that play a pivotal role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal and cardiac muscles. RyRs are the largest known ion channels, with a homotetrameric organization and approximately 5000 residues in each protomer. Here we report the structure of the rabbit RyR1 in complex with its modulator FKBP12 at an overall resolution of 3.8 Å, determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. Three previously uncharacterized domains, named Central, Handle, and Helical domains, display the armadillo repeat fold. These domains, together with the amino-terminal domain, constitute a network of superhelical scaffold for binding and propagation of conformational changes. The channel domain exhibits the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily fold with distinct features. A negative charge-enriched hairpin loop connecting S5 and the pore helix is positioned above the entrance to the selectivity filter vestibule. The four elongated S6 segments form a right-handed helical bundle that closes the pore at the cytoplasmic border of the membrane. Allosteric regulation of the pore by the cytoplasmic domains is mediated through extensive interactions between the Central domains and the channel domain. These structural features explain high ion conductance by RyRs and the long-range allosteric regulation of channel activities. PMID:25517095

  15. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M; Gaspar, John A; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F; Ardestani, Mostafa A; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1's potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling during muscle organ development. PMID:26831464

  16. Depletion of FKBP does not affect the interaction between isolated ryanodine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaofang; Liang Xin; Chen Keying; Zhu Peihong; Hu Jun; E-mail: jhu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2005-10-14

    The ryanodine receptors/calcium release channels (RyRs) usually form two dimensional regular lattices in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. The native RyR is associated with many auxiliary proteins, including FKBP. It has been indicated that FKBP may play a role in the intermolecular interaction and coupled gating of neighboring RyRs. However, a more recent study shows that FKBP12 is not involved in the physical linkage between neighboring RyR1s. In the present work, the effect of FKBP12 on the interaction between RyR1s isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle was investigated in an aqueous medium with photon correlation spectroscopy. We found that the depletion of FKBP12 did not affect the oligomerization of RyR1s in the medium containing different [KCl] or under different channel functional states. No evidence is obtained for the involvement of FKBP12 in the intermolecular interaction between RyR1s.

  17. Temperature acclimation has no effect on ryanodine receptor expression or subcellular localization in rainbow trout heart.

    PubMed

    Birkedal, Rikke; Christopher, Jennifer; Thistlethwaite, Angela; Shiels, Holly A

    2009-11-01

    In cardiomyocytes, ryanodine receptors (RYRs) mediate Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling. In rainbow trout heart, the relative importance of CICR increases with cold-acclimation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature acclimation (4, 11 and 18 degrees C) on RYR intracellular localization and expression density. We used immunocytochemistry to assess intracellular localization in ventricular myocytes and Western blotting to assess RYR expression in both atrial and ventricular tissue. In ventricular myocytes, RYRs were localized peripherally in transverse bands aligning with sarcomeric m-lines and centrally around mitochondria and the nucleus. Localization did not change with temperature acclimation. RYR expression was also unaffected by temperature acclimation. The localization of RYRs at the m-line is similar to neonatal mammalian cardiomyocytes. We suggest this positioning is indicative of myocytes which rely predominantly on transsarcolemmal Ca(2+)-influx, rather than CICR, during e-c coupling. PMID:19544062

  18. Imaging Single Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Ca2+ Fluxes in Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, S.; Publicover, N. G.; Kargacin, G. J.; Duan, D.; Airey, J. A.; Sutko, John L.

    2004-01-01

    In this and an accompanying report we describe two steps, single-channel imaging and channel immobilization, necessary for using optical imaging to analyze the function of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels reconstituted in lipid bilayers. An optical bilayer system capable of laser scanning confocal imaging of fluo-3 fluorescence due to Ca2+ flux through single RyR2 channels and simultaneous recording of single channel currents was developed. A voltage command protocol was devised in which the amplitude, time course, shape, and hence the quantity of Ca2+ flux through a single RyR2 channel is controlled solely by the voltage imposed across the bilayer. Using this system, the voltage command protocol, and concentrations of Ca2+ (25–50 mM) that result in saturating RyR2 Ca2+ currents, proportional fluo-3 fluorescence was recorded simultaneously with Ca2+ currents having amplitudes of 0.25–14 pA. Ca2+ sparks, similar to those obtained with conventional microscope-based laser scanning confocal systems, were imaged in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes using the optical bilayer system. The utility of the optical bilayer for systematic investigation of how cellular factors extrinsic to the RyR2 channel, such as Ca2+ buffers and diffusion, alter fluo-3 fluorescent responses to RyR2 Ca2+ currents, and for addressing other current research questions is discussed. PMID:14695257

  19. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release via ryanodine receptors regulates neuronal function

    PubMed Central

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Chen, Yili; Ito, Akihiro; Murayama, Takashi; Oyamada, Hideto; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Sato, Osamu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Mori, Nozomu; Oguchi, Katsuji; Sakurai, Takashi; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito; Iino, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    Mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores regulates a multitude of cellular functions, but the role of intracellular Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in the brain remains incompletely understood. We found that nitric oxide (NO) directly activates RyRs, which induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores of central neurons, and thereby promote prolonged Ca2+ signalling in the brain. Reversible S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) triggers this Ca2+ release. NO-induced Ca2+ release (NICR) is evoked by type 1 NO synthase-dependent NO production during neural firing, and is essential for cerebellar synaptic plasticity. NO production has also been implicated in pathological conditions including ischaemic brain injury, and our results suggest that NICR is involved in NO-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that NICR via RyR1 plays a regulatory role in the physiological and pathophysiological functions of the brain. PMID:22036948

  20. Voltage-gated Ca2+ entry and ryanodine receptor Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in preglomerular arterioles.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Susan K; Arendshorst, William J

    2007-05-01

    We have previously shown that in afferent arterioles, angiotensin II (ANG II) involves activation of the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R), activation of adenine diphosphoribose (ADPR) cyclase, and amplification of the initial IP(3)R-stimulated release of cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (Fellner SK, Arendshorst WJ. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288: F785-F791, 2004). The response of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) to local increases in [Ca(2+)](i) is defined as calcium-induced calcium release (CICR). To investigate whether Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated channels (VGCC) can stimulate CICR, we treated fura 2-loaded, freshly isolated afferent arterioles with KCl (40 mM; high KCl). In control arterioles, peak [Ca(2+)](i) increased by 165 +/- 10 nM. Locking the RyR in the closed position with ryanodine (100 microM) inhibited the [Ca(2+)](i) response by 59% (P < 0.01). 8-Br cADPR, a specific blocker of the ability of cyclic ADPR (cADPR) to sensitize the RyR to Ca(2+), caused a 43% inhibition. We suggest that the lower inhibition by 8-Br cADPR (P = 0.02, ryanodine vs. 8-Br cADPR) represents endogenously active ADPR cyclase. Depletion of SR Ca(2+) stores by inhibiting the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase with cyclopiazonic acid or thapsigargin blocked the [Ca(2+)](i) responses to KCl by 51% (P not significant vs. ryanodine or 8-Br cADPR). These data suggest that about half of the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by high KCl is accomplished by activation of CICR through the ability of entered Ca(2+) to expose the RyR to high local concentrations of Ca(2+) and that endogenous cADPR contributes to the process. PMID:17190906

  1. S100A1 DNA-based Inotropic Therapy Protects Against Proarrhythmogenic Ryanodine Receptor 2 Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ritterhoff, Julia; Völkers, Mirko; Seitz, Andreas; Spaich, Kristin; Gao, Erhe; Peppel, Karsten; Pleger, Sven T; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Friedrich, Oliver; Fink, Rainer H A; Koch, Walter J; Katus, Hugo A; Most, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Restoring expression levels of the EF-hand calcium (Ca2+) sensor protein S100A1 has emerged as a key factor in reconstituting normal Ca2+ handling in failing myocardium. Improved sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function with enhanced Ca2+ resequestration appears critical for S100A1's cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent inotropic effects but raises concerns about potential diastolic SR Ca2+ leakage that might trigger fatal arrhythmias. This study shows for the first time a diminished interaction between S100A1 and ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) in experimental HF. Restoring this link in failing cardiomyocytes, engineered heart tissue and mouse hearts, respectively, by means of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral S100A1 cDNA delivery normalizes diastolic RyR2 function and protects against Ca2+- and β-adrenergic receptor-triggered proarrhythmogenic SR Ca2+ leakage in vitro and in vivo. S100A1 inhibits diastolic SR Ca2+ leakage despite aberrant RyR2 phosphorylation via protein kinase A and calmodulin-dependent kinase II and stoichiometry with accessory modulators such as calmodulin, FKBP12.6 or sorcin. Our findings demonstrate that S100A1 is a regulator of diastolic RyR2 activity and beneficially modulates diastolic RyR2 dysfunction. S100A1 interaction with the RyR2 is sufficient to protect against basal and catecholamine-triggered arrhythmic SR Ca2+ leak in HF, combining antiarrhythmic potency with chronic inotropic actions. PMID:26005840

  2. Ryanodine receptors/calcium release channels in heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Marks, A R

    2001-04-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) ions are second messengers in signaling pathways in all types of cells. They regulate muscle contraction, electrical signals which determine the cardiac rhythm and cell growth pathways in the heart. In the past decade cDNA cloning has provided clues as to the molecular structure of the intracellular Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors, RyR, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, IP3R) on the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) and an understanding of how these molecules regulate Ca2+ homeostasis in the heart is beginning to emerge. The intracellular Ca2+ release channels form a distinct class of ion channels distinguished by their structure, size, and function. Both RyRs and IP3Rs have gigantic cytoplasmic domains that serve as scaffolds for modulatory proteins that regulate the channel pore located in the carboxy terminal 10% of the channel sequence. The channels are tetramers comprised of four RyR or IP3R subunits. RyR2 is required for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in the heart. Using co-sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation we have defined a macromolecular complex comprised of RyR2, FKBP12.6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein mAKAP. We have shown that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of RyR2 dissociates FKBP12.6 and regulates the channel open probability (P(o)). In failing human hearts RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation. PMID:11273716

  3. Species differences in chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide insecticide binding sites in the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suzhen; Casida, John E

    2013-11-01

    Anthranilic and phthalic diamides exemplified by chlorantraniliprole (Chlo) or cyantraniliprole (Cyan) and flubendiamide (Flu), respectively, are the newest major chemotype of insecticides with outstanding potency, little or no cross resistance with other classes and low mammalian toxicity. They are activators of the ryanodine (Ry) receptor (RyR)-Ca(2+) channel, based on Ca(2+) flux and electrophysiology investigations. The goal of this study is to define species differences in the degree and mechanisms of diamide selective action by radioligand specific binding studies at the [(3)H]Ry, [(3)H]Chlo and [(3)H]Flu sites. The [(3)H]Ry site is observed in muscle of lobster, rabbit and four insect species (Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon) whereas the [(3)H]Chlo site is evident in the four insects and the [(3)H]Flu site in only the two lepidoptera (Agrotis and Heliothis). [(3)H]Ry binding is significantly stimulated by Chlo, Cyan and Flu with the insects (except Flu with Musca) but not the lobster and rabbit. [(3)H]Chlo binding is stimulated by Ry and Flu in Musca and Apis but not in the lepidoptera, while Flu and Cyan are inhibitory. [(3)H]Flu binding is strongly inhibited by Chlo and Cyan in Agrotis and Heliothis. [(3)H]Chlo and [(3)H]Flu binding are not dependent on added Ca(2+) or ATP in Heliothis and Agrotis whereas the other radioligand-receptor combinations are usually enhanced by Ca(2+) and ATP. More generally, there are species differences in the Ry, Chlo and Flu binding sites of the RyR that may confer selective toxicity and determine target site cross resistance mechanisms. PMID:24267693

  4. Structural and functional conservation of key domains in InsP[subscript 3] and ryanodine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Min-Duk; Velamakanni, Saroj; Ishiyama, Noboru; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Rossi, Ana M.; Khan, Samir A.; Dale, Philippa; Li, Congmin; Ames, James B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Taylor, Colin W.

    2012-07-11

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP{sub 3}Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca{sup 2+} channels. In each of these receptor families, the pore, which is formed by carboxy-terminal transmembrane domains, is regulated by signals that are detected by large cytosolic structures. InsP{sub 3}R gating is initiated by InsP{sub 3} binding to the InsP{sub 3}-binding core (IBC, residues 224-604 of InsP{sub 3}R1) and it requires the suppressor domain (SD, residues 1-223 of InsP{sub 3}R1). Here we present structures of the amino-terminal region (NT, residues 1-604) of rat InsP{sub 3}R1 with (3.6 {angstrom}) and without (3.0 {angstrom}) InsP{sub 3} bound. The arrangement of the three NT domains, SD, IBC-{beta} and IBC-{alpha}, identifies two discrete interfaces ({alpha} and {beta}) between the IBC and SD. Similar interfaces occur between equivalent domains (A, B and C) in RyR1 (ref. 9). The orientations of the three domains when docked into a tetrameric structure of InsP{sub 3}R and of the ABC domains docked into RyR are remarkably similar. The importance of the {alpha}-interface for activation of InsP{sub 3}R and RyR is confirmed by mutagenesis and, for RyR, by disease-causing mutations. Binding of InsP{sub 3} causes partial closure of the clam-like IBC, disrupting the {beta}-interface and pulling the SD towards the IBC. This reorients an exposed SD loop ('hotspot' (HS) loop) that is essential for InsP{sub 3}R activation. The loop is conserved in RyR and includes mutations that are associated with malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. The HS loop interacts with an adjacent NT, suggesting that activation re-arranges inter-subunit interactions. The A domain of RyR functionally replaced the SD in full-length InsP{sub 3}R, and an InsP{sub 3}R in which its C-terminal transmembrane region was replaced by that from RyR1 was gated by InsP{sub 3} and blocked by ryanodine. Activation mechanisms are conserved between InsP{sub 3}R and Ry

  5. Subconductance states in single-channel activity of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors after removal of FKBP12.

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, G P; Junankar, P R; Dulhunty, A F

    1997-01-01

    FKBP12 was removed from ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by incubation of rabbit skeletal muscle terminal cisternae membranes with rapamycin. The extent of FKBP12 removal was estimated by immunostaining Western blots of terminal cisternae proteins. Single FKBP12-depleted RyR channels, incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, were modulated by Ca2+, ATP, ryanodine, and ruthenium red in the cis chamber and opened frequently to the normal maximum conductance of approximately 230 pS and to substate levels of approximately 0.25, approximately 0.5, and approximately 0.75 of the maximum conductance. Substate activity was rarely seen in native RyRs. Ryanodine did not after the number of conductance levels in FKBP12-depleted channels, but, at a membrane potential of +40 mV, reduced both the maximum and the substate conductances by approximately 50%. FKBP12-stripped channels were activated by a 10-fold-lower [Ca2+] and inhibited by a 10-fold-higher [Ca2+], than RyRs from control-incubated and native terminal cisternae vesicles. The open probability (Po) of these FKBP12-deficient channels was greater than that of control channels at 0.1 microM and 1 mM cis Ca2+ but no different at 10 microM cis Ca2+, where channels showed maximal Ca2+ activation. The approximately 0.25 substate was less sensitive than the maximum conductance to inhibition by Ca2+ and was the dominant level in channels inhibited by 1 mM cis Ca2+. The results show that FKBP12 coordinates the gating of channel activity in control and ryanodine-modified RyRs. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8994600

  6. Chiral dicarboxamide scaffolds containing a sulfiliminyl moiety as potential ryanodine receptor activators.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sha; Jia, Zhehui; Xiong, Lixia; Yan, Tao; Yang, Na; Wu, Guiping; Song, Haibin; Li, Zhengming

    2014-07-01

    To search for new environmentally benign insecticides with high activity, low toxicity, and low residue, novel chiral configurations introduced into dicarboxamide scaffolds containing N-cyano sulfiliminyl moieties were first studied. Four series of phthalamides with sulfur-containing side chains were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against oriental armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) for their insecticidal activities. All structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS (or elemental analysis), and their configurations were confirmed by optical polarimetry. The biological assessment indicated that some title compounds exhibited significant insecticidal activities. For oriental armyworm, these stereoisomers exerted different impacts on biological activity following the sequence (Sc, Ss) ≥ (Sc, Rs) ≫ (Rc, Ss) > (Rc, Rs), and carbon chirality influenced the activities more strongly than sulfur. Compounds Ia and IIa reached as high an activity as commercial flubendiamide, with LC50 values of 0.0504 and 0.0699 mg L(-1), respectively, lower than that of flubendiamide (0.1230 mg L(-1)). For diamondback moth, the sequence of activity was (Sc, Ss) > (Sc, Rs), and the sulfur chirality influenced the activities more greatly than carbon. Compound IIe exhibited even higher activity than flubendiamide, whereas Ie and Ic,d reached the activity of the latter. The results indicated that the improvement of insecticidal activity probably required a coordination of both carbon and sulfur chirality. Comparative molecular field analysis calculation indicated that stereoisomers with Sc configurations containing strong electron-withdrawing groups such as as CN are important in maintaining the high activity. The chiral scaffolds containing the N-cyano sulfiliminyl moiety are also essential for high larvicidal activity. Some title compounds could be considered as potential candidates for ryanodine receptor activators

  7. Calpains and proteasomes mediate degradation of ryanodine receptors in a model of cardiac ischemic reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Pedrozo, Zully; Sánchez, Gina; Torrealba, Natalia; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Fernández, Carolina; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio; Donoso, Paulina

    2010-03-01

    Type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2)--the calcium release channels of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum--have a central role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. In the heart, ischemia/reperfusion causes a rapid and significant decrease in RyR2 content but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not fully understood. We have studied the involvement of three proteolytic systems--calpains, the proteasome and autophagy--on the degradation of RyR2 in rat neonatal cardiomyocyte cultures subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R). We found that 8h of ischemia followed by 16h of reperfusion decreased RyR2 content by 50% without any changes in RyR2 mRNA. Specific inhibitors of calpains and the proteasome prevented the decrease of RyR2 caused by sI/R, implicating both pathways in its degradation. Proteasome inhibitors also prevented the degradation of calpastatin, the endogenous calpain inhibitor, hindering the activation of calpain induced by calpastatin degradation. Autophagy was activated during sI/R as evidenced by the increase in LC3-II and beclin-1, two proteins involved in autophagosome generation, and in the emergence of GFP-LC3 containing vacuoles in adenovirus GFP-LC3 transduced cardiomyocytes. Selective autophagy inhibition, however, induced even further RyR2 degradation, making unlikely the participation of autophagy in sI/R-induced RyR2 degradation. Our results suggest that calpain activation as a result of proteasome-induced degradation of calpastatin initiates RyR2 proteolysis, which is followed by proteasome-dependent degradation of the resulting RyR2 fragments. The decrease in RyR2 content during ischemia/reperfusion may be relevant to the decrease of heart contractility after ischemia. PMID:20026269

  8. Ryanodine receptors, a family of intracellular calcium ion channels, are expressed throughout early vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium signals ([Ca2+]i) direct many aspects of embryo development but their regulation is not well characterised. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels that control the flux of Ca2+ from internal stores into the cytosol. RyRs are primarily known for their role in excitation-contraction coupling in adult striated muscle and ryr gene mutations are implicated in several human diseases. Current evidence suggests that RyRs do not have a major role to play prior to organogenesis but regulate tissue differentiation. Findings The sequences of the five zebrafish ryr genes were confirmed, their evolutionary relationship established and the primary sequences compared to other vertebrates, including humans. RyRs are differentially expressed in slow (ryr1a), fast (ryr3) and both types (ryr1b) of developing skeletal muscle. There are two ryr2 genes (ryr2a and ryr2b) which are expressed exclusively in developing CNS and cardiac tissue, respectively. In addition, ryr3 and ryr2a mRNA is detectable in the initial stages of development, prior to embryonic axis formation. Conclusions Our work reveals that zebrafish ryr genes are differentially expressed throughout the developing embryo from cleavage onwards. The data suggests that RyR-regulated Ca2+ signals are associated with several aspects of embryonic development, from organogenesis through to the differentiation of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and nervous system. These studies will facilitate further work to explore the developmental function of RyRs in each of these tissue types. PMID:22168922

  9. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Ryanodine Receptor Clusters in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Ye; McCulle, Stacey L.; Ward, Chris W.; Soeller, Christian; Allen, Bryan M.; Rabang, Cal; Cannell, Mark B.; Balke, C. William; Izu, Leighton T.

    2006-01-01

    The clustering of ryanodine receptors (RyR2) into functional Ca2+ release units is central to current models for cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy, we have analyzed the distribution of RyR2 clusters in rat and ventricular atrial myocytes. The resolution of the three-dimensional structure was improved by a novel transverse sectioning method as well as digital deconvolution. In contrast to earlier reports, the mean RyR2 cluster transverse spacing was measured 1.05 μm in ventricular myocytes and estimated 0.97 μm in atrial myocytes. Intercalated RyR2 clusters were found interspersed between the Z-disks on the cell periphery but absent in the interior, forming double rows flanking the local Z-disks on the surface. The longitudinal spacing between the adjacent rows of RyR2 clusters on the Z-disks was measured to have a mean value of 1.87 μm in ventricular and 1.69 μm in atrial myocytes. The measured RyR2 cluster distribution is compatible with models of Ca2+ wave generation. The size of the typical RyR2 cluster was close to 250 nm, and this suggests that ∼100 RyR2s might be present in a cluster. The importance of cluster size and three-dimensional spacing for current E-C coupling models is discussed. PMID:16603500

  10. Blockage of the Ryanodine Receptor via Azumolene Does Not Prevent Mechanical Ventilation-Induced Diaphragm Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Erin E.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kwon, Oh Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Powers, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. However, prolonged MV causes the rapid development of diaphragm muscle atrophy, and diaphragmatic weakness may contribute to difficult weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a therapeutic countermeasure to protect against MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy is important. MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is due, at least in part, to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from diaphragm mitochondria and the activation of key muscle proteases (i.e., calpain and caspase-3). In this regard, leakage of calcium through the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in diaphragm muscle fibers during MV could result in increased mitochondrial ROS emission, protease activation, and diaphragm atrophy. Therefore, these experiments tested the hypothesis that a pharmacological blockade of the RyR1 in diaphragm fibers with azumolene (AZ) would prevent MV-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS production, protease activation, and diaphragmatic atrophy. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 12 hours of full-support MV while receiving either AZ or vehicle. At the end of the experiment, mitochondrial ROS emission, protease activation, and fiber cross-sectional area were determined in diaphragm muscle fibers. Decreases in muscle force production following MV indicate that the diaphragm took up a sufficient quantity of AZ to block calcium release through the RyR1. However, our findings reveal that AZ treatment did not prevent the MV-induced increase in mitochondrial ROS emission or protease activation in the diaphragm. Importantly, AZ treatment did not prevent MV-induced diaphragm fiber atrophy. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the RyR1 in diaphragm muscle fibers is not sufficient to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy. PMID:26849371

  11. Aldolase potentiates DIDS activation of the ryanodine receptor in rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Seo, In-Ra; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hui; Meissner, Gerhard; Kim, Do Han

    2006-10-15

    DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate), an anion channel blocker, triggers Ca2+ release from skeletal muscle SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum). The present study characterized the effects of DIDS on rabbit skeletal single Ca2+-release channel/RyR1 (ryanodine receptor type 1) incorporated into a planar lipid bilayer. When junctional SR vesicles were used for channel incorporation (native RyR1), DIDS increased the mean P(o) (open probability) of RyR1 without affecting unitary conductance when Cs+ was used as the charge carrier. Lifetime analysis of single RyR1 activities showed that 10 microM DIDS induced reversible long-lived open events (P(o)=0.451+/-0.038) in the presence of 10 microM Ca2+, due mainly to a new third component for both open and closed time constants. However, when purified RyR1 was examined in the same condition, 10 microM DIDS became considerably less potent (P(o)=0.206+/-0.025), although the caffeine response was similar between native and purified RyR1. Hence we postulated that a DIDS-binding protein, essential for the DIDS sensitivity of RyR1, was lost during RyR1 purification. DIDS-affinity column chromatography of solubilized junctional SR, and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS analysis of the affinity-column-associated proteins, identified four major DIDS-binding proteins in the SR fraction. Among them, aldolase was the only protein that greatly potentiated DIDS sensitivity. The association between RyR1 and aldolase was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and aldolase-affinity batch-column chromatography. Taken together, we conclude that aldolase is physically associated with RyR1 and could confer a considerable potentiation of the DIDS effect on RyR1. PMID:16817780

  12. Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johenning, Friedrich W; Theis, Anne-Kathrin; Pannasch, Ulrike; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    A key feature of signalling in dendritic spines is the synapse-specific transduction of short electrical signals into biochemical responses. Ca2+ is a major upstream effector in this transduction cascade, serving both as a depolarising electrical charge carrier at the membrane and an intracellular second messenger. Upon action potential firing, the majority of spines are subject to global back-propagating action potential (bAP) Ca2+ transients. These transients translate neuronal suprathreshold activation into intracellular biochemical events. Using a combination of electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, and modelling, we demonstrate that bAPs are electrochemically coupled to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We describe a new function mediated by spine RyRs: the activity-dependent long-term enhancement of the bAP-Ca2+ transient. Spines regulate bAP Ca2+ influx independent of each other, as bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is compartmentalized and independent of the dendritic Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, this functional state change depends exclusively on bAPs travelling antidromically into dendrites and spines. Induction, but not expression, of bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is a spine-specific function of the RyR. We demonstrate that RyRs can form specific Ca2+ signalling nanodomains within single spines. Functionally, RyR mediated Ca2+ release in these nanodomains induces a new form of Ca2+ transient plasticity that constitutes a spine specific storage mechanism of neuronal suprathreshold activity patterns. PMID:26098891

  13. Reversible redox modifications of ryanodine receptor ameliorate ventricular arrhythmias in the ischemic-reperfused heart.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Romina; Román, Bárbara; Di Carlo, Mariano N; Mariangelo, Juan Ignacio; Salas, Margarita; Sanchez, Gina; Donoso, Paulina; Schinella, Guillermo R; Vittone, Leticia; Wehrens, Xander H; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Said, Matilde

    2016-09-01

    Previous results from our laboratory showed that phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) by Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) was a critical but not the unique event responsible for the production of reperfusion-induced arrhythmogenesis, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms cooperating in an additive way to produce these rhythm alterations. Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Both CaMKII and RyR2 are proteins susceptible to alteration by redox modifications. This study was designed to elucidate whether CaMKII and RyR2 redox changes occur during reperfusion and whether these changes are involved in the genesis of arrhythmias. Langendorff-perfused hearts from rats or transgenic mice with genetic ablation of CaMKII phosphorylation site on RyR2 (S2814A) were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion in the presence or absence of a free radical scavenger (mercaptopropionylglycine, MPG) or inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase. Left ventricular contractile parameters and monophasic action potentials were recorded. Oxidation and phosphorylation of CaMKII and RyR2 were assessed. Increased oxidation of CaMKII during reperfusion had no consequences on the level of RyR2 phosphorylation. Avoiding the reperfusion-induced thiol oxidation of RyR2 with MPG produced a reduction in the number of arrhythmias and did not modify the contractile recovery. Conversely, selective prevention of S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation of RyR2 was associated with higher numbers of arrhythmias and impaired contractility. In S2814A mice, treatment with MPG further reduced the incidence of arrhythmias. Taken together, the results suggest that redox modification of RyR2 synergistically with CaMKII phosphorylation modulates reperfusion arrhythmias. PMID:27422983

  14. Molecular characterization of a ryanodine receptor gene from Spodoptera exigua and its upregulation by chlorantraniliprole.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Qiu, Guisheng; Cui, Li; Ma, Chunsen; Yuan, Huizhu

    2015-09-01

    Chlorantraniliprole is a novel diamide insecticide that targets the insect ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+) release channel. Spodoptera exigua is a significant insect pest, and chlorantraniliprole is the most popular diamide insecticide used against this pest. To better understand the effects of diamides on RyR expression and [Ca(2+)], we isolated the SeRyR cDNA and investigated changes in SeRyR expression as a result of the application of chlorantraniliprole. The full-length cDNAs of SeRyR contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,357 bp with a predicted protein consisting of 5118 amino acids. SeRyR shares 77-92% identity with other insect RyR isoforms and 45-47% identity with vertebrate RyR isoforms. Furthermore, the relative expression abundances of RyR mRNA extracted from S. exigua fat body cells after 24 h of culture in 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nM, 1 µM and 100 µM of chlorantraniliprole changed 1.04-, 0.89-, 1.83-, 2.58-, 4.03- and 3.12-fold compared to blank control, respectively. The regression equation for the relative expression levels of SeRyR after 24 h as a function of the chlorantraniliprole concentration was Y = 0.6455 + 0.8188LgX, R(2) = 0.97093 for the cell line IOZCAS-Spex-II. These results outline the effects of chlorantraniliprole on the expression of SeRyR and provide a basis for the discovery of a compound that may exhibit selective insect activity. PMID:26267053

  15. Ryanodine receptor cluster fragmentation and redistribution in persistent atrial fibrillation enhance calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Macquaide, Niall; Tuan, Hoang-Trong Minh; Hotta, Jun-ichi; Sempels, Wouter; Lenaerts, Ilse; Holemans, Patricia; Hofkens, Johan; Jafri, M. Saleet; Willems, Rik; Sipido, Karin R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In atrial fibrillation (AF), abnormalities in Ca2+ release contribute to arrhythmia generation and contractile dysfunction. We explore whether ryanodine receptor (RyR) cluster ultrastructure is altered and is associated with functional abnormalities in AF. Methods and results Using high-resolution confocal microscopy (STED), we examined RyR cluster morphology in fixed atrial myocytes from sheep with persistent AF (N = 6) and control (Ctrl; N = 6) animals. RyR clusters on average contained 15 contiguous RyRs; this did not differ between AF and Ctrl. However, the distance between clusters was significantly reduced in AF (288 ± 12 vs. 376 ± 17 nm). When RyR clusters were grouped into Ca2+ release units (CRUs), i.e. clusters separated by <150 nm, CRUs in AF had more clusters (3.43 ± 0.10 vs. 2.95 ± 0.02 in Ctrl), which were more dispersed. Furthermore, in AF cells, more RyR clusters were found between Z lines. In parallel experiments, Ca2+ sparks were monitored in live permeabilized myocytes. In AF, myocytes had >50% higher spark frequency with increased spark time to peak (TTP) and duration, and a higher incidence of macrosparks. A computational model of the CRU was used to simulate the morphological alterations observed in AF cells. Increasing cluster fragmentation to the level observed in AF cells caused the observed changes, i.e. higher spark frequency, increased TTP and duration; RyR clusters dispersed between Z-lines increased the occurrence of macrosparks. Conclusion In persistent AF, ultrastructural reorganization of RyR clusters within CRUs is associated with overactive Ca2+ release, increasing the likelihood of propagating Ca2+ release. PMID:26490742

  16. The role of ryanodine receptor type 3 in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Supnet, Charlene; Sun, Suya; Zhang, Hua; Good, Levi; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is reported to play an important role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. The role of ER Ca(2+) release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyanRs), has been extensivelys tudied in AD models and RyanR expression and activity are upregulated in the brains of various familial AD (FAD) models.The objective of this study was to utilize a genetic approach to evaluate the importance of RyanR type 3 (RyanR3) in the context of AD pathology.The expression of RyanR3 was also elevated in hippocampus of APPPS1 mice (Thy1-APPKM670/671NL, Thy1-PS1L166P).In young (≤ 3 mo) APPPS1 mice, the deletion of RyanR3 increased hippocampal neuronal network excitability and accelerated AD pathology, leading to mushroom spine loss and increased amyloid accumulation. In contrast, deletion of RyanR3 in older APPPS1 mice (≥ 6 mo) rescued network excitability and mushroom spine loss, reduced amyloid plaque load and reduced spontaneous seizure occurrence.Our data suggests a dual role for RyanR3 in AD pathology. In young AD neurons, RyanR3 protects AD neurons from synaptic and network dysfunction. In older AD neurons, increased RyanR3 activity contributes to pathology. These results imply that blockade of RyanR3 may be beneficial for those in the later stages of the disease, but RyanR activators may be beneficial when used prior to disease onset or in its initial stages. Caffeine is an activator of RyanRs and our results may help to explain a complex epidemiological connection between coffee consumption in mid-life and risk of AD development in old age. PMID:24476841

  17. Bioinformatic mapping and production of recombinant N-terminal domains of human cardiac ryanodine receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena; Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Borko, Ľubomír; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    We report the domain analysis of the N-terminal region (residues 1–759) of the human cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that encompasses one of the discrete RyR2 mutation clusters associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD2). Our strategy utilizes a bioinformatics approach complemented by protein expression, solubility analysis and limited proteolytic digestion. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we designed a series of specific RyR2 N-terminal fragments for cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli. High yields of soluble proteins were achieved for fragments RyR21–606·His6, RyR2391–606·His6, RyR2409–606·His6, Trx·RyR2384–606·His6, Trx·RyR2391-606·His6 and Trx·RyR2409–606·His6. The folding of RyR21–606·His6 was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy resulting in α-helix and β-sheet content of ∼23% and ∼29%, respectively, at temperatures up to 35 °C, which is in agreement with sequence based secondary structure predictions. Tryptic digestion of the largest recombinant protein, RyR21–606·His6, resulted in the appearance of two specific subfragments of ∼40 and 25 kDa. The 25 kDa fragment exhibited greater stability. Hybridization with anti-His6·Tag antibody indicated that RyR21–606·His6 is cleaved from the N-terminus and amino acid sequencing of the proteolytic fragments revealed that digestion occurred after residues 259 and 384, respectively. PMID:20045464

  18. Cardiomyocytes hypertrophic status after myocardial infarction determines distinct types of arrhythmia: role of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Fauconnier, Jérémy; Pasquié, Jean-Luc; Bideaux, Patrice; Lacampagne, Alain; Richard, Sylvain

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms responsible for sudden cardiac death in heart failure (HF) are unclear. We investigated early and delayed afterdepolarizations (EADs, DADs) in HF. Cardiomyocytes were enzymatically isolated from the right ventricle (RV) and the septum of rats 8 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) and sham-operated animals. Membrane capacitance, action potentials (AP) and ionic currents were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp. The [Ca(2+)](i) transients and Ca(2+) sparks were recorded with Fluo-4 during fluorescence measurements. Arrhythmia was triggered in 40% of MI cells (not in sham) using trains of 5 stimulations at 2.0 Hz. EADs and DADs occurred in distinct cell populations both in the RV and the septum. EADs occurred in normal-sized PMI cells (<230 pF), whereas DADs occurred in hypertrophic PMI cells (>230 pF). All cells exhibited prolonged APs due to reduced I(to) current. However, additional modifications in Ca(2+)-dependent ionic currents occurred in hypertrophic cells: a decrease in the inward rectifier K(+) current I(K1), and a slowing of L-type Ca(2+) current inactivation which was responsible for the lack of adaptation of APs to abrupt changes in the pacing rate. The occurrence of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks, reflecting ryanodine receptor (RyR2) diastolic activity, increased with hypertrophy. The [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load and Ca(2+) sparks amplitude were all inversely correlated with cell size. We conclude that the trophic status of cardiomyocytes determines the type of cellular arrhythmia in MI rats, based on differential electrophysiological remodeling which may reflect early-mild and late-severe or differential modifications in the RyR2 function. PMID:20109482

  19. Chronic diabetes increases advanced glycation end products on cardiac ryanodine receptors/calcium-release channels.

    PubMed

    Bidasee, Keshore R; Nallani, Karuna; Yu, Yongqi; Cocklin, Ross R; Zhang, Yinong; Wang, Mu; Dincer, U Deniz; Besch, Henry R

    2003-07-01

    Decrease in cardiac contractility is a hallmark of chronic diabetes. Previously we showed that this defect results, at least in part, from a dysfunction of the type 2 ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR2). The mechanism(s) underlying RyR2 dysfunction is not fully understood. The present study was designed to determine whether non-cross-linking advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on RyR2 increase with chronic diabetes and if formation of these post-translational complexes could be attenuated with insulin treatment. Overnight digestion of RyR2 from 8-week control animals (8C) with trypsin afforded 298 peptides with monoisotopic mass (M+H(+)) >or=500. Digestion of RyR2 from 8-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals (8D) afforded 21% fewer peptides, whereas RyR2 from 6-week diabetic/2-week insulin-treated animals generated 304 peptides. Using an in-house PERLscript algorithm, search of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass data files identified several M+H(+) peaks corresponding to theoretical RyR2 peptides with single N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine, imidazolone A, imidazone B, pyrraline, or 1-alkyl-2-formyl-3,4-glycosyl pyrrole modification that were present in 8D but not 8C. Insulin treatment minimized production of some of these nonenzymatic glycation products. These data show for the first time that AGEs are formed on intracellular RyR2 during diabetes. Because AGE complexes are known to compromise protein activity, these data suggest a potential mechanism for diabetes-induced RyR2 dysfunction. PMID:12829653

  20. Ryanodine Receptor Activation Induces Long-Term Plasticity of Spine Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pannasch, Ulrike; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of signalling in dendritic spines is the synapse-specific transduction of short electrical signals into biochemical responses. Ca2+ is a major upstream effector in this transduction cascade, serving both as a depolarising electrical charge carrier at the membrane and an intracellular second messenger. Upon action potential firing, the majority of spines are subject to global back-propagating action potential (bAP) Ca2+ transients. These transients translate neuronal suprathreshold activation into intracellular biochemical events. Using a combination of electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging, and modelling, we demonstrate that bAPs are electrochemically coupled to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We describe a new function mediated by spine RyRs: the activity-dependent long-term enhancement of the bAP-Ca2+ transient. Spines regulate bAP Ca2+ influx independent of each other, as bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is compartmentalized and independent of the dendritic Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, this functional state change depends exclusively on bAPs travelling antidromically into dendrites and spines. Induction, but not expression, of bAP-Ca2+ transient enhancement is a spine-specific function of the RyR. We demonstrate that RyRs can form specific Ca2+ signalling nanodomains within single spines. Functionally, RyR mediated Ca2+ release in these nanodomains induces a new form of Ca2+ transient plasticity that constitutes a spine specific storage mechanism of neuronal suprathreshold activity patterns. PMID:26098891

  1. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  2. The unliganded long isoform of estrogen receptor beta stimulates brain ryanodine receptor single channel activity alongside with cytosolic Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Rybalchenko, Volodymyr; Grillo, Michael A.; Gastinger, Matthew J.; Rybalchenko, Nataliya; Payne, Andrew J.; Koulen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by endoplasmic reticulum membrane ryanodine receptors (RyR) plays a key role in activating and synchronizing downstream Ca2+-dependent mechanisms, in different cells varying from apoptosis to nuclear transcription and development of defensive responses. Recently discovered, atypical “non-genomic” effects mediated by estrogen receptors (ER) include rapid Ca2+ release upon estrogen exposure in conditions implicitly suggesting involvement of RyRs. In the present study, we report various levels of co-localization between RyR type 2 (RyR2) and ER type β (ERβ) in the neuronal cell line HT-22, indicating a possible functional interaction. Electrophysiological analyses revealed a significant increase in single channel ionic currents generated by mouse brain RyRs after application of the soluble monomer of the long form ERβ (ERβ1). The effect was due to a strong increase in open probability of RyR higher open channel sublevels at cytosolic [Ca2+] concentrations of 100 nM, suggesting a synergistic action of ERβ1 and Ca2+ in RyR activation, and a potential contribution to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release rather than to basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration level at rest. This RyR/ERβ interaction has potential effects on cellular physiology, including roles of shorter ERβ isoforms and modulation of the RyR/ERβ complexes by exogenous estrogens. PMID:19899956

  3. A novel mutation (Arg169Gln) of the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene causing exercise-induced bidirectional ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Weng, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lin, Tin-Kwang; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lai, Ling-Ping; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2006-04-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with exercise induced sudden collapse. Series of cardiac work up revealed no structural cardiac abnormalities. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia occurred during a treadmill exercise test. Under the impression of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, we screened the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene for mutation. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation at the 169th amino acid (Arg169Gln). This amino acid is highly conserved among many species and this mutation was not present in 50 normal control subjects. This patient was treated with a beta-block with good response. PMID:16517285

  4. One Dimensional Finite Element Method Approach to Study Effect of Ryanodine Receptor and Serca Pump on Calcium Distribution in Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2013-11-01

    Oocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. Calcium ions (Ca2+) impact nearly all aspects of cellular life as they play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Calcium ions contributes to egg activation upon fertilization. Since it is the internal stores which provide most of the calcium signal, much attention has been focused on the intracellular channels. There are mainly two types of calcium channels which release calcium from the internal stores to the cytoplasm in many cell types. These channels are IP3-Receptor and Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Further it is essential to maintain low cytosolic calcium concentration, the cell engages the Serco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA) present on the ER or SR membrane for the re-uptake of cytosolic calcium at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In view of above an attempt has been made to study the effect of the Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the SERCA pump on the calcium distribution in oocytes. The main aim of this paper is to study the calcium concentration in absence and presence of these parameters. The FEM is used to solve the proposed Mathematical model under appreciate initial and boundary conditions. The program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem to get numerical results.

  5. NAADP-mediated Ca2+ signaling via type 1 ryanodine receptor in T cells revealed by a synthetic NAADP antagonist.

    PubMed

    Dammermann, Werner; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Kirchberger, Tanja; Kawakami, Naoto; Dowden, James; Schmid, Frederike; Dornmair, Klaus; Hohenegger, Martin; Flügel, Alexander; Guse, Andreas H; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-06-30

    The nucleotide NAADP was recently discovered as a second messenger involved in the initiation and propagation of Ca(2+) signaling in lymphoma T cells, but its impact on primary T cell function is still unknown. An optimized, synthetic, small molecule inhibitor of NAADP action, termed BZ194, was designed and synthesized. BZ194 neither interfered with Ca(2+) mobilization by d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or cyclic ADP-ribose nor with capacitative Ca(2+) entry. BZ194 specifically and effectively blocked NAADP-stimulated [(3)H]ryanodine binding to the purified type 1 ryanodine receptor. Further, in intact T cells, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by NAADP or by formation of the immunological synapse between primary effector T cells and astrocytes was inhibited by BZ194. Downstream events of Ca(2+) mobilization, such as nuclear translocation of "nuclear factor of activated T cells" (NFAT), T cell receptor-driven interleukin-2 production, and proliferation in antigen-experienced CD4(+) effector T cells, were attenuated by the NAADP antagonist. Taken together, specific inhibition of the NAADP signaling pathway constitutes a way to specifically and effectively modulate T-cell activation and has potential in the therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:19541638

  6. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells

    PubMed Central

    Maltseva, Larissa A.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This “calcium clock” takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic–mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in

  7. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells.

    PubMed

    Stern, Michael D; Maltseva, Larissa A; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2014-05-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This "calcium clock" takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in beating

  8. Unbalanced upregulation of ryanodine receptor 2 plays a particular role in early development of daunorubicin cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kucerova, Dana; Doka, Gabriel; Kruzliak, Peter; Turcekova, Katarina; Kmecova, Jana; Brnoliakova, Zuzana; Kyselovic, Jan; Kirchhefer, Uwe; Müller, Frank U; Krenek, Peter; Boknik, Peter; Klimas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes (ryanodine receptor type 2, RyR2) plays a critical role in the regulation of calcium and was identified as a crucial factor for development of chronic anthracycline cardiomyopathy. Its early stages are less well described although these determine the later development. Hence, we tested the effect of repeated, short-term anthracycline (daunorubicin) administration on cardiac performance, cardiomyocyte function and accompanied changes in calcium regulating proteins expression. Ten-twelve weeks old male Wistar rats were administered with 6 doses of daunorubicin (DAU, 3 mg/kg, i.p., every 48 h), controls (CON) received vehicle. Left ventricular function (left ventricular pressure, LVP; rate of pressure development, +dP/dt and decline, -dP/dt) was measured using left ventricular catheterization under tribromethanol anaesthesia (15 ml/kg b.w.). Cell shortening was measured in enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes. The expressions of RyR2 and associated intracellular calcium regulating proteins, cytoskeletal proteins (alpha-actinin, alpha-tubul in) as well as oxidative stress regulating enzymes (gp91phox, MnSOD) were detected in ventricular tissue samples using immunoblotting. mRNA expressions of cardiac damage markers (Nppa and Nppb, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides; Myh6, Myh7 and Myh7b, myosin heavy chain alpha and beta) were detected using RT-PCR. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration was measured to estimate oxidative stress. DAU rats exhibited significantly depressed left ventricular features (LVP by 14%, +dP/dt by 36% and -dP/dt by 30%; for all P<0.05), in line with concomitant increase in Nppa and Nppb gene expressions (3.23- and 2.18-fold, for both P<0.05), and a 4.34-fold increase in Myh7 (P<0.05). Controversially, we observed increased cell shortening of isolated cardiac cells by 31% (p<0.05). DAU administration was associated with a twofold upregulation of RyR2 (P<0

  9. P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed Central

    Kunapuli, S P; Daniel, J L

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides have been implicated in a number of physiological functions. Nucleotides act on cell-surface receptors known as P2 receptors, of which several subtypes have been cloned. Both ATP and ADP are stored in platelets and are released upon platelet activation. Furthermore, nucleotides are also released from damaged or broken cells. Thus during vascular injury nucleotides play an important role in haemostasis through activation of platelets, modulation of vascular tone, recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of injury, and facilitation of adhesion of leucocytes to the endothelium. Nucleotides also moderate these functions by generating nitric oxide and prostaglandin I2 through activation of endothelial cells, and by activating different receptor subtypes on vascular smooth muscle cells. In the heart, P2 receptors regulate contractility through modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels, although the molecular mechanisms involved are still under investigation. Classical pharmacological studies have identified several P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system. Molecular pharmacological studies have clarified the nature of some of these receptors, but have complicated the picture with others. In platelets, the classical P2T receptor has now been resolved into three P2 receptor subtypes: the P2Y1, P2X1 and P2TAC receptors (the last of these, which is coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, is yet to be cloned). In peripheral blood leucocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, the effects of classical P2X, P2Y and P2U receptors have been found to be mediated by more than one P2 receptor subtype. However, the exact functions of these multiple receptor subtypes remain to be understood, as P2-receptor-selective agonists and antagonists are still under development. PMID:9841859

  10. Discovery of cyantraniliprole, a potent and selective anthranilic diamide ryanodine receptor activator with cross-spectrum insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Selby, Thomas P; Lahm, George P; Stevenson, Thomas M; Hughes, Kenneth A; Cordova, Daniel; Annan, I Billy; Barry, James D; Benner, Eric A; Currie, Martin J; Pahutski, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Anthranilic diamides are an exceptionally active class of insect control chemistry that selectively activates insect ryanodine receptors causing mortality from uncontrolled release of calcium ion stores in muscle cells. Work in this area led to the successful commercialization of chlorantraniliprole for control of Lepidoptera and other insect pests at very low application rates. In search of lower logP analogs with improved plant systemic properties, exploration of cyano-substituted anthranilic diamides culminated in the discovery of a second product candidate, cyantraniliprole, having excellent activity against a wide range of pests from multiple insect orders. Here we report on the chemistry, biology and structure-activity trends for a series of cyanoanthranilic diamides from which cyantraniliprole was selected for commercial development. PMID:24135728

  11. GABAA receptor subtypes: the "one glass of wine" receptors.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Richard W; Hanchar, Harry J; Meera, Pratap; Wallner, Martin

    2007-05-01

    This review discusses evidence for and apparent controversy about, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor (GABAAR) subtypes that mediate alcohol effects experienced during social drinking. GABAARs that contain the beta3 and delta subunits were shown to be enhanced by alcohol concentrations that mirror the concentration dependence of alcohol responses in humans. A mutation (alpha6R100Q) previously found in alcohol nontolerant rats in the cerebellar GABAAR alpha6 subunit is sufficient for increased alcohol-induced ataxia in rats homozygous for this mutation (alpha6-100QQ) and further increases alcohol sensitivity of tonic GABA currents (mediated by alpha6betadelta receptors) in cerebellar granule cells of alpha6-100QQ rats and in recombinant alpha6R100Qbeta3delta receptors. This provided the first direct evidence that these types of receptors mediate behavioral effects of ethanol. Furthermore, the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 specifically reverses ethanol enhancement on alpha4/6beta3delta receptors. Unexpectedly, native and recombinant alpha4/6beta3delta receptors bind the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 with high affinity and this binding is competitive with EtOH, suggesting a specific and mutually exclusive (competitive) ethanol/Ro15-4513 site, which explains the puzzling activity of Ro15-4513 as a behavioral alcohol antagonist. Our conclusion from these findings is that alcohol/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAAR subtypes are important alcohol targets and that alcohol at relevant concentrations is more specific than previously thought. In this review, we discuss technical difficulties in expressing recombinant delta subunit-containing receptors in oocytes and mammalian cells that may have contributed to negative results and confusion. Not only because we have reproduced detailed positive results numerous times, and we and many others have built extensively on basic findings, but also because we explain and combine many previously puzzling

  12. RNAi suppression of the ryanodine receptor gene results in decreased susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole in Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Guo, Wei-Yan; Yang, Yao; Lü, Feng-Gong; Lu, Wei-Ping; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Leptinotarsadecemlineata is the most important pest in potato and causes serious yield loss each year. Chlorantraniliprole acts on insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and is among the most active compounds against L. decemlineata. Here we cloned and characterized a 15,792-bp full-length LdRyR cDNA that encoded a 5128-amino acid protein. LdRyR shares 85-92% amino acid similarities with other insect RyR homologues, and 59-61% similarities with those from Caenorhabditis elegans and Homo sapiens. All hallmarks of the RyR proteins are conserved in LdRyR. LdRyR has a MIR domain, two RIH domains, three SPRY domains, four copies of RyR domain and a RIH-associated domain in the N-terminus, and it possesses two consensus calcium ion-binding EF-hand motifs and six predicted transmembrane helices in the C-terminus. Temporal, spatial and tissue-specific expression patterns of LdRyR were evaluated. LdRyR expression level was increased constantly from egg to wandering stages, dropped in pupal stage and was increased again in the adult stage. It was widely expressed in the head, thorax and abdomen of day 3 fourth-instar larvae. Moreover, it was ubiquitously expressed in all inspected tissues including epidermis, foregut, midgut, ileum, rectum, fat body, ventral ganglia and Malpighian tubules in day 3 fourth-instar larvae. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA of LdRyR significantly reduced the mRNA levels of the target gene in the larvae and adults, respectively, and significantly decreased chlorantraniliprole-induced mortalities. Thus, our results suggested that LdRyR encoded a functional ryanodine receptor in L. decemlineata. PMID:24607641

  13. Rapid cooling-induced contractures in rat skinned skeletal muscle fibres originate from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release through ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Talon, S; Huchet-Cadiou, C; Léoty, C

    2000-11-01

    Previous reports have shown that cooling striated muscles induces contractile responses that are related to Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, the effect of cooling has generally been studied in the presence of pharmacological agents that potentiate rapid cooling-induced contractures. The present study shows that in saponin-skinned rat skeletal muscle preparations, a drop in temperature from 22 degrees C to 2 degrees C per se induces a contracture which relaxes on return to 22 degrees C. In fast-twitch fibres, rapid cooling-induced contractures are fully blocked by ryanodine, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors. By contrast, in slow-twitch fibres, ryanodine partially inhibits the rapid cooling-induced contractile response, leaving a residual tension that dissipates after application of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). At low concentrations, heparin, an inhibitor of InsP3 receptors, decreases rapid cooling-induced contractures in both types of muscle. The present results suggest that in skeletal muscle, rapid cooling-induced contractures are due to both ryanodine-sensitive and InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:11205048

  14. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  15. Dust from hog confinement facilities impairs Ca2+ mobilization from sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum by inhibiting ryanodine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Moore, Caronda J.; Dodmane, Puttappa; Shao, Chun Hong; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities have elevated incidences of headaches, depression, nausea, skeletal muscle weakness, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, and the molecular mechanisms for these nonrespiratory ailments remain incompletely undefined. A common element underlying these diverse pathophysiologies is perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. This study assessed whether the dust generated inside hog confinement facilities contains compounds that alter Ca2+ mobilization via ryanodine receptors (RyRs), key intracellular channels responsible for mobilizing Ca2+ from internal stores to elicit an array of physiologic functions. Hog barn dust (HBD) was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline, sterile-filtered (0.22 μm), and size-separated using Sephadex G-100 resin. Fractions (F) 1 through 9 (Mw >10,000 Da) had no measurable effects on RyR isoforms. However, F10 through F17, which contained compounds of Mw ≤2,000 Da, modulated the [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 in a biphasic (Gaussian) manner. The Ki values for F13, the most potent fraction, were 3.8 ± 0.2 μg/ml for RyR1, 0.2 ± 0.01 μg/ml and 19.1 ± 2.8 μg/ml for RyR2 (two binding sites), and 44.9 ± 2.8 μg/ml and 501.6 ± 9.2 μg/ml for RyR3 (two binding sites). In lipid bilayer assays, F13 dose-dependently decreased the open probabilities of RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3. Pretreating differentiated mouse skeletal myotubes (C2C12 cells) with F13 blunted the amplitudes of ryanodine- and K+-induced Ca2+ transients. Because RyRs are present in many cell types, impairment in Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores via these channels is a possible mechanism by which HBD may trigger these seemingly unrelated pathophysiologies. PMID:23288552

  16. Diversity of native nicotinic receptor subtypes in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Michele; Pistillo, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the brain and involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The nAChR subtypes share a common basic structure, but their biophysical and pharmacological properties depend on their subunit composition, which is therefore central to understanding their function in the nervous system and discovering new subtype selective drugs. The development of new technologies and the generation of mice carrying deletions or the expression of gain-of-function nAChR subunits, or GFP-tagged receptor genes has allowed the in vivo identification of complex subtypes and to study the role of individual subtypes in specific cells and complex neurobiological systems but much less is known about which native nAChR subtypes are involved in specific physiological functions and pathophysiological conditions in human brain. We briefly review some recent findings concerning the structure and function of native nAChRs, focussing on the subtypes identified in the rodent habenulo-interpeduncular pathway, a pathway involved in nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal. We also discuss recent findings concerning the expression of native subtypes in primate brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25460185

  17. Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Erika B; Goodwin, Erica L; Segal, Steven S; Jackson, William F

    2012-04-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vasomotor control is differentially regulated between feed arteries and downstream arterioles from the cremaster muscle of C57BL/6 mice. In isolated pressurized arteries, confocal Ca(2+) imaging of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) revealed Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists (ryanodine and tetracaine) inhibited both sparks and waves but increased global Ca(2+) and myogenic tone. In arterioles, SMCs exhibited only Ca(2+) waves that were insensitive to ryanodine or tetracaine. Pharmacological interventions indicated that RyRs are functionally coupled to large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca)) in SMCs of arteries, whereas BK(Ca) appear functionally coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in SMCs of arterioles. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) antagonists (xestospongin D or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) attenuated Ca(2+) waves, global Ca(2+) and myogenic tone in arteries and arterioles but had no effect on arterial sparks. Real-time PCR of isolated SMCs revealed RyR2 as the most abundant isoform transcript; arteries expressed twice the RyR2 but only 65% the RyR3 of arterioles and neither vessel expressed RyR1. Immunofluorescent localisation of RyR protein indicated bright, clustered staining of arterial SMCs in contrast to diffuse staining in arteriolar SMCs. Expression of IP(3)R transcripts and protein immunofluorescence were similar in SMCs of both vessels with IP(3)R1>IP(3)R2>IP(3)R3. Despite similar expression of IP(3)Rs and dependence of Ca(2+) waves on IP(3)Rs, these data illustrate pronounced regional heterogeneity in function and expression of RyRs between SMCs of the same vascular resistance network. We conclude that vasomotor control is differentially regulated in feed arteries vs. downstream arterioles. PMID:22331418

  18. Structure-activity relationship of non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls toward skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Erika B.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressing the health impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has primarily focused on the effects of coplanar, or dioxin-like (DL), congeners, which is especially true for research assessing impacts in fish species. Ortho substituted non-coplanar, termed non-dioxin-like (NDL), PCBs have received less attention. In mammals, NDL PCBs enhance the activity of ryanodine receptors (RyR), calcium release channels necessary for engaging excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in striated muscle. We utilized in vitro receptor binding analysis to determine whether NDL PCB congeners detected in aquatic environments alter the activity of RyR isoform 1 (RyR1) found in the skeletal muscle of rainbow trout. Congeners 52, 95, 136, and 149 were the most efficacious leading to an increase in receptor activity that was approximately 250% greater than that found under solvent control conditions. Other environmentally relevant congeners, namely PCB 153, 151 and 101, which all contain two or more chlorines in the ortho-position, enhanced receptor activity by greater than 160% of baseline. The mono-ortho congeners or the non-ortho PCB 77 had negligible impact on the RyR1. When combined, in binary or environmentally relevant mixtures, congeners shown to enhance receptor activity appeared to display additivity and when the active PCB 95 was present with the non-active congener PCB 77 the impact on receptor activity was reduced from 250% to 230%. The important role of the RyR and the demonstrated additive nature of NDL congeners towards altering channel function calls for further investigation into the ecological implications of altered RyR function in fish with high PCB burdens. PMID:23827775

  19. Cardiac and neuroprotection regulated by α1-adrenergic receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Dianne M.; Doze, Van A.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system regulation by the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (α1A, α1B, α1D) is complex, whereby chronic activity can be either detrimental or protective for both heart and brain function. This review will summarize the evidence that this dual regulation can be mediated through the different α1-AR subtypes in the context of cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, apoptosis, ischemic preconditioning, neurogenesis, locomotion, neurodegeneration, cognition, neuroplasticity, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, and mental illness. PMID:21338248

  20. Pre-Slaughter Stress Affects Ryanodine Receptor Protein Gene Expression and the Water-Holding Capacity in Fillets of the Nile Tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jorge A. F.; Gasparino, Eliane; Del Vesco, Ana P.; Goes, Marcio D.; Alexandre Filho, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study evaluated the effect of pre-slaughter stress on serum cortisol levels, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity (WHC) and gene expression of ryanodine receptors (RyR1 and RyR3) in the Nile tilapia. A 3x4 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising three densities (100, 200, 400 kg/m³) with four transportation times (60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes).Transportation times alone reduced cortisol levels up to 180 minutes, followed by increased WHC and mRNA expression, RyR1 and RyR3 (200 kg/m³ density). No effect of density x transportation time interacted on the evaluated parameters. Results provided the first evidence that pre-slaughter stress affected ryanodine gene expression receptors and, consequently, the water-holding capacity in tilapia fillets. PMID:26053858

  1. Mediation of Autophagic Cell Death by Type 3 Ryanodine Receptor (RyR3) in Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Min; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Park, Hyunhee; An, Hyun-Kyu; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ actively engages in diverse intracellular processes from protein synthesis, folding and trafficking to cell survival and death. Dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is observed in various neuropathological states including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca2+ release channels located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, are known to direct various cellular events such as autophagy and apoptosis. Here we investigated the intracellular Ca2+-mediated regulation of survival and death of adult hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells utilizing an insulin withdrawal model of autophagic cell death (ACD). Despite comparable expression levels of RyR and IP3R transcripts in HCN cells at normal state, the expression levels of RyRs—especially RyR3—were markedly upregulated upon insulin withdrawal. While treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine significantly promoted the autophagic death of insulin-deficient HCN cells, treatment with its inhibitor dantrolene prevented the induction of autophagy following insulin withdrawal. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the RyR3 gene abolished ACD of HCN cells. This study delineates a distinct, RyR3-mediated ER Ca2+ regulation of autophagy and programmed cell death in neural stem cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical, yet understudied mechanisms underlying the regulatory function of ER Ca2+ in neural stem cell biology. PMID:27199668

  2. Electron-conformational transformations govern the temperature dependence of the cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, A. S.; Iaparov, B. I.; Ryvkin, A. M.; Solovyova, O. E.; Markhasin, V. S.

    2015-07-01

    Temperature influences many aspects of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, in particular, hypothermia increases the open probability ( P open) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-release channels (ryanodine-sensitive RyR channels) rising the SR Ca2+ load in mammalian myocytes. However, to the best of our knowledge, no theoretical models are available for that effect. Traditional Markov chain models do not provide a reasonable molecular mechanistic insight on the origin of the temperature effects. Here in the paper we address a simple physically clear electron-conformational model to describe the RyR gating and argue that a synergetic effect of external thermal fluctuation forces (Gaussian-Markovian noise) and internal friction via the temperature stimulation/suppression of the open-close RyR tunneling probability can be considered as a main contributor to temperature effects on the RyR gating. Results of the computer modeling allowed us to successfully reproduce all the temperature effects observed for an isolated RyR gating in vitro under reducing the temperature: increase in P open and mean open time without any significant effect on mean closed

  3. Knockout of the BK β4-subunit promotes a functional coupling of BK channels and ryanodine receptors that mediate a fAHP-induced increase in excitability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Bugay, Vladislav; Ling, Ling; Chuang, Hui-Hsui; Jaffe, David B; Brenner, Robert

    2016-08-01

    BK channels are large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels with diverse properties. Knockout of the accessory BK β4-subunit in hippocampus dentate gyrus granule neurons causes BK channels to change properties from slow-gated type II channels to fast-gated type I channels that sharpen the action potential, increase the fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) amplitude, and increase spike frequency. Here we studied the calcium channels that contribute to fast-gated BK channel activation and increased excitability of β4 knockout neurons. By using pharmacological blockers during current-clamp recording, we find that BK channel activation during the fAHP is dependent on ryanodine receptor activation. In contrast, L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine) affects the BK channel-dependent repolarization phase of the action potential but has no effect on the fAHP. Reducing BK channel activation during the repolarization phase with nifedipine, or during the fAHP with ryanodine, indicated that it is the BK-mediated increase of the fAHP that confers proexcitatory effects. The proexcitatory role of the fAHP was corroborated using dynamic current clamp. Increase or decrease of the fAHP amplitude during spiking revealed an inverse relationship between fAHP amplitude and interspike interval. Finally, we show that the seizure-prone ryanodine receptor gain-of-function (R2474S) knockin mice have an unaltered repolarization phase but larger fAHP and increased AP frequency compared with their control littermates. In summary, these results indicate that an important role of the β4-subunit is to reduce ryanodine receptor-BK channel functional coupling during the fAHP component of the action potential, thereby decreasing excitability of dentate gyrus neurons. PMID:27146987

  4. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Lai, F Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca(2+) release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins. PMID:27500320

  5. miRNAs regulated overexpression of ryanodine receptor is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuxia; Guo, Lei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid mutations in ryanodine receptor (RyR) and elevated activity of detoxification enzymes have been associated with the diamide insecticide resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The up-regulation of P. xylostella RyR mRNA (PxRyR) expression has also been reported in field populations of different graphical origin. However, whether the up-regulation of PxRyR is involved in diamide resistance remains unknown. In this paper, 2.28- to 4.14-fold higher expression of PxRyR was detected in five field collected resistant populations, compared to that in a susceptible population. The expression of PxRyR was up-regulated 5.0- and 7.2-fold, respectively, after P. xylostella was treated with LC50 and LC75 of chlorantraniliprole for 12 h. Suppression of PxRyR using RNA interference restored the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the fourth instar larvae from the resistant population. More importantly, the expression of PxRyR is regulated by two miRNAs, miR-7a and miR-8519. These findings provide an empirical evidence of the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of insecticide resistance, and shed light on the novel targets for the sustainable management of this devastating insect pest. PMID:26370154

  6. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Troczka, B J; Williams, A J; Bass, C; Williamson, M S; Field, L M; Davies, T G E

    2015-02-10

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  7. Ryanodine receptor antagonists adapt NPC1 proteostasis to ameliorate lipid storage in Niemann-Pick type C disease fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Chung, Chan; Shen, Dongbiao; Xu, Haoxing; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2012-07-15

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is a lysosomal storage disorder most often caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene. The encoded multipass transmembrane protein is required for cholesterol efflux from late endosomes and lysosomes. Numerous missense mutations in the NPC1 gene cause disease, including the prevalent I1061T mutation that leads to protein misfolding and degradation. Here, we sought to modulate the cellular proteostasis machinery to achieve functional recovery in primary patient fibroblasts. We demonstrate that targeting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium levels using ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists increased steady-state levels of the NPC1 I1061T protein. These compounds also promoted trafficking of mutant NPC1 to late endosomes and lysosomes and rescued the aberrant storage of cholesterol and sphingolipids that is characteristic of disease. Similar rescue was obtained using three distinct RyR antagonists in cells with missense alleles, but not with null alleles, or by over-expressing calnexin, a calcium-dependent ER chaperone. Our work highlights the utility of proteostasis regulators to remodel the protein-folding environment in the ER to recover function in the setting of disease-causing missense alleles. PMID:22505584

  8. Crystal structures of Ryanodine Receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant

    PubMed Central

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Wong King Yuen, Siobhan M.; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Fessenden, James D.; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca2+-dependent signaling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2 – 1.5Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modeling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding. PMID:26245150

  9. Crystal structures of ryanodine receptor SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains reveal a critical FKBP12 binding determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Lau, Kelvin; Underhill, Ainsley Q.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Fessenden, James D.; van Petegem, Filip

    2015-08-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form calcium release channels located in the membranes of the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum. RyRs play a major role in excitation-contraction coupling and other Ca2+-dependent signalling events, and consist of several globular domains that together form a large assembly. Here we describe the crystal structures of the SPRY1 and tandem-repeat domains at 1.2-1.5 Å resolution, which reveal several structural elements not detected in recent cryo-EM reconstructions of RyRs. The cryo-EM studies disagree on the position of SPRY domains, which had been proposed based on homology modelling. Computational docking of the crystal structures, combined with FRET studies, show that the SPRY1 domain is located next to FK506-binding protein (FKBP). Molecular dynamics flexible fitting and mutagenesis experiments suggest a hydrophobic cluster within SPRY1 that is crucial for FKBP binding. A RyR1 disease mutation, N760D, appears to directly impact FKBP binding through interfering with SPRY1 folding.

  10. Ryanodine receptors blockade reduces Amyloid-beta load and memory impairments in Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Oulès, Bénédicte; Del Prete, Dolores; Greco, Barbara; Zhang, Xuexin; Lauritzen, Inger; Sevalle, Jean; Moreno, Sebastien; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia; Trebak, Mohamed; Checler, Frédéric; Benfenati, Fabio; Chami, Mounia

    2012-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), the perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been linked to presenilins (PS), the catalytic core in γ-secretase complexes cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP) thereby generating amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we investigate whether APP contributes to ER Ca2+ homeostasis and whether ER Ca2+ could in turn influence Aβ production. We show that overexpression of wild-type human APP (APP695), or APP harboring the Swedish double mutation (APPswe) triggers increased Ryanodine receptors (RyR) expression and enhances RyR-mediated ER Ca2+ release in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in APPswe-expressing (Tg2576) mice. Interestingly, dantrolene-induced lowering of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release leads to the reduction of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ load in neuroblastoma cells as well as in primary cultured neurons derived from Tg2576 mice. This Aβ reduction can be accounted for by decreased Thr-668-dependent APP phosphorylation and β- and γ-secretases activities. Importantly, dantrolene diminishes Aβ load, reduces Aβ-related histological lesions and slows down learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice. Overall, our data document a key role of RyR in Aβ production and learning and memory performances, and delineate RyR-mediated control of Ca2+ homeostasis as a physiological paradigm that could be targeted for innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:22915123

  11. The effects of compensated cardiac hypertrophy on dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors in rat, ferret and guinea-pig hearts.

    PubMed

    Rannou, F; Sainte-Beuve, C; Oliviero, P; Do, E; Trouvé, P; Charlemagne, D

    1995-05-01

    The number of dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors (DHP-R and RyR) has been measured in control and hypertrophied ventricles from rats, guinea pigs and ferrets to determine whether these two channels contribute to the alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), and in Ca2+ transient during compensated cardiac hypertrophy. We found that ventricular hypertrophy did not change the density of DHP-R. Mild hypertrophy did not alter the density of RyR in the rat but decreased it in the guinea-pig and in the ferret (30% and 36%, respectively). Severe hypertrophy decreased the density of RyR by 20% in the rat and by 34% in the guinea-pig. Therefore, the decrease is greater in ferret and guinea-pig hearts than in rat heart. We conclude that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels but not the L-type Ca2+ channels could contribute to the slowing of intracellular Ca2+ movements and to the reduced velocity of shortening of the hypertrophied hearts. We suggest that, in the guinea pig and ferret hearts which express only the beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform, the reduced velocity of shortening during hypertrophy is related to the decrease in RyR density, whereas in the rat, it is regulated primarily via a shift in the MHC isoform, except in severe hypertrophy in which the moderate decrease in RyR would also be involved. PMID:7473781

  12. Cardiac ryanodine receptor: Selectivity for alkaline earth metal cations points to the EF-hand nature of luminal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Gaburjakova, Jana; Gaburjakova, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) by luminal Ca(2+) is mediated by luminal binding sites located on the RYR2 channel itself and/or its auxiliary protein, calsequestrin. The localization and structure of RYR2-resident binding sites are not known because of the lack of a high-resolution structure of RYR2 luminal regions. To obtain the first structural insight, we probed the RYR2 luminal face stripped of calsequestrin by alkaline earth metal divalents (M(2+): Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)). We show that the RYR2 response to caffeine at the single-channel level is significantly modified by the nature of luminal M(2+). Moreover, we performed competition experiments by varying the concentration of luminal M(2+) (Mg(2+), Sr(2+) or Ba(2+)) from 8mM to 53mM and investigated its ability to compete with 1mM luminal Ca(2+). We demonstrate that all tested M(2+) bind to exactly the same RYR2 luminal binding sites. Their affinities decrease in the order: Ca(2+)>Sr(2+)>Mg(2+)~Ba(2+), showing a strong correlation with the M(2+) affinity of the EF-hand motif. This indicates that the RYR2 luminal binding regions and the EF-hand motif likely share some structural similarities because the structure ties directly to the function. PMID:26849106

  13. Ryanodine receptors selectively contribute to the formation of taste-evoked calcium signals in mouse taste cells

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Michelle R.; Medler, Kathryn F.

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral taste system uses multiple signaling pathways to transduce a stimulus into an output signal that activates afferent neurons. All of these signaling pathways depend on transient increases in intracellular calcium but the current understanding of these calcium signals is not well-developed. Using molecular and physiological techniques, this study establishes that ryanodine receptors (RyRs), specifically isoform 1, are expressed in taste cells and that their physiological function differs among cell types employing different signaling pathways. RyR1 contributes to some taste-evoked signals that rely on calcium release from internal stores but can also supplement the calcium signal that is initiated by opening VGCCs. In taste cells expressing both signaling pathways, RyR1 contributes to the depolarization-induced calcium signal but not to the calcium signal that depends on calcium release from stores. These data suggest that RyR1 is an important regulator of calcium signaling and that its physiological role in taste cells is dictated by the nature of the calcium signaling mechanisms expressed. PMID:20955474

  14. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression of the ryanodine receptor from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Troczka, B.J.; Williams, A.J.; Bass, C.; Williamson, M.S.; Field, L.M.; Davies, T.G.E.

    2015-01-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is one of the most important agricultural pests of temperate climates. It is mainly controlled through the judicious application of insecticides; however, over time, aphids have developed resistance to many insecticidal classes. The recent introduction of synthetic diamide insecticides, with a novel mode of action, potentially offers new tools to control aphid populations. These diamides act on the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a large endoplasmic calcium release channel. In this study we have cloned cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame of the RyR from M. persicae. The open reading frame is 15,306 base pairs long and encodes a protein of 5101 amino acids. The aphid RyR shares many of the features of other insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a highly conserved transmembrane region. However, unlike the other RyRs characterised to date, the M. persicae channel does not display alternative splicing at any stage of its developmental cycle, so it cannot generate functional variants of the channel. PMID:25447916

  15. The H29D Mutation Does Not Enhance Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhichao; Guo, Wenting; Yuen, Siobhan M. Wong King; Wang, Ruiwu; Zhang, Lin; Van Petegem, Filip; Chen, S. R. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) harbors a large number of naturally occurring mutations that are associated with stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Nearly all these disease-associated N-terminal mutations are located at domain interfaces or buried within domains. Mutations at these locations would alter domain-domain interactions or the stability/folding of domains. Recently, a novel RyR2 mutation H29D associated with ventricular arrhythmia at rest was found to enhance the activation of single RyR2 channels by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca2+. Unlike other N-terminal disease-associated mutations, the H29D mutation is located on the surface of the N-terminal domain. It is unclear how this surface-exposed H29D mutation that does not appear to interact with other parts of the RyR2 structure could alter the intrinsic properties of the channel. Here we carried out detailed functional characterization of the RyR2-H29D mutant at the molecular and cellular levels. We found that the H29D mutation has no effect on the basal level or the Ca2+ dependent activation of [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR2, the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of single RyR2 channels, or the cytosolic Ca2+- or caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells. In addition, the H29D mutation does not alter the propensity for spontaneous Ca2+ release or the thresholds for Ca2+ release activation or termination. Furthermore, the H29D mutation does not have significant impact on the thermal stability of the N-terminal region (residues 1–547) of RyR2. Collectively, our data show that the H29D mutation exerts little or no effect on the function of RyR2 or on the folding stability of the N-terminal region. Thus, our results provide no evidence that the H29D mutation enhances the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of RyR2. PMID:26405799

  16. The H29D Mutation Does Not Enhance Cytosolic Ca2+ Activation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhichao; Guo, Wenting; Yuen, Siobhan M Wong King; Wang, Ruiwu; Zhang, Lin; Van Petegem, Filip; Chen, S R Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) harbors a large number of naturally occurring mutations that are associated with stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Nearly all these disease-associated N-terminal mutations are located at domain interfaces or buried within domains. Mutations at these locations would alter domain-domain interactions or the stability/folding of domains. Recently, a novel RyR2 mutation H29D associated with ventricular arrhythmia at rest was found to enhance the activation of single RyR2 channels by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca2+. Unlike other N-terminal disease-associated mutations, the H29D mutation is located on the surface of the N-terminal domain. It is unclear how this surface-exposed H29D mutation that does not appear to interact with other parts of the RyR2 structure could alter the intrinsic properties of the channel. Here we carried out detailed functional characterization of the RyR2-H29D mutant at the molecular and cellular levels. We found that the H29D mutation has no effect on the basal level or the Ca2+ dependent activation of [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR2, the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of single RyR2 channels, or the cytosolic Ca2+- or caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells. In addition, the H29D mutation does not alter the propensity for spontaneous Ca2+ release or the thresholds for Ca2+ release activation or termination. Furthermore, the H29D mutation does not have significant impact on the thermal stability of the N-terminal region (residues 1-547) of RyR2. Collectively, our data show that the H29D mutation exerts little or no effect on the function of RyR2 or on the folding stability of the N-terminal region. Thus, our results provide no evidence that the H29D mutation enhances the cytosolic Ca2+ activation of RyR2. PMID:26405799

  17. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  18. Cardiac calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) in control and cardiomyopathic human hearts: mRNA and protein contents are differentially regulated.

    PubMed

    Sainte Beuve, C; Allen, P D; Dambrin, G; Rannou, F; Marty, I; Trouvé, P; Bors, V; Pavie, A; Gandgjbakch, I; Charlemagne, D

    1997-04-01

    Abnormal intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyopathic human hearts has been associated with an impaired function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but previous reports on the gene expression of the ryanodine receptors (Ry2) are contradictory. We measured the mRNA levels, the protein levels and the number of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding sites in the left ventricle of non-failing (n = 9) and failing human hearts [idiopathic dilated (IDCM n = 16), ischemic (ICM n = 7) or mixed (MCM n = 8) cardiomyopathies]. Ry2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in IDCM (-30%) and unchanged in MCM and ICM and Ry2 protein levels were similar. In contrast, we observed a two-fold increase in the number of high affinity Ry2 (B(max) = 0.43 +/- 0.11 v 0.22 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein, respectively; P<0.01) and an unchanged K(d). Furthermore, levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA and protein per g of tissue were similar in failing and non-failing hearts, suggesting that the observed differences in Ry2 are not caused by the increase in fibrosis in failing heart. Therefore, the dissociation between the two-fold increase in the number of high affinity ryanodine receptors observed in all failing hearts and the slightly decreased mRNA level or unchanged protein level suggests that the ryanodine binding properties are affected in failing myocardium and that such modifications rather than a change in gene expression alter the channel activity and could contribute to abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:9160875

  19. Homeostatic and stimulus-induced coupling of the L-type Ca2+ channel to the ryanodine receptor in the hippocampal neuron in slices

    PubMed Central

    Berrout, Jonathan; Isokawa, Masako

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) is a prerequisite for many neuronal functions. We previously reported a strong direct depolarization, independent of glutamate receptors, effectively caused a release of Ca2+ from ryanodine sensitive stores and induced the synthesis of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) and eCB-mediated responses. However, the cellular mechanism that initiated the depolarization-induced Ca2+ release is not completely understood. In the present study, we optically recorded [Ca2+]i from CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal slice and directly monitored miniature Ca2+ activities and depolarization-induced Ca2+ signals in order to determine the source(s) and properties of [Ca2+]i-dynamics that could lead to a release of Ca2+ from the ryanodine receptor. In the absence of depolarizing stimuli, spontaneously-occurring miniature Ca2+ events were detected from a group of hippocampal neurons. This miniature Ca2+ event persisted in the nominal Ca2+-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), and increased in frequency in response to the bath-application of caffeine and KCl. In contrast, nimodipine, the antagonist of the L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC), a high concentration of ryanodine, the antagonist of the ryanodine receptor (RyR), and thapsigargin (TG) reduced the occurrence of the miniature Ca2+ events. When a brief puff-application of KCl was given locally to the soma of individual neurons in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, these neurons generated a transient increase in the [Ca2+]i in the dendrosomal region. This [Ca2+]i-transient was sensitive to nimodipine, TG, and ryanodine suggesting that the [Ca2+]i-transient was caused primarily by the LTCC-mediated Ca2+-influx and a release of Ca2+ from RyR. We observed little contribution from N-or P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. The coupling between LTCC and RyR was direct and independent of synaptic activities. Immunohistochemical study revealed a cellular localization of LTCC

  20. Multiple estrogen receptor subtypes influence ingestive behavior in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles that specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol's anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions. PMID:26037634

  1. The adrenergic receptor subtypes present in frog (Rana esculenta) skin.

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, Vito; Cassano, Giuseppe; Lippe, Claudio

    2008-08-01

    Frog skin transports ions and water under hormonal control. In spite of the fundamental role played by adrenergic stimulation in maintaining the water balance of the organism, the receptor subtype(s) present in the skin have not been identified yet. We measured the increase in short-circuit current (ISC, an estimate of ion transport) induced by cirazoline, clonidine, xamoterol, formoterol, or BRL 37344, in order to verify the presence of alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, or beta3 receptor subtypes, respectively. Only after treatment with formoterol, BRL 37344 and, to a lesser extent, cirazoline was measured a significant increase in ISC (57%, 33.2%, and 4.7%, respectively). The formoterol and BRL 37344 concentrations producing half-maximal effect (EC50) were 1.12 and 70.1 nM, respectively. Moreover, the formoterol effect was inhibited by treatment with ICI 118551 (antagonist of beta2 receptors) while SR 59230A (antagonist of beta3 receptors) had no effect; opposite findings were obtained when the BRL 37344 stimulation was investigated. Finally, by measuring the transepithelial fluxes of 22Na+ and 36Cl-, we demonstrated that Na+ absorption is increased by activation of beta2 and beta3 and is cAMP-sensitive, whereas the Cl- secretion is only increased by activation of beta2 receptors and is cAMP- and calmodulin-sensitive. PMID:18544474

  2. Selective blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 is neuroprotective.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Ksiazek, I; Battaglia, G; Lukic, S; Leonhardt, T; Sauer, D; Gasparini, F; Kuhn, R; Nicoletti, F; Flor, P J

    2000-09-01

    We have used potent and selective non-competitive antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) -- 2-methyl-6-phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP), [6-methyl-2-(phenylazo)-3-pyridinol] (SIB-1757) and [(E)-2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine] (SIB-1893) - to examine whether endogenous activation of this particular metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype contributes to neuronal degeneration. In cortical cultures challenged with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), all three mGlu5 receptor antagonists were neuroprotective. The effect of MPEP was highly specific because the close analogue, 3-methyl-6-phenylethynylpyridine (iso-MPEP), which did not antagonize heterologously expressed mGlu5 receptors, was devoid of activity on NMDA toxicity. Neuroprotection by mGlu5 receptor antagonists was also observed in cortical cultures challenged with a toxic concentration of beta-amyloid peptide. We have also examined the effect of mGlu5 receptor antagonists in in vivo models of excitotoxic degeneration. MPEP and SIB-1893 were neuroprotective against neuronal damage induced by intrastriatal injection of NMDA or quinolinic acid. These results indicate that mGlu5 receptors represent a suitable target for novel neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:10974306

  3. Exome Sequencing Reveals Novel Rare Variants in the Ryanodine Receptor and Calcium Channel Genes in Malignant Hyperthermia Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jerry H.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Browning, Brian L.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Gordon, Adam S.; Rieder, Mark J.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Fisher, Nickla A.; Hopkins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background About half of malignant hyperthermia (MH) cases are associated with skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, α1S subunit (CACNA1S) gene mutations, leaving many with an unknown cause. We chose to apply a sequencing approach to uncover causal variants in unknown cases. Sequencing the exome, the protein-coding region of the genome, has power at low sample sizes and identified the cause of over a dozen Mendelian disorders. Methods We considered four families with multiple MH cases but in whom no mutations in RYR1 and CACNA1S had been identified by Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA. Exome sequencing of two affecteds per family, chosen for maximum genetic distance, were compared. Variants were ranked by allele frequency, protein change, and measures of conservation among mammals to assess likelihood of causation. Finally, putative pathogenic mutations were genotyped in other family members to verify cosegregation with MH. Results Exome sequencing revealed 1 rare RYR1 nonsynonymous variant in each of 3 families (Asp1056His, Val2627Met, Val4234Leu), and 1 CACNA1S variant (Thr1009Lys) in a 4th family. These were not seen in variant databases or in our control population sample of 5379 exomes. Follow-up sequencing in other family members verified cosegregation of alleles with MH. Conclusions Using both exome sequencing and allele frequency data from large sequencing efforts may aid genetic diagnosis of MH. In our sample, it was more sensitive for variant detection in known genes than Sanger sequencing of complementary DNA, and allows for the possibility of novel gene discovery. PMID:24013571

  4. FKBP12 activates the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel and is antagonised by FKBP12.6.

    PubMed

    Galfré, Elena; Pitt, Samantha J; Venturi, Elisa; Sitsapesan, Mano; Zaccai, Nathan R; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; O'Neill, Stephen; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Changes in FKBP12.6 binding to cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) are implicated in mediating disturbances in Ca(2+)-homeostasis in heart failure but there is controversy over the functional effects of FKBP12.6 on RyR2 channel gating. We have therefore investigated the effects of FKBP12.6 and another structurally similar molecule, FKBP12, which is far more abundant in heart, on the gating of single sheep RyR2 channels incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayers and on spontaneous waves of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release in rat isolated permeabilised cardiac cells. We demonstrate that FKBP12 is a high affinity activator of RyR2, sensitising the channel to cytosolic Ca(2+), whereas FKBP12.6 has very low efficacy, but can antagonise the effects of FKBP12. Mathematical modelling of the data shows the importance of the relative concentrations of FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 in determining RyR2 activity. Consistent with the single-channel results, physiological concentrations of FKBP12 (3 µM) increased Ca(2+)-wave frequency and decreased the SR Ca(2+)-content in cardiac cells. FKBP12.6, itself, had no effect on wave frequency but antagonised the effects of FKBP12.We provide a biophysical analysis of the mechanisms by which FK-binding proteins can regulate RyR2 single-channel gating. Our data indicate that FKBP12, in addition to FKBP12.6, may be important in regulating RyR2 function in the heart. In heart failure, it is possible that an alteration in the dual regulation of RyR2 by FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 may occur. This could contribute towards a higher RyR2 open probability, 'leaky' RyR2 channels and Ca(2+)-dependent arrhythmias. PMID:22363773

  5. Cardiac ryanodine receptor activation by a high Ca2+ store load is reversed in a reducing cytoplasmic redox environment

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Amy D.; Lam, Alex; Thekkedam, Chris; Gallant, Esther M.; Beard, Nicole A.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the impact of redox potential on isolated cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) channel activity and its response to physiological changes in luminal [Ca2+]. Basal leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is required for normal Ca2+ handling, but excess diastolic Ca2+ leak attributed to oxidative stress is thought to lower the threshold of RyR2 for spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, thus inducing arrhythmia in pathological situations. Therefore, we examined the RyR2 response to luminal [Ca2+] under reducing or oxidising cytoplasmic redox conditions. Unexpectedly, as luminal [Ca2+] increased from 0.1 to 1.5 mM, RyR2 activity declined when pretreated with cytoplasmic 1 mM DTT or buffered with GSH∶GSSG to a normal reduced cytoplasmic redox potential (−220 mV). Conversely, with 20 µM cytoplasmic 4,4′-DTDP or buffering of the redox potential to an oxidising value (−180 mV), RyR2 activity increased with increasing luminal [Ca2+]. The luminal redox potential was constant at −180 mV in each case. These responses to luminal [Ca2+] were maintained with cytoplasmic 2 mM Na2ATP or 5 mM MgATP (1 mM free Mg2+). Overall, the results suggest that the redox potential in the RyR2 junctional microdomain is normally more oxidised than that of the bulk cytoplasm. PMID:25146393

  6. Abnormal interactions of calsequestrin with the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel complex linked to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Nori, Alessandra; Santoro, Massimo; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Kubalova, Zuzana; Gyorke, Inna; Terentyeva, Radmila; Vedamoorthyrao, Srikanth; Blom, Nico A; Valle, Giorgia; Napolitano, Carlo; Williams, Simon C; Volpe, Pompeo; Priori, Silvia G; Gyorke, Sandor

    2006-05-12

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmogenic disorder associated with mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2) genes. Previous in vitro studies suggested that RyR2 and CASQ2 interact as parts of a multimolecular Ca(2+)-signaling complex; however, direct evidence for such interactions and their potential significance to myocardial function remain to be determined. We identified a novel CASQ2 mutation in a young female with a structurally normal heart and unexplained syncopal episodes. This mutation results in the nonconservative substitution of glutamine for arginine at amino acid 33 of CASQ2 (R33Q). Adenoviral-mediated expression of CASQ2(R33Q) in adult rat myocytes led to an increase in excitation-contraction coupling gain and to more frequent occurrences of spontaneous propagating (Ca2+ waves) and local Ca2+ signals (sparks) with respect to control cells expressing wild-type CASQ2 (CASQ2WT). As revealed by a Ca2+ indicator entrapped inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of permeabilized myocytes, the increased occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks and waves was associated with a dramatic decrease in intra-SR [Ca2+]. Recombinant CASQ2WT and CASQ2R33Q exhibited similar Ca(2+)-binding capacities in vitro; however, the mutant protein lacked the ability of its WT counterpart to inhibit RyR2 activity at low luminal [Ca2+] in planar lipid bilayers. We conclude that the R33Q mutation disrupts interactions of CASQ2 with the RyR2 channel complex and impairs regulation of RyR2 by luminal Ca2+. These results show that intracellular Ca2+ cycling in normal heart relies on an intricate interplay of CASQ2 with the proteins of the RyR2 channel complex and that disruption of these interactions can lead to cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:16601229

  7. Simulation of the effect of rogue ryanodine receptors on a calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Luyao; Xia, Ling; Ye, Xuesong; Cheng, Heping

    2010-06-01

    Calcium homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important factors for the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. However, under some pathological conditions, such as heart failure (HF), calcium homeostasis is disordered, and spontaneous waves may occur. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of formation and propagation of a calcium wave based upon a governing system of diffusion-reaction equations presented by Izu et al (2001 Biophys. J. 80 103-20) and integrated non-clustered or 'rogue' ryanodine receptors (rogue RyRs) into a two-dimensional (2D) model of ventricular myocytes isolated from failing hearts in which sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pools are partially unloaded. The model was then used to simulate the effect of rogue RyRs on initiation and propagation of the calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with HF. Our simulation results show that rogue RyRs can amplify the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in the form of Ca2+ quarks, increase the probability of occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ waves even with smaller SR Ca2+ stores, accelerate Ca2+ wave propagation, and hence lead to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and cardiac arrhythmia in the diseased heart. This investigation suggests that incorporating rogue RyRs in the Ca2+ wave model under HF conditions provides a new view of Ca2+ dynamics that could not be mimicked by adjusting traditional parameters involved in Ca2+ release units and other ion channels, and contributes to understanding the underlying mechanism of HF.

  8. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-12-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group. PMID:26575622

  9. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise

    PubMed Central

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J.; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T.; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca2+ leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca2+ release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca2+-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group. PMID:26575622

  10. Identification of ryanodine receptor isoforms in prostate DU-145, LNCaP, and PWR-1E cells.

    PubMed

    Kobylewski, Sarah E; Henderson, Kimberly A; Eckhert, Curtis D

    2012-08-24

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a large, intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) channel that is associated with several accessory proteins and is an important component of a cell's ability to respond to changes in the environment. Three isoforms of the RyR exist and are well documented for skeletal and cardiac muscle and the brain, but the isoforms in non-excitable cells are poorly understood. The aggressiveness of breast cancers in women has been positively correlated with the expression of the RyR in breast tumor tissue, but it is unknown if this is limited to specific isoforms. Identification and characterization of RyRs in cancer models is important in understanding the role of the RyR channel complex in cancer and as a potential therapeutic target. The objective of this report was to identify the RyR isoforms expressed in widely used prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145 and LNCaP, and the non-tumorigenic prostate cell line, PWR-1E. Oligonucleotide primers specific for each isoform were used in semi-quantitative and real-time PCR to determine the identification and expression levels of the RyR isoforms. RyR1 was expressed in the highest amount in DU-145 tumor cells, expression was 0.48-fold in the non-tumor cell line PWR-1E compared to DU-145 cells, and no expression was observed in LNCaP tumor cells. DU-145 cells had the lowest expression of RyR2. The expression was 26- and 15-fold higher in LNCaP and PWR-1E cells, respectively. RyR3 expression was not observed in any of the cell lines. All cell types released Ca(2+) in response to caffeine showing they had functional RyRs. Total cellular RyR-associated Ca(2+) release is determined by both the number of activated RyRs and its accessory proteins which modulate the receptor. Our results suggest that the correlation between the expression of the RyR and tumor aggression is not related to specific RyR isoforms, but may be related to the activity and number of receptors. PMID:22846571

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtypes and their Modulators with Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Pithadia, Anand B.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2009-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has become one of the most investigated and complex biogenic amines. The main receptors and their subtypes, e.g., 5-HTI (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HTID, 5-HTIE and 5-HT1F), 5-HT2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5 (5-HT5A, 5-HT5B), 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 have been identified. Specific drugs which are capable of either selectively stimulating or inhibiting these receptor subtypes are being designed. This has generated therapeutic potentials of 5-HT receptor modulators in a variety of disease conditions. Conditions where 5-HT receptor modulators have established their use with distinct efficacy and advantages include migraine, anxiety, psychosis, obesity and cancer therapy-induced vomiting by cytotoxic drugs and radiation. Discovery of 5-HT, its biosynthesis, metabolism, physiological role and the potential of 5-HT receptor modulators in various nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tract disorders, bone growth and micturition have been discussed in this article. Keywords 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors; Modulators; Biogenic amines PMID:22505971

  12. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes in rat renal preglomerular vessels.

    PubMed

    De León, H; Garcia, R

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique to isolate rat renal preglomerular vessels is described. Kidneys were pressed against a 0.3 mm stainless steel grid. The whole vascular tree, including the interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries, as well as the afferent arterioles, remained on the grid surface from where they were recovered. Extensive washing yielded a highly pure preparation of renal microvessels. Radioligand binding experiments were performed to characterize 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]-ANG II binding sites in preglomerular microvessel membranes. Equilibrium saturation binding experiments revealed the presence of one group of high affinity receptors (Kd = 1.22 +/- 0.171 nM; Bmax = 209 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein). Competitive inhibition experiments with two highly specific nonpeptide ANG II antagonists, losartan (DuP 753), which is specific for the AT1 receptor subtype, and PD123319, which is specific for the AT2 subtype, demonstrated that the large majority of, if not all, ANG II receptors in rat renal preglomerular vessels correspond to the AT1 subtype. PMID:1299411

  13. Participation of inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors in Bufo arenarum oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2011-05-01

    Calcium is considered the most important second messenger at fertilization. Transient release from intracellular stores is modulated through both agonist-gated channels, IP₃Rs and RyRs, which can be found individually or together depending on the oocyte species. Using the four commonly used compounds (thimerosal, caffeine, heparin and ruthenium red), we investigated the existence and interdependence of both IP₃Rs and RyRs in mature Bufo arenarum oocytes. We found that caffeine, a well known specific RyRs agonist, was able to trigger oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of 10 mM caffeine showed 100% of oocytes exhibiting characteristic morphological criteria of egg activation. Ruthenium red, the specific RyR blocker, was able to inhibit oocyte activation induced either by sperm or caffeine. Our present findings provide the first reported evidence of the existence of RyR in frogs. We further explored the relationship between IP₃Rs and RyRs in B. arenarum oocytes by exposing them to the agonists of one class after injecting a blocker of the other class of receptor. We found that thimerosal overcame the inhibitory effect of RyR on oocyte activation, indicating that IP₃Rs function as independent receptors. In contrast, previous injection of heparin delayed caffeine-induced calcium release, revealing a relative dependence of RyRs on functional IP₃Rs, probably through a CICR mechanism. Both receptors play a role in Ca²+ release mechanisms although their relative contribution to the activation process is unclear. PMID:20880424

  14. Reversal in Cognition Impairments, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Cerebral Oxidative Stress Through the Modulation of Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) and Cysteinyl Leukotriene-1 (CysLT1) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a general pathophysiological condition occurring in vascular dementia (VaD) associated with negative impact on cognitive functions. Ryanodine as well as cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptors (RyRs and CysLT1Rs) are extensively present in the central nervous system, where they participate in regulation of cognition, motivation, inflammation and neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of ruthenium red; a selective RyR blocker as well as montelukast; a specific CysLT1 antagonist in CCH induced VaD in mice. Two vessel occlusion (2VO) or permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries technique was used to induce CCH in mice. Animals with bilateral carotid arteries occlusion have revealed impaired learning and memory (Morris water maze), cholinergic dysfunction (increased acetylcholinesterase activity) as well as increased brain oxidative stress (reduction in brain superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase with an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level), with increased brain infarct size (2,3,5-triphenylterazolium chloride staining). While, administration of ruthenium red and montelukast considerably attenuated CCH induced cognitive impairments, cholinergic dysfunction, brain oxidative stress as well as brain damage. The results suggest that bilateral carotid arteries occlusion induced CCH has brought out VaD, which was attenuated by treatment with ruthenium red and montelukast. Therefore, modulation of RyRs as well as CysLT1 receptors may provide help in conditions involving CCH such as cognitive impairment and VaD. PMID:26500103

  15. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  16. Molecular characterization of a ryanodine receptor gene in the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Li, Yanqing; Han, Zhaojun; Zhu, Youli; Xie, Zhijuan; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yaping; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the targets of two novel classes of synthetic insecticidal chemicals, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. Isolation of full-length RyR cDNAs is a critical step towards the structural and functional characterization of insect RyRs and an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the species selective toxicity of diamide insecticides. However, there has been little research on the insect RyR genes due to the high molecular weight of the RyR proteins. In this study, we isolated a full-length RyR cDNA (named as CmRyR) from Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important rice pest throughout Southeast Asia. The composite CmRyR gene contains an ORF of 15264 bp encoding a protein of 5087 amino acid residues, which shares 79% overall identity with its Drosophila melanogaster homologue. All hallmarks of the RyR proteins are conserved in the CmRyR protein, suggesting that CmRyR is a structural and functional analogue of known RyRs. A multiple sequence alignment illustrates that the insect RyRs share high levels of amino acid sequence identity at the the COOH-terminal region. However, the amino acid residues analogous to the CmRyR residues N(4922), N(4924), N(4935), L(4950), L(4981), N(5013) and T(5064) are unique to lepidopteran RyRs compared with non-lepidopteran insect RyRs. This finding suggests that these residues may be involved in the differences in channel properties between lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran insect RyRs and in the species selective toxicity of diamide insecticides. Furthermore, two alternative splicing sites were identified in the CmRyR gene, one of which was located in the central part of the predicted second SPRY domain. Diagnostic PCR showed that the inclusion frequencies of two mutually exclusive exons (a/b) and one optional exon (c) differed between developmental stages or adult anatomical regions. Our results imply that alternative splicing may be a major means of generating functional diversity in C

  17. Ryanodine receptor sensitivity governs the stability and synchrony of local calcium release during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Andrew P; Jafri, M Saleet; Lederer, W J; Williams, George S B

    2016-03-01

    Calcium-induced calcium release is the principal mechanism that triggers the cell-wide [Ca(2+)]i transient that activates muscle contraction during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Here, we characterize this process in mouse cardiac myocytes with a novel mathematical action potential (AP) model that incorporates realistic stochastic gating of voltage-dependent L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels (LCCs) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels (the ryanodine receptors, RyR2s). Depolarization of the sarcolemma during an AP stochastically activates the LCCs elevating subspace [Ca(2+)] within each of the cell's 20,000 independent calcium release units (CRUs) to trigger local RyR2 opening and initiate Ca(2+) sparks, the fundamental unit of triggered Ca(2+) release. Synchronization of Ca(2+) sparks during systole depends on the nearly uniform cellular activation of LCCs and the likelihood of local LCC openings triggering local Ca(2+) sparks (ECC fidelity). The detailed design and true SR Ca(2+) pump/leak balance displayed by our model permits investigation of ECC fidelity and Ca(2+) spark fidelity, the balance between visible (Ca(2+) spark) and invisible (Ca(2+) quark/sub-spark) SR Ca(2+) release events. Excess SR Ca(2+) leak is examined as a disease mechanism in the context of "catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)", a Ca(2+)-dependent arrhythmia. We find that that RyR2s (and therefore Ca(2+) sparks) are relatively insensitive to LCC openings across a wide range of membrane potentials; and that key differences exist between Ca(2+) sparks evoked during quiescence, diastole, and systole. The enhanced RyR2 [Ca(2+)]i sensitivity during CPVT leads to increased Ca(2+) spark fidelity resulting in asynchronous systolic Ca(2+) spark activity. It also produces increased diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak with some prolonged Ca(2+) sparks that at times become "metastable" and fail to efficiently terminate. There is a huge margin of safety for

  18. 5-HT2B receptor-mediated calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ullmer, C.; Boddeke, H. G.; Schmuck, K.; Lübbert, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have characterized the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced calcium signalling in endothelial cells from the human pulmonary artery. Using RT-PCR we show, that of all cloned G-protein coupled 5-HT receptors, these cells express only 5-HT1D beta, 5-HT2B and little 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. 2. In endothelial cells 5-HT inhibits the formation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) via 5-HT1D beta receptors but fails to activate phosphoinositide (PI) turnover. However, the latter pathway is strongly activated by histamine. 3. Despite the lack of detectable inositol phosphate (IP) formation in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, 5-HT (pD2 = 5.82 +/- 0.06, n = 6) or the selective 5-HT2 agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) (pD2 = 5.66 +/- 0.03, n = 7) elicited transient calcium signals comparable to those evoked by histamine (pD2 = 6.44 +/- 0.01, n = 7). Since 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNAs are not detectable in pulmonary artery endothelial cells, activation of 5-HT2B receptors is responsible for the transient calcium release. The calcium transients are independent of the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, since DOI does not stimulate 5-HT1D beta receptors. 4. Both, the 5-HT- and histamine-stimulated calcium signals were also observed when the cells were placed in calcium-free medium. This indicates that 5-HT triggers calcium release from intracellular stores. 5. Heparin is an inhibitor of the IP3-activated calcium release channels on the endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular infusion of heparin through patch pipettes in voltage clamp experiments failed to block 5-HT-induced calcium signals, whereas it abolished the histamine response. This supports the conclusion that the 5-HT-induced calcium release is independent of IP3 formation. 6. Unlike the histamine response, the 5-HT response was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of ryanodine and, to a lesser extent, ruthenium red. This implies that 5-HT2B receptors trigger calcium

  19. Ca2+ responses of pulmonary arterial myocytes to acute hypoxia require release from ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors in sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Shimoda, Larissa A.

    2012-01-01

    In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by inducing Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Ca2+ influx through store- and voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in sarcolemma. To evaluate the mechanisms of hypoxic Ca2+ release, we measured [Ca2+]i with fluorescent microscopy in primary cultures of rat distal PASMC. In cells perfused with Ca2+-free Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRBS), brief exposures to caffeine (30 mM) and norepinephrine (300 μM), which activate SR ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R), respectively, or 4% O2 caused rapid transient increases in [Ca2+]i, indicating intracellular Ca2+ release. Preexposure of these cells to caffeine, norepinephrine, or the SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 μM) blocked subsequent Ca2+ release to caffeine, norepinephrine, and hypoxia. The RyR antagonist ryanodine (10 μM) blocked Ca2+ release to caffeine and hypoxia but not norepinephrine. The IP3R antagonist xestospongin C (XeC, 0.1 μM) blocked Ca2+ release to norepinephrine and hypoxia but not caffeine. In PASMC perfused with normal KRBS, acute hypoxia caused a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that was abolished by ryanodine or XeC. These results suggest that in rat distal PASMC 1) the initial increase in [Ca2+]i induced by hypoxia, as well as the subsequent Ca2+ influx that sustained this increase, required release of Ca2+ from both RyR and IP3R, and 2) the SR Ca2+ stores accessed by RyR, IP3R, and hypoxia functioned as a common store, which was replenished by a CPA-inhibitable Ca2+-ATPase. PMID:22582116

  20. Involvement of nitric oxide in iodine deficiency-induced microvascular remodeling in the thyroid gland: role of nitric oxide synthase 3 and ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Craps, J; Wilvers, C; Joris, V; De Jongh, B; Vanderstraeten, J; Lobysheva, I; Balligand, J-L; Sonveaux, P; Gilon, P; Many, M-C; Gérard, A-C; Colin, I M

    2015-02-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) induces microvascular changes in the thyroid gland via a TSH-independent reactive oxygen species-hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in this pathway and the role of calcium (Ca(2+)) and of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) in NO synthase 3 (NOS3) activation were investigated in a murine model of goitrogenesis and in 3 in vitro models of ID, including primary cultures of human thyrocytes. ID activated NOS3 and the production of NO in thyrocytes in vitro and increased the thyroid blood flow in vivo. Using bevacizumab (a blocking antibody against VEGF-A) in mice, it appeared that NOS3 is activated upstream of VEGF-A. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (a NOS inhibitor) blocked the ID-induced increase in thyroid blood flow in vivo and NO production in vitro, as well as ID-induced VEGF-A mRNA and HIF-1α expression in vitro, whereas S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (a NO donor) did the opposite. Ca(2+) is involved in this pathway as intracellular Ca(2+) flux increased after ID, and thapsigargin activated NOS3 and increased VEGF-A mRNA expression. Two of the 3 known mammalian RYR isoforms (RYR1 and RYR2) were shown to be expressed in thyrocytes. RYR inhibition using ryanodine at 10μM decreased ID-induced NOS3 activation, HIF-1α, and VEGF-A expression, whereas RYR activation with ryanodine at 1nM increased NOS3 activation and VEGF-A mRNA expression. In conclusion, during the early phase of TSH-independent ID-induced microvascular activation, ID sequentially activates RYRs and NOS3, thereby supporting ID-induced activation of the NO/HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway in thyrocytes. PMID:25406019

  1. Highly selective agonists for substance P receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, U; Laufer, R; Hart, Y; Chorev, M; Gilon, C; Selinger, Z

    1986-01-01

    The existence of a third tachykinin receptor (SP-N) in the mammalian nervous system was demonstrated by development of highly selective agonists. Systematic N-methylation of individual peptide bonds in the C-terminal hexapeptide of substance P gave rise to agonists which specifically act on different receptor subtypes. The most selective analog of this series, succinyl-[Asp6,Me-Phe8]SP6-11, elicits half-maximal contraction of the guinea pig ileum through the neuronal SP-N receptor at a concentration of 0.5 nM. At least 60,000-fold higher concentrations of this peptide are required to stimulate the other two tachykinin receptors (SP-P and SP-E). The action of selective SP-N agonists in the guinea pig ileum is antagonized by opioid peptides, suggesting a functional counteraction between opiate and SP-N receptors. These results indicate that the tachykinin receptors are distinct entities which may mediate different physiological functions. PMID:2431898

  2. Defining Breast Cancer Intrinsic Subtypes by Quantitative Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, Maggie C.U.; Martin, Miguel; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Prat, Aleix; Voduc, David; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro; Ruiz, Amparo; Chia, Stephen; Shepherd, Lois; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Alba, Emilio; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalia; Tu, Dongsheng; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Levine, Mark N.; Bramwell, Vivien H.; Parker, Joel; Bernard, Philip S.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Perou, Charles M.; Di Leo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine intrinsic breast cancer subtypes represented within categories defined by quantitative hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 expression. Methods. We merged 1,557 cases from three randomized phase III trials into a single data set. These breast tumors were centrally reviewed in each trial for quantitative ER, PR, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain and by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), with intrinsic subtyping by research-based PAM50 RT-qPCR assay. Results. Among 283 HER2-negative tumors with <1% HR expression by IHC, 207 (73%) were basal-like; other subtypes, particularly HER2-enriched (48, 17%), were present. Among the 1,298 HER2-negative tumors, borderline HR (1%–9% staining) was uncommon (n = 39), and these tumors were heterogeneous: 17 (44%) luminal A/B, 12 (31%) HER2-enriched, and only 7 (18%) basal-like. Including them in the definition of triple-negative breast cancer significantly diminished enrichment for basal-like cancer (p < .05). Among 106 HER2-positive tumors with <1% HR expression by IHC, the HER2-enriched subtype was the most frequent (87, 82%), whereas among 127 HER2-positive tumors with strong HR (>10%) expression, only 69 (54%) were HER2-enriched and 55 (43%) were luminal (39 luminal B, 16 luminal A). Quantitative HR expression by RT-qPCR gave similar results. Regardless of methodology, basal-like cases seldom expressed ER/ESR1 or PR/PGR and were associated with the lowest expression level of HER2/ERBB2 relative to other subtypes. Conclusion. Significant discordance remains between clinical assay-defined subsets and intrinsic subtype. For identifying basal-like breast cancer, the optimal HR IHC cut point was <1%, matching the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists guidelines. Tumors with borderline HR staining are molecularly diverse and may require additional assays to clarify underlying biology. PMID:25908555

  3. Membrane depolarization increases ryanodine sensitivity to Ca2+ release to the cytosol in L6 skeletal muscle cells: Implications for excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Pitake, Saumitra; Ochs, Raymond S

    2016-04-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are known to physically interact in the process of excitation-contraction coupling. However, the mechanism for subsequent Ca(2+) release through the ryanodine receptor is unknown. Our lab has previously presented evidence that the dihydropyridine receptor and ryanodine receptor combine as a channel for the entry of Ca(2+) under resting conditions, known as store operated calcium entry. Here, we provide evidence that depolarization during excitation-contraction coupling causes the dihydropyridine receptor to disengage from the ryanodine receptor. The newly freed ryanodine receptor can then transport Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Experimentally, this should more greatly expose the ryanodine receptor to exogenous ryanodine. To examine this hypothesis, we titrated L6 skeletal muscle cells with ryanodine in resting and excited (depolarized) states. When L6 muscle cells were depolarized with high potassium or exposed to the dihydropyridine receptor agonist BAYK-8644, known to induce dihydropyridine receptor movement within the membrane, ryanodine sensitivity was enhanced. However, ryanodine sensitivity was unaffected when Ca(2+) was elevated without depolarization by the ryanodine receptor agonist chloromethylcresol, or by increasing Ca(2+) concentration in the media. Ca(2+) entry currents (from the extracellular space) during excitation were strongly inhibited by ryanodine, but Ca(2+) entry currents in the resting state were not. We conclude that excitation releases the ryanodine receptor from occlusion by the dihydropyridine receptor, enabling Ca(2+) release from the ryanodine receptor to the cytosol. PMID:26643865

  4. FKBP12 modulation of the binding of the skeletal ryanodine receptor onto the II-III loop of the dihydropyridine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Fiona M; Robert, Mylène; Jona, Istvan; Szegedi, Csaba; Albrieux, Mireille; Geib, Sandrine; De Waard, Michel; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel

    2002-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation-contraction coupling involves a functional interaction between the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). The domain corresponding to Thr(671)-Leu(690) of the II-III loop of the skeletal DHPR alpha(1)-subunit is able to regulate RyR properties and calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas the domain corresponding to Glu(724)-Pro(760) antagonizes this effect. Two peptides, covering these sequences (peptide A(Sk) and C(Sk), respectively) were immobilized on polystyrene beads. We demonstrate that peptide A(Sk) binds to the skeletal isoform of RyR (RyR1) whereas peptide C(Sk) does not. Using surface plasmon resonance detection, we show that 1) domain Thr(671)-Leu(690) is the only sequence of the II-III loop binding with RyR1 and 2) the interaction of peptide A(Sk) with RyR1 is not modulated by Ca(2+) (pCa 9-2) nor by Mg(2+) (up to 10 mM). In contrast, this interaction is strongly potentiated by the immunophilin FKBP12 (EC(50) = 10 nM) and inhibited by both rapamycin (IC(50) = 5 nM) and FK506. Peptide A(Sk) induces a 300% increase of the opening probability of the RyR1 incorporated in lipid bilayer. Removal of FKBP12 from RyR1 completely abolishes this effect of domain A(Sk) on RyR1 channel behavior. These results demonstrate a direct interaction of the RyR1 with the discrete domain of skeletal DHPR alpha(1)-subunit corresponding to Thr(671)-Leu(690) and show that the association of FKBP12 with RyR1 specifically modulates this interaction. PMID:11751303

  5. Crystal structure of type I ryanodine receptor amino-terminal [beta]-trefoil domain reveals a disease-associated mutation 'hot spot' loop

    SciTech Connect

    Amador, Fernando J.; Liu, Shuang; Ishiyama, Noboru; Plevin, Michael J.; Wilson, Aaron; MacLennan, David H.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Muscle contraction and relaxation is regulated by transient elevations of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+}. Ca{sup 2+} is released from stores in the lumen of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SER) to initiate formation of the Ca{sup 2+} transient by activation of a class of Ca{sup 2+} release channels referred to as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and is pumped back into the SER lumen by Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases (SERCAs) to terminate the Ca{sup 2+} transient. Mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor gene, RYR1, are associated with 2 skeletal muscle disorders, malignant hyperthermia (MH), and central core disease (CCD). The evaluation of proposed mechanisms by which RyR1 mutations cause MH and CCD is hindered by the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal 210 residues of RyR1 (RyR{sub NTD}) at 2.5 {angstrom}. The RyR{sub NTD} structure is similar to that of the suppressor domain of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3Rsup), but lacks most of the long helix-turn-helix segment of the 'arm' domain in IP3Rsup. The N-terminal {beta}-trefoil fold, found in both RyR and IP{sub 3}R, is likely to play a critical role in regulatory mechanisms in this channel family. A disease-associated mutation 'hot spot' loop was identified between strands 8 and 9 in a highly basic region of RyR1. Biophysical studies showed that 3 MH-associated mutations (C36R, R164C, and R178C) do not adversely affect the global stability or fold of RyRNTD, supporting previously described mechanisms whereby mutations perturb protein-protein interactions.

  6. Crystal structure of type I ryanodine receptor amino-terminal beta-trefoil domain reveals a disease-associated mutation "hot spot" loop.

    PubMed

    Amador, Fernando J; Liu, Shuang; Ishiyama, Noboru; Plevin, Michael J; Wilson, Aaron; MacLennan, David H; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2009-07-01

    Muscle contraction and relaxation is regulated by transient elevations of myoplasmic Ca(2+). Ca(2+) is released from stores in the lumen of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SER) to initiate formation of the Ca(2+) transient by activation of a class of Ca(2+) release channels referred to as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and is pumped back into the SER lumen by Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) to terminate the Ca(2+) transient. Mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor gene, RYR1, are associated with 2 skeletal muscle disorders, malignant hyperthermia (MH), and central core disease (CCD). The evaluation of proposed mechanisms by which RyR1 mutations cause MH and CCD is hindered by the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal 210 residues of RyR1 (RyR(NTD)) at 2.5 A. The RyR(NTD) structure is similar to that of the suppressor domain of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)Rsup), but lacks most of the long helix-turn-helix segment of the "arm" domain in IP(3)Rsup. The N-terminal beta-trefoil fold, found in both RyR and IP(3)R, is likely to play a critical role in regulatory mechanisms in this channel family. A disease-associated mutation "hot spot" loop was identified between strands 8 and 9 in a highly basic region of RyR1. Biophysical studies showed that 3 MH-associated mutations (C36R, R164C, and R178C) do not adversely affect the global stability or fold of RyR(NTD), supporting previously described mechanisms whereby mutations perturb protein-protein interactions. PMID:19541610

  7. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  8. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C

    PubMed Central

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y.; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R.; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  9. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  10. Identification of two H3-histamine receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.E. Jr.; Zweig, A.; Shih, N.Y.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Clark, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The H3-histamine receptor provides feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release as well as inhibition of other neurotransmitter release. We have characterized this receptor by radioligand binding studies with the H3 agonist N alpha-(3H)methylhistamine ((3H)NAMHA). The results of (3H)NAMHA saturation binding and NAMHA inhibition of (3H)NAMHA binding were consistent with an apparently single class of receptors (KD = 0.37 nM, Bmax = 73 fmol/mg of protein) and competition assays with other agonists and the antagonists impromidine and dimaprit disclosed only a single class of sites. In contrast, inhibition of (3H)NAMHA binding by the specific high affinity H3 antagonist thioperamide revealed two classes of sites (KiA = 5 nM, BmaxA = 30 fmol/mg of protein; KiB = 68 nM, BmaxB = 48 fmol/mg of protein). Burimamide, another antagonist that, like thioperamide, contains a thiourea group, likewise discriminated between two classes of sites. In addition to differences between some antagonist potencies for the two receptors, there is a differential guanine nucleotide sensitivity of the two. The affinity of the H3A receptor for (3H) NAMHA was reduced less than 2-fold, whereas (3H)NAMHA binding to the H3B receptor was undetectable in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The distinction between H3A and H3B receptor subtypes, the former a high affinity and the latter a low affinity thioperamide site, draws support from published in vitro data.

  11. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  12. Molecular and cellular analysis of human histamine receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Roland; Strasser, Andrea; Schneider, Erich H.; Neumann, Detlef; Dove, Stefan; Buschauer, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The human histamine receptors hH1R and hH2R constitute important drug targets, and hH3R and hH4R have substantial potential in this area. Considering the species-specificity of pharmacology of HxR orthologs, it is important to analyze hHxRs. Here,we summarize current knowledge of hHxRs endogenously expressed in human cells and hHxRs recombinantly expressed in mammalian and insect cells. We present the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems. We also discuss problems associated with the use of hHxR antibodies, an issue of general relevance for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There is much greater overlap in activity of ‘selective’ ligands for other hHxRs than the cognate receptor subtype than generally appreciated. Studies with native and recombinant systems support the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations, encompassing agonists and antagonists. It is emerging that for characterization of hHxR ligands, one cannot rely on a single test system and a single parameter. Rather, multiple systems and parameters have to be studied. Although such studies are time-consuming and expensive, ultimately, they will increase drug safety and efficacy. PMID:23254267

  13. FROM MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY TOWARDS DIFFERENTIATING PHARMACOLOGY FOR NMDA RECEPTOR SUBTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Randall J.; Curtice, Kigen J.; Twede, Vernon D.; Watkins, Maren; Gruszczyński, Paweł; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Horvath, Martin P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to decode the roles that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuropathologies, there is need for ligands that differ in their subtype selectivity. The conantokin family of Conus peptides is the only group of peptidic natural products known to target NMDA receptors. Using a search that was guided by phylogeny, we identified new conantokins from the marine snail Conus bocki that complement the current repertoire of NMDA receptor pharmacology. Channel currents measured in Xenopus oocytes demonstrate conantokins conBk-A, conBk-B, and conBk-C have highest potencies for NR2D containing receptors, in contrast to previously characterized conantokins that preferentially block NR2B containing NMDA receptors. Conantokins are rich in γ-carboxyglutamate, typically 17–34 residues, and adopt helical structure in a calcium-dependent manner. As judged by CD spectroscopy, conBk-C adopts significant helical structure in a calcium ion-dependent manner, while calcium, on its own, appears insufficient to stabilize helical conformations of conBk-A or conBk-B. Molecular dynamics simulations help explain the differences in calcium-stabilized structures. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy shows that the 9-residue conBk-B is relatively unstructured but forms a helix in the presence of TFE and calcium ions that is similar to other conantokin structures. These newly discovered conantokins hold promise that further exploration of small peptidic antagonists will lead to a set of pharmacological tools that can be used to characterize the role of NMDA receptors in nervous system function and disease. PMID:24508768

  14. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  15. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  16. Propofol Restores Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Receptor Subtype-1 Sensitivity via Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Receptor Subtype-1 in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Wickley, Peter J.; Sinha, Sayantani; Bratz, Ian N.; Damron, Derek S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crosstalk between peripheral nociceptors belonging to the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin subtype-1 (TRPA1) family has recently been demonstrated. Moreover, the intravenous anesthetic propofol has been shown to directly activate TRPA1 receptors, and indirectly restore sensitivity of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 activation is involved in mediating the propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity. Methods Mouse DRG neurons were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and grown for 24 h. F-11 cells were transfected with complementary DNA for both TRPV1 and TRPA1 or TRPV1 only. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. Following TRPV1 de-sensitization with capsaicin (100 nM), cells were treated with propofol (1, 5 and 10 μM) alone, propofol in the presence of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (0.5 μM) or the TRPA1 agonist, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 100 μM) and capsaicin was then reapplied. Results In DRG neurons that contain both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in DRG neurons containing only TRPV1 receptors, exposure to propofol or AITC following de-sensitization did not restore capsaicin-induced TRPV1 sensitivity. Similarly, in F-11 cells transfected with both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in F-11 cells transfected with TRPV1 only, neither propofol nor AITC were capable of restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity in primary DRG neurons and in cultured F-11 cells transfected with both the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors via a TRPA1-dependent process. Propofol’s effects on sensory neurons may be clinically important and contribute to peripheral sensitization to nociceptive stimuli in traumatized tissue. PMID:21364461

  17. Selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Dileo, G; Waelbroeck, M; Mash, D C; Flynn, D D

    1994-12-01

    We report here a novel strategy for the selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype, based on the distinct kinetics of the muscarinic antagonists dexetimide and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) and on the selectivity profile of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 for the m1-m5 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Incubation with 10 nM dexetimide, a nonselective antagonist, resulted in > 90% occupancy of each of the m1-m5 receptor subtypes. The relatively rapid rates of dexetimide dissociation from the m1, m2, and m4 receptor subtypes (t1/2 values of < 12.5 min) and the slower rates of dexetimide dissociation from the m3 and m5 receptor subtypes (t1/2 values of 65 and 75 min, respectively) favored the labeling of the m1, m2, and m4 receptor subtypes with short incubations with [3H]NMS. Inclusion of 200 nM guanylpirenzepine and 250 nM AF-DX 116 prevented the binding of [3H]NMS to the majority of the m1 and m2 receptor subtypes, respectively, resulting in primary labeling of the m4 receptor subtype. Brief dissociation of the radioligand in the presence of 1 microM atropine improved the ratio of m4 to m2 labeling by selectively removing [3H]NMS from the m2 subtype. Under these conditions, the ratio of [3H]NMS binding to the m4 versus m1, m2, m3, and m5 receptor subtypes was 4:1. In vitro autoradiography combined with these m4-selective labeling conditions demonstrated that the M4 (m4) receptor subtype was localized to the primary visual area (V1, area 17, occipital cortex) and the basal ganglia, a distribution distinct from that demonstrated for the M1 (m1), M2 (m2), and M3 (m3) receptor subtypes. These results demonstrate that a combination of the distinct kinetics of dexetimide and NMS and the receptor subtype selectivity of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 provides a valuable labeling strategy to examine the distribution and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype in brain, peripheral tissues, and cell lines

  18. Cherry-picked ligands at histamine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Stark, Holger

    2016-07-01

    Histamine, a biogenic amine, is considered as a principle mediator of multiple physiological effects through binding to its H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors (H1-H4Rs). Currently, the HRs have gained attention as important targets for the treatment of several diseases and disorders ranging from allergy to Alzheimer's disease and immune deficiency. Accordingly, medicinal chemistry studies exploring histamine-like molecules and their physicochemical properties by binding and interacting with the four HRs has led to the development of a diversity of agonists and antagonists that display selectivity for each HR subtype. An overview on H1-R4Rs and developed ligands representing some key steps in development is provided here combined with a short description of structure-activity relationships for each class. Main chemical diversities, pharmacophores, and pharmacological profiles of most innovative H1-H4R agonists and antagonists are highlighted. Therefore, this overview should support the rational choice for the optimal ligand selection based on affinity, selectivity and efficacy data in biochemical and pharmacological studies. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. PMID:26581501

  19. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Harriet A.; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; Gingell, Joseph J.; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M. W. R.; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W. R.; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A.; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R.; Woolley, Michael J.; Conner, Alex C.; Pioszak, Augen A.; Reynolds, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  20. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Harriet A; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S; Gingell, Joseph J; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M W R; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W R; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R; Woolley, Michael J; Conner, Alex C; Pioszak, Augen A; Reynolds, Christopher A; Hay, Debbie L

    2016-05-27

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  1. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  2. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L; Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Rice, Kenner C; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  3. Subtype-selective regulation of IP3 receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP3-binding core and suppressor domain

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Samir A.; Rossi, Ana M.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    IP3R (IP3 [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca2+ channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via IP3R1 and IP3R2, but inhibited IP3R3. Activation of IP3R is initiated by IP3 binding to the IBC (IP3-binding core; residues 224–604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1–223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP3 binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1–604) of IP3R1 and IP3R2, but not to that of IP3R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP3) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP3R activation. IP3 binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP3R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP3 binding to the chimaeric NT and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from the chimaeric IP3R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP3R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP3R1 and IP3R2 to IP3 by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor. PMID:23282150

  4. Multiple actions of φ-LITX-Lw1a on ryanodine receptors reveal a functional link between scorpion DDH and ICK toxins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer J.; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Lam, Alexander; Gallant, Esther M.; Beard, Nicole A.; Alewood, Paul F.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation of a scorpion toxin named U1-liotoxin-Lw1a (U1-LITX-Lw1a) that adopts an unusual 3D fold termed the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) motif, which is the proposed evolutionary structural precursor of the three-disulfide-containing inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif found widely in animals and plants. Here we reveal that U1-LITX-Lw1a targets and activates the mammalian ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel (RyR) with high (fM) potency and provides a functional link between DDH and ICK scorpion toxins. Moreover, U1-LITX-Lw1a, now described as φ-liotoxin-Lw1a (φ-LITX-Lw1a), has a similar mode of action on RyRs as scorpion calcines, although with significantly greater potency, inducing full channel openings at lower (fM) toxin concentrations whereas at higher pM concentrations increasing the frequency and duration of channel openings to a submaximal state. In addition, we show that the C-terminal residue of φ-LITX-Lw1a is crucial for the increase in full receptor openings but not for the increase in receptor subconductance opening, thereby supporting the two-binding-site hypothesis of scorpion toxins on RyRs. φ-LITX-Lw1a has potential both as a pharmacological tool and as a lead molecule for the treatment of human diseases that involve RyRs, such as malignant hyperthermia and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:23671114

  5. Nitric Oxide-Induced Calcium Release: Activation of Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor, a Calcium Release Channel, through Non-Enzymatic Post-Translational Modification by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kakizawa, Sho

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a typical gaseous messenger involved in a wide range of biological processes. In our classical knowledge, effects of NO are largely achieved by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate. However, emerging evidences have suggested another signaling mechanism mediated by NO: “S-nitrosylation” of target proteins. S-nitrosylation is a covalent addition of an NO group to a cysteine thiol/sulfhydryl (RSH), and categorized into non-enzymatic post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, contrasted to enzymatic PTM of proteins, such as phosphorylation mediated by various protein kinases. Very recently, we found novel intracellular calcium (Ca2+) mobilizing mechanism, NO-induced Ca2+ release (NICR) in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is mediated by type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a Ca2+ release channel expressed in endoplasmic-reticular membrane. Furthermore, NICR is indicated to be dependent on S-nitrosylation of RyR1, and involved in synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum. In this review, molecular mechanisms and functional significance of NICR, as well as non-enzymatic PTM of proteins by gaseous signals, are described. PMID:24130553

  6. Maternal high-altitude hypoxia and suppression of ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ sparks in fetal sheep pulmonary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Scott R; Blood, Quintin; Rubalcava, Monica; Waskel, Edith; Lumbard, Britney; Le, Petersen; Longo, Lawrence D; Buchholz, John N; Wilson, Sean M

    2012-11-01

    Ca(2+) sparks are fundamental Ca(2+) signaling events arising from ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation, events that relate to contractile and dilatory events in the pulmonary vasculature. Recent studies demonstrate that long-term hypoxia (LTH) can affect pulmonary arterial reactivity in fetal, newborn, and adult animals. Because RyRs are important to pulmonary vascular reactivity and reactivity changes with ontogeny and LTH we tested the hypothesis that RyR-generated Ca(2+) signals are more active before birth and that LTH suppresses these responses. We examined these hypotheses by performing confocal imaging of myocytes in living arteries and by performing wire myography studies. Pulmonary arteries (PA) were isolated from fetal, newborn, or adult sheep that lived at low altitude or from those that were acclimatized to 3,801 m for > 100 days. Confocal imaging demonstrated preservation of the distance between the sarcoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and plasma membrane in PA myocytes. Maturation increased global Ca(2+) waves and Ca(2+) spark activity, with sparks becoming larger, wider, and slower. LTH preferentially depressed Ca(2+) spark activity in immature pulmonary arterial myocytes, and these sparks were smaller, wider, and slower. LTH also suppressed caffeine-elicited contraction in fetal PA but augmented contraction in the newborn and adult. The influence of both ontogeny and LTH on RyR-dependent cell excitability shed new light on the therapeutic potential of these channels for the treatment of pulmonary vascular disease in newborns as well as adults. PMID:22962012

  7. Different subtypes of opioid receptors have different affinities for G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Polastron, J; Jauzac, P

    1994-05-01

    In this work, we have characterized the opioid receptor expressed by the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE and compared its hydrodynamic behaviour with those of well known opioid receptors: mu-opioid receptor of rabbit cerebellum and delta-opioid receptor of the hybrid cell line NG 108-15. Human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE expresses a substantial amount of opioid receptors (200-300 fmoles/mg of protein). Pharmacological characterization suggests an heterogenous population of receptors and the presence of two delta subtypes which are, at least partially, negatively coupled with adenylate cyclase via a Gi protein. These receptors exist under two different molecular forms and, in this respect, strikingly contrast with the archetypic delta receptors of NG 108-15 hybrid cell line which show only a high molecular weight form and appear more tightly coupled with the G protein. Hydrodynamic behaviour of SK-N-BE opioid receptors is reminiscent of the profile observed with the rabbit cerebellum mu-opioid receptor. This observation is consistent with the presence of two delta-opioid receptors subtypes, one of which exhibiting properties close to those of mu opioid receptors. Taken overall, our results suggest that different types and subtypes of opioid receptors, even if they are coupled to the same inhibitory G protein, are more or less tightly coupled with their transduction proteins and that closely related opioid receptors can form allosterically interacting complexes. PMID:7920183

  8. Retinoic acid receptor subtype-specific transcriptotypes in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Samarut, Eric; Gaudin, Cyril; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; de Bernard, Simon; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; Buffat, Laurent; Allot, Alexis; Lecompte, Odile; Berekelya, Liubov; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) controls many aspects of embryonic development by binding to specific receptors (retinoic acid receptors [RARs]) that regulate complex transcriptional networks. Three different RAR subtypes are present in vertebrates and play both common and specific roles in transducing RA signaling. Specific activities of each receptor subtype can be correlated with its exclusive expression pattern, whereas shared activities between different subtypes are generally assimilated to functional redundancy. However, the question remains whether some subtype-specific activity still exists in regions or organs coexpressing multiple RAR subtypes. We tackled this issue at the transcriptional level using early zebrafish embryo as a model. Using morpholino knockdown, we specifically invalidated the zebrafish endogenous RAR subtypes in an in vivo context. After building up a list of RA-responsive genes in the zebrafish gastrula through a whole-transcriptome analysis, we compared this panel of genes with those that still respond to RA in embryos lacking one or another RAR subtype. Our work reveals that RAR subtypes do not have fully redundant functions at the transcriptional level but can transduce RA signal in a subtype-specific fashion. As a result, we define RAR subtype-specific transcriptotypes that correspond to repertoires of genes activated by different RAR subtypes. Finally, we found genes of the RA pathway (cyp26a1, raraa) the regulation of which by RA is highly robust and can even resist the knockdown of all RARs. This suggests that RA-responsive genes are differentially sensitive to alterations in the RA pathway and, in particular, cyp26a1 and raraa are under a high pressure to maintain signaling integrity. PMID:24422634

  9. GABAA Receptor Subtypes: the ‘One Glass of Wine’ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Richard W.; Hanchar, Harry J.; Meera, Pratap; Wallner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses evidence for and apparent controversy about, GABAA receptor subtypes that mediate alcohol effects experienced during social drinking. GABAA receptors that contain the β3 and δ subunits were shown to be enhanced by alcohol concentrations that mirror the concentration-dependence of alcohol responses in humans. A mutation (α6R100Q) previously found in alcohol non-tolerant (ANT) rats in the cerebellar GABAA receptor α6 subunit is sufficient for increased alcohol-induced ataxia in rats homozygous for this mutation (α6-100QQ) and further increases alcohol-sensitivity of tonic GABA currents (mediated by α6βδ receptors) in cerebellar granule cells of α6-100QQ rats and in recombinant α6R100Qβ3δ receptors. This provided the first direct evidence that these types of receptors mediate behavioral effects of ethanol. Furthermore the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 specifically reverses ethanol enhancement on α4/6β3δ receptors. Unexpectedly, native and recombinant α4/6β3δ receptors bind the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 with high affinity and this binding is competitive with EtOH, suggesting a specific and mutually exclusive (competitive) ethanol/Ro15-4513 site which explains the puzzling activity of Ro15-4513 as a behavioral alcohol antagonist. Our conclusion from these findings is that alcohol/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptor subtypes are important alcohol targets and that alcohol at relevant concentrations is more specific than previously thought. In this review we discuss technical difficulties in expressing recombinant δ subunit-containing receptors in oocytes and mammalian cells, that may have contributed to negative results and confusion. Not only because we have reproduced detailed positive results numerous times, and we and many others have built extensively on basic findings, but also because we explain and combine many previously puzzling results into a coherent and highly plausible paradigm on how alcohol

  10. Ryanodine receptors are targeted by anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL involving its BH4 domain and Lys87 from its BH3 domain

    PubMed Central

    Vervliet, Tim; Lemmens, Irma; Vandermarliere, Elien; Decrock, Elke; Ivanova, Hristina; Monaco, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Missiaen, Ludwig; Martens, Lennart; De Smedt, Humbert; Leybaert, Luc; Parys, Jan B.; Tavernier, Jan; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members target several intracellular Ca2+-transport systems. Bcl-2, via its N-terminal Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while Bcl-XL, likely independently of its BH4 domain, sensitizes IP3Rs. It remains elusive whether Bcl-XL can also target and modulate RyRs. Here, Bcl-XL co-immunoprecipitated with RyR3 expressed in HEK293 cells. Mammalian protein-protein interaction trap (MAPPIT) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that Bcl-XL bound to the central domain of RyR3 via its BH4 domain, although to a lesser extent compared to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2. Consistent with the ability of the BH4 domain of Bcl-XL to bind to RyRs, loading the BH4-Bcl-XL peptide into RyR3-overexpressing HEK293 cells or in rat hippocampal neurons suppressed RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. In silico superposition of the 3D-structures of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL indicated that Lys87 of the BH3 domain of Bcl-XL could be important for interacting with RyRs. In contrast to Bcl-XL, the Bcl-XLK87D mutant displayed lower binding affinity for RyR3 and a reduced inhibition of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. These data suggest that Bcl-XL binds to RyR channels via its BH4 domain, but also its BH3 domain, more specific Lys87, contributes to the interaction. PMID:25872771

  11. Expression and function of ryanodine receptor related pathways in PCB tolerant Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Erika B.; Stegeman, John J.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Connon, Richard E.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca2+ release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12), an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca2+ activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca2+ signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish. PMID:25546006

  12. BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Kathrin; Schreiber, Timm; Dingemans, Milou M L; Krause, Guido; Roderigo, Claudia; Giersiefer, Susanne; Schuwald, Janette; Moors, Michaela; Unfried, Klaus; Bergman, Åke; Westerink, Remco H S; Rose, Christine R; Fritsche, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are bioaccumulating flame retardants found in rising concentrations in human tissue. Epidemiological and animal studies have raised concern for their potential to induce developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) may underlie PBDE-induced DNT. To test this hypothesis, we investigated acute effects of BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 on [Ca(2+)]i in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and unraveled involved signaling pathways. Short-time differentiated hNPCs were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and multiple inhibitors/stimulators of presumably involved signaling pathways to determine possible effects on [Ca(2+)]i by single-cell microscopy with the fluorescent dye Fura-2. Initial characterization of calcium signaling pathways confirmed the early developmental stage of hNPCs. In these cells, BDE-47 (2 μM) and 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.2 μM) induce [Ca(2+)]i transients. This increase in [Ca(2+)]i is due to extracellular Ca(2+) influx and intracellular release of Ca(2+), mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While extracellular Ca(2+) seems to enter the cytoplasm upon 6-OH-BDE-47 by interfering with the cell membrane and independent of Ca(2+) ion channels, ER-derived Ca(2+) is released following activation of protein lipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but independently of ryanodine receptors. These findings illustrate that immature developing hNPCs respond to low concentrations of 6-OH-BDE-47 by an increase in [Ca(2+)]i and provide new mechanistic explanations for such BDE-induced calcium disruption. Thus, these data support the possibility of a critical window of PBDE exposure, i.e., early human brain development, which has to be acknowledged in risk assessment. PMID:24599297

  13. Distinct sequence elements control the specificity of G protein activation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Lechleiter, J; Hellmiss, R; Duerson, K; Ennulat, D; David, N; Clapham, D; Peralta, E

    1990-01-01

    Relatively little is understood concerning the mechanisms by which subtypes of receptors, G proteins and effector enzymes interact to transduce specific signals. Through expression of normal, hybrid and deletion mutant receptors in Xenopus oocytes, we determined the G protein coupling characteristics of the functionally distinct m2 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes and identified the critical receptor sequences responsible for G protein specificity. Activation of a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein pathway, leading to a rapid and transient release of intracellular Ca2+ characteristic of the m3 receptor, could be specified by the transfer of as few as nine amino acids from the m3 to the m2 receptor. In a reciprocal manner, transfer of no more than 21 residues from the m2 to the m3 receptor was sufficient to specify activation of a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein coupled to a slow and oscillatory Ca2+ release pathway typical of the m2 subtype. Notably, these critical residues occur within the same region of the third cytoplasmic domain of functionally distinct mAChR subtypes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2124972

  14. Differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel and ryanodine receptor antagonists in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah E; D'Angelo, Heather M; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Fisher, David A; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-03-01

    Neuroinflammation and degeneration of catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei occur early in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Neuroinflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal calcium (Ca(+2)) homoeostasis via L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Alterations in Ca(+2) channel activity in the SN and LC can lead to disruption of normal pacemaking activity in these areas, contributing to behavioral deficits. Here, we utilized an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose (0.25 μg/h) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28 days. Rats were treated with either the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. LPS-infused rats had significant motor deficits in the accelerating rotarod task as well as abnormal behavioral agitation in the forced swim task and open field. Corresponding with these behavioral deficits, LPS-infused rats also had significant increases in microglia activation and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and locus coeruleus (LC). Treatment with nimodipine or dantrolene normalized LPS-induced abnormalities in the rotarod and forced swim, restored the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the LC, and significantly reduced microglia activation in the SNpc. Only nimodipine significantly reduced microglia activation in the LC, and neither drug increased TH immunoreactivity in the SNpc. These findings demonstrate that the Ca(+2) dysregulation in the LC and SN brainstem nuclei is differentially altered by chronic neuroinflammation. Overall, targeting Ca + 2 dysregulation may be an important target for ameliorating neurodegeneration in the SNpc and LC. PMID:25318607

  15. The effects of ryanodine receptor (RYR1) mutation on natural killer cell cytotoxicity, plasma cytokines and stress hormones during acute intermittent exercise in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Borman, A; Myślińska, D; Pałczyńska, P; Kamyczek, M

    2016-04-01

    Stress susceptibility has been mapped to a single recessive gene, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene or halothane (Hal) gene. Homozygous (Hal(nn)), mutated pigs are sensitive to halothane and susceptible to Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS). Previous studies have shown that stress-susceptible RYR1 gene mutated homozygotes in response to restraint stress showed an increase in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) accompanied by more pronounced stress-related hormone and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes. In order to determine the relationship of a RYR1 gene mutation with NKCC, plasma cytokines and stress-related hormones following a different stress model - exercise - 36 male pigs (representing different genotypes according to RYR1 gene mutation: NN, homozygous dominant; Nn, heterozygous; nn, homozygous recessive) were submitted to an intermittent treadmill walking. During the entire experiment the greatest level of NKCC and the greatest concentrations of interleukin (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN-)γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and stress-related hormones (adrenaline, prolactin, beta-endorphin) were observed in nn pigs, and the greatest concentration of IL-1 and growth hormone in NN pigs. Immunostimulatory effects of intermittent exercise on NKCC in nn pigs were concomitant with increases in IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ, the potent NKCC activators. Our findings suggest that stress-susceptible pigs RYR1 gene mutated pigs develop a greater level of NKCC and cytokine production in response to exercise stress. These results suggest that the heterogeneity of immunological and neuroendocrine response to exercise stress in pigs could be influenced by RYR1 gene mutation. PMID:27033913

  16. Channel Activity of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors (RyR2) Determines Potency and Efficacy of Flecainide and R-Propafenone against Arrhythmogenic Calcium Waves in Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Knollmann, Björn C.

    2015-01-01

    Flecainide blocks ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channels in the open state, suppresses arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in mice and humans. We hypothesized that differences in RyR2 activity induced by CPVT mutations determines the potency of open-state RyR2 blockers like flecainide (FLEC) and R-propafenone (RPROP) against Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we studied Ca2+ sparks and waves in isolated saponin-permeabilized ventricular myocytes from two CPVT mouse models (Casq2-/-, RyR2-R4496C+/-), wild-type (c57bl/6, WT) mice, and WT rabbits (New Zealand white rabbits). Consistent with increased RyR2 activity, Ca2+ spark and wave frequencies were significantly higher in CPVT compared to WT mouse myocytes. We next obtained concentration-response curves of Ca2+ wave inhibition for FLEC, RPROP (another open-state RyR2 blocker), and tetracaine (TET) (a state-independent RyR2 blocker). Both FLEC and RPROP inhibited Ca2+ waves with significantly higher potency (lower IC50) and efficacy in CPVT compared to WT. In contrast, TET had similar potency in all groups studied. Increasing RyR2 activity of permeabilized WT myocytes by exposure to caffeine (150 µM) increased the potency of FLEC and RPROP but not of TET. RPROP and FLEC were also significantly more potent in rabbit ventricular myocytes that intrinsically exhibit higher Ca2+ spark rates than WT mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, RyR2 activity determines the potency of open-state blockers FLEC and RPROP for suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism likely relevant to antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in CPVT. PMID:26121139

  17. Channel Activity of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors (RyR2) Determines Potency and Efficacy of Flecainide and R-Propafenone against Arrhythmogenic Calcium Waves in Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Knollmann, Björn C

    2015-01-01

    Flecainide blocks ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channels in the open state, suppresses arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in mice and humans. We hypothesized that differences in RyR2 activity induced by CPVT mutations determines the potency of open-state RyR2 blockers like flecainide (FLEC) and R-propafenone (RPROP) against Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we studied Ca2+ sparks and waves in isolated saponin-permeabilized ventricular myocytes from two CPVT mouse models (Casq2-/-, RyR2-R4496C+/-), wild-type (c57bl/6, WT) mice, and WT rabbits (New Zealand white rabbits). Consistent with increased RyR2 activity, Ca2+ spark and wave frequencies were significantly higher in CPVT compared to WT mouse myocytes. We next obtained concentration-response curves of Ca2+ wave inhibition for FLEC, RPROP (another open-state RyR2 blocker), and tetracaine (TET) (a state-independent RyR2 blocker). Both FLEC and RPROP inhibited Ca2+ waves with significantly higher potency (lower IC50) and efficacy in CPVT compared to WT. In contrast, TET had similar potency in all groups studied. Increasing RyR2 activity of permeabilized WT myocytes by exposure to caffeine (150 µM) increased the potency of FLEC and RPROP but not of TET. RPROP and FLEC were also significantly more potent in rabbit ventricular myocytes that intrinsically exhibit higher Ca2+ spark rates than WT mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, RyR2 activity determines the potency of open-state blockers FLEC and RPROP for suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism likely relevant to antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in CPVT. PMID:26121139

  18. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L.; Murayama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Ca+ influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca2+ uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca2+ transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca2+ elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. PMID:24124188

  19. Identification of Novel Ryanodine Receptor 1 (RyR1) Protein Interaction with Calcium Homeostasis Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein (CHERP)*♦

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Timothy; Sharma, Parveen; Ignatchenko, Alex; MacLennan, David H.; Kislinger, Thomas; Gramolini, Anthony O.

    2011-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) is a homotetrameric Ca2+ release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle where it plays a role in the initiation of skeletal muscle contraction. A soluble, 6×-histidine affinity-tagged cytosolic fragment of RyR1 (amino acids 1–4243) was expressed in HEK-293 cells, and metal affinity chromatography under native conditions was used to purify the peptide together with interacting proteins. When analyzed by gel-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 703 proteins were identified under all conditions. This group of proteins was filtered to identify putative RyR interacting proteins by removing those proteins found in only 1 RyR purification and proteins for which average spectral counts were enriched by less than 4-fold over control values. This resulted in 49 potential RyR1 interacting proteins, and 4 were selected for additional interaction studies: calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP), endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment 53-kDa protein (LMAN1), T-complex protein, and phosphorylase kinase. Western blotting showed that only CHERP co-purified with affinity-tagged RyR1 and was eluted with imidazole. Immunofluorescence showed that endogenous CHERP co-localizes with endogenous RyR1 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat soleus muscle. A combination of overexpression of RyR1 in HEK-293 cells with siRNA-mediated suppression of CHERP showed that CHERP affects Ca2+ release from the ER via RyR1. Thus, we propose that CHERP is an RyR1 interacting protein that may be involved in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:21454501

  20. Reduced aerobic capacity causes leaky ryanodine receptors that trigger arrhythmia in a rat strain artificially selected and bred for low aerobic running capacity

    PubMed Central

    Høydal, MA; Stølen, TO; Johnsen, AB; Alvez, M; Catalucci, D; Condorelli, G; Koch, LG; Britton, SL; Smith, GL; Wisløff, U

    2014-01-01

    Aim Rats selectively bred for inborn Low Capacity of Running (LCR) display a series of poor health indices where as rats selected for High Capacity of Running (HCR) display a healthy profile. We hypothesized that selection of low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased diastolic Ca2+ leak that trigger arrhythmia. Methods We used rats selected for HCR (N=10) or LCR (N=10) to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity on Ca2+ leak and susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia. We studied isolated FURA2/AM loaded cardiomyocytes to detect Ca2+-handling and function on an inverted epi-fluorescence microscope. To determine arrhythmogenicity we did a final experiment with electrical burst pacing in Langendorff perfused hearts. Results Ca2+-handling was impaired by reduced Ca2+ amplitude, prolonged time to 50% Ca2+ decay, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content. Impaired Ca2+ removal was influenced by reduced SR Ca2+ ATP-ase 2a (SERCA2a) function and increased sodium/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) in LCR rats. Diastolic Ca2 leak was 87% higher in LCR rats. The leak was reduced by CaMKII inhibition. Expression levels of phosphorylated theorine-286 CaMKII levels and increased RyR2 phosphorylation at the Serine-2814 site mechanistically support our findings of increased leak in LCR. LCR rats had significantly higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion Selection of inborn low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased risk of ventricular fibrillation. Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII at serine-2814 at the cardiac ryanodine receptor appears as an important mechanism of impaired Ca2+ handling and diastolic Ca2+ leak that results in increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. PMID:24444142

  1. Synchrony of Cardiomyocyte Ca2+ Release is Controlled by t-tubule Organization, SR Ca2+ Content, and Ryanodine Receptor Ca2+ Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Øyehaug, Leiv; Loose, Kristian Ø.; Jølle, Guro F.; Røe, Åsmund T.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Christensen, Geir; Sejersted, Ole M.; Louch, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that cardiomyocyte Ca2+release is desynchronized in several pathological conditions. Loss of Ca2+ release synchrony has been attributed to t-tubule disruption, but it is unknown if other factors also contribute. We investigated this issue in normal and failing myocytes by integrating experimental data with a mathematical model describing spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca2+ in the cytosol and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Heart failure development in postinfarction mice was associated with progressive t-tubule disorganization, as quantified by fast-Fourier transforms. Data from fast-Fourier transforms were then incorporated in the model as a dyadic organization index, reflecting the proportion of ryanodine receptors located in dyads. With decreasing dyadic-organization index, the model predicted greater dyssynchrony of Ca2+ release, which exceeded that observed in experimental line-scan images. Model and experiment were reconciled by reducing the threshold for Ca2+ release in the model, suggesting that increased RyR sensitivity partially offsets the desynchronizing effects of t-tubule disruption in heart failure. Reducing the magnitude of SR Ca2+ content and release, whether experimentally by thapsigargin treatment, or in the model, desynchronized the Ca2+ transient. However, in cardiomyocytes isolated from SERCA2 knockout mice, RyR sensitization offset such effects. A similar interplay between RyR sensitivity and SR content was observed during treatment of myocytes with low-dose caffeine. Initial synchronization of Ca2+ release during caffeine was reversed as SR content declined due to enhanced RyR leak. Thus, synchrony of cardiomyocyte Ca2+ release is not only determined by t-tubule organization but also by the interplay between RyR sensitivity and SR Ca2+ content. PMID:23601316

  2. Contribution of impaired myofibril and ryanodine receptor function to prolonged low-frequency force depression after in situ stimulation in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kanzaki, Keita; Kuratani, Mai; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Wada, Masanobu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether prolonged low-frequency force depression (PLFFD) that occurs in situ is the result of decreased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and/or reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release. Intact rat gastrocnemius muscles were electrically stimulated via the sciatic nerve until force was reduced to ~50% of the initial and dissected 30 min following the cessation of stimulation. Skinned fibre and whole muscle analyses were performed in the superficial region composed exclusively of type IIB fibres. Fatiguing stimulation significantly reduced the ratio of force at low frequency to that at high frequency to 65% in skinned fibres (1 vs. 50 Hz) and 73% in whole muscles (20 vs. 100 Hz). In order to evaluate changes in myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and ryanodine receptor caffeine sensitivity, skinned fibres were activated in Ca(2+)- and caffeine-containing solutions, respectively. Skinned fibres from fatigued muscles displayed decreased caffeine sensitivity together with increased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity. Treatment with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and reduced glutathione induced a smaller increase in myofibrillar Ca(2+)sensitivity in fatigued than in rested fibres. In fatigued muscles, S-glutathionylation of troponin I was increased and submaximal SR Ca(2+) release, induced by 4-chloro-m-cresol, was decreased. These findings suggest that in the early stage of PLFFD that occurs in fast-twitch muscles of exercising animals and humans, S-glutathionylation of troponin I may attenuate PLFFD by increasing myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity and that under such a circumstance, PLFFD may be ascribable to failure of SR Ca(2+) release. PMID:25697123

  3. Phosphoinositide system-linked serotonin receptor subtypes and their pharmacological properties and clinical correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, S C; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission represents a complex mechanism involving pre- and post-synaptic events and distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been classified into several categories, and they are termed as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 type receptors. 5-HT1 receptors have been further subdivided into 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F. 5-HT2 receptors have been divided into 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. All 5-HT2 receptor subtypes are linked to the multifunctional phosphoinositide (PI) signalling system. 5-HT3 receptors are considered ion-gated receptors and are also linked to the PI signalling system by an unknown mechanism. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is the most widely studied of the 5-HT receptors in psychiatric disorders (for example, suicide, depression and schizophrenia) as well as in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. The roles of 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors in psychiatric disorders are less clear. These 5-HT receptors also play an important role in alcoholism. It has been shown that 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 antagonists cause attenuation of alcohol intake in animals and humans. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. The recent cloning of the cDNAs for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors provides the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the alterations in these receptors during illness as well as pharmacotherapy. This review article will focus on the current research into the pharmacological properties, molecular biology, and clinical correlates of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:7786883

  4. Differential subcellular distribution of rat brain dopamine receptors and subtype-specific redistribution induced by cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Voulalas, Pamela J.; Schetz, John; Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the subcellular distribution of dopamine D1, D2 and D5 receptor subtypes in rat frontal cortex, and examined whether psychostimulant-induced elevation of synaptic dopamine could alter the receptor distribution. Differential detergent solubilization and density gradient centrifugation were used to separate various subcellular fractions, followed by semi-quantitative determination of the relative abundance of specific receptor proteins in each fraction. D1 receptors were predominantly localized to detergent-resistant membranes, and a portion of these receptors also floated on sucrose gradients. These properties are characteristic of proteins found in lipid rafts and caveolae. D2 receptors exhibited variable distribution between cytoplasmic, detergent-soluble and detergent-resistant membrane fractions, yet were not present in buoyant membranes. Most D5 receptor immunoreactivity was distributed into the cytoplasmic fraction, failing to sediment at forces up to 300,000g, while the remainder was localized to detergent-soluble membranes in cortex. D5 receptors were undetectable in detergent-resistant fractions or raft-like subdomains. Following daily cocaine administration for seven days, a significant portion of D1 receptors translocated from detergent-resistant membranes to detergent-soluble membranes and the cytoplasmic fraction. The distributions of D5 and D2 receptor subtypes were not significantly altered by cocaine treatment. These data imply that D5 receptors are predominantly cytoplasmic, D2 receptors are diffusely distributed within the cell, whereas D1 receptors are mostly localized to lipid rafts within the rat frontal cortex. Dopamine receptor subtype localization is susceptible to modulation by pharmacological manipulations that elevate synaptic dopamine, however the functional implications of such drug-induced receptor warrant further investigation. PMID:21236347

  5. Mutations to Gly2370, Gly2373 or Gly2375 in malignant hyperthermia domain 2 decrease caffeine and cresol sensitivity of the rabbit skeletal-muscle Ca2+-release channel (ryanodine receptor isoform 1).

    PubMed Central

    Du, G G; Oyamada, H; Khanna, V K; MacLennan, D H

    2001-01-01

    Mutations G2370A, G2372A, G2373A, G2375A, Y3937A, S3938A, G3939A and K3940A were made in two potential ATP-binding motifs (amino acids 2370-2375 and 3937-3940) in the Ca(2+)-release channel of skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (ryanodine receptor or RyR1). Activation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding by Ca(2+), caffeine and ATP (adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate, AMP-PCP) was used as an assay for channel opening, since ryanodine binds only to open channels. Caffeine-sensitivity of channel opening was also assayed by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK-293 cells expressing wild-type and mutant channels. Equilibrium [(3)H]ryanodine-binding properties and EC(50) values for Ca(2+) activation of high-affinity [(3)H]ryanodine binding were similar between wild-type RyR1 and mutants. In the presence of 1 mM AMP-PCP, Ca(2+)-activation curves were shifted to higher affinity and maximal binding was increased to a similar extent for wild-type RyR1 and mutants. ATP sensitivity of channel opening was also similar for wild-type and mutants. These observations apparently rule out sequences 2370-2375 and 3937-3940 as ATP-binding motifs. Caffeine or 4-chloro-m-cresol sensitivity, however, was decreased in mutants G2370A, G2373A and G2375A, whereas the other mutants retained normal sensitivity. Amino acids 2370-2375 lie within a sequence (amino acids 2163-2458) in which some eight RyR1 mutations have been associated with malignant hyperthermia and shown to be hypersensitive to caffeine and 4-chloro-m-cresol activation. By contrast, mutants G2370A, G2373A and G2375A are hyposensitive to caffeine and 4-chloro-m-cresol. Thus amino acids 2163-2458 form a regulatory domain (malignant hyperthermia regulatory domain 2) that regulates caffeine and 4-chloro-m-cresol sensitivity of RyR1. PMID:11695996

  6. Binding and functional properties of hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Tastenoy, M.; Feifel, R.; Mutschler, E.; Tacke, R.; Strohmann, C.; Rafeiner, K.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J. F.; Lambrecht, G.

    1994-01-01

    1. We have compared the binding properties of several hexocyclium and sila-hexocyclium derivatives to muscarinic M1 receptors (in rat brain, human neuroblastoma (NB-OK 1) cells and calf superior cervical ganglia), rat heart M2 receptors, rat pancreas M3 receptors and M4 receptors in rat striatum, with their functional antimuscarinic properties in rabbit vas deferens (M1/M4-like), guinea-pig atria (M2), and guinea-pig ileum (M3) muscarinic receptors. 2. Sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) of hexocyclium (-->sila-hexocyclium) and demethyl-hexocyclium (-->demethyl-sila-hexocyclium) did not significantly affect their affinities for muscarinic receptors. By contrast, sila-substitution of o-methoxy-hexocyclium increased its affinity 2 to 3 fold for all the muscarinic receptor subtypes studied. 3. The p-fluoro- and p-chloro-derivatives of sila-hexocyclium had lower affinities than the parent compound at the four receptor subtypes, in binding and pharmacological studies. 4. In binding studies, o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M4 > or = M3 > or = M2) had a much lower affinity than sila-hexocyclium for the four receptor subtypes, and discriminated the receptor subtypes more poorly than sila-hexocyclium (M1 = M3 > M4 > M2). This is in marked contrast with the very clear selectivity of o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium for the prejunctional M1/M4-like heteroreceptors in rabbit vas deferens. 5. The tertiary amines demethyl-hexocyclium, demethyl-sila-hexocyclium and demethyl-o-methoxy-sila-hexocyclium had 10 to 30 fold lower affinities than the corresponding quaternary ammonium derivatives. PMID:8075869

  7. Cockroach GABAB receptor subtypes: molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, S; Balfanz, S; Hayashi, Y; Shigenobu, S; Miura, T; Baumann, O; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Its effects are mediated by either ionotropic GABAA receptors or metabotropic GABAB receptors. GABAB receptors regulate, via Gi/o G-proteins, ion channels, and adenylyl cyclases. In humans, GABAB receptor subtypes are involved in the etiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In arthropods, however, these members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family are only inadequately characterized. Interestingly, physiological data have revealed important functions of GABAB receptors in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. We have cloned cDNAs coding for putative GABAB receptor subtypes 1 and 2 of P. americana (PeaGB1 and PeaGB2). When both receptor proteins are co-expressed in mammalian cells, activation of the receptor heteromer with GABA leads to a dose-dependent decrease in cAMP production. The pharmacological profile differs from that of mammalian and Drosophila GABAB receptors. Western blot analyses with polyclonal antibodies have revealed the expression of PeaGB1 and PeaGB2 in the CNS of the American cockroach. In addition to the widespread distribution in the brain, PeaGB1 is expressed in salivary glands and male accessory glands. Notably, PeaGB1-like immunoreactivity has been detected in the GABAergic salivary neuron 2, suggesting that GABAB receptors act as autoreceptors in this neuron. PMID:25242738

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonism in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd R.; Christoffersen, Gert R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 receptor) in learning and memory and other behaviors are reviewed by examining the influence of selective antagonists and genetic knockout on performance. This receptor is involved in spatial learning, contextual fear conditioning, inhibitory avoidance, fear potentiated startle, and conditioned taste aversion. However, mGlu5 receptor antagonists have proven to be ineffective in other learning tasks, such as the delayed-match-to-position test and a three-hole spatial learning task. Locomotion is often decreased by mGlu5 receptor antagonists; and other behaviors such as social interaction and consummatory responses can also be affected. In mGlu5 receptor knockout mice, performance in contextual fear conditioning and spatial water maze tasks is impaired. Although the available evidence is suggestive of an important contribution of mGlu5 receptors to cognitive functions, further studies are needed, particularly those with in vivo evaluation of the role of mGlu5 receptors in selective brain regions in different stages of memory formation. PMID:20363219

  9. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect brain dopamine receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Cabib, S. , Roma ); Kempf, E.; Schleef, C. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of tritiated spiperone (D2 antagonist) and tritiated SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), in vivo, was investigated in the caudatus putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) of mice submitted to ten daily restraint stress sessions. Mice sacrificed 24 hr after the last stressful experience presented a 64% decrease of D2 receptor density (Bmax) but no changes in D1 receptor density in the NAS. In the CP a much smaller (11%) reduction of D2 receptor density was accompanied by a 10% increase of D1 receptors. These results show that the two types of dopamine (DA) receptors adapt in different or even opposite ways to environmental pressure, leading to imbalance between them.

  10. Distribution and effects of the muscarinic receptor subtypes in the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Groleau, Marianne; Kang, Jun Il; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate the activity and plasticity of the visual cortex. Muscarinic receptors are divided into five subtypes that are not homogeneously distributed throughout the cortical layers and cells types. This distribution results in complex action of the muscarinic receptors in the integration of visual stimuli. Selective activation of the different subtypes can either strengthen or weaken cortical connectivity (e.g., thalamocortical vs. corticocortical), i.e., it can influence the processing of certain stimuli over others. Moreover, muscarinic receptors differentially modulate some functional properties of neurons during experience-dependent activity and cognitive processes and they contribute to the fine-tuning of visual processing. These functions are involved in the mechanisms of attention, maturation and learning in the visual cortex. This minireview describes the anatomo-functional aspects of muscarinic modulation of the primary visual cortex’s (V1) microcircuitry. PMID:26150786

  11. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  12. Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Non-Failing and Failing Human Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; Swigart, Philip M; DeMarco, Teresa; Hoopes, Charles; Simpson, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) play adaptive roles in the heart and protect against the development of heart failure (HF). The three α1-AR subtypes,α1A, α1B, and α1D, have distinct physiological roles in mouse heart, but very little is known about α1-subtypes in human heart. Here we test the hypothesis that the α1A and α1B subtypes are present in human myocardium, similar to the mouse, and are not down-regulated in heart failure. Methods and Results Hearts from transplant recipients and unused donors were failing (n = 12; mean EF 24%) or non-failing (n = 9; mean EF 59%), and similar in age (~44 years) and sex (~70% male). We measured the α1-AR subtypes in multiple regions of both ventricles by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and radioligand binding. All three α1-AR subtype mRNAs were present, and α1A mRNA was most abundant (~65% of total α1-AR mRNA). However, only α1A and α1B binding were present, and the α1B was most abundant (60% of total). In failing hearts, α1A and α1B binding were not down-regulated, in contrast with β1-ARs. Conclusions Our data show for the first time that the α1A and α1B subtypes are both present in human myocardium, but α1D binding is not, and that the α1-subtypes are not down-regulated in HF. Since α1-subtypes in the human heart are similar to mouse, where adaptive and protective effects of α1-subtypes are most convincing, it might become feasible to treat HF with a drug targeting the α1A and/or α1B. PMID:19919991

  13. A Molecular and Chemical Perspective in Defining Melatonin Receptor Subtype Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, King Hang; Wong, Yung Hou

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is primarily synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland during darkness in a normal diurnal cycle. In addition to its intrinsic antioxidant property, the neurohormone has renowned regulatory roles in the control of circadian rhythm and exerts its physiological actions primarily by interacting with the G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 transmembrane receptors. The two melatonin receptor subtypes display identical ligand binding characteristics and mediate a myriad of signaling pathways, including adenylyl cyclase inhibition, phospholipase C stimulation and the regulation of other effector molecules. Both MT1 and MT2 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system as well as many peripheral tissues, but each receptor subtype can be linked to specific functional responses at the target tissue. Given the broad therapeutic implications of melatonin receptors in chronobiology, immunomodulation, endocrine regulation, reproductive functions and cancer development, drug discovery and development programs have been directed at identifying chemical molecules that bind to the two melatonin receptor subtypes. However, all of the melatoninergics in the market act on both subtypes of melatonin receptors without significant selectivity. To facilitate the design and development of novel therapeutic agents, it is necessary to understand the intrinsic differences between MT1 and MT2 that determine ligand binding, functional efficacy, and signaling specificity. This review summarizes our current knowledge in differentiating MT1 and MT2 receptors and their signaling capacities. The use of homology modeling in the mapping of the ligand-binding pocket will be described. Identification of conserved and distinct residues will be tremendously useful in the design of highly selective ligands. PMID:24018885

  14. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in subtypes of canine mammary tumours in intact and ovariectomised dogs.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, M; Rasotto, R; Carnier, P; Zappulli, V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate as a potential prognostic indicator the relationship between histological subtype of canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and oestrogen-α (ORα) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression. Using immunohistochemistry, receptor expression in neoplastic epithelial cells was assessed in 12 different subtypes in 113 CMTs (34 benign, 79 malignant) and 101 surrounding normal tissues. Sixty-eight and 45 CMTs were from intact and ovariectomised bitches, respectively. Histological subtype strongly influenced ORα/PR expression: simple and complex adenomas as well as simple tubular carcinomas exhibited the greatest expression, whereas immunohistochemical labelling for these receptors was weakest in carcinoma and malignant myoepitheliomas, as well as in solid/anaplastic carcinomas and comedocarcinomas. Receptor expression was generally higher in benign relative to malignant neoplasms, and in the latter it was significantly lower in ovariectomised vs. intact bitches. Lymphatic invasion, mitotic index, nodule diameter, and tumour grade were significantly associated with ORα/PR expression. Although not found to be an independent prognostic indicator, tumours from dogs with <10% cells with ORα/PR expression had a poorer prognosis. Lymphatic invasion, the state of the margins of excision, and mitotic index were found to be independent prognostic indicators. Overall, the results suggest that differences in histological subtype and whether or not a bitch has been ovariectomised should be considered when evaluating the significance of ORα and PR expression in CMTs. PMID:24980810

  15. Rank-based genome-wide analysis reveals the association of Ryanodine receptor-2 gene variants with childhood asthma among human populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The standard approach to determine unique or shared genetic factors across populations is to identify risk alleles in one population and investigate replication in others. However, since populations differ in DNA sequence information, allele frequencies, effect sizes, and linkage disequilibrium patterns, SNP association using a uniform stringent threshold on p values may not be reproducible across populations. Here, we developed rank-based methods to investigate shared or population-specific loci and pathways for childhood asthma across individuals of diverse ancestry. We performed genome-wide association studies on 859,790 SNPs genotyped in 527 affected offspring trios of European, African, and Hispanic ancestry using publically available asthma database in the Genotypes and Phenotypes database. Results Rank-based analyses showed that there are shared genetic factors for asthma across populations, more at the gene and pathway levels than at the SNP level. Although the top 1,000 SNPs were not shared, 11 genes (RYR2, PDE4D, CSMD1, CDH13, ROBO2, RBFOX1, PTPRD, NPAS3, PDE1C, SEMA5A, and CTNNA2) mapped by these SNPs were shared across populations. Ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2, a statin response-related gene) showed the strongest association in European (p value = 2.55 × 10−7) and was replicated in African (2.57 × 10−4) and Hispanic (1.18 × 10−3) Americans. Imputation analyses based on the 1000 Genomes Project uncovered additional RYR2 variants associated with asthma. Network and functional ontology analyses revealed that RYR2 is an integral part of dermatological or allergic disorder biological networks, specifically in the functional classes involving inflammatory, eosinophilic, and respiratory diseases. Conclusion Our rank-based genome-wide analysis revealed for the first time an association of RYR2 variants with asthma and replicated previously discovered PDE4D asthma gene across human populations. The replication of top

  16. Calcium-Dependent Energetics of Calmodulin Domain Interactions with Regulatory Regions of the Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (RyR1)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Rhonda A.; Sorensen, Brenda R.; Kilpatrick, Adina M.; Shea, Madeline A.

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) plays a vital role in calcium homeostasis by allosterically modulating intracellular calcium channels including the homo-tetrameric human Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 (hRyR1). Apo (calcium-free) CaM activates hRyR1 while calcium-saturated CaM inhibits it. Two CaM-binding regions (residues 1975–1999 and 3614–3643) identified in each RyR1 monomer were proposed to allow CaM to bridge adjacent RyR1 subunits. We explored the distinct roles of CaM domains by using fluorescence anisotropy to determine the affinity of CaM1–148 (full-length), CaM1–80 (N-domain) and CaM76–148 (C-domain) for peptides encompassing hRyR1 residues 1975–1999 or 3614–3643. Both CaM1–148 and CaM76–148 associated in a calcium-independent manner with similar affinities for hRyR1(3614–3643)p while CaM1–80 required calcium and bound ~250-fold more weakly. Association of CaM1–148, CaM1–80 and CaM76–148 with hRyR1(1975–1999)p was much less favorable than with hRyR1(3614–3643)p; differences between the two CaM domains were smaller. Equilibrium calcium titrations monitored by steady-state fluorescence demonstrated that both hRyR1 peptides increased the calcium-binding affinity of both CaM domains. These thermodynamic properties support a prior model in which the CaM C-domain associates with RyR1(3614–3643) at low levels of calcium, positioning CaM to rapidly respond to calcium efflux. However, the affinity of the N-domain of CaM for hRyR1(1975–1999)p is insufficient to explain a model in which CaM bridges adjacent RyR1 subunits within the tetramer. This indicates that other protein factors or properties of the tertiary or quaternary structure of hRyR1 contribute to the energetics of CaM-mediated regulation. PMID:25145833

  17. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A.; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Molinski, Tadeusz F.; López, Jose R.; Beam, Kurt G.; Allen, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation–contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca2+ entry. The CaV1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all CaV channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104–115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in CaV1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca2+ release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in CaV1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca2+ levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type CaV1.1. Our results indicate that CaV1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca2+ leak from the SR, and that perturbation of CaV1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers. PMID:22547813

  18. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M; Pessah, Isaac N; Molinski, Tadeusz F; López, Jose R; Beam, Kurt G; Allen, Paul D

    2012-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and Ca(V)1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca(2+) entry. The Ca(V)1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all Ca(V) channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104-115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (Ca(V)1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in Ca(V)1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca(2+) release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in Ca(V)1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type Ca(V)1.1. Our results indicate that Ca(V)1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) leak from the SR, and that perturbation of Ca(V)1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers. PMID:22547813

  19. Overexpression of FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 in cardiomyocytes reduces ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and increases contractility.

    PubMed

    Prestle, J; Janssen, P M; Janssen, A P; Zeitz, O; Lehnart, S E; Bruce, L; Smith, G L; Hasenfuss, G

    2001-02-01

    The FK506-binding protein FKBP12.6 is tightly associated with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-release channel (ryanodine receptor type 2 [RyR2]), but the physiological function of FKBP12.6 is unclear. We used adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer to overexpress FKBP12.6 in adult rabbit cardiomyocytes. Western immunoblot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed specific overexpression of FKBP12.6, with unchanged expression of endogenous FKBP12. FKBP12.6-transfected myocytes displayed a significantly higher (21%) fractional shortening (FS) at 48 hours after transfection compared with Ad-GFP-infected control cells (4.8+/-0.2% FS versus 4+/-0.2% FS, respectively; n=79 each; P:=0.001). SR-Ca(2+) uptake rates were monitored in beta-escin-permeabilized myocytes using Fura-2. Ad-FKBP12.6-infected cells showed a statistically significant higher rate of Ca(2+) uptake of 0.8+/-0.09 nmol/s(-)(1)/10(6) cells (n=8, P:<0.05) compared with 0.52+/-0.1 nmol/s(-)(1)/10(6) cells in sham-infected cells (n=8) at a [Ca(2+)] of 1 micromol/L. In the presence of 5 micromol/L ruthenium red to block Ca(2+) efflux via RyR2, SR-Ca(2+) uptake rates were not significantly different between groups. From these measurements, we calculate that SR-Ca(2+) leak through RyR2 is reduced by 53% in FKBP12.6-overexpressing cells. Caffeine-induced contractures were significantly larger in Ad-FKBP12.6-infected myocytes compared with Ad-GFP-infected control cells, indicating a higher SR-Ca(2+) load. Taken together, these data suggest that FKBP12.6 stabilizes the closed conformation state of RyR2. This may reduce diastolic SR-Ca(2+) leak and consequently increase SR-Ca(2+) release and myocyte shortening. PMID:11157671

  20. Redox modification of ryanodine receptors by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species contributes to aberrant Ca2+ handling in ageing rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leroy L; Li, Weiyan; Lu, Yichun; Centracchio, Jason; Terentyeva, Radmila; Koren, Gideon; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    Ageing is associated with a blunted response to sympathetic stimulation and an increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Aberrant calcium (Ca(2+)) handling is an important contributor to the electrical and contractile dysfunction associated with ageing. Yet, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal Ca(2+) handling in ageing heart remain poorly understood. In this study, we used ventricular myocytes isolated from young (5-9 months) and old (4-6 years) rabbit hearts to test the hypothesis that changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis are caused by post-translational modification of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the ageing heart. Changes in parameters of Ca(2+) handling were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) dynamics in intact and permeabilized ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy. We also measured age-related changes in ROS production and mitochondria membrane potential using a ROS-sensitive dye and a mitochondrial voltage-sensitive fluorescent indicator, respectively. In permeablized myocytes, ageing did not change SERCA activity and spark frequency but decreased spark amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load suggesting increased RyR activity. Treatment with the antioxidant dithiothreitol reduced RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak in permeabilized myocytes from old rabbit hearts to the level comparable to young. Moreover, myocytes from old rabbits had more depolarized mitochondria membrane potential and increased rate of ROS production. Under β-adrenergic stimulation, Ca(2+) transient amplitude, SR Ca(2+) load, and latency of pro-arrhythmic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) were decreased while RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak was increased in cardiomyocytes from old rabbits. Additionally, with β-adrenergic stimulation, scavenging of mitochondrial ROS in myocytes from old rabbit hearts restored redox status of RyRs, which reduced SR Ca(2+) leak, ablated most

  1. K201 (JTV519) is a Ca2+-Dependent Blocker of SERCA and a Partial Agonist of Ryanodine Receptors in Striated Muscle.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Yuanzhao L; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L; Copello, Julio A

    2016-08-01

    K201 (JTV-519) may prevent abnormal Ca(2+) leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the ischemic heart and skeletal muscle (SkM) by stabilizing the ryanodine receptors (RyRs; RyR1 and RyR2, respectively). We tested direct modulation of the SR Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase (SERCA) and RyRs by K201. In isolated cardiac and SkM SR microsomes, K201 slowed the rate of SR Ca(2+) loading, suggesting potential SERCA block and/or RyR agonism. K201 displayed Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of SERCA-dependent ATPase activity, which was measured in microsomes incubated with 200, 2, and 0.25 µM Ca(2+) and with the half-maximal K201 inhibitory doses (IC50) estimated at 130, 19, and 9 µM (cardiac muscle) and 104, 13, and 5 µM (SkM SR). K201 (≥5 µM) increased RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) release from SkM microsomes. Maximal K201 doses at 80 µM produced ∼37% of the increase in SkM SR Ca(2+) release observed with the RyR agonist caffeine. K201 (≥5 µM) increased the open probability (Po) of very active ("high-activity") RyR1 of SkM reconstituted into bilayers, but it had no effect on "low-activity" channels. Likewise, K201 activated cardiac RyR2 under systolic Ca(2+) conditions (∼5 µM; channels at Po ∼0.3) but not under diastolic Ca(2+) conditions (∼100 nM; Po < 0.01). Thus, K201-induced the inhibition of SR Ca(2+) leak found in cell-system studies may relate to potentially potent SERCA block under resting Ca(2+) conditions. SERCA block likely produces mild SR depletion in normal conditions but could prevent SR Ca(2+) overload under pathologic conditions, thus precluding abnormal RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release. PMID:27235390

  2. Increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor mutant RyR2R4496C underlies catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Velasco, María; Rueda, Angélica; Rizzi, Nicoletta; Benitah, Jean-Pierre; Colombi, Barbara; Napolitano, Carlo; Priori, Silvia G; Richard, Sylvain; Gómez, Ana María

    2009-01-30

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mutations are associated with autosomal dominant catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, suggesting that alterations in Ca(2+) handling underlie this disease. Here we analyze the underlying Ca(2+) release defect that leads to arrhythmia in cardiomyocytes isolated from heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the RyR2(R4496C) mutation. RyR2(R4496C-/-) littermates (wild type) were used as controls. [Ca(2+)](i) transients were obtained by field stimulation in fluo-3-loaded cardiomyocytes and viewed using confocal microscopy. In our basal recording conditions (2-Hz stimulation rate), [Ca(2+)](i) transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load were similar in wild-type and RyR2(R4496C) cells. However, paced RyR2(R4496C) ventricular myocytes presented abnormal Ca(2+) release during the diastolic period, viewed as Ca(2+) waves, consistent with the occurrence of delayed afterdepolarizations. The occurrence of this abnormal Ca(2+) release was enhanced at faster stimulation rates and by beta-adrenergic stimulation, which also induced triggered activity. Spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks were more frequent in RyR2(R4496C) myocytes, indicating increased RyR2(R4496C) activity. When permeabilized cells were exposed to different cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i), RyR2(R4496C) showed a dramatic increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity. Isoproterenol increased [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude and Ca(2+) spark frequency to the same extent in wild-type and RyR2(R4496C) cells, indicating that the beta-adrenergic sensitivity of RyR2(R4496C) cells remained unaltered. This effect was independent of protein expression variations because no difference was found in the total or phosphorylated RyR2 expression levels. In conclusion, the arrhythmogenic potential of the RyR2(R4496C) mutation is attributable to the increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of RyR2(R4496C), which induces diastolic Ca(2+) release and lowers the threshold for triggered activity. PMID:19096022

  3. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  4. A comprehensive method for the quantitative determination of dopamine receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    McGonigle, P.; Huff, R.M.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    We have demonstrated that three subtypes of dopamine receptors can be characterized using several radioligand binding techniques. Indirect binding assays in which several competing ligands were used to inhibit the binding of the nonselective radioligand spiroperidol resulted in shallow displacement curves with Hill coefficients less than 1. Nonlinear regression analysis of these curves also indicated that there were two subtypes of the D-2 receptor present in a ratio of approximately 3 to 1. Direct binding assays with (3H)alpha-flupenthixol showed that this radioligand nonselectively labeled D-2A, D-2B, and D-1 receptors. Inhibition of the binding of (3H)alpha-flupenthixol by spiroperidol revealed that spiroperidol had a much higher affinity for D-2A and D-2B receptors than for D-1 receptors. Masking D-2 receptors with nanomolar concentrations of spiroperidol permitted characterization of D-1 receptors with the radioligand (3H)alpha-flupenthixol. Indirect binding assays of D-1 receptors with numerous competing ligands resulted in steep displacement curves with Hill coefficients of 1. This is consistent with the existence of a single, homogeneous population of D-1 receptors.

  5. The triplet puzzle theory indicates extensive formation of heteromers between opioid and chemokine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Tarakanov, Alexander O; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-11-01

    Biochemical studies had previously demonstrated examples of heteromerization between opioid and chemokine receptors. Based on the triplet puzzle theory, it has been discovered that opioid receptors are structurally more closely related to chemokine receptors than to other class A G-protein-coupled receptors. Their similarity is established in terms of the number of triplet homologies Asn-Leu-Ala, Thr-Leu-Pro, and Tyr-Ala-Phe in the amino acid code of extensive numbers of members of these two receptor groups. Such widespread similarities probably mean that many opioid and chemokine receptor subtypes utilize some of these mutual triplets to form heteromers. The findings underline that heteromerization among these two receptor groups can represent a major general mechanism for significant interactions between opioid peptides and chemokines in pain and neuroinflammation within the neural-glial networks of the CNS including immune cells. PMID:26133164

  6. The N-terminal domain of GluR6-subtype glutamate receptor ion channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Janesh; Schuck, Peter; Jin, Rongsheng; Mayer, Mark L.

    2009-09-25

    The amino-terminal domain (ATD) of glutamate receptor ion channels, which controls their selective assembly into AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptor subtypes, is also the site of action of NMDA receptor allosteric modulators. Here we report the crystal structure of the ATD from the kainate receptor GluR6. The ATD forms dimers in solution at micromolar protein concentrations and crystallizes as a dimer. Unexpectedly, each subunit adopts an intermediate extent of domain closure compared to the apo and ligand-bound complexes of LIVBP and G protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and the dimer assembly has a markedly different conformation from that found in mGluRs. This conformation is stabilized by contacts between large hydrophobic patches in the R2 domain that are absent in NMDA receptors, suggesting that the ATDs of individual glutamate receptor ion channels have evolved into functionally distinct families.

  7. Thiochrome enhances acetylcholine affinity at muscarinic M4 receptors: receptor subtype selectivity via cooperativity rather than affinity.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Dolezal, V; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J M

    2004-01-01

    Thiochrome (2,7-dimethyl-5H-thiachromine-8-ethanol), an oxidation product and metabolite of thiamine, has little effect on the equilibrium binding of l-[3H]N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]NMS) to the five human muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5) at concentrations up to 0.3 mM. In contrast, it inhibits [3H]NMS dissociation from M1 to M4 receptors at submillimolar concentrations and from M5 receptors at 1 mM. These results suggest that thiochrome binds allosterically to muscarinic receptors and has approximately neutral cooperativity with [3H]NMS at M1 to M4 and possibly M5 receptors. Thiochrome increases the affinity of acetylcholine (ACh) 3- to 5-fold for inhibiting [3H]NMS binding to M4 receptors but has no effect on ACh affinity at M1 to M3 or M5 receptors. Thiochrome (0.1 mM) also increases the direct binding of [3H]ACh to M4 receptors but decreases it slightly at M2 receptors. In agreement with the binding data, thiochrome does not affect the potency of ACh for stimulating the binding of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPgammaS) to membranes containing M1 to M3 receptors, but it increases ACh potency 3.5-fold at M4 receptors. It also selectively reduces the release of [3H]ACh from potassium-stimulated slices of rat striatum, which contain autoinhibitory presynaptic M4 receptors, but not from hippocampal slices, which contain presynaptic M2 receptors. We conclude that thiochrome is a selective M4 muscarinic receptor enhancer of ACh affinity and has neutral cooperativity with ACh at M1 to M3 receptors; it therefore demonstrates a powerful new form of selectivity, "absolute subtype selectivity", which is derived from cooperativity rather than from affinity. PMID:14722259

  8. Muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor subtypes on striatal cholinergic interneurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, V.L.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1990-12-01

    Unilateral stereotaxic injection of small amounts of the cholinotoxin, AF64A, caused minimal nonselective tissue damage and resulted in a significant loss of the presynaptic cholinergic markers (3H)hemicholinium-3 (45% reduction) and choline acetyltransferase (27% reduction). No significant change from control was observed in tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase activity; presynaptic neuronal markers for dopamine- and serotonin-containing neurons, respectively. The AF64A lesion resulted in a significant reduction of dopamine D2 receptors as evidenced by a decrease in (3H)sulpiride binding (42% reduction) and decrease of muscarinic non-M1 receptors as shown by a reduction in (3H)QNB binding in the presence of 100 nM pirenzepine (36% reduction). Saturation studies revealed that the change in (3H)sulpiride and (3H)QNB binding was due to a change in Bmax not Kd. Intrastriatal injection of AF64A failed to alter dopamine D1 or muscarinic M1 receptors labeled with (3H)SCH23390 and (3H)pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, no change in (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase was observed. These results demonstrate that a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors (non-M1) are presynaptic on cholinergic interneurons (hence, autoreceptors), and a subpopulation of dopamine D2 receptors are postsynaptic on cholinergic interneurons. Furthermore, dopamine D1, muscarinic M1 and (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase are not localized to striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  9. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in treating depression. Given the existence of different families and subtypes of 5-HT receptors, multiple 5-HT receptors may be involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of SSRIs. Objective Behavioral pharmacology studies investigating the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in producing or blocking the effects of SSRIs were reviewed. Results Few animal behavior tests were available to support the original development of SSRIs. Since their development, a number of behavioral tests and models of depression have been developed that are sensitive to the effects of SSRIs, as well as to other types of antidepressant treatments. The rationale for the development and use of these tests is reviewed. Behavioral effects similar to those of SSRIs (antidepressant-like) have been produced by agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors. Also, antagonists at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5- HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors have been reported to produce antidepressant-like responses. Although it seems paradoxical that both agonists and antagonists at particular 5-HT receptors can produce antidepressant-like effects, they probably involve diverse neurochemical mechanisms. The behavioral effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants may also be augmented when 5-HT receptor agonists or antagonists are given in combination. Conclusions The involvement of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs is complex and involves the orchestration of stimulation and blockade at different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Individual 5-HT receptors provide opportunities for the development of a newer generation of antidepressants that may be more beneficial and effective than SSRIs. PMID:21107537

  10. Racial Variations in Prostate Cancer Molecular Subtypes and Androgen Receptor Signaling Reflect Anatomic Tumor Location

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Farzana A.; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Choeurng, Voleak; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Ross, Ashley E.; Klein, Eric; Den, Robert; Dicker, Adam; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Lotan, Tamara L.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) subtypes based on ETS gene expression have been described. Recent studies suggest there are racial differences in tumor location, with PCa located anteriorly more often among African-American (AA) compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men. In this retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional cohort treated by radical prostatectomy (179 CA, 121 AA), we evaluated associations among molecular subtype, race, anatomic tumor location, and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Subtype (m-ERG+, m-ETS+, m-SPINK1+, or triple-negative) was determined using distribution-based outlier analysis. AR signaling was investigated using gene expression profiling of canonical AR targets. m-ERG+ was more common in CA than AA men (47% vs 22%, p < 0.001). AA men were more likely to be m-SPINK1+ (13% vs 7%; p = 0.069) and triple-negative (50% vs 37%; p = 0.043). Racial differences in molecular subtypes did not persist when tumors were analyzed by location, suggesting a biologically important relationship between tumor location and subtype. Accordingly, anterior tumor location was associated with higher Decipher scores and lower global AR signaling. Patient summary This study demonstrates associations among patient race, prostate cancer molecular subtypes, and tumor location. Location-specific differences in androgen regulation may further underlie these relationships. PMID:26443432

  11. Localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in brain with subtype-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Levey, A I; Hersch, S M; Rye, D B; Sunahara, R K; Niznik, H B; Kitt, C A; Price, D L; Maggio, R; Brann, M R; Ciliax, B J

    1993-10-01

    Five or more dopamine receptor genes are expressed in brain. However, the pharmacological similarities of the encoded D1-D5 receptors have hindered studies of the localization and functions of the subtypes. To better understand the roles of the individual receptors, antibodies were raised against recombinant D1 and D2 proteins and were shown to bind to the receptor subtypes specifically in Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. Each antibody reacted selectively with the respective receptor protein expressed both in cells transfected with the cDNAs and in brain. By immunocytochemistry, D1 and D2 had similar regional distributions in rat, monkey, and human brain, with the most intense staining in striatum, olfactory bulb, and substantia nigra. Within each region, however, the precise distributions of each subtype were distinct and often complementary. D1 and D2 were differentially enriched in striatal patch and matrix compartments, in selective layers of the olfactory bulb, and in either substantia nigra pars compacta or reticulata. Electron microscopy demonstrated that D1 and D2 also had highly selective subcellular distributions. In the rat neostriatum, the majority of D1 and D2 immunoreactivity was localized in postsynaptic sites in subsets of spiny dendrites and spine heads in rat neostriatum. Presynaptic D1 and D2 receptors were also observed, indicating both subtypes may regulate neurotransmitter release. D1 was also present in axon terminals in the substantia nigra. These results provide a morphological substrate for understanding the pre- and postsynaptic functions of the genetically defined D1 and D2 receptors in discrete neuronal circuits in mammalian brain. PMID:8415621

  12. Affinity profiles of hexahydro-sila-difenidol analogues at muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, G; Feifel, R; Wagner-Röder, M; Strohmann, C; Zilch, H; Tacke, R; Waelbroeck, M; Christophe, J; Boddeke, H; Mutschler, E

    1989-09-01

    In an attempt to assess the structural requirements of hexahydro-sila-difenidol for potency and selectivity, a series of analogues modified in the amino group and the phenyl ring were investigated for their affinity to muscarinic M1-(rabbit vas deferens), M2- (guinea-pig atria) and M3- (guinea-pig ileum) receptors. All compounds were competitive antagonists in the three tissues. Their affinities to the three muscarinic receptor subtypes differed by more than two orders of magnitude and the observed receptor selectivities were not associated with high affinity. The pyrrolidino and hexamethyleneimino analogues, compounds substituted in the phenyl ring with a methoxy group or a chlorine atom as well as p-fluoro-hexahydro-difenidol displayed the same affinity profile as the parent compound, hexahydro-sila-difenidol: M1 approximately M3 greater than M2. A different selectivity pattern was observed for p-fluoro-hexahydro-sila-difenidol: M3 greater than M1 greater than M2. This compound exhibited its highest affinity for M3-receptors in guinea-pig ileum (pA2 = 7.84), intermediate affinity for M1-receptors in rabbit vas deferens (pA2 = 6.68) and lowest affinity for the M2-receptors in guinea-pig atria (pA2 = 6.01). This receptor selectivity profile of p-fluoro-hexahydro-sila-difenidol was confirmed in ganglia (M1), atria (M2) and ileum (M3) of the rat. Furthermore, dose ratios obtained with either pirenzepine (M1) or hexahydrosila-difenidol (M2 and M3) and the p-fluoro analogue used in combination suggested that the antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of muscarinic receptor subtypes. These results indicate that p-fluoro-hexahydro-sila-difenidol represents a valuable tool for characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes. PMID:2583233

  13. Ligand binding properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (m1-m5) expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, G Z; Kameyama, K; Rinken, A; Haga, T

    1995-07-01

    Five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m1-m5) have been expressed in insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) using the baculovirus system. Up to 6 nmol of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were produced by 1 liter culture; 0.3 to 0.6 (human m1), 3 to 6 (human m2), 2 to 4 (rat m3), 1 to 2 (rat m4) and 0.5 to 1 (human m5) nmol. Pirenzepine, AF-DX116 and hexahidrosiladifenidol showed the highest affinity for the m1, m2 and m3 subtype, respectively, indicating that these receptors expressed in Sf9 cells retain the same substrate specificity as those in mammalian tissues or cultured cells. Among 32 kinds of muscarinic ligands examined in the present studies, prifinium was found to have the highest affinity for the m4 subtype, and pilocarpine, oxotremorine, McN-A343 and promethazine the highest affinity for the m5 subtype, although the differences in the affinities among the five subtypes were less than 10-fold. Alcuronium increased the binding of [3H]N-methylscopalamine to the m2 subtype, but not the m1, m4 and m5 subtypes and only slightly to the m3 subtype. Similar but smaller effects of fangchinoline and tetrandrine were found for [3H]N-methylscopalamine binding to only the m3 subtype. These effects may also be useful for the discrimination of individual subtypes. PMID:7616422

  14. Regulation of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1989-07-01

    The technique of quantitative autoradiography has been used to localize changes in the densities of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. Previously reported increases in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the cerebral cortex were confirmed. The anatomical resolution of autoradiography made it possible to detect changes in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex and in a number of other brain regions. The density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors increased from 30 to 50% depending on the region of the cortex being examined. The increase in the somatomotor cortex was greater than that in the frontal or occipital cortex. The increase in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex was not as widespread as that of beta 1-adrenergic receptors and occurred primarily in frontal cortex, where the density of receptors increased by 40%. The densities of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in a number of forebrain, thalamic, and midbrain structures. Selective changes in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors were observed in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the amygdala. The density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in the caudate-putamen, the substantia nigra, and the lateral and central nuclei of the thalamus, whereas the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors did not change in these regions. The densities of both subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors increased in the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, and the dorsal lateral geniculate.

  15. Subtype-selective positive cooperative interactions between brucine analogs and acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors: functional studies.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, N J; Farries, T; Gharagozloo, P; Kobayashi, S; Lazareno, S; Sugimoto, M

    1999-04-01

    In radioligand binding studies, it has been reported that brucine, N-chloromethyl brucine, and brucine N-oxide increased the affinity of acetylcholine for M1, M3, and M4 muscarinic receptors, respectively, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the ternary complex allosteric model. We now demonstrate an equivalent ability of these three allosteric agents to modulate the actions of acetylcholine in functional studies in membranes and in whole cells. The enhancing actions of brucine and brucine N-oxide on acetylcholine (ACh) potency at M1 and M4 receptors respectively have been confirmed in guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate, GTPase, cAMP, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization assays of function. In general, neither the basal nor the maximally stimulated response to ACh is affected. The subtype-selective allosteric effects of N-chloromethyl brucine on M2 and M3 receptors were shown to be qualitatively and quantitatively the same in guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate functional assays, in terms of both its affinity and cooperativity with ACh, as those found in binding assays. Neutral cooperativity of N-chloromethyl brucine with ACh on M4 receptor function was also observed, thereby demonstrating its "absolute subtype selectivity": a lack of action at any concentration at M4 receptors and an action at M2 and M3 receptors. The enhancing action of N-chloromethyl brucine on neurogenically released ACh binding at M3 receptors was also detected in whole tissue as an increased contraction of the isolated guinea pig ileum to submaximal electrical stimulation. In conclusion, these functional studies confirm that brucine analogs are allosteric enhancers of ACh affinity at certain muscarinic receptor subtypes. PMID:10101037

  16. Desformylflustrabromine: A Novel Positive Allosteric Modulator for beta2 Subunit Containing Nicotinic Receptor Sub-Types.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Anshul A

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated transmembrane ion channels that are present at the neuromuscular junction and in different locations in the nervous system. The different subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are found in the brain are thought to be involved in many neurological processes such as pain, cognitive function and depression, as well as in the pathophysiology of numerous neurological diseases and conditions. While the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is an endogenous agonist for all nicotinic receptors subtypes, many drugs that act as agonists and antagonists have also been identified or developed for these receptors. In addition, a novel class of compounds described as allosteric modulators have also been identified or developed for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to nicotinic receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine binds. One such allosteric modulator is desformylflustrabromine. Five chemical analogs along with desformylflustrabromine act as positive allosteric modulator for nAChRs that contain the beta2 subunit in their pentameric structure. Here the discovery and development, medicinal chemistry and pharmacological actions of desformylflustrabromine have been discussed. Desformylflustrabromine and its chemical analogs have the potential to develop into clinically used drugs for neurological diseases and conditions where nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved. PMID:26818864

  17. Subtype-specific control of P2X receptor channel signaling by ATP and Mg2+

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mufeng; Silberberg, Shai D.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2013-01-01

    The identity and forms of activating ligands for ion channels are fundamental to their physiological roles in rapid electrical signaling. P2X receptor channels are ATP-activated cation channels that serve important roles in sensory signaling and inflammation, yet the active forms of the nucleotide are unknown. In physiological solutions, ATP is ionized and primarily found in complex with Mg2+. Here we investigated the active forms of ATP and found that the action of MgATP2− and ATP4− differs between subtypes of P2X receptors. The slowly desensitizing P2X2 receptor can be activated by free ATP, but MgATP2− promotes opening with very low efficacy. In contrast, both free ATP and MgATP2− robustly open the rapidly desensitizing P2X3 subtype. A further distinction between these two subtypes is the ability of Mg2+ to regulate P2X3 through a distinct allosteric mechanism. Importantly, heteromeric P2X2/3 channels present in sensory neurons exhibit a hybrid phenotype, characterized by robust activation by MgATP2− and weak regulation by Mg2+. These results reveal the existence of two classes of homomeric P2X receptors with differential sensitivity to MgATP2− and regulation by Mg2+, and demonstrate that both restraining mechanisms can be disengaged in heteromeric channels to form fast and sensitive ATP signaling pathways in sensory neurons. PMID:23959888

  18. Purification and characterization of ryanotoxin, a peptide with actions similar to those of ryanodine.

    PubMed Central

    Morrissette, J; Beurg, M; Sukhareva, M; Coronado, R

    1996-01-01

    We purified and characterized ryanotoxin, an approximately 11.4-kDa peptide from the venom of the scorpion Buthotus judiacus that induces changes in ryanodine receptors of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum analogous to those induced by the alkaloid ryanodine. Ryanotoxin stimulated Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles and induced a state of reduce unit conductance with a mean duration longer than that of unmodified ryanodine receptor channels. With Cs+ as the current carrier, the slope conductance of the state induced by 1 microM ryanotoxin was 163 +/- 12 pS, that of the state induced by 1 microM ryanodine was 173 +/- 26 pS, and that of control channels was 2.3-fold larger (396 +/- 25 pS). The distribution of substate events induced by 1 microM RyTx was biexponential and was fitted with time constants approximately 10 times shorter than those fitted to the distribution of substates induced by 1 microM ryanodine. Bath-applied 5 microM ryanotoxin had no effect on the excitability of mouse myotubes in culture. When 5 microM ryanotoxin was dialyzed into the cell through the patch pipette in the whole-cell configuration, there was a voltage-dependent increase in the amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients elicited by depolarizing potentials in the range of -30 to +50 mV. Ryanotoxin increased the binding affinity of [3H]ryanodine in a reversible manner with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 0.16 microM without altering the maximum number (Bmax) of [3H]ryanodine-binding sites. This result suggested that binding sites for ryanotoxin and ryanodine were different. Ryanotoxin should prove useful in identifying domains coupling the ryanodine receptor to the voltage sensor, or domains affecting the gating and conductance of the ryanodine receptor channel. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 PMID:8842209

  19. Structural basis for receptor subtype-specific regulation revealed by a chimeric beta 3/beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, S B; Freedman, N J; Schwinn, D A; Lefkowitz, R J

    1993-01-01

    The physiological significance of multiple G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (beta ARs), remains obscure, since in many cases several subtypes activate the same effector and utilize the same physiological agonists. We inspected the deduced amino acid sequences of the beta AR subtypes for variations in the determinants for agonist regulation as a potential basis for subtype differentiation. Whereas the beta 2AR has a C terminus containing 11 serine and threonine residues representing potential sites for beta AR kinase phosphorylation, which mediates rapid agonist-promoted desensitization, only 3 serines are present in the comparable region of the beta 3AR, and they are in a nonfavorable context. The beta 3AR also lacks sequence homology in regions which are important for agonist-mediated sequestration and down-regulation of the beta 2AR, although such determinants are less well defined. We therefore tested the idea that the agonist-induced regulatory properties of the two receptors might differ by expressing both subtypes in CHW cells and exposing them to the agonist isoproterenol. The beta 3AR did not display short-term agonist-promoted functional desensitization or sequestration, or long-term down-regulation. To assign a structural basis for these subtype-specific differences in agonist regulation, we constructed a chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR which comprised the beta 3AR up to proline-365 of the cytoplasmic tail and the C terminus of the beta 2AR. When cells expressing this chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR were exposed to isoproterenol, functional desensitization was observed. Whole-cell phosphorylation studies showed that the beta 2AR displayed agonist-dependent phosphorylation, but no such phosphorylation could be demonstrated with the beta 3AR, even when beta AR kinase was overexpressed. In contrast, the chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR did display agonist-dependent phosphorylation, consistent with its functional desensitization. In

  20. Electrophysiology-Based Assays to Detect Subtype-Selective Modulation of Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Glenn E.; Fedorov, Nikolai B.; Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Liu, Zhiqi; Orr, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-31) gave the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the responsibility for regulating tobacco products. Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco and its effects can be modulated by additional ingredients in manufactured products. Nicotine acts by mimicking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which function as ion channels in cholinergic modulation of neurotransmission. Subtypes within the family of neuronal nAChRs are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The subtype-selective profiles of tobacco constituents are largely unknown, but could be essential for understanding the physiological effects of tobacco products. In this report, we report the development and validation of electrophysiology-based high-throughput screens (e-HTS) for human nicotinic subtypes, α3β4, α3β4α5, α4β2, and α7 stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Assessment of agonist sensitivity and acute desensitization gave results comparable to those obtained by conventional manual patch clamp electrophysiology assays. The potency of reference antagonists for inhibition of the receptor channels and selectivity of positive allosteric modulators also were very similar between e-HTS and conventional manual patch voltage clamp data. Further validation was obtained in pilot screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs that identified α7 subtype-selective positive allosteric modulation by novel compounds. These assays provide new tools for profiling of nicotinic receptor selectivity. PMID:27505073

  1. Electrophysiology-Based Assays to Detect Subtype-Selective Modulation of Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Glenn E; Fedorov, Nikolai B; Kuryshev, Yuri A; Liu, Zhiqi; Armstrong, Lucas C; Orr, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-31) gave the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the responsibility for regulating tobacco products. Nicotine is the primary addictive component of tobacco and its effects can be modulated by additional ingredients in manufactured products. Nicotine acts by mimicking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which function as ion channels in cholinergic modulation of neurotransmission. Subtypes within the family of neuronal nAChRs are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The subtype-selective profiles of tobacco constituents are largely unknown, but could be essential for understanding the physiological effects of tobacco products. In this report, we report the development and validation of electrophysiology-based high-throughput screens (e-HTS) for human nicotinic subtypes, α3β4, α3β4α5, α4β2, and α7 stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Assessment of agonist sensitivity and acute desensitization gave results comparable to those obtained by conventional manual patch clamp electrophysiology assays. The potency of reference antagonists for inhibition of the receptor channels and selectivity of positive allosteric modulators also were very similar between e-HTS and conventional manual patch voltage clamp data. Further validation was obtained in pilot screening of a library of FDA-approved drugs that identified α7 subtype-selective positive allosteric modulation by novel compounds. These assays provide new tools for profiling of nicotinic receptor selectivity. PMID:27505073

  2. Pressure-selective modulation of NMDA receptor subtypes may reflect 3D structural differences.

    PubMed

    Mor, Amir; Kuttner, Yosef Y; Levy, Shiri; Mor, Merav; Hollmann, Michael; Grossman, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Professional deep-water divers exposed to high pressure (HP) above 1.1 MPa suffer from High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS), which is associated with CNS hyperexcitability. We have previously reported that HP augments N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) synaptic responses, increases neuronal excitability, and potentially causes irreversible neuronal damage. We now report that HP (10.1 MPa) differentially affects eight specific NMDAR subtypes. GluN1(1a or 1b) was co-expressed with one of the four GluN2(A-D) subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. HP increased ionic currents (measured by two electrode voltage clamps) of one subtype, reduced the current in four others, and did not affect the current in the remaining three. 3D theoretical modeling was aimed at revealing specific receptor domains involved with HP selectivity. In light of the information on the CNS spatial distribution of the different NMDAR subtypes, we conclude that the NMDAR's diverse responses to HP may lead to selective HP effects on different brain regions. These discoveries call for further and more specific investigation of deleterious HP effects and suggest the need for a re-evaluation of deep-diving safety guidelines. PMID:22973194

  3. α6β2*-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are more sensitive than α4β2*-subtype receptors to regulation by chronic nicotine administration

    PubMed Central

    Marks, MJ; Grady, SR; Salminen, O; Paley, MA; Wageman, CR; McIntosh, JM; Whiteaker, P

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) of the α6β2* subtype (where * indicates the possible presence of additional subunits) are prominently expressed on dopaminergic neurons. Because of this, their role in tobacco use and nicotine dependence has received much attention. Previous studies have demonstrated that α6β2*-nAChR are downregulated following chronic nicotine exposure (unlike other subtypes that have been investigated – most prominently α4β2* nAChR). This study examines, for the first time, effects across a comprehensive chronic nicotine dose range. Chronic nicotine dose-responses and quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography were used to define nicotine sensitivity of changes in α4β2*-nAChR and α6β2*-nAChR expression. α6β2*-nAChR downregulation by chronic nicotine exposure in dopaminergic and optic-tract nuclei was ≈three-fold more sensitive than upregulation of α4β2*-nAChR. In contrast, nAChR-mediated [3H]-dopamine release from dopamine-terminal region synaptosomal preparations changed only in response to chronic treatment with high nicotine doses, while dopaminergic parameters (transporter expression and activity, dopamine receptor expression) were largely unchanged. Functional measures in olfactory tubercle preparations were made for the first time; both nAChR expression levels and nAChR-mediated functional measures changed differently between striatum and olfactory tubercles. These results show that functional changes measured using synaptosomal [3H]-DA release are primarily due to changes in nAChR, rather than in dopaminergic, function. PMID:24661093

  4. Identification of opioid receptor subtypes in antinociceptive actions of supraspinally-administered mitragynine in mice.

    PubMed

    Thongpradichote, S; Matsumoto, K; Tohda, M; Takayama, H; Aimi, N; Sakai, S; Watanabe, H

    1998-01-01

    Mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloidal constituent extracted from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth, is known to exert an opioid-like activity. Our previous study showed the involvement of opioid systems in the antinociceptive activity of MG in the tail-pinch and hot-plate tests in mice. In the present study, to clarify the opioid receptor subtypes involved in the antinociceptive action of MG, we investigated the effects of selective antagonists for mu-, delta- and kappa- opioid receptors on antinociception caused by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of MG in the tail-pinch and hot-plate tests in mice. The coadministration of a selective mu-opioid antagonist, cyprodime (1-10 microg, i.c.v.) and the pretreatment with a selective mu1-opioid antagonist naloxonazine (1-3 microg, i.c.v.) significantly antagonized the antinociceptive activities of MG (10 microg, i.c.v.) and morphine (MOR, 3 microg, i.c.v.) in the tail-pinch and hot-plate tests. Naltrindole (1-5 ng, i.c.v.), a selective delta-opioid antagonist, also blocked the effects of MG (10 microg, i.c.v.) without affecting MOR (3 microg, i.c.v.) antinociception. Nor-binaltorphimine, a selective kappa-opioid antagonist, significantly attenuated MG (10 microg, i.c.v.) antinociception in the tail-pinch test but not in the hot-plate test at the dose (1 microg, i.c.v.) that antagonized the antinociceptive effects of the selective kappa-opioid agonist U50,488H in both tests, while it had no effect on MOR antinociception in either tests. These results suggest that antinociception caused by i.c.v. MG is dominantly mediated by mu- and delta-opioid receptor subtypes, and that the selectivity of MG for the supraspinal opioid receptor subtypes differs from that of MOR in mice. PMID:9585164

  5. [Pathophysiological significance of the natriuretic peptide system: receptor subtype as another key factor].

    PubMed

    Naruse, M; Yoshimoto, T; Tanabe, A; Naruse, K

    1998-09-01

    The natriuretic peptide (NP) system is one of the most important systems regulating blood pressure and body-fluid homeostasis. The biological activities of the system are determined by the NPs and the receptors, which are comprised of three subtypes: NP-AR and NP-BR related to biological activities and NP-CR related to the clearance of NP. We focused our studies on the receptor subtypes. In hypertensive rats (SHR-SP/Izm, DOCA/salt), NP-AR was upregulated and NP-CR was downregulated. The ACE inhibitor derapril, but not the Ca2+ blocker manidipine, normalized the upregulated NP-AR, but the effect was completely abolished by the bradykinin beta 2-receptor antagonist, suggesting that bradykinin regulates the vascular NP-AR. The AT1 antagonist TCV-116, but not manidipine, reversed the downregulated NP-CR. Ang II decreased NP-CR in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that upregulation of NP-AR and downregulation of NP-CR with the increased plasma NPs counteract hypertension by enhancing the action of NP. A beta-blocker (carvedilol) potentiated the hypotensive action of NPs by increasing plasma NPs and enhancing the vascular response to NPs via downregulation of the vascular and lung NP-CR. The newly found mode of actions could be related to its anti-heart failure effect. In genetically hyperglycemic Wistar fatty rats, vascular NP-BR and NP-AR were upregulated. Since plasma ANP and vascular CNP were significantly increased, the local CNP/NP-BR system as well as the systemic ANP/NP-AR system may play an important role in counteracting vascular remodeling in diabetes mellitus. All these observations provide in vivo evidence for the pathophysiological significance of the receptor subtype of the NPs. PMID:9793068

  6. Importance of Breast Cancer Subtype in the Development of Androgen Receptor Directed Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Elgene; Ni, Min; Cao, Shiliang; Hazra, Aditi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Brown, Myles

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has re-emerged as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. This stems from recent progress made in preclinical models, that have recognized important differences in the effect of AR expression on patient outcomes among different breast cancer subtypes. In parallel, the clinical development of new generations of AR directed therapies for prostate cancer has begun to mature. The availability of these new agents has translated into new trials to treat breast cancer. It is critical that studies of the effect of AR expression and signaling in breast cancer be context and subtype specific in order to successfully target AR signalling as a therapeutic strategy for breast cancer. We will review developments in preclinical studies, and recent clinical trials targeting AR in breast cancer. PMID:24860642

  7. Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Nyante, Sarah J.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Lin, Dan Yu; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Hu, Yijuan; He, Qianchuan; Luo, Jingchun; Millikan, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like, 679 luminal A) of 2311 cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case–control study of whites and African Americans. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Genotype odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Haplotype ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using Hapstat. Interactions with waist-hip ratio were evaluated using a multiplicative interaction term. Ancestry was estimated from 144 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and included in models to control for population stratification. Candidate SNPs LEPR K109R (rs1137100) and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were positively associated with luminal A breast cancer, whereas ADIPOQ +45 T/G (rs2241766), ADIPOQ +276 G/T (rs1501299), and LEPR K656N (rs8129183) were not associated with either subtype. Few patterns were observed among tag SNPs, with the exception of 3 LEPR SNPs (rs17412175, rs9436746, and rs9436748) that were in moderate LD and inversely associated with basal-like breast cancer. However, no SNP associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplotypes in LEP and LEPR were associated with both basal-like and luminal A subtypes. There was no evidence of interaction with waist-hip ratio. Data suggest associations between LEPR candidate SNPs and luminal A breast cancer in the CBCS and LEPR intron 2 tag SNPs and basal-like breast cancer. Replication in additional studies where breast cancer subtypes have been defined is necessary to confirm these

  8. Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Nyante, Sarah J; Gammon, Marilie D; Kaufman, Jay S; Bensen, Jeannette T; Lin, Dan Yu; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Hu, Yijuan; He, Qianchuan; Luo, Jingchun; Millikan, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like, 679 luminal A) of 2311 cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case-control study of whites and African Americans. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Genotype odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Haplotype ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using Hapstat. Interactions with waist-hip ratio were evaluated using a multiplicative interaction term. Ancestry was estimated from 144 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and included in models to control for population stratification. Candidate SNPs LEPR K109R (rs1137100) and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were positively associated with luminal A breast cancer, whereas ADIPOQ +45 T/G (rs2241766), ADIPOQ +276 G/T (rs1501299), and LEPR K656N (rs8129183) were not associated with either subtype. Few patterns were observed among tag SNPs, with the exception of 3 LEPR SNPs (rs17412175, rs9436746, and rs9436748) that were in moderate LD and inversely associated with basal-like breast cancer. However, no SNP associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplotypes in LEP and LEPR were associated with both basal-like and luminal A subtypes. There was no evidence of interaction with waist-hip ratio. Data suggest associations between LEPR candidate SNPs and luminal A breast cancer in the CBCS and LEPR intron 2 tag SNPs and basal-like breast cancer. Replication in additional studies where breast cancer subtypes have been defined is necessary to confirm these

  9. Expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes in tree shrew ocular tissues and their regulation during the development of myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, A.I.; Truong, H.T.; Cottriall, C.L.; Gentle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Muscarinic receptors are known to regulate several important physiologic processes in the eye. Antagonists to these receptors such as atropine and pirenzepine are effective at stopping the excessive ocular growth that results in myopia. However, their site of action is unknown. This study details ocular muscarinic subtype expression within a well documented model of eye growth and investigates their expression during early stages of myopia induction. Methods Total RNA was isolated from tree shrew corneal, iris/ciliary body, retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples and was reverse transcribed. Using tree shrew-specific primers to the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (CHRM1-CHRM5), products were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their identity confirmed using automated sequencing. The expression of the receptor proteins (M1-M5) were also explored in the retina, choroid, and sclera using immunohistochemistry. Myopia was induced in the tree shrew for one or five days using monocular deprivation of pattern vision, and the expression of the receptor subtypes was assessed in the retina, choroid, and sclera using real-time PCR. Results All five muscarinic receptor subtypes were expressed in the iris/ciliary body, retina, choroid, and sclera while gene products corresponding to CHRM1, CHRM3, CHRM4, and CHRM5 were present in the corneal samples. The gene expression data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry with the M1-M5 proteins detected in the retina, choroid, and sclera. After one or five days of myopia development, muscarinic receptor gene expression remained unaltered in the retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissue samples. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive profile of muscarinic receptor gene and protein expression in tree shrew ocular tissues with all receptor subtypes found in tissues implicated in the control of eye growth. Despite the efficacy of muscarinic antagonists at inhibiting myopia development, the

  10. Alterations of muscarinic receptor subtypes in pathways relating to memory: Effects of lesions and transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been classified pharmacologically into two distinct populations designated muscarinic type-one (M-1) and mscarinic type-two (M-2). The semiquantitative technique of receptor autoradiography was used to examine the anatomical and cellular distribution, and densities of M-1 and M-2 receptors in the rate brain. Muscarinic receptors were labeled with the classical antagonist ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Differentiation of the muscarinic subtypes was accomplished by competition studies of ({sup 3}H)QNB against the relatively selective M-1 antagonist pirenzepine (PZ), and the relatively selective M-2 antagonist, AFDX-116. In addition, M-1 and M-2 receptors were directly labeled with ({sup 3}H)PZ and ({sup 3}H)AFDX-116, respectively. Cholinergic pathways from the large cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) to the cortex and from the medial septum (MS) to the hippocampus were examined by lesioning with the selective cholinergic neurotoxin, AF64A. Bilateral cerebral cortical infarction was performed in order to analyze potential changes in muscarinic receptor populations in subcortical structures that are sensitive to cortical infarction. Finally, the response of muscarinic receptors to fetal septodiagonal band transplants in the deafferentated hippocampus was examined.